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Differentiol

&lntegrol

Colculus

FELIC|ANOandUY

IreIreI

^aifferential and Integf,alCalculus

n,general,if therersa relation betweentwo variablesx.and y such

hat for each value of x, there correspondsa vairreof y, then y is

rid to

lrm*

be a function of x. Symbolically, this is written

in the

y

=

f

(x)

The function concep,tmay,be extended !o ,or€than two variables,Considerthe equation"

z:

f (xJ).

relations between

his implies that z is determined'whe4.x and y

tstomary to saSrthat z is a function of x and y, Fof instance,the rlume of a right circular cylinder is a function of the altitude h rd radius r of the base.that is,

are givefiand it ig

V=f(r,h):zrr2h.

It is irriportant that we he familiar with uhe functional nota:

on In mathematics and the physical sci€ncesfunctional no- tion plays a convenient and important 1rad. In the example

rlow, we shall illushate

metional relation betwgen the variables.

how to set up a formula showing the

KAMPLE;

)LUTION:

The area of, a reetangle is 6 sg. in. Expre\$s the pe. rimeter P qf the rectangle ,irs I function of the length x of one side.

Since ct.: arge is 6.sq. in., then the length of the other side !s f, and the perirneter is

P=2(

*)

--.,

E3).

rThe

notation

v

=

f

(x,

is due

to

the

Swiss mai'rrematrcran Leonerd

tiuter (1?(r?

Limits

L.

2,

3.

,4.

nxincrsnl.l

If

f(x

f (x).=

y

+ Ax)

= g*

n

If

-

x2

(d) f(x

4x, find

+

(a)

1).- f(x-

f

(-5)

L).

t

, find x as,afunciioq of'y.

(b)

If

y =

tan (x.+ 1), find r asa function 9f y.

f

(y'

+

1)

(c)

Express the.distance D,traveled in t hr by a car whose speeO is 60 km/hr.

5. Express the area A of an cquilateral triangle asa function cl its sidex.

6. The stiffness of a beam of nrctangutarcrosssection is propor- tional to the breadth and tbe cube of,the depth, If the breadth is 20 crn,.express the stiffhess as a function of the depth.

7. A

'

I

right circular cylincler, radius of base x, height y, is ins-

sribed in a right circuiar cone, radius of baser and height h

Expressy asfunctirin of x (r and h are constents).

\$.

If f (x) = x2

+ 1, finct

f(x+h)

h

-

f(0.

''

h *

o.

g Iff(x)=3x2 -4x + 1; g1,16l(!*ry.(3)'. 6 + o.

h

10. tf f (x) = +^

and B (x) = x2 - 3,findr [s(x)] and'ufr t*t]

1.2 Limit of a Function 'Familiarity

.

with the limit concept is absolutely essentialfor

a deeper understanding of the calculus. In this section, wOshall .

begin ourdiscussion of the limit

that our

to rigor. And since our approart is a non-rigorous on", we there-

fore, expect you to traln lhiu itiea with eAse.

of a function but we emphasize

than

treatrnent here will appeal more to our intqltion

10

Differential and Integral Calculir

The example above timit at a number c even

undefined. Moreover, it shows

function are two different concepts

illustrates the fact that f(x) may have a though the varue f(a) of the fuirction is

that

the limit

and value "i

trr"

.

EXAMPLEZ. Evaluatelim

'(fl

.G/--\

--^*",

f/ar\

.

x--+Z

l(-ll

if f(x) = x2 -

Bx

Solution:

A straight substitution of x _n minate formf. Since f(x),= 1z

=- t. Hence.

= 2 leads to the indeter-

6

- 3x, then f(2) = 4 -

,r^

x,+2

f(x) - f(4 _ lim (x3-3x)

X-2

:

x-

2

v2

hma

x.* 2

x-2

-3x+2

x.--2

- (--?)

_t:_

:

tu--rr

{iz

(x-1)(x-21

x-2'

=lim(x-1)

x+2

EXERCISEI.3

Evaluateeachof the following:

1. trln

-

x3 -64

x-4x2-16

'xz

2. +2x-B

r.

tun

x*2

3x-G

3.

-3-13x+12

lirn4-

x-3 X3-L4x+15

4.

Limits

 5. ItII-t- x-O 6. , lim

X-O

(x+312-t

Z X

vt ,.

r.

uifr -:-

X-'1

*- i

ru/x* 3-

Z

8.

9.

10. lim

x-2

x3 -8

xz -4

11. li-

x*3 ffi

x-3

-.va-=

L2 lr,* (+-*s

13.

14.

15.

16.

L7.

r.

Ilm---'-

r-3

r/xz

-

X-J

I

Iim t^\'?*

7 sec zx

5-

a-6

it:t

4

-ttr

SIDX -

1-

1 *

--

I-

tanx

cos2x

cosx

sinx sin 2x

,.

.

x--+o 1-cosx

11

L2

Differential,axrdIntegral Calcuius

18.

lim

\_r

If f(x) :

19.

\E

ii4ll-

If

cosx

find

20.

lim

x-.0

f(9+ x) - x

f(9)

Iff(x)=x2-2x+3,find

Zt.

'

zz.

lim

;;2

f(x) -

x*2

f(2)

rim f (T+ 2) -

x-o

x

f(2)

'

1.5 InfinitY

'

l

Let f(x)

a funetion. If we can make f(x) as large as we

making x close enough, but not equal, to a real number

be

c, then we describethis situation by writing'

lim

x+a

f(x) :

where the symbol -

In particular, consider the function f(x)

=

|.

tn"

table be-

low shows that as x takes on values successlvelyapproaching the

.'mber 0, th* ;;;;

J+;ows

largerandlarger.wesavthat l be'

x

comes infinite

as i

approaches 0 and indicate this by writing

l.rmits

Diffeiential

1-+oo

x

as

;+

and Intesat

o

Oalcutus

13

In more compact form, we write

lim

x+o

1

x

-oo

x 0.1000

rt+)=*

Bear in

10

mind that *

 0.01 0.0010 0.0001 1 1,000 10,000

+0

+ €

is not a number which results from di.

vision by zero. Recall that in the real number system, division by zero is not permissible. In fact, it can be argued that the statement

tim f(x)

x+a

=

rs not an equation at all since - does not represent a number. It

is merely used as a symbol to imply

creasesnumerically

that the value

of f(x)

in-

without bound

asx approacheso. *

1.6 Limit at Indinity

A

functign

f(x)

may have a finite

limit

ev.enwhen the in-

-

dependent variable x becomesinfinite. This statement ,,x b.ecomes infinite" is customarily expressedin symbolism by ,.x -+ o'r.

consider again the function f(x)

= +.

It can be shown,(in-

tuitively or formally)

zero) asx inereaseswithout bound.

that ]

x

"ppro".n.,

"trr,rr*

That is,

limit (tt e ,rrr*uu,

-

'*Tht

symbol 6 is us€dfor infinity if no particular referenceto signis made.The

bpoksin connectionwith statemcntsabor1tlimits. The symbol*

that f (x) becomespositively infinite (increaseswithout

meanthat f (x) becomes negativelyinfinite(decreases

and -

are usedin some

oo is usedto indicate

bound) while -6is

usedto

rvithoutbound).

L4

DrlTerential and Inteffal

Cate

i 1 *O

asx-->€

we shall consider in symbol, we wrife

this fact as an additional theorem on limits

Lg

lim

\eF

1

X

=o

. Theuseof Lg is il*strated in ilre fonpwingerampres.

EXAMPLEI. lim

;+61U

+=pn

1-o\X

(!.1.!t

X

X l

EXAMPLE 2,

lim

L

[+o,)12

EXAMPLE g. lim

1

---f

XT

lim +.

=

-X+@

5'

=0

.1

Hm +.

X-

X

=

4

lim

x+o

1

X 2

= 4- rim&.1\

;:-\*

vl

= 4lirn

=0

=

X-+

oo

lrm

xiPo

+.

X

lim

*_*-*

(*tj-

r

=llim

.Lx --

=0

1l-i

TJ

1

X

lim

[+6

1

X

by

wh

by L9

16,

hom the examplesaboye, we intuitively feel that if n is ayrypoci- l&o number,then

tim

!<co

1

xn

=0

sjryn asa theoremin somebooHs.Note thet whenrri 1,

lhf"tr

tr haveL9.

A function f(x) =#

may assumethe indeterminatefomr

I

Fmes infinite may be definitc. To find this iimit we'first divide

.fttl

hrit by useof Lg.

when I

ir rplace\$ b;y'}.

However,the limit of f(x) as x

be-

and D(x)

by the highestpower of x. Then we evalu"t" d";

 Bnupr,n: Evatuate lim x*6 solution: the function

tbf

2Xs+5x+g

t

3xz -

6

assumesthe indeterminate fotm

fr

when x is replacedby -:

Dividirrg the numer_

ator anddenominatorby xs , we get

lim i.

x-@

4x3 +3x2 -6

2x3+5x+3

-

3

ilm

x;6

e+9-e

xxt

2 +L

x2

+l

v3

5+0-0

2+0+0

=2

EXERCISE 1.4

llvduate each of the following.

I

lim

x

-.6

0r9+4x3+S

&8+?x-B

5.

8x-6

lib r + eo \/Tf,fT|9-

16

Differential

and Infegral Calc

2.

lim

X

--')

@

-el'z + u-?=

13+8x+1

6.

lim

X+€

(2x -

1;z

3.

,. trm

4x

11*oo12

+5

+

1

7.

lim

X+OO

(x+2;r-(x-2

x2

4.

1.7

x3 +x+2

x2-1

lim

x*ao

Continuity

8. lim

X-€

lrW

+T

6x+L

In Section 1.4, we imphasized that the limit

and ualue 'of

function are two

we discussedthe mea,ningof lim f(x) = L, we deliberatelyi

x-+c the actual value of f(x) at x = a. However,

mention of the fact that the limit

tum out to

Now when

significance.The function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = c.

different concepts. In fact, irt Section 1.2,w

in Section 1.3, we

of a function f(x) asx *+ o

be just the value of f(x) at x = a That is, lim f(x) = fta)

x?rt

this happens, we have an event of sonte mathematic

DEFINITION 1.2

A function.f(x)

if lim f(x) x-+c

= f(a).

is continuous at x = c

Note that the conclition lim

f(x)

= f(a) in the definition

above actually implies three ""frairl3nS, namely

(1)

(2)

(3)

f(a) is defined.

lirn f(x) = L exists,and

x+d

L = f(c)

If any of these conditions is not satisfied,then f(x) is saidrto di*ontinuous at x = o.

A

function f(x)

is said to be continuous in an

interual if'

is eontinuous for euerv ualue of x in the interual. The saph

o

\$This def,rnitionwas formulated by the French mathematicianAugustin Lou

Cauchy(1789-1857).

,

Limits

L?

this'function is "unbroken" ovqr that interval. That is, the graph of f(x) can be drawn without lifting the pencil frorn the paper (seeFig. 1.1).

EXAMPLE 1.

2

becauselilft,*t

for all firiiti values of x. The graph of the function,

is shown in Fig. 1.1.

The function

f(x)

-

x2

is continuous at x :

== f(2) :

Q,.Infact, it is continuous

FIG.1.1

x.

r

FIG.1.2

-

 l8 EXAMPLE2. The function f(x)

1

Differential and Intesral Calculus

=

*

x

ir

continuous

at

x

=

3

becauselim-+ = f(3) =-+

x-;3x

x+o

X

-It is, however,discon-

i.

tinuous at x = 0 sinceliri + = €. Thegraphof the

function (seeFig. 1.2) contains a "break" at x = 0.

EXAMPLE3. Is the tunction"f(x)

interval0(x

5.5?

4x

= x,Acontinuous

over the

Answer: No, since at x = 2, f(2) is undefined.

Find the value nuous.

EXERCISE1.5

or valuesof x for which the function

1.

2.

3x

x-5

3x,+2- ,

-

x2-8x+15

3.

4.

5x+1

xz +4

6x.

x2 -9

5. Z,! -a

6. x+3

x3 :-

3x2 + 2;

1.8 Asymptotes

Let f(x)

= ##

, D(x) + 0, be a rational function, i.: N(x)

and D(x) are polynomials. Suppose we wish to sketch the graph

of f(x). A useful aid in sketching the graph of a.function is to find,

if there is any, the asymptote of its graph. The asymptote may be

slope) a horkontal line 1zerc uopef of a non-

a uertical line (no uertical line which slants downward

definitions

slants 'the upwald

to

to

to the right (positive slope) or

right (negative slopei. Ttre following

the vertical and hori2ontal

are used

detennine

asymptotes.

DEFINITION1.3

The line x = d is a vertical asymptote of the graph of f(x) if lim f(x) = *.

Limits

'19

DEI.INITION T C

'The lrrle v. = ,tr is,a h'orrsontal astmptote of

tlre gfaph of f(x) if lim f('x) = b.

.t(-

EXAMPLE 1.

sitrceli^

zx

,?*;

x'+ 3X-d

-''

then x = 3 is avertical

asyrnptobeof the graph'of the function de'

fined

by f(x 1 = -31! *

Ex^at,tPl,s2.

\ = 2

is a horizonthl asymppote of the graph

off(x) = #*-

tT"Stt-;ff3.

=2.

EXAMPLE3.

Y=

of f(x)

0

o

ig a horizontd

asYmPtote' of

ffi

3x

sinc€lim;.'i=

.tq-.

3x

E*AMPT'E4 ffi J# :'H,il^,ilP

the

0''

::

From Definitions 1.3 and 1.4 and the exarnples abover we can mahe certain generalizations which would facilitate further ttre process of findin[ ttre vertical and horizontal .asymptotes* of ttre graph of the rational functitrn defined by the equat'ron

f(x)

'

N(xl

= ffi,

*'

DG)+ o

Sinee N(x)

N(x)

arld D(x)

=

tolt

are,polynonrials,

+

&tX*-

l,

+

we may let

+am_l

+

qn

D(x)

=

boxn +

blxn-l

+

.i.,

+

bn-l

where m and n are positiveintegersandao,Sl ,

bn

are consbants,. We now

fonnulate

the

+

bn

arn

following

urd brrbl

riil0sl for

,

frmilirr

fOther propertbt to the studcnt.

of a corie

lrdr

u,iti

:inlerccptr end symmetry erc arnrmcd

'

'

30

Differential and Intesal

= lim

At*

o

= lim

At-* o

= lim

At-

o

t+5tr12 -n

At

3(t+at)z -3t?

At

6t'At + 3(at)z At

= ^ lim (6t + 661

At*

6t

o

EXERCISE2.1

Find the derivative by use of Definition

2.1

1. y-4*'-5x

'2. v:*3

*2x

"

3, Y=4tE

,6

4.

y:;

7.

8.

9.

y = V4x+3

t:ft

v:

-&-

t/ 2x+L

'

tr-2

10. V=:-%

.rX-

l'

5. y= {r

6. V=2-5x

11. Given, : y'f-

L2. GivenA=nf

z,rino ff

find {&

dr

orr.ntiation of Algebraic Functions

14,

t6.

GivenV= +zd,finddV d-; divenS= 4rrr2,finddS

s

Givens -

2t +

1

find ds

At

3t- 4',

(hometric Signifrcance "t #

E1

(lonsider the graph of y = f(x) shown in Fig.2.2.LetP(x,y)

Q(x +

Ax,

y

+

Ay)

be any two

points on this cunri.

Line S

d is

Intersects the curve at P and Q and having inclination the secantline of the cunre. Note that th6 slope of S is

m=

tan q

Y

f I

I

I

I

= 4Y -

ax

f(x + a\rt - t(*) Ax

Y'f (x)

,-Y+AY)

T

FIG.

AX

2. 2

-

38

2nd Solution:

3rd Solution:

Differential

and Integal

rrtiation of Algebraic Functions

(2x + l)s

(0) -

tZ

(2x + 1)6

(2x + LY Q)

l'l,E 4.

Find

4

qv d; if y = (2x* 1;3 1ex_ 1)2.

=

 - 24 (2x + L\2 f{oltttion: (2x + 1;e

':24

ll

- (2lr+1)3 S

tn* -1), + (4x-1), *

(2x+1)3

(2x+ 1Y

12x+1)3. 2 (4x-1) (4) +

(4x-1)r.3 (2x+L)2

y=

dv

dx

t '

(2x+1)3

4 *(2x+1)-3

\' rhx+!)-3

why?

 bY (2x+1) by

dx 4(-g) (2x+1)- ".* ox

, 2(Zx+1 ), (4x- r I [a(zx+ 1) + B(4x-l)J

2(2x+1)2(4x- 1)(20x+1)

nxnRclsE2.2

\$ rt eachof the following:

= -12 (2x+ 1)-o (Z)

= - ;24 (2x+1)-a

= .-2+.

(2x+1)a

"

:

-

4

-:-

(2x+1)3

d.y= 4(-- gi

E-ffi

'-L2

= 6if

fi{2x+1)

_

rzr

--24

- (r-.1tT

I

I

r

I

t

tl

,,

|

n

',

lil

y:

5x3

v=Vi

-4x2

+f*

y:.vF6_"-

y:

a

_

t/2x-7

+

3x-

V;

6

u=13xr-4x+1),

y=.yffi

)

-

4x-5

i

-

2x+1

r, = \$.+1

h"'.z

v

\,

(2x+5) VE:T

(3x+4)2 (x-b),

(2)

39

by Db

. by D?

.aa

40

Differential

l_L.

v

12. v

1,3.

L4.

L5.

16.

v

y.

v

v

=/2*--il-

5x+1l

[ \/

3x* 4

= V 2x+5

/

\r

=fr-s-\'

\.t,

n/

=W-4x-'

:

A(rrGI+ t)s

=4

v6ffi*

L7.Y = (4xfr)3

Evaluate #

at the sPecified value of x:

18. v-

19'

20.

Y=

Y=

2L. Y=

6(Vx+,2)', x= I

t-

V6-Vx

:.3 +

(2x'-

4{l

1)3

tt

*

,

x:4

x:t

4

:_

Vsx- z

and Integrd

x=

2

Find the slope of the tangent to the curve at the glven

(

22. Y=?-x2+4x3

23. V=x+2x:t

24.

V:3x? *+,

2,5.y- {F,

,(*1,2)

,

(2,3)

(2,10)

(B,zts)

I)ifferentiation

of Algebraic Functions

4l

Find the values of x for which the derivative is zero.

26. Y=

27.

2g'v" =

29. Y'

v:

x3+4x2-3x-5

x4 --

8x3 +

12x.u g;1

x-

;1#6

1

22x2 -

24x +

F'ind the values of x given that

30. !=2x-3x'*dg=14

2

31. y:x-'

-x

+

3

dY:

and ??=

r

g2. y=3x2+4xt*d*=11

9

1

a

-.-_t

2.5The ChainRule

Certainfunctionsareformedoutofsimplerfunction'.by1

of substitution.

Functions

which

result

in

this manner are

'

t)rocess t:allgdcomqosite functions'

For a general discussionof composit-efunctions, consider the i ' functionstanaggivenbyy=f(ujandu=g(x)respeqtively.We

have here a situarion in which y depends

'end,s

iu)

on

q and u in tum

de:

on x. To eliminate u, we simply

substituh u = g (x) in.J =-'f

and thereby obtain a new function h expressedsymbolically

:n the form

44

Differential

and Integral Caleulus

The functionl

tinguish betw.en.r Ta ani

g the inuetse iunction

f

g

ar,e said to

;-;"

E

be

D''rrr ca'

shall

"a'

inuerse functions. To

i1t" tl

r

dtrect function

dis_

and

Let us now focus

derivative of v.witl.airodto"*"oi#,"Tinction

form

inuerse

x :

gd).

firis'is a

u.compifrhed

our attention,to the

problem of finding the

wrirten

in the

by us)ngthe so called

functionntte whichwestate-aslofioi*

INVERSE PUNCTION

RULE:

If

y

is

a

then

differentiable

functian

of

y

:

f(x),

fts rnvense function

of y and

detineo

is a differentrabie function

x defined

by

by

x

:

g(y)

Dl1:

dv

--+

=

dx dx/dy

Note that with respect to.

pqct to y (dx/dv) tiue of the inuerse

riuattue of the direct sunction Td

D11:

D11 ,clearly shows that _x (dv/dx) ana the rate

3re

functioi

Let

is a f'nculn

qI

the rate of change of y

oi

aog

of x with res-

recinrocals. It arso "t saysthat the deriva-,

is

equar t"

ti"

prbof oinrl

reetprocar of

the de-

isgiven berow.

y =

tlx) anOx :

g(V)

";;lir-uJunction

dy

= jy.

dx

d"

dy

be invers.e func_ of y. By DL0,

. Proof of tions. Then v

and

t-- r =dy.di

dx

dy

or

EXAMPLE. If

dx-

dx

I

dx/dy

x = y3 _ 4yr,, find ff.

Solution:

Since

x

:

and by D11,

Vr

_

4y,

,

then \$}-Byr-8y

nnt.iation of Algebraie Functions

lhn (ihain Rule to

of x.

dv

1'

-4=

&:spsv

EXERCISE Z"S

find \$

and express

 I y:u2+u t y:1FT

u-

2x]

L

, U:418

v-

v-

(u-

(2u- 2r+

. 3

4rT

, lr= xz + 4

, u=

4x3+ 1

\filTry

ffi

2u

'

, lr =

4x-

u=xz

Z

,

ll:

\E

the final

45

|ftr lnverseFunction RuIeio find gI .

ft,

| 0

ll

l2

x=y*yr*yt

*=.,F+ f

(4 - 3v)*

*=

ZGy + 1)'

6

(3y+1)2

,

'|{,.€9'

t3

x-

dx

at

46

Differential

and Integral

2.7 Higher Derivatives

Recall that,from the equation ! tiation the equation

-

g_

dx-

rf(x)

f(x), wc get by di

The derivativ. \$f, or

pends op x. Hence f

tiated again with regpeet to x" Thig proce,ssis represented lically by any of the followihg notations:

f'(x)

of the function f is a nu{nber

is itqelf a function of"x and may be di

,d,1!X \,-

':-

m

l

d,r

d1y_

,l"t

*rf'(x)l=

f"(x)

\$ rr,l: yf,

Dx

(Dxy):

D3,y .

If we refer to4*

d2 v

.dx

as the first derivativeof y =

d

ffquaredy

clx squared'l)

da

inOicates

r(4),

as the

shallrefer t" fri

deriuatiuesf y + f(x). The operator fr;

that

Y '

isto bedifferentiatedtwice,
t

Further differentiations give us the derivatives of higher than 2. These derivatives'are defined and denoted lows*:

d

(

-

F

andf' (x) areused

usedinplaceofy(z/616y(r/ . .

4?Jt-l

respectively.Similarly,f'(x)

*o 63)- 1x) respectively.The symbory" shouldnotbeusedin placeof

da) rxl.

,.rrtrirtionof Algebraic Functions

47

#

: r"'(x):

Y"' = Div

\$# : 1(a) rx) =

y(4):

D;

y

3rd derivative

4th derivative

dny :

1n) (x) -

y(n)=, It I

u

nth derivative

1.,t

prl

\$rrt

t,hat r' ( n )

parenthesis

rs used to

are used in

y(n)

ani

fn)

(*).

The

distinguish rt trom

y

the symbol yn. Re-

--

f

(x) while

f

the pre-

(x). The.

yn indicates the nth pou)er of

n,trrt.i<rny(n) indicates the nth deriuatiueof V:

frirrr)r)holds for the symbol 1(n) 1xy.

IfY=

gy=

dx

s3:

dx2

s3

dx3

dav T :

dx*

d5v -

dxs

x4-2x3+bx2- 4, then

Vt :

4x3 '-

6x2

*

1Ox

y"=12x2-12x+10

Y"' :

24x- 12

y(4):24

y(s)= 0

EXERCISE2.4

-

 It*l tlr. secondand third derivative of each of the following: I r xs+3x'2+4x

48

Differential and Integral

4.

"= 3{-

-

x*l

y :_(x + 5)'

6. y=(aT-*?) /t

5.

7.

8.

v =

-

y=

1+\E-

l&--

x

VFT

'\'

9.

r0.

11.

L2.

!=

-

x 2

x*l

If y = \tE, find f' (g) andf"

(g).

If

y :

x5 , find ya and ye).

Find

ttre point on the cunre y =

y' = y".

x3 *

13. How fast does the slope of the

currr€ 5l :

Bx for

(x2+x

change at the point where x = Z?

L4.

2.8 hnplicit

In

the

Find

the

rate of

y=x3-1at(2,71.

Differentiation

charrge of

the slope

of

the

preceding sections, we have been concemed

with functions defined by the equation

y = f(x).

I)ifferentiation of

Algebraic Functions

49

In this form, y is said to be an erplicit function*

ple, in the equation r>fx.

of x. For xarn:

y. :

x2

+

4x

*

3, y is an explicit function

If

y is a function

then y

is

said to

of,x but is not expressedexplicifly in terms

of x. In each of the

trf x,

r'(luations below, y is an implicit funetion of x.

be artimplicit

fuiction

L.

2:.

x2+4xy*4y2:O

Z-

(1 *x)lny=

9

3.

yz =4x2+9

4.

5.

l&-fy

*

xy

:

ex -- cos y

2l

Equationl

(3), (a) and

(b) can be written in the

form grven

equation -

by equations is zero. Then, in general, an implieit by the equation

(1) and (z), i.e., the right mernber of the

function

may be represented.

E (2.3)

f (x, V) =

0

An implicit t.o the form

can be conyerted

For iUstance,the explicit form of the'equa-

tion(3)aboveisy:JWwhilethatofequation(5)isy-

the explicit forms of

functions

which are quite difficult (and may be quite imposible) to convert to their corresponding expricit forms.-Thus findine g{ from an

implicit relationship between x

in those cas{eswhere it is difficult

:rnexplicit solution for y in terms of x.

function

y

:

f(x).

given in the form

E (z.g)

Arccos ex. The reader is urged to obtain equations (1), (2) and (4). How-ever,there

are implicit

and y is of particular*iinportance

(if not impossible) to obtain

A

To

find

ff

or

y'

of an impricit .function,

with

vr€ differentiate

both sides of

,* ot y'. The pro."r, inqolved is called implieit

the equation

respect to x and then solve for

differentiation.

'

+If from

y

= f (x), we solvefor x^in

terms of V, - fe

:

lhis latter form, x is saidto bean explicit function of v.

pet the fo#

x

= g (y). In

50

EXAMPLE 1.

Solutionl

EXAMPLE2.

Solution:

EXAMPLE 3.

Solution:

Differential

and Integal

Catculus

Find

Arl

#

-gv

dx

if y'

=

4x2 + 9,r

(t'): # 14x? +e)

2Y#: 8x* o

dy-

dxy

4x

Find y' if x2 + 4xy+

4Y' :

O.

2x* 4xy,.lr*,r r??,

(4xf Syly'

v'

Find y"

ifx2

+

Yt = 4

Differentiating

2x*ZYy':0

r-X

i-- =-

v

Differentiating

with

respect to

x,

we have

further

with

respect to

xo

Y":

Y(-1):(-x)Y'

-r

= 'y2

y2

.(f)

x

v

-y--x- 7 ,

yr-

- (x'+y')

v'

Differentiation. of Algebraic . Functions

since x2 +

y2

=

4

Note

that y"

catl also be oirLaittedwithout

;n tcrms oi r a.rciy. Thai,is, stantng wiln zx + Zyy

x*yy'-0

solving fot Y' -- U ol'

5,1

we can clifferent,iater-mplicityagainto obtain

1+W"ry'y'-0

1+yy"+(y')t

=Q

Solvingfor 51", we get

y"=

-

(y')t

'

i

Substituting ft

3 -

-x

v

in the equation above and simplifying;"we

,rt4

get y

EXEncrsE2'5

. dv.

i.

Find Te bv implicit differentiation

clx

.

;-

1.

x3 +

y3 *

6xy,= 6

2. x2+xy2+,y2=L

3.

/EE

* xy.= 21

4. /I+\,6=

VA-

5:

b?

X2

*

A.2y2 ,= ,Al b2

6"

(x" y')r= (x+ )"

7. y

=4(xz +y')

52

e' R

v2 = (3SA
"

\2*-3)

 9 y2-3x*2y:0 10

Find y" in each of the following:

11.

L2.

13.

74.

15.

xy=

32

2 a a

xT

+

YT-:37

y2--16x-o

x2-2xy*3y2*4

41l+9yr-36

Differential

and Integral Calculus

Find the slope,of the curye at the glven point.

JI

t

(,

-

16.

L7.

2x3 + 2yt

-

Yt

:

x2 -- 1

9xy

at,

at (3,2)

(2 ,1)

18.

x2 +

+rrfiu +

y,

25

at (4, Ll

19.

x3 +

x2y *

V3 :

I

20. r/Fx+ ffi=5

at (-

atl},l)

I,Z)

2t.

A circle is drawn with its center at

such that the circle cuts the eltipse x2 * angles.Find the radius of the circle.

(8, 0) and with

4y,

:

16 at right

22. The vertex of the parabola y2

:

8x

is the center of

an el-

lipse. The

axis of

at right angles. Find the equation of the ellipse.

focus of

the

parabola is an end

of

the

minor

the ellipse, and the parabola and ellipse intersect

l,\1r1,61P

Some

Applications

Derivative

of the

'f lrr, rieriuatiueis a powerful.toel in the'solution of many rr:;rr)science,engineering,geometryqnd economics.Among

I'r,,lrlcms which Srou will find not oniy useful but alsoquitb

I rrr11lre those situations which call for maxi\$izing

or mini'

rr lunction. For instance, a manufacturer is interested in

'

urtl his

cost of

production. An engineer may want to'

rrr,,t,hedimensions of the strongestrectangularbeam that r'ul l'rom a circular log of known diameter. A farmer may

t,, frrrrtthe area of the largest rectangular fieldwhich

rvrt,h a given

amount

of

fence.

We

shall

find

he can

that

the

is a very usefu</