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Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

SOCIAL STUDIES
Unit Plan: End of the Cold War

Name: Stuart Hautala Date: March 2014


Subject/Class: Modern World History Grade Level: 9-10
Topic: Intro to Collapse of the Soviet Union

Essential Questions/Big Ideas:


 What are the fundamental differences between Communism and Capitalism and how have they
shaped the lives of ordinary citizens within their respective regions?
 How do the decisions of the people in power affect the lives of citizens in their respective
spheres of influence?
 How does a government’s structure affect its power?
 How did internal problems affect the collapse of the Soviet Union?
 What were the roles of historical figures in the collapse of the Soviet Union?

Learning Outcomes:
Students will understand that…
 both internal and external pressures caused the collapse of the Soviet Union.
 the collapse of the Soviet Union had a worldwide affect.

Students will know…


 how internal problems of the Soviet Union: increasing military expenses to compete with
the United States; fast-paced reforms (market economy); economic inefficiency; and
Gorbachev’s “glasnost” and “perestroika” (openness and economic restructuring).
 the role of President Reagan: challenged moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union and increased
U.S. military and economic pressure on the Soviet Union.

Students will be able to…


 formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation.
(Creating)
 develop perspectives of time and place. (Creating)
 interpret the significance of excerpts from famous speeches and other documents.
(Applying)

Students will gain value by…


 understanding that a government should respect and protect individual rights and
freedoms.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Cold War Relations: The Cold War Thaw, Détente, and Steps towards Improved
Relations in the 1970s (Lesson One)

Name: Stuart Hautala Date: March2014 Time: Two 40 Minute Periods


Subject: Modern World History Grade Level: 9-10 Topic: Cold War Détente

1. Concept & Academic Vocabulary:


 SALT I & SALT II
 Cooperation in Space
 The Helsinki conference, 1975
 Trade and cultural links
 Mutually Assured Destruction

2. Target Learning Objectives/Outcomes:


Students will be able to…
 explain why the 1970s is referred to by historians as a period of détente.
 describe the key features of Détente, including, but not limited to the Strategic Arms
Limitations Talks (SALT I and SALT II).
 analyze the change in relationship between the USA and the USSR in the years 1969-79.

3. Essential Questions:
Students will be able to answer…
 why is the 1970s is referred to by historians as a period of détente?
 what are the key features of Détente?
 in what ways did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the years 1969-79?

4. Standards Addressed:
 B.12.3 Recall, select, and analyze significant historical periods and the relationships among
them
 B.12.9 Select significant changes caused by technology, industrialization, urbanization, and
population growth, and analyze the effects of these changes in the United States and the
world
 B.12.11 Compare examples and analyze why governments of various countries have
sometimes sought peaceful resolution to conflicts and sometimes gone to war
i.
5. Materials/Resources:
 History in Focus: GCSE Modern World History (Ben Walsh)
 PowerPoint Presentation w/Projector
Dean Chart
vocab. D=define E=examples A=attributes N=non-examples
word

Détente The easing of hostility During the Cold War, the US and Peace, Friendly, Mutually Assured
or strained relations, USSR looked to avoid assured Cooperation Destruction, Arms Race,
esp. between destruction and sought improved Enemies
countries. relations.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

6. Student and Teacher Activities with Estimated Time Blocks:


TIME Teacher Students
10 Min. Have students listen to prompt: Students
(HOOK) You are an American government official. The year is 1969. General consensus listen to
is that the world is moving into a very dangerous time: prompt:
Think, Pair,
Your country has just lost the war in Vietnam. The cost had been enormous: Share.
55,000 dead American soldiers and billions of dollars spent.

The policy of containment, as listed in the Truman Doctrine has failed.


A nuclear confrontation between your country and the Soviet Union almost
destroyed the world during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.

There is currently a large Campaign for nuclear disarmament movement in the


West.
The price of oil rocketed in the 1970s, and both superpowers experienced
economic problems.

The arms race is very expensive for both superpowers.

Your most important fear is the possibility that a nuclear war might break out
with the prospect of the almost total destruction of the human race.

Present the quote with the image of a mushroom cloud:

“Nuclear warfare is an utter folly, even from the narrowest point of view of self-
interest. To spread ruin, misery and death throughout one’s own country as well
as that of the enemy is the act of madmen… the question every human being
must ask is ‘can man survive?’” – Bertrand Russell, a leading member of
Britain’s campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

Have students answer the following question working in pairs: One - what is
making you feel the time has come to improve relations? Two - what could be
done to improve East-West relations? Compare your notes with your partner.

30 Min. Lecture: Begin by defining what is Détente? Have students complete a Dean Students
(Lecture) Chart. take notes
and ask
Next, have students complete a graphic organizer on the reasons why Détente questions
occurred between the US and USSR. Students will complete the Graphic during the
Organizer by taking notes and participating in discussion as part of the lecture lecture.
activity.

As a wrap-up activity to the causes for Détente in the 1970s, have students
write a brief reflection on whether or not they believe: (1) Détente was
necessary policy during the Cold War; (2) Détente will be a success or failure for
the superpowers; and (3) Have students write to help consolidate their
thoughts, express concerns, or raise issues and problems that need to be
clarified or explored further.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Day Two 25 minutes: Students


37 Min. Next, have students complete a jigsaw activity regarding the key events of read their
(JIGSAW) Détente. given
Students will be split into four equal groups, each of which are to read their selection,
given section and take notes on. Each group will one of the events below: respond to
it, and then
1. SALT I & SALT II are
2. Cooperation in Space responsible
3. The Helsinki conference, 1975 for
4. Trade and cultural links explaining it
to another
Instruction on how to compete jigsaw activity are as listed below:
student.
1. Assign each group to learn one segment, making sure students have
direct access only to their own segment.
2. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and
become familiar with it. Have students take notes on their segment.
Give student groups time to discuss the main points of their segment
and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group.
3. Split the students into their jigsaw groups.
4. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage
others in the group to ask questions for clarification.
5. Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having
trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an
appropriate intervention.
6. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that students
quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games
but really count.

10 minutes:
After the students all finish reading their sections and writing a short response,
they will pair up with a student from the other group and discuss their section
with each other. Students will share their response sheet and main points.

Answer any last minute questions the students will have, and then have Students
students turn in their notes/response sheet and move back to seats. follow
teacher
direction.
Assignment Closure (formative assessment): Students
I plan to assess my students thinking and the application of concepts informally follow
through… teacher
direction.
Create “A Poem For Two Voices” (See attached) about how the Soviet Union
and United States, promoted, or encouraged the policy of détente. Students
may write on a number of issues regarding the need for Détente, including the
fears if nuclear destruction, the need for improved relations, the economic cost
of the Cold War, etc.
Make sure this poem:
o Reflects your feelings, beliefs, and/or point of view
o Has at least 8-10 lines
o Be ready to read your poem out loud to the group.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

7. Extensions/Adaptations:
 As an extension, if the lesson finishes early have them discuss with the class their response
to the Learning Log activity. Have students express concerns, or raise issues and problems
that need to be clarified or explored further.

8. Assessment: Methods of Evaluating Student Progress/Performance:


 Formatives:
 On-going questioning
 Jigsaw participation and response
 A Poem For Two Voices

9. Differentiation:
ESL/Struggling Students, as well as the entire class, who may have difficulty reading their
Learners selected texts will be grouped with mature readers and will be provided with
ample time to discuss. If applicable, students are permitted to complete the
Poem fir Two Voices in their native language.
ADHD To increase the amount of meaningful learning occurring for these students, I
will allow at students time for reflection and discussion with each other. I will
also allow students to stand up and stretch. If the class is a well-behaved class, I
will give them the option to move and share with someone else during the Think,
Pair, Share.

10. Reflection:
Overall, I feel this lesson was successful. Students explored and were instructed on the period of
Détente during the Cold War, in which they cohesively examined secondary source texts to piece
together the significance and events that highlight the period. In regards to my classroom being
international by nature, I believe having students explore textual sources together benefited ESL
student learning, as they were given the opportunity mutually support each other’s learning by
reading and discuss the activity/period with a partner.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Cold War Relations: Cold War Differences between Communism and Capitalism
(Lesson Two)
Name: Stuart Hautala Date: March2014 Time: Two 40 Minute Periods
Subject: Modern World History Grade Level: 9-10 Topic: Communism, v. Capitalism

Lesson Overview:
In this lesson…
“students will examine primary source images and decipher/infer problems associated with the
Soviet Communist economy during the Cold War. Students will explore both American Capitalist and
Soviet Communist economic philosophies and decide which one they think was more successful
during the Cold War. Students will also be prompted to explore how economic problems and
consumer dissatisfaction led to the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1980s.”

1. Concept & Academic Vocabulary:


 American Capitalism
 Soviet Communism
 Primary Source
 Observe, Inference, Apply Knowledge

2. Target Learning Objectives/Outcomes:


Students will be able to…
 Explain the differences between American Capitalist and Soviet Communist economic
philosophies.
 Examine the steps to analyzing and interpreting an image as a primary source.
 describe the effects of Communism on the Soviet economy during the Cold War and the
impact of such effects regarding the collapse of the Soviet system.

3. Essential Questions:
Students will be able to answer…
 what are the differences between American Capitalist and Soviet Communist economic
philosophies?
 what impact did communism have on the Soviet economy and what impact did it have
on the collapse of the Soviet Union?

4. Standards Addressed:
 B.12.2 Analyze primary and secondary sources related to a historical question to
evaluate their relevance, make comparisons, integrate new information with prior
knowledge, and come to a reasoned conclusion
 B.12.3 Recall, select, and analyze significant historical periods and the relationships
among them
 B.12.4 Assess the validity of different interpretations of significant historical events
i.
5. Materials/Resources:
 American Capitalism v. Soviet Communism (Handout)
 Observe, Infer, and Apply (Activity)
 PowerPoint Presentation w/ American Capitalism & Soviet Communism Images

6. Student and Teacher Activities with Estimated Time Blocks:


Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

TIME Teacher Students


10 Min. Begin Class with the following hook… Students
(HOOK) listen to
Begin by writing on the board the following quote, “Whereas in advanced prompt:
capitalist societies goods chased people, in the Soviet Union it was the reverse: Think, Pair,
people chased goods.” Share.

Ask student to (1) brainstorm the quote on paper, (2) discuss with a partner,
and (3) share with the class the understanding of the quote.

Next, ask students if they would rather live in a society that… (1) Had a
“surplus” of goods in which people lived in abundance and had access to a
variety of goods; or (2) One in which people had to stand in long lines for a
“deficit” of goods.

30 Min. 20 Minutes: Students


(Lecture Begin the lesson’s activities by giving students the handout: American take notes
& Dean Capitalism v. Soviet Communism and ask
Charts) questions
Have students create the following chart in their notes: during the
lecture.
Capitalism Communism

Summary:
vocab. D=define E=examples A=attributes N=non-
word examples
Capitalism An economic and political United States, Free Market, Soviet Union,
system in which a Western Private Eastern
country's trade and Europe, South Ownership, Europe,
industry are controlled by Korea Competition, State
private owners for profit, Consumer Driven Ownership,
rather than by the state. Collectivization,
State Driven

Summary:
vocab. word D=define E=examples A=attributes N=non-
examples
Communism A way of organizing a society Soviet State United States,
in which the government Union, Ownership, Western
owns the things that are Eastern Collectivization, Europe,
used to make and transport Europe, State Driven, Privatization,
products (such as land, oil, South No Privately Free Market,
factories, ships, etc.) and Korea, Owned etc.
there is no privately owned Cuba, Enterprises.
property. Vietnam

10 Minutes:
Have students write a two Dean Charts regarding both ideologies and their
economic philosophies. This will be followed by students writing a short
summary about which on they believe is stronger or superior and why. Have a
few students share their response.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Day Two Next, give students the following handout: Observe, Infer, and Apply Students
40 Min. view the
(Observe, Explain to students the purpose of the activity is to examine the fundamental images,
Infer, differences between American Capitalism & Soviet Communism by analyzing respond to
and and interpreting the economic ideologies through images/photographs from it, and then
Apply) the time period. Explain this day’s activities will be a general guide through the are
upcoming lessons on why/how the Soviet Union Collapsed. responsible
for
Model/go over the steps of the activity as a class using a sample image. completing
the
Next , display the image of American Capitalism handout.

(1)-Give students 5 minutes to observe and write about the image; (2) 5
minutes to make inferences about their observations and the image; and (3) 5
minutes for students to make connections between their prior knowledge and
what they just observed.

Next, display the image of Soviet Communism

(1) Give students 5 minutes to observe and write about the image; (2) 5
minutes to make inferences about their observations and the image; and (3) 5
minutes for students to make connections between their prior knowledge and
what they just observed.

Finish class by having students summarize what they learned and how it relates
to the fall of the Soviet Union (See below).

Closure (formative assessment): Students


I plan to assess my students thinking and the application of concepts informally follow
through… teacher
direction.
Students’ written summaries regarding the Observe, Infer, and Apply activity.
Students will produce a summary of their learning by completing the graphic
organizer found on the back of the activity handout. Have students share their
responses if time applicable.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

7. Extension/Adaptations:
As an extension, if the lesson finishes early…
 have students share their responses to the summary activity. Extend this activity to the
desired length of time.

8. Assessment: Methods of Evaluating Student Progress/Performance:


 Formatives:
 On-going questioning
 Observe, Infer, and Apply activity
 Dean Charts

9. Differentiation:
ESL/Struggling Students, as well as the entire class, who may have difficulty have difficulty
Learners understanding the lesson’s terminology (Observe, Infer, and Apply Knowledge)
will be provided with definitions and examples.
ADHD To increase the amount of meaningful learning occurring for these students, I
will allow at students time for reflection and discussion with each other. I will
also allow students to stand up and stretch. If the class is a well-behaved class,
I will give them the option to move and share with someone else during the
Think, Pair, Share.

10. Reflection:
Overall, I feel this lesson had a strong impact on my students understanding of the differences
between Soviet Communism and American Capitalism. In regards to my classroom being
international by nature, I believe having students analyze and interpret primary source images
was more conducive to my students’ skills as ESL learners, as the activity relied more on visual
and cognitive thinking over textual. An improvement on the lesson would be to place students
in groups of 2-3 and have them discuss the various steps featured in the activity together rather
than individually. This, I believe, would allow students to approach the sources with more
confidence and would allow for the opportunity for students to mutually support one another.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

13b. Comparing Economic Systems

Karl Marx, German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary, laid the ideological groundwork for modern socialism
and communism.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels turned the world upside down.

Until the publication of their 1848Communist Manifesto, much of the western world followed a course
where individuals owned private property, business enterprises, and the profits that resulted from
wise investments. Marx and Engels pointed out the uneven distribution of wealth in the capitalist world
and predicted a worldwide popular uprising to distribute wealth evenly. Ever since, nations have
wrestled with which direction to turn their economies.

Capitalism

 Capitalism is based on private ownership of the means of production and on individual


economic freedom. Most of the means of production, such as factories and businesses, are
owned by private individuals and not by the government. Private owners make decisions about
what and when to produce and how much products should cost. Other characteristics of
capitalism include the following:
 Free competition. The basic rule of capitalism is that people should compete freely without
interference from government or any other outside force. Capitalism assumes that the most
deserving person will usually win. In theory, prices will be kept as low as possible because
consumers will seek the best product for the least amount of money.

Image from Capitalism Magazine (http://www.CapitalismMagazine.com). Used with permission.


Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990
The antitrust lawsuit against Microsoft is one way that the government has tried to promote
competition. Supporters of Microsoft say that forcing Microsoft to allow companies to bundle arch-rival
Netscape's web browser with Microsoft Windows is not unlike making Coca-Cola include a can of Pepsi
in each six-pack it sells.

 Supply and demand. In a capitalist system prices are determined by how many products there
are and how many people want them. When supplies increase, prices tend to drop. If prices
drop, demand usually increases until supplies run out. Then prices will rise once more, but
only as long as demand is high. These laws of supply and demand work in a cycle to control
prices and keep them from getting too high or too low.

Communism

Karl Marx, the 19th century father of communism, was outraged by the growing gap between rich and
poor. He saw capitalism as an outmoded economic system that exploited workers, which would
eventually rise against the rich because the poor were so unfairly treated. Marx thought that the
economic system of communism would replace capitalism. Communism is based on principles meant
to correct the problems caused by capitalism.

The most important principle of communism is that no private ownership of property should be
allowed. Marx believed that private ownership encouraged greed and motivated people to knock out
the competition, no matter what the consequences. Property should be shared, and the people should
ultimately control the economy. The government should exercise the control in the name of the
people, at least in the transition between capitalism and communism. The goals are to eliminate the
gap between the rich and poor and bring about economic equality.

Socialism

Socialism, like communism, calls for putting the major means of production in the hands of the
people, either directly or through the government. Socialism also believes that wealth and income
should be shared more equally among people. Socialists differ from communists in that they do not
believe that the workers will overthrow capitalists suddenly and violently. Nor do they believe that all
private property should be eliminated. Their main goal is to narrow, not totally eliminate, the gap
between the rich and the poor. The government, they say, has a responsibility to redistribute wealth
to make society more fair and just.

There is no purely capitalist or communist economy in the world today. The capitalist United States
has a Social Security system and a government-owned postal service. Communist China now allows
its citizens to keep some of the profits they earn. These categories are models designed to shed
greater light on differing economic systems.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Topic Name:___________________________ Name:________________________


Observe, Infer, & Question
Part A: Observe
Examine the image for 2 minutes and try to detect as much detail as possible. Write at least 3 observations
below. Suggestions: Write your first observations about the image. List any people, objects, and activities in the
image. Where does your eye go first? What powerful words and/or ideas are expressed? What is something you find
small but interesting?

Image 1:

Image 2:

Part B: Inference (a final decision based on evidence and reasoning)


Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph. (What does it say about the time
period?)

Image 1:

Image 2:

Part C: Apply Knowledge


Next, apply from the image what you know about the topic. List any connections between the image and what
you already know about the topic (Make connections between what your learning and prior knowledge).

Image 1:
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Image 2: How do you think people responded: cynicism

Part D: Summary
On the back of the paper summarize what you learned.

Part D: Summary
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Cold War Relations: Dissent in the Soviet Union – An Examination of the Prague
Spring and Polish Solidarity

Name: Stuart Hautala Date: March2014 Time: One 40 Minute


Subject: Modern World History Grade Level: 9-10 Topic: The Prague Spring

Lesson Overview:
In this lesson…
“students will examine the Prague Spring as to identify the cause and effect relationship between
events and outcomes. Students will also explore a structured system of note taking, in which they
will be required to ONLY focus their notes on significant information examined. Students will finish
by writing personal summaries to reinforce or show areas of concern in their learning.”

1. Concept & Academic Vocabulary:


 Prague Spring
 Czechoslovakia
 Warsaw Pact

2. Target Learning Objectives/Outcomes:


Students will be able to…
 describe the Prague Spring and explain its historical significance.
 analyze the cause and effect relationship of events during the Prague Spring.
 structure their notes as to focus on significant information.

3. Essential Questions:
Students will be able to answer…
 what was the Prague Spring and what is its significance in cold War history?
 why did the Prague Spring occur in Czechoslovakia and what was the impact of the
event?

4. Standards Addressed:
 B.12.11 Compare examples and analyze why governments of various countries have
sometimes sought peaceful resolution to conflicts and sometimes gone to war
 B.12.15 Identify a historical or contemporary event in which a person was forced to take
an ethical position, such as a decision to go to war, the impeachment of a president, or a
presidential pardon, and explain the issues involved
 B.12.17 Identify historical and current instances when national interests and global
interests have seemed to be opposed and analyze the issues involved

5. Materials/Resources:
 Structured Notes: Czechoslovakia Handout
 History in Focus: GCSE Modern World History (Ben Walsh)
 Anticipatory Set Images: American Capitalism & Soviet Communism
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

6. Student and Teacher Activities with Estimated Time Blocks:


TIME Teacher Students
10 Min. Show students the following images from lesson’s prior: Students
(HOOK) listen to
prompt:
Think, Pair,
Share.

Soviet Communism

American Capitalism

Have students respond to the photograph of Soviet Communism. Ask


students: (1) How satisfied do they think the people of image one are? (2)
What problems do you think are associated with the Soviet style of
economy? (3) What issues do you think this led to in the Soviet Union (were
people satisfied and wanting to remain in a Communist society or were they
upset wanting out)?

Invite the students to share their responses by writing supporting answers


on the board.

10 Min. Begin the lesson’s activities by passing out the Structured Notes: Students
(Lecture) Czechoslovakia handout, followed by an explanation/ background on take notes
Czechoslovakia as a Communist state during the Cold War. and ask
questions
Explain to students the purpose of the handout is to eliminate passive note during the
taking, as well as direct their focus to important information (avoid lecture.
extraneous detail).

Next write the phrase, “Problems in Czechoslovakia during the Cold War,”
on the board. Under, write “Economy” and “Human Rights.”

Next, hand out copies of the text entitled, “Czechoslovakia: 1968” and have
students explore the text to identify problems associated with human rights
and the economy in Communist Czechoslovakia. Write student responses on
the board under applicable “Problem in Czech.”

Next, have students write, in their understanding, why they think these
causes are significant. Students will write a paragraph explaining why
problems associated with human rights and the economy would lead to
unrest.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Next, provide background on what occurred during the Prague Spring.


Clarify why unrest occurred. Set students up for how the Soviet Union
reacted to the Prague Spring.

Next, have students read through the second part of the text. Have students
identify what was the effect/impact of the Prague Spring. How did the
Soviet Union respond to the Prague Spring?

Finish by having students’ written summaries regarding the Structured


Notes: Czechoslovakia activity. Students will produce a summary in which
they are asked to “Explain in your own words what you have learned about
the Prague Spring.” Students will share their responses if applicable.

20 Min. Next, to enhance student literacy and direct attention to the essential parts Students
(Interactive of the text, students will be issued an Interactive Reading Guide. read the
Reading textbook,
Guide) Explain the advantages of using an Interactive Reading Guide: respond to
the
This strategy helps the students learn from text that may be too difficult for Interactive
them to read by themselves. Reading
Guide
The guide gives the students different clues throughout the reading to direct handout.
their attention to the key points in the text.

Students will be divided into groups or pairs to complete the IRG.

Students will then read the assigned selections from the text slowly and
carefully

Know your role. The IRG will guide you through: 1) what part of the text to
read and, 2) your various assigned tasked (read, speak, listen, write)

Complete the class by having students use their IRG as an outline to report
their information to the class. Students will meet in larger group to reflect
how their reading/IRG relates to the cause and effect relationships that led
to the Prague Spring and other dissent in the Soviet Union.

Closure (formative assessment): Students


I plan to assess my students thinking and the application of concepts follow
informally through… teacher
direction.
1)by having students’ written summaries regarding the Structured Notes:
Czechoslovakia activity. Students will produce a summary in which they are
asked to “Explain in your own words what you have learned about the
Prague Spring.” Students will share their responses if applicable.

2)by having students use their IRG as an outline to report their information
to the class. Students will meet in larger group to reflect how their
reading/IRG relates to the cause and effect relationships that led to the
Prague Spring and other dissent in the Soviet Union.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

7. Extension/Adaptations:
As an extension, if the lesson finishes early…
 have students share their responses to the summary activity. Extend this activity to the
desired length of time.

8. Assessment: Methods of Evaluating Student Progress/Performance:


 Formatives:
 On-going questioning
 Structured Notes: Czechoslovakia Handout
 Interactive Reading Guide

9. Differentiation:
ESL/Struggling Students, as well as the entire class, who may have difficulty understanding
Learners the content will be given the option of working together to complete the
activities. Students completed work will be reviewed according to their
reading/writing proficiency of the English language.
ADHD To increase the amount of meaningful learning occurring for these students, I
will allow at students time for reflection and discussion with each other. I will
also allow students to stand up and stretch. If the class is a well-behaved class,
I will give them the option to move and share with someone else during the
Think, Pair, Share.

10. Reflection:
In this lesson, I wanted to focus specifically on how my students strategically conducted note
taking and read text. Overall, I believe, the lesson was successful, as students were provided
with handouts to assist them in the note taking process (i.e. Structured Notes) and reading
through a text (Interactive Reading Guide). An improvement to this lesson would be to have
students explore the activities in pairs, rather than work individually. I also would have preferred
to have made the Structured Notes activity more student centered, in which students worked
independently from the lecture.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Structured Notes for History


Cause and Effect
Internal Challenges to the Soviet Union
Name:_______________________________________________
Explain Why
The Cause and Effects of the Prague Spring
Causes: Economic Causes: Human Rights (i.e. Freedom of speech)
Historical causes that led to the event. Historical causes that led to the event.

Explain the Causes


Explain why YOU think these causes are significant. Write a paragraph explaining why problems associated with human rights and the economy would
lead to unrest.

Explain the Effects


What impact or “effect” of the event. How did the Soviet Union respond?

Summary
Explain in your own words what you have learned about the Prague Spring.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Interactive Reading Guide History


Direction: on a separate sheet of paper answer the questions below. Carefully read each question before
answering. Read the selected readings from the text to help you answer the question.

1. Before opening the book, answer the following quotation. Infer: Whereas in advanced capitalist societies
goods chased people, in the Soviet Union it was the reverse: people chased goods. (In other words, what
do you think is meant by this quote?)- Write the quote on your answer sheet!!!

2. On page 398 write the name of the heading found in black bold letter.

3. Read the 2, 3, and 4th paragraph under the heading “What did ordinary people in Eastern Europe think
about Soviet control?” on page 398. Complete the chart below by explaining what ordinary people in
Eastern Europe thought about Soviet control.

What did ordinary people in Eastern Europe think about Soviet control?
Economic Human Rights

4. On page 404 write the name of the heading found at the top of the page entitled, Case study 2…

5. Read through Sources 15, 16, 17 on page 404. Analyze and interpret what the authors are saying about life
in Czechoslovakia under Soviet control. Explain how the sources help you understand what you have
learned so far.

6. For background information read the section “Why was there opposition in Czechoslovakia?” on page 404.
Then reexamine your answers for questions 3 and 5. Making connections: Next, relate the Sources (15, 16,
and, 17) with the information you read about on page 398-399 (as answered in question 2). In other
words, apply your knowledge and explain the worries of the Czech people under Soviet control.

7. Before reading, first, in your own words explain why you think the Soviet Union would fear the success of
the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. Then read the last paragraph on page 405. In your own words
explain why you think the Soviet Union would fear the success of the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia.
a. Before Reading:
b. After Reading:

8. Read the text under the headings “How did the Soviet Union Respond?” and “Brezhnev Doctrine” on
pages 404-406. Next, read Source 22 on page 406. What does the source tell us about the Brezhnev
Doctrine and how the Soviet Union responded to the Prague Spring and other challenges to Communist
control? Explain your answer.

9. Write the words “Polish Solidarity” as a header.


Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

10. Read the last paragraph on page 412. From a source other than your book, look up the term “Trade
Union” and in your own words provide a definition. Next, explain what Polish Solidarity was and provide
the historical significance.

11. Read the text under the heading “How Significant was Solidarity?” on page 412. What fears did the Polish
people have under Communist control?

12. Read through Source 1 on page 412. Apply knowledge: What does the source tell you about the economy
of Poland (Eastern Europe) under Soviet control? How does this quote relate to what you already know
about issues related to Soviet control? Explain your answer.

13. Read the text under the heading “Why did the Polish government agree to Solidarity’s demands in 1980?”
on page 413. How did the Soviet Union respond to Solidarity? What’s surprising about this? Read the
second bullet point. Making connections: Using your own knowledge, why did many members of the
Polish Communist party join Solidarity? Explain your answer.

14. Read the first paragraph under the heading “The Aftermath” on page 415. What happened to Solidarity in
Poland? Next, read the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs at the top of page 415 (Read the 2 bullet points under the
sentence “In December 1981, looking back on the past 18 months, two things were obvious:”). Explain in
your own words the historical significance of Polish Solidarity.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Cold War Relations: Crisis in the Cold War, Reagan & Gorbachev
Name: Stuart Hautala Date: March2014 Time: One 40 Minute
Subject: Modern World History Grade Level: 9-10 Topic: Reagan & Gorbachev

Lesson Overview:
In this lesson…
“students will analyze and evaluate the leaders of the Cold War during the 1980s, Ronald Reagan and
Mikhail Gorbachev, and their stances/attitudes towards their respective ideologies. Students will
complete the lesson once they have interpreted, analyzed, and evaluated selected quotes and
speeches by the two leaders and determine their impression of the historical leader based on the
sources provided.”

1. Concept & Academic Vocabulary:


 Ronald Reagan
 Mikhail Gorbachev
 Evil Empire
 Strategic Defense Initiative
 Reform

2. Target Learning Objectives/Outcomes:


Students will be able to…
 analyze and identify events of the Cold War that resulted in the Soviet Union to be in crisis in the
1980s.
 compare and explain the significance of historical figures from the Cold War and their respective
stances towards their respective ideologies.
 analyze how tensions between the two superpowers escalated during the Cold War as a result of
new leadership.

3. Essential Questions:
Students will be able to answer…
 what events of the Cold War resulted in the Soviet Union to be in crisis in the 1980s?
 who were the world leaders of the Cold War and what were their respective stances towards
their respective ideologies?
 why did Cold War tensions escalate as a result of new leadership during the decade of the 1980s?

4. Standards Addressed:
 B.12.1 Explain different points of view on the same historical event, using data gathered from
various sources, such as letters, journals, diaries, newspapers, government documents, and
speeches
 B.12.2 Analyze primary and secondary sources related to a historical question to evaluate their
relevance, make comparisons, integrate new information with prior knowledge, and come to a
reasoned conclusion
 B.12.11 Compare examples and analyze why governments of various countries have sometimes
sought peaceful resolution to conflicts and sometimes gone to war

5. Materials/Resources:
 Character Profile Handout
 YouTube Speeches: “Evil Empire” and “Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)”
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

 Gorbachev Speech
 PowerPoint Presentation w/ Projector

6. Student and Teacher Activities with Estimated Time Blocks:


TIME Teacher Students
4 Min. Have students read the following quote: Students
(HOOK) The Soviet Union in 1985: It was in crisis. Its economy was very weak. Soviet factories listen to
did not produce what ordinary people wanted. It was spending far too much money prompt:
on the arms race. It was locked into a costly and unwinnable war in Afghanistan. Think, Pair,
There had been no new thinking about how to run the Soviet economy since the days Share.
of Stalin. Each leader had followed the same policies and had ignored the warning
signals that things were going wrong.

Have students respond to the quote. Ask to students: (1) Identify as many reasons
WHY the Soviet Union was in crisis in the 1980s; and (2) Make as many predictions
for the future of the Soviet Union during this time?

Write student responses to question # 1 on the board under the heading “Reasons
why the Soviet Union was in crisis, 1980.” Encourage students to write these reasons
down in their notes. Inform them to keep these factors in mind throughout the next
few lessons.

10 Min. Begin the lesson by explaining additions “crisis to the Soviet Union” existed in the Students
(Lecture) 1980s. Introduce to students two leading world figures are significant to the end of take notes
the Cold War: Ronald Reagan & Mikhail Gorbachev. and ask
questions
Explain the problems of Soviet Communism in the 1980s (inefficient, corrupt, weak during the
economy, etc.). lecture.

Next, have the students add to their “Reasons why the Soviet Union was in Crisis,
1980” notes that Soviet leadership was also in crisis in the 1980s. Introduce and
explain why/who Mikhail Gorbachev became Soviet leader. Explain the problems of
Soviet Communism in the 1980s (inefficient, corrupt, weak economy, etc.).

23 Min. 12 minutes: Students


(Character Students are given quotes from characters in a text, video, historical figures, etc. and read the
Quotes) are asked to work in groups to brainstorm as many words as they can that they think speech;
of to describe their impression of this person based on this quote. Then they share respond;
their traits and reasoning for those traits with the class. Students then make and to it;
generalizations about the person based on the quotes. and
complete a
Students will complete the activity by conversing about the Cold War historical figure character
and their stances towards Communism. Students will investigate the attitudes of profile on
Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev and their historical significance. each
leader.
Ronald Reagan:
Have students watch Ronald Reagan’s “Evil Empire” and “Strategic Defense Initiative
(SDI)” speeches.

Have students respond to the following question: Think-Pair-Share: What does


Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Reagan’s speech tell us about his stance towards Communism? How does Reagan
plan to fight the Cold War? Explain Reagan’s SDI and how he planned to fight
communism.

Have students complete Character Profile.

Mikhail Gorbachev:
“When I became General Secretary, I admit I was not free from the illusions of my
predecessors. I thought we could unite socialism and democracy and give socialism a
second wind. But The totalitarian model had relied on dictatorship and violence, and
I can see this was not acceptable to the people.... I wanted to change the Soviet
Union, not destroy it. I started too late to reform the party, and I waited too long to
create a market economy.”

Have students respond to the following question: Think-Pair-Share: What does


Gorbachev’s quote tell us about his stance towards Communism? Evaluate
Gorbachev’s quote. Do you think he seeks to preserve Communism or see to its
destruction? How?

Have students complete Character Profile.

3 minutes:
After students finish writing the Character Profile, they will pair up with a student
from the other group and discuss the profile they created.

Answer any last minute questions the students will have, then have students turn in Students
their notes/response sheet and move back to seats. follow
teacher
direction.
Closure (formative assessment): Students
I plan to assess my students thinking and the application of concepts informally follow
through… teacher
direction.
students finish writing the Character Profile, in which students will pair up with
another student from the other group and discuss the profile they created. Have
students share with the whole group class to discuss the characters they have
created.

7. Extension/Adaptations:
As an extension, if the lesson finishes early…
 Answer any last minute questions the students may have. Have students pair up with a student
from another group and discuss the profile they created.

8. Assessment: Methods of Evaluating Student Progress/Performance:


 Formatives:
 On-going questioning
 Character Profile

9. Differentiation:
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

ESL/Struggling Students will be given the opportunity to explore the activity by working in pairs.
Learners Students will be encouraged to discuss their opinion/view of the historical figure in
question. Students completed work will be reviewed according to their
reading/writing proficiency of the English language.
ADHD To increase the amount of meaningful learning occurring for these students, I will
allow at students time for reflection and discussion with each other. I will also allow
students to stand up and stretch. If the class is a well-behaved class, I will give them
the option to move and share with someone else during the Think, Pair, Share.

10. Reflection:
Overall, I feel this was a good lesson to introduce the leaders of the Cold War during the 1980s. As the
classroom was international by nature, the majority of the students had trouble identifying with the
names and personas of Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan, which was expected. As a means to
assist students further in this activity, I would have preferred students to read and report on the two
figures prior to the activity. An improvement on this lesson would have been to provide ESL students
with a broad list of words and definitions to assist them in the activity. Many ESL students, I found, did
not have a large enough vocabulary to fully explore the activity.
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

Cold War Relations: Gorbachev, Reform, & Collapse of the Soviet Union
Name: Stuart Hautala Date: March2014 Time: One 40 Minute
Subject: Modern World History Grade Level: 9-10 Topic: Reform and Collapse

Lesson Overview:
In this lesson…
“students will analyze Mikhail Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union and the significance of his
reforms, Glasnost and Perestroika, in regards to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Students will
complete the lesson by gaining literacy and competence in understanding the meaning, purpose, and
legacy of reforms instituted in the Soviet Union by completing both a Dean’s Chart and Double-Entry
Diary.”

1. Concept & Academic Vocabulary:


 Reform
 Glasnost
 Perestroika

2. Target Learning Objectives/Outcomes:


Students will be able to…
 analyze Mikhail Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union and explain the significance of his
reforms, Glasnost and Perestroika.
 explain the meaning of Glasnost and Perestroika and their respective significance to the collapse
of the Soviet Union.

3. Essential Questions:
Students will be able to answer…
 how did the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev result in the collapse of the Soviet Union?
 what is the significance of Gorbachev’s reforms and what significance did they have in the
collapse if the Soviet Union?

4. Standards Addressed:
 B.12.3 Recall, select, and analyze significant historical periods and the relationships among them
 B.12.9 Select significant changes caused by technology, industrialization, urbanization, and
population growth, and analyze the effects of these changes in the United States and the world
i.
5. Materials/Resources:
 Double-Entry Diary Handout
 History in Focus: GCSE Modern World History (Ben Walsh)
 PowerPoint w/ Projector

Dean Chart
vocab. word D=define E=examples A=attributes N=non-examples
Communism/Communist A system of social organization in Soviet Union, North Controlled, not free, United States, Great
which all economic and social Vietnam (1960-70s), undemocratic, Britain, France
activity is controlled by a totalitarian China
state dominated by a single and self-
perpetuating political party.
Reform To improve (someone or something) Glasnost (Openness), Change from To do the same, but
by removing or correcting faults, Perestroika Censorship to expect different
problems, etc. (Restructuring) Freedom of Speech; results; to allow to
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990
Change from State- fail
run Economy to Free
Market Economy
Glasnost A policy permitting open Freedom of Speech, Right to Criticize, Censorship
discussion of political and social Freedom of Press Transparency,
issues and freer dissemination of Reform
news and information
Perestroika The policy of economic and Economic Restructuring; State-run Economy
governmental reform Liberalization, Economically par with
Privatization, Free capitalist countries
Enterprise such as Germany,
Japan, and the U.S.
Collapse To fall or cave in; crumble suddenly. The roof of an old Fragile, weak, old, Brick house in 3
building, a mineshaft ineffective little pigs
that has just been
blown up.

6. Student and Teacher Activities with Estimated Time Blocks:


TIME Teacher Students
2 Min. Ask students to recall the two major issues (as discussed in previous classes) that Students
(HOOK) were the cause of dissatisfaction in the Soviet Union. (A: Human Rights and Weak listen to
Economy). Have students explain examples and where and why the two causes are prompt:
significant. Think, Pair,
Share.

8 Min. Lecture: Discuss the problems in the Soviet Union, both internal and external. Prepare Students
(Lecture) students for tomorrow’s discussion of the independence movements in the Soviet take notes
Satellite states. and ask
questions
Lecture: Have students examine their notes to familiarize themselves with Gorbachev. during the
Introduce & explain Gorbachev’s reforms for the Soviet Union: Glasnost & lecture.
Perestroika. Have students complete their Graphic Organizer handout for both
vocabulary words.

30 Min. 20 minutes: Students


Analyze Activity: Double-Entry Diary – Explain and model. read the
Quote Quote: Gorbachev was different. He Inference: reformist, weak economy, quote,
(Double- was very concerned about the attitude respond to
Entry of Soviet people to work. The Soviet it, and then
Diary) system protected them against are
economic problems - it guaranteed responsible
them a job and a home - but it also gave for
them no incentive to work harder. (pg. explaining
418) it.
Quote: Gorbachev was worried that Connection: empty store shelves, lack
Soviet goods didn’t seem to work of consumer goods
properly… Soviet refrigerators were
shoddy. (pg. 418)
Quote: In 1987 his perestroika program Reaction & Apply Knowledge:
allowed market forces to be introduced
into the Soviet economy. For the first
time in 60 years it was no longer illegal
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

to buy and sell for profit. (pg. 418)


Quote: The policy of glasnost made it Inference:
possible for people to more freely
criticize the government's policies.
When people realized it was safe to
speak out, the calls for change became
more insistent.
Quote: Neither the Soviet Union nor Analyze (What is the quote saying
the USA is able to force its will on about the Soviet Union & Eastern
others… no one will be able to Europe):
subordinate others. That is why only
one thing – remains. All of us must…
respect one another and everybody.
(pg. 418)
Quote: The Soviet Union was entering Predict:
uncharted territory. What was clear
was that it could not turn back.
Gorbachev’s reforms had released a
pent-up longing for freedom across all
of the Communist world. (pg. 419)

10 minutes:
After the students finish their D-E-D and writing a short response, they will pair up
with a student from the other group and discuss their responses with each other.

WRAP UP: Answer any last minute questions the students will have. Then have Students
students turn in their notes/response sheet and move back to seats. follow
teacher
direction.
Closure (formative assessment): Students
I plan to assess my students thinking and the application of concepts informally follow
through… teacher
direction.
the completion of a Double-Entry Diary, in which students will respond to the prompt
by pairing up with a student from the another group and discuss their responses with
each other. Students will follow this by sharing/discussing their answers with the
whole group class.

7. Extension/Adaptations:
As an extension, if the lesson finishes early…
 Answer any last minute questions the students will have. Then have students turn in their
notes/response sheet and move back to seats.

8. Assessment: Methods of Evaluating Student Progress/Performance:


 Formatives:
 On-going questioning
 Deans Chart
 Double-Entry Diary Handout
Subject: Modern World History- International Relations, 1945- 1990

9. Differentiation:
ESL/Struggling Students will be given the opportunity to explore the activity in pairs. Students who do
Learners not finish the activity during the class period will be permitted to complete the activity
at home. Students completed work will be reviewed according to their reading/writing
proficiency of the English language.
ADHD To increase the amount of meaningful learning occurring for these students, I will
allow at students time for reflection and discussion with each other. I will also allow
students to stand up and stretch. If the class is a well-behaved class, I will give them
the option to move and share with someone else during the Think, Pair, Share.

10. Reflection:
Overall, I feel I have accomplished the intended objectives regarding this lesson. My goal was for
students to understand the terminology, events, and significance of how/why the Soviet Union
collapsed in the 1980s. As the classroom was international by nature, I believe that focusing on building
student vocabulary was essential to facilitating literacy regarding the topic. Through informal
assessment students appeared to have a general understanding of the academic vocabulary and
how/why they correspond to the end of the Cold War.