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GLOBALIZATION THEORIES

Globalization spread world wide practice, relation,


consciousness and organization of social life.

Can be analyze CULTURALLY, ECONOMICALLY,


POLITICALLY AND INSTITUTIONALLY.

Although homogeneity and heterogeneity give us


idea about the affects of globalization.

Homogeneity
refers to the increasing sameness in the world
as cultural inputs, economic factors, and political
orientation of societies expand to create common
practices, some economies, and similar forms of
government.

Antonio, (2007) In terms of the economy, there


is recognition of the spread of Neoliberalism,
Capitalism, and the market economy in the world.
Global economic crises are also products of
homogeneity in economic globalization.

Stiglitz, (2002) For instance, blamed the


International Monetary Fund (IMT) for its
“one-size-fits all” approach which treats every
country in the world as the same.

The political realm also suffers homogenization if


one takes into account the emerging similar
models
of governance in the world.

Barber (1995) said that “McWorld” is existing.


It means, Only one political orientation in today’s
societies.
The global flow of media is often characterized as
media imperialism.
Media imperialism undermines the existence of
alternative global media originating from
developing countries, such as the Al Jazeera (Bielsa,
2008) and the Bollywood (Larkin, 2003), as well as
the influence of the local and regional media.
Cultural imperialism denies agency of viewers, but
people around the world often interpret the same
medium (e.g., a movie) in significantly different
ways.
According to Ritzer (2008) claim that , in general
the contemporary world is undergoing the
process Mcdonalization.
Mcdonalization resounding success outside US,
indicator of globalization.

Mcdonalization involves the global spread of


rational systems such as Efficiency, Calculability,
Predictability and Control.

Efficiency- Best possible to achieve what ever end


is desired.
-Ensure customer and employee act in
efficient manner.
Calculability- Quantity (speed opposed to quality,
quality of cooking) various aspects of work are
time.
Predictability- Emphasizes on predictability
-Employees (scripted speech) and
customers know what they want expected to
respond with predictable behavior.

According to Ritzer (2004) Globalization of


nothing :
4 SUBTYPES OF NOTHING
Non-Place- Largely empty of content(shopping
mall)
Non-things- Works exactly the same way
worldwide (credit card)
Non-People- How they work, same everywhere
(Tele-marketers)
Non-Service- Provided are identical (ATM).

Heterogeneity
refers to the differences because of either
lasting differences or of the hybrids or
combinations of culture’s that can be produced
through different trans planetary processes.

Roland Robertson in (1992) a more specific


concepts is “GLOCALIZATION” as global forces
interact with local factors or a specific geographic
area, the “Glocal” is being produced.

Barber (1995) also provided the alternate of


“McWorld”- the “Jihad”.

Ritzer (2008) mentioned, it refers to the political


groups that are engaged in an “Intensification of
nationalism and that leads to greater political
heterogeneity throughout the world”.

Dynamic of Local and Global Culture


There are three perspectives on global cultural
flows. These are Differentialism, Hybridization and
Convergence.
Cultural Differentiation- Emphasize the fact that
cultures are essentially different and are only
superficially affected by global flows.
The interaction of cultures is deemed to contain
the potential for “Catasthropic collision.”
Samuel Huntington’s theory on the clash of the
civilizations proposed in 1996 best exemplifies this
approach.
Huntington, (1996) This theory has been critiqued
for a number of reasons, especially on its portrayal
of Muslims as being “prone to violence”.
Increasing multiculturalism of both hispanic and
western Europe Muslim
Samuel Huntington’s clash of civilization and
remake of world order (1996).
Huntington differentiated a number of world
civilization to:
Sinic (Chinese)
Hindu
Western Europe
Orthodox (centered in Russia)
Islam
North America (Aussie, NZ close align to US)
Africa
Cultural Convergence approach stresses
homogeneity introduced by Globalization.

The important critique of cultural imperialism is


John Tomlinson’s idea of “deterritorialization” of
culture.

Deterritorialization - means that is much more


difficult to lie culture to a specific geographic point
of origin.
Cultural Hybridization- Approach emphasizes the
integration of local and global cultures.

Glulianotti and Robertson, 2007


A key concept is “glocalization” or the
interpenetration of the global and local resulting in
unique outcomes in different geographic areas

Also related and another key concept to Arjun


Appadurai’s “Scapes “ in 1996, where global flows
involve people , technology, finance, political, and
media and the disjuncture's between them, which
lead to the creation of cultural hybrids.

Scapes operate independently of one another and


conflicting with other scapes.

Ethroscapes- involve mobile groups and individuals


who play an important role.
- Involves actual movement and the
fantasies about moving.
B. Technoscapes – information technology move
fluidly around across the globe.

C. Financescapes- process of movement of money,


currently, stock exchange moving at great speed.

D. Mediascapes- electronic capabilities to produce


and transmit information around the globe and
the images of the world that these media create
and disseminate. Involved here are bloggers,
filmmakers and distributers, newspaper and
magazines.
E. Ideoscapes- like mediascapes are set of images-
restricted to political images produced by states
inline with their ideology or counter ideologies.

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