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1. A cereal manufacturer has a machine that fills the boxes. Boxes are labeled “16 ounces,” so the company wants to have that much cereal in

each box, but since no packaging process is perfect, there will be minor variations. If the machine is set at exactly 16 ounces and the Normal

model applies (or at least the distribution is roughly symmetric), then about half of the boxes will be underweight, making consumers unhappy

and exposing the company to bad publicity and possible lawsuits. To prevent underweight boxes, the manufacturer has to set the mean a little

higher than 16.0 ounces.

Based on their experience with the packaging machine, the company believes that the amount of cereal in the boxes fits a Normal model with a

standard deviation of 0.2 ounces. The manufacturer decides to set the machine to put an average of 16.3 ounces in each box.

b) The company’s lawyers say that this amount (in part a) is too high. They insist that no more than 4% of the boxes can be underweight. So

the company needs to set the machine to put a little more cereal in each box. What mean setting do they need?

c) The company president vetoes that plan, saying the company should give away less free cereal, not more. Her goal is to set the machine no

higher than 16.2 ounces and still have only 4% underweight boxes. The only way to accomplish this is to reduce the standard deviation. What

standard deviation must the company achieve, and what does that mean about the machine?

2. A study of elite distance runners found a mean body weight of 63.1 kilograms (KG), with a standard deviation of 4.8 kg. Assume this

distribution is normal.

a) How many standard deviations away from the mean is a runner who weighs 58.3 kg?

b) What percent of runners weigh less than 1.9 standard deviations below the mean?

P(x < 58.3) = normalcdf(-∞, 58.3, 63.1, 4.8) = .1587 so about 16th percentile

3. Suppose that two graduating college seniors, one is a marketing major and the other an accounting major, are comparing job offers. The

accounting major has an offer for $26,500 per year and the marketing student has one for $23,000 per year. Accounting majors have m =

26,000 and s = 1500 for starting salaries while marketing majors have m = 22,500 and s = 1000. How could we properly compare the two

salaries to determine who received the better offer? Explain method and show work.

Compare them by changing their salaries to z-scores, so we can see how far their values are from the

mean.

0.5

The marketing student has a better offer because his/her salary is .5 standard deviations above the

mean compared to only .33 standard deviations above the mean for the accounting student.

4. Men’s shirt sizes are determined by their neck sizes. Suppose that men’s neck sizes are approximately normally distributed with mean 15.7

inches and standard deviation 0.7 inch. A retailer sells men’s shirts in sizes S, M, L, and XL, where the shirt sizes are defined the in table

below.

Shirt Size Neck size

(a) Because the retailer only stocks the sizes listed above, what proportion of

customers will find that the retailer does not carry any shirts in their sizes? S 14 ≤ neck size < 15

= normalcdf(-∞, 14, 15.7, .7) + normalcdf(18, ∞,15.7, .7) L 16 ≤ neck size < 17

= .00805

XL 17 ≤ neck size < 18

OR 1 – P(14 < x < 18) = .00805

(b) What is the probability that the next customer will want a medium shirt size?

(c) Of 5 randomly selected customers, what is the probability that at least 1 will request size M?

= 1 – (.4928)5

= .9709

(d) Of 4 randomly selected customers, what is the probability that at least 1 will request size S?

= 1 – (.8489)4

= .4806

5. The physical fitness of a patient is often measured by the patient’s maximum oxygen uptake (recorded in milliliters per kilogram). The mean

maximum oxygen uptake for cardiac patients who regularly participate in sports programs was found to be 24.1 ml/kg with a standard

deviation of 6.30 ml/kg. The normal probability plot of the data is linear with no gaps.

(a) What is the probability that a cardiac patient who regularly participates in sports has a maximum oxygen uptake of at least 20 ml/kg?

P(x > 120) = normalcdf(120, ∞, 24.1, 6.3) = .742

(b) If 3 cardiac patients are randomly selected, what is the probability that at least 1 will have a maximum oxygen uptake of at least 20 ml/kg?

P(at least 1 with at least 20) = 1- P(none with at least 20)

= 1 – (.2576)3

= .9829

(c) If 4 cardiac patients are randomly selected, what is the probability that at least 1 will have a maximum oxygen uptake of less then 20

ml/kg?

P(at least 1 with < 20) = 1- P(none with < 20)

= 1 – (.7424)4

= .6962

(d) Find P(z < 1.8)

(e) How many standard deviations away from the mean is a cardiac patient who has a maximum oxygen uptake of 26 ml/kg?

x - m 26 - 24.1

z= = = .3016 .3016 standard deviations above the mean

s 6.3

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