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A Wearable UHF RFID-Based EEG System

Artem Dementyev Joshua R. Smith

Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Computer Science and Engineering
University of Washington Department of Electrical Engineering
Seattle, WA University of Washington
Email: Seattle, WA

Abstract—The wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) monitor- and communications. Since such system does not need batter-
ing systems are the cornerstone of noninvasive brain-computer ies it can be made small and can work for as long as a suitable
interfaces (BCI) and many medical applications, but state-of- radio frequency (RF) energy source is available.
the-art wearable systems are limited by weight, battery life and
size. In this paper we present EEGWISP: am EEG monitoring
system that is battery-free; is powered by a standard UHF RFID
reader; and uses backscatter to transmit the data using a EPC WISP EEG
RF Backscatter
Class 1 Gen2 protocol. Since EEGWISP does not need batteries analog circuit
Storage Voltage
it can be lightweight, miniature and maintenance free for users. Capacitor Regulator
We designed a low-power EEG acquisition circuit with 62.6 µA RF 900 MHz MSP430
current consumption. For validation, EEG signals were shown by Electrode -
Harvester ADC Filters
distinct appearance of 8–12 Hz oscillations (alpha waves) when Reader and
amplifiers Electrode +
wearer’s eyes are closed. EEGWISP can record EEG signals at
63 Hz sampling rate, at the distances up to 0.80 m and with 0.1 matching Demodulator Modulator
% data loss. With slight modifications, our system can be used
for other biopotential signals such as ECG.

I. I NTRODUCTION Fig. 1: EEGWISP system diagram.

There is a need for a wireless and wearable device to

allow long-term ambulatory monitoring of electroencephalo- Figure 1 is a block diagram of the EEGWISP, which we
gram (EEGs), where brain’s electrical activity is measured build by adding a custom low-power EEG acquisition circuit
with electrodes placed on the skull [1]. Continuously worn, to the Wireless Identification and Sensing Platform (WISP),
EEG based, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) could be used by detailed in [7]. The EEGWISP transmits EEG data in a 12-
paralyzed patients to control an external device with visually byte EPC (Electronic Product Code). We address the problems
evoked potentials, which are EEG oscillations, with the same of RF interference and low EEG data integrity by duty cycling
frequency as a flashing visual stimulus [2]. EEG based BCI the reader.
could be used for mental-work load detection to alert distracted
or drowsy car drivers [3]. Furthermore, there is a clinical need Although we are not aware of any previous work on
for continuos EEG monitoring to alert the patient and health- EEG systems that use RFID for power and communications,
care providers during the onset of an epileptic seizure [4]. similar spaces have been explored, especially for implantable
There are a number of wireless EEG devices that are pow- applications. For example, neuralWISP uses RFID with WISP
ered by a battery. There typically use proprietary or standard platform for energy harvesting and communications to in-
wireless protocol to transmit data to a base station [5]. Such vasively record neuronal spike counts inside a brain [8]. A
systems are bulky and can achieve a battery life of only one or similar lightweight RF-powered system that uses backscatter
two days because of a relatively high data rate required by the was developed to collect neuronal activity in flying insects [9].
EEG. For example, one state-of-the-art wireless EEG system, Alternatively, other battery-free energy sources have been
with comparatively low power consumption, uses a custom explored, such as a EEG system that uses thermoelectric
EEG analog acquisition chip with power consumption of 200 energy from body heat [10].
µW, but has the total power consumption of 4.3 mA, providing This paper is structured as follows. Section II and III are
only 30 hour battery life for continuos monitoring [6]. Wireless about the EEGWISP’s design, with Section II specifically dis-
communications consume most of this energy, suggesting that cussing the EEG acquisition circuit and Section III discussing
it that it is not possible to make a small system with a long how we interfaced the EEG acquisition circuit with RFID.
battery life, even by using a 200 µW EEG acquisition chip. Section IV presents a validation study and studies how the
This paper proposes a novel battery-free EEG system called distance from the reader’s antenna affects the EEGWISP’s
EEGWISP, that uses a commercial ultra-high frequency (UHF) operation. Section V provides a conclusion and discusses
radio frequency identification (RFID) for energy harvesting possible applications. Section VI discusses future work.
0.1 µF
To electrode - 3
5 kΩ 53.6 kΩ
1 µF
1 2
5 kΩ IA +
+ OA - To ADC
1 MΩ - 5.36 kΩ OA
10 kΩ + Vdd
To electrode + Vdd/2
100 kΩ
5 1 MΩ 2 kΩ Trimmer
OA Trimmer
- 1 MΩ + 1 MΩ
OA - 1 MΩ
1000 pF 4
10 kΩ
OA - 100 kΩ Electrode
- OA

1000 pF

Fig. 2: Full schematic of the EEG acquisition circuit. Highlighted parts are: 1) High-pass filter 2) Gain stage 3) Low-pass filter
with offset 4) Driven Right Leg (DRL) 5) Reference voltage that is half of the supply voltage (1.8 V).

II. EEG ACQUISITION C IRCUIT to attenuate power-line noise. Furthermore, human skin has
A. Design Requirements high impedance on the order of tens of kΩ, so the IA requires
much higher input impedance to avoid attenuation of the
Because EEG signals are typically 1 to 100 µV in am- EEG signal. The IA must also have low 1/f noise, since 1/f
plitude, sufficient voltage gain is 1000–10,000 V/V (60 - noise is inversely proportional to the frequency; 1/f noise is
80 dB) [11]. EEG frequencies can go up to 150 Hz, but most severe at the low EEG frequencies. We used a Texas
because of the WISP’s limited RAM size, we target the 1 Instruments INA333 IA in our design. Although it is not
to 30 Hz range, which is sufficient for many BCI and medical the lowest power IA on the market, with 50 µA quiescent
applications. For example the alpha waves, used for validation current [12], the amplifier offers better CMRR and 1/f noise
in this paper are in the 8 to 12 Hz range, and visually evoked characteristics than lower-power IAs with 40 µA quiescent
potentials based BCI demonstrated in [2] uses 6 to 14 Hz current such as the Analog Devices AD8236 [13] and the
frequency range. Additionally, the EEG analog acquisition Texas Instruments INA322 [14]. We set the gain of the IA
circuit should be sufficiently low power to run from the to 11 V/V (21 dB).
harvested RF energy. Table I summarizes the EEG acquisition
circuit’s specifications. C. EEG Filters, Gain, References and DRL
We used the Texas Instruments MCP6044 for all operational
TABLE I: Specifications of the EEG acquisition circuit
amplifiers (op-amps) because the MCP6044 has quiescent
IA CMRR 110 dB [12] current of 0.6 µA [15], one of the lowest on the market.
IA Input impedance 100 GΩ [12] The amplifier has a suitable gain–bandwidth product of 14
Supply voltage 1.8 V kHz, which allows gains up to 470 V/V (53.4 dB) at 30 Hz
Average current 62.6 µA bandwidth.
IA noise (0.1 to 10 Hz RTI) 1 µVpk−pk [12] Some individual parts of the schematic in Figure 2 are
Gain range 1000 - 10,000 V/V (60 - 80 dB) numbered and are described in detail below.
Low-pass corner 30 Hz 1) A passive RC high-pass filter with cut-off frequency of
High-pass corner 0.16 Hz 0.16 Hz eliminates the DC offset associated with the
electrodes, which could otherwise saturate the circuit.
2) A gain stage allows fine tuning of the gain with a
B. Instrumentation Amplifier trimmer from 1 to 470 V/V (0 to 53.3 dB), which allows
The instrumentation amplifier (IA) is directly connected to matching the amplitude of the amplified EEG signal to
the differential electrodes. Because 50 or 60 Hz noise from the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) range.
the power lines can saturate the EEG signals, the IA needs 3) An antialiasing filter is a first order active filter with
more than 100 dB of common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) a fixed gain of 10 V/V (20dB). We chose a cut-off
frequency of 30 Hz to satisfy the Nyquist Theorem, modulation of the WISP’s antenna impedance. We used an
because it is half of the analog-to-digital converter’s Impinj Speedway RFID reader to interface with the EEGWISP,
sampling frequency. We used an adjustable trimmer with the reader’s transmit power set to +30 dBm and a 6-dBi
connected to the non-inverting op-amp input to eliminate circularly polarized patch antenna attached.
the offset voltage.
4) We used a driven right leg circuit (DRL) as an active B. Duty Cycling of RFID Reader
ground for the electrodes. The DRL has its name because As Figure 3a shows, when the reader is on, the EEG signals
historically it was attached to the right leg in electrocar- become corrupted because of strong RF interference, so we
diography (ECG). In this system, as is typically done duty cycled the reader and collected EEG signals only when
with the EEG, the DRL is attached to the earlobe. The the reader was off. We designed the following scheme: the
DRL actively rejects power line noise by implementing reader stayed on for 10 seconds to charge the EEGWISP’s
a feedback loop that samples the common-mode voltage storage capacitor and allow the EEGWISP to backscatter the
and injects the current into the ground electrode. buffered EEG data; then the reader remained off for 3.5
5) We generated a reference voltage (Vdd /2) with a 1 MΩ seconds for the EEGWISP to collect EEG data and buffer
voltage divider (the high resistance reduces leakage it to RAM memory. The duty cycling is best illustrated by the
current). To avoid loading, the voltage dividers were EEGWISP’s storage capacitor voltage, shown in Figure 3b.
followed by an op-amp buffer. The 3.5 seconds of off time consists of 0.8 seconds to allow
the EEG acquisition circuit to settle and 2.7 seconds of data
collection. Because the microcontroller has 512 bytes of RAM,
it could buffer 175 EEG data points, which equates to 2.7
seconds of data at a 63 Hz sampling rate. During this 3.5
second interval, the EEGWISP is powered fully by its storage
We chose the 10-second interval experimentally, based on
the time required to charge the EEGWISP’s storage capacitor
at 0.8 m distance from the reader. With the current setup, 0.8 m
is the farthest distance at which the reader provides enough RF
energy to charge the storage capacitor. At the typical data rate
of 0.65 kbps, the EEGWISP needs 4.3 seconds to transmit the
array of buffered EEG data. Note that the data rate including
the overhead is 7.8 kbps.
We used the following formula to calculate the duty cycle
of the EEGWISP:

Tsample 2.7sec
= = 20%
Tsample + Ton + Tsettle 2.7sec + 10sec + 0.8sec
Fig. 3: Oscilloscope reading, illustrating duty cycling of the (1)
reader: a) The output of the EEG acquistion circuit with a test where Tsample is the interval (in seconds) at which EEG
sine wave. Enlarged plot shows corruption of the test signal, data is collected, Ton is the time for which the reader is on,
due to RF interference from the reader b) The EEGWISP’s and Tsettle is the settling time of the EEG acquisition circuit.
storage capacitor voltage changes as the reader is duty cycled. The EEGWISP uses a watchdog timer to fire interrupts
that trigger ADC sampling. The timer is accurate because it
runs from an external crystal oscillator. The EEGWISP uses a
III. I NTERFACING THE EEG ACQUISITION C IRCUIT AND counter to determine when it needs to sample and store EEG
RFID data. Watchdog timer interrupts always increment the counter,
A. Wireless Identification and Sensing Platform (WISP) but RF activity resets the counter to zero. ADC sampling
The EEGWISP is based on the WISP [7], a programmable occurs only when the counter reaches 50, indicating that there
platform based on the Texas Instruments MSP430 microcon- has been no RF activity for 50 interrupts (0.8 seconds).
troller. The WISP uses UHF RFID for communications and
power harvesting, and it uses the standard EPC Gen2 protocol C. Storage Capacitor Sizing
operating in the 902–928 MHz industrial-scientific-medical The EEGWISP needs power from a storage capacitor for
(ISM) band. The WISP responds to a query from the reader 3.5 seconds with 240 µA average current. We determined this
with a 12-byte electronic product code (EPC), in which our value by averaging the current when the reader was off during
system places the EEG data. WISP-to-reader communications 5 minutes of EEGWISP’s normal operation. We measured the
are digital backscatter via Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) current with an Agilent U1233A multimeter.
(a) Top of the EEG acquisition (b) Possible usage scenario. EEGWISP is in
board with a U.S. Quarter. a white plastic box. Black wires attach to
the DRL and two electrodes, placed under
the white headband.

(c) Bottom of the EEG acquisi- (d) EEG acquisition board mounted on the WISP with a U.S.
tion board. Two orange rectangles Quarter placed for comparison.
are the storage capacitors.

Fig. 4: Components of the EEGWISP

Assuming that the WISP’s power harvester charges the D. Using EPC for Data Transmission
capacitor to Vc (0) = 5.6 V, and the capacitor is discharged
to the microcontroller’s minimal operating voltage Vc (t) = 1.8 Since EEGWISP operates in a constrained and uncertain
V, we calculated the minimum capacitor size as follows: energy environment, sometimes it cannot collect enough RF
energy for a burst to backscatter an EPC. If the EPC protocol
is used to transmit the EEG data to the reader without
I ×t 240µA × 3.5sec
C= = = 216µF (2) modification, about 10% of the data is lost, the data points
Vc (0) − Vc (t) 5.6V − 1.8V are often duplicated and received out of order. Tagging each
In practice, higher capacitance is necessary to compensate EPC with a unique counter identifier allows missing EPCs to
for capacitor leakage, and to avoid fully discharging the be easily identified; we calculated data loss by dividing the
capacitor, which will erase the contents of the WISP’s RAM. number of missing counters by the number of counters that
We used two low-ESR tantalum 6.5 V capacitors in parallel was sent in each transmission cycle.
to achieve 320 µF. Taking advantage of the low energy cost of backscatter com-
munications, EEGWISP transmits redundant data to reduce the
EPC data loss from 10% to 0.1%. As Figure 5 shows, each standard
Sensor 12-byte EPC contains three 2-byte data samples: the present
Type Data (n) Data (n-1) Data (n-2) Counter Device ID
sample (n), the previous sample (n−1), and the sample before
0x0F 664 564 467 0x01 0x410002
that (n − 2). In all, each data point is transmitted three times,
0x0F 706 664 564 0x02 0x410002
and the chance of losing a data point is spread over three
independent EPCs. In addition, each EPC contains a unique
0x0F 609 706 664 0x03 0x410002 counter-based identifier, which the receiving PC uses to put
data points in their original order, to eliminate redundant data,
Fig. 5: Example contents of three consecutive 12-byte EPCs. and to estimate data loss. We performed data reconstruction
Three redundant samples are highlighted in orange. Data is in MATLAB, but in the future the reader-side PC can perform
shown in decimal and other information is in hexademical. this work automatically.
Note that the counter always increase by 1 in consecutive The downside of the EEGWISP’s redundant RF communi-
EPCs. cation scheme is its high data overhead of 92%. A typical solu-
tion to reduce the overhead is to transmit an acknowledgment
for every EPC, and retransmit the EPC if an acknowledgment
is not received. We avoid this scheme because it would affect
the time the reader needs to stay on to receive the buffer,
thereby desynchronizing the reader and the EEGWISP.
E. Circuit Board and Enclosure
As shown in the Figure 4, we designed the 4-layer FR4 EEG
acquisition board to fit on the WISP as a daughterboard. We
placed the device in a 3D printed plastic case, and the inside
of the case is lined with a copper tape for RF shielding.
A. Range from the Reader
To validate the data integrity of the EEGWISP’s EEG
readings, we connected a signal generator with a 2 Hz sine
wave, instead of electrodes, through a voltage divider (1.8 Fig. 6: Setup used in the range experiments.
Vpk−pk to 90 µVpk−pk ) to simulate a known EEG signal.
We moved the reader’s antenna between 0.1 m and 1 m
from the EEGWISP in 0.1 m increments, and recorded five
minutes of data at each interval. The placement of the reader’s
antenna and the EEGWISP are shown in Figure 6. To make the
experimental conditions as realistic as possible, we conducted
our experiments in an office environment and used an antenna
as opposed to an attenuator.
As seen in Figure 7, we observed a 20% EEG duty cycle
for distances up to and including 0.5 m. At 0.6 m, 0.7 m and
0.8 m, the EEG duty cycle was reduced by half (10% duty
cycle); the EEGWISP had only enough energy to collect data
every other cycle. At 0.9 m and further, we were not able to
collect data because there was not enough harvested energy to Fig. 7: The duty cycle of the EEGWISP at certain distances
power the microcontroller for the 3.5 second interval. away from the RFID reader
The range of 0.8 m is not inherent, and could be increased
with an energy-management scheme. The reader could de-
cide when to turn on or off, based on the voltage of the We connected a volunteer to the EEGWISP with silver/silver-
storage capacitors, which the EEGWISP could report. The chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes in locations O2 and Fp2 accord-
microcontroller firmware could be further optimized for lower ing to the 10-20 International System of Electrode Placement,
power consumption by running the watchdog timer only during as shown in Figure 8a. We used Ten20 EEG paste from Weaver
sampling interval. and Company to decrease the skin–electrode impedance. As
The theoretical maximum range is dictated by the distance shown in Figure 4b, we used a headband to hold the electrodes
from the reader at which the storage capacitors can be charged; in place and connected the DRL electrode to an earlobe.
up to this point there is more incoming RF energy than Note that we did not place the EEGWISP directly on the
total leakage current. To find the maximum distance at which headband, as shown in Figure 4b; instead it was 0.10 m from
the storage capacitors could be fully charged, we moved the the volunteer and the EEGWISP was 0.3 m from the reader’s
EEGWISP away from the reader while the microcontroller antenna. We measured the electrode’s impedance to be 11 kΩ
was in a sleep mode. We found that RF harvesting could and set the gain to 6820 (77 dB). We collected data for 5
fully charge the storage capacitors in 32 seconds at 2.6 meters minutes with eyes closed and 5 minutes with eyes open, then
from the reader. We calculated the duty cycle to be 7.6%. performed data analysis in MATLAB.
In practice, the duty cycle at 2.6 meters would be lower, As shown in Figure 8b and 8c, with eyes closed there is a
because this calculation does not take into an account the notable increase in alpha waves, confirmed in both frequency
energy required to backscatter the EPC. and time domains for the 2.7 second interval. Because of duty
cycling 24 such intervals were collected for open and closed
B. Alpha Waves eyes during the 5 minutes of data collection. The average of
Alpha waves are 8-12 Hz oscillations in the occipital lobe, those intervals is shown in Figure 9, demonstrating the same
located at the back of the skull. There is a significant increase increase in alpha waves, when eyes are closed, as a single 2.7
in the amplitude of alpha waves when the eyes are closed. second interval. These results indicate that the EEGWISP is
(a) Locations of the electrodes, as (b) Raw data (c) Frequency content of the raw data in (b)
seen from the top of the head.

Fig. 8: Comparison of two 2.7 sec data intervals with eyes open and closed, collected by the EEGWISP.

able to measure EEG signals, and that the 2.7 second time
window is appropriate for analysis of the alpha waves.

In this paper we demonstrated that a UHF RFID platform
can be used to collect EEG signals. To our knowledge we are
the first to demonstrate this property. We overcame the main
design challenges of making a low power EEG acquisition
board, avoiding RF interference and achieving high data
quality. Detailed system specifications appear in Table II.
The EEGWISP could be attractive for long-term biopoten-
tial monitoring such as in BCI or clinical applications, mainly
because it does not need a battery. It could be worn for an
extended time, miniaturized into a band-aid form factor, and Fig. 9: Average spectral density for 5 minutes of EEG data
deployed to users with minimal maintenance burden. By in- with eyes open and closed (24 total intervals of 2.7 second)
creasing the duty cycle, decreasing the gain, and adjusting the
filters, the EEGWISP could be used for electrocardiography TABLE II: EEGWISP Specifications.
(ECG or EKG), which measures electrical activity of the heart. Resolution 10 bit - 1.76 mV/bit
One disadvantage of the RFID based approach is that it Sampling frequency 63 Hz
requires an RFID infrastructure, but many places already have EEG bandwidth 0.16 - 30 Hz
this infrastructure for another purpose, such as the Computer No. of EEG channels 1
Science and Engineering building at the University of Wash- EEG duty cycle 20% ( ≤0.5 m); 10% (0.5 m - 0.8 m)
ington. The EEGWISP is not as robust as its battery-powered Theoretical max. range 2.6 m
counterparts because of the uncertain energy supply, so it is Protocol EPC Class 1 Gen2 RFID
most useful in situations where the subject is stationary, such Frequency UHF: 902 - 928 MHz
as confined to a bed or a driver’s seat. Battery life Unlimited, with RF energy
Data loss 0.1 %
VI. F UTURE W ORK Backscatter bit rate 0.65 kbit/sec (kbps)
User studies will be conducted to better understand the
reliability, comfort, and value of the EEGWISP. In this work
we used a standard dipole antenna that was already on the We plan to design system on chip (SoC) EEGWISP to
WISP and have not looked into antenna placement and design, significantly improve the performance, such as increase dis-
which will ultimately determine usability and comfort of the tance from the RFID reader, reduce the size, increase the
system. We will take a closer look at how an antenna can be communications rate, and reduce the noise from the reader
incorporated into clothing such as a hat or a headband. by using fully differential EEG front-end.
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