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# Revised Courses for M.

Sc Physics
Existing Courses Revised Courses
Methods of Methods of
PHY-701 Mathematical 3 (3 – 0) PHY-551 Mathematical 3 (3 – 0)
Physics-I Physics-I

Vector, gradient, divergence, curl, Laplace, Vector operations, Physical significance of DEL
divergence theorem, Green’s theorem, Stokes’s operator, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Green’s
theorem, curvilinear coordinates, orthogonal theorem, Stokes’s theorem, Orthogonal
curvilinear coordinates, gradient in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates system, Gradient,
curvilinear coordinates, divergence and curl in Divergence, Curl and Laplacian in orthogonal
orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, Laplacian, curvilinear coordinates, Spherical polar and
spherical polar coordinates. Complex numbers, Cylindrical coordinates systems. Complex
Euler’s formula, De Moivre’s theorem, numbers, Euler’s formula, De Moivre’s theorem,
elementary functions, analytic functions of elementary functions, analytic functions of
complex variables, Cauchy-Riemann equation, complex variables, Cauchy-Riemann equation,
harmonic functions, complex integration, harmonic functions, complex integration,
Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula,
Taylor and Laurent series, Contour integrals, Taylor and Laurent series, Contour integrals,
singularities and residues, residue theorem, poles singularities and residues, residue theorem,
on the real axis, branch points and integrals of branch points and integrals of multivalued
multivalued functions. Tensors, coordinate functions. Tensors Analysis and applications.
transformation, rank of a tensor, covariant and
contravariant tensors, Tensor algebra, metric
tensor, Christoffel symbols, equation of geodesic,
Reimann tensor. Recommended Books:

## Recommended Books: 1. Dass H.K, R. Verma, 2011, 6th Edition,

Mathematical Physics, S. Chand &
1. “Advanced Engineering Mathematics” by Company Ltd. New Delhi.
E. Kreyszig, Wiley, New York, 1999. 2. Kreyszig E. 2011, 10th Edition,
2. “Mathematical Methods for Physicists” Advanced Engineering Mathematics.
by G. B. Arfken and H. J. Weber, A. Wiley, New York.
Press, New York, 1995. 3. Riley K F, M P Hobson and S J Bence.
3. “Mathematical Methods for Physics and 2006, 3rd Edition, Mathematical Methods
Engineering” by K. F. Riley, M. P. for Physics and Engineering, Cambridge
Hobson and S. J. Bence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
University Press, Cambridge, 1997. 4. Arfken G.B and H.J Weber, F.E Harris,
4. “Complex variable” by Murray R 2012, 7th Edition, Mathematical Methods
Spiegel, Schaum’s outlines series, for Physicists, A. Press, New York.
McGraw Hill 1974. 5. Spiegel M.R 2009, 1st Edition Advanced
Mathematics for Engineers and
Scientists, Schaum’s outlines series,
McGraw Hill.
6. Collins R.E, 2011, 2nd Edition,
Mathematical Methods for Physicists and
Engineers, Dover Publications.
7. Tang K.T, 2010, 2nd Edition,
Mathematical Methods for Engineers and
Scientists 2, Springer.

1
Classical Classical
PHY-702 3 (3 – 0) PHY-553 3 (3 – 0)
Mechanics Mechanics

## Historical development of classical mechanics,

Newtonian mechanics of single particle & system
of particles, constraints, generalized coordinates,
D’Alembert’s Principle , Derivation of
Lagrange’s equations, simple applications of the
lagrangian formulation, Hamilton’s Principle,
Historical development of classical mechanics, Techniques of the calculus of variation,
Newtonian mechanics of single particle & system
Derivation of Lagrange’s equation from
of particles, constraints, generalized coordinates,
D’Alembert’s Principle, Derivation of Lagrange’s Hamilton’s principle, Applications of Hamilton’s
equations, simple applications of the lagrangian principle, shortest distance between two points in
formulation, Hamilton’s Principle, Techniques of a plane and space, minimum surface of
the calculus of variation, conservation theorem & revolution, the Brachistochrone problem,
symmetry properties, Two body central force conservation theorem , Two body central force
problem & its reduction to the equivalent one problem & its reduction to the equivalent one
body problem, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion,
body problem, Kepler’s law as an inverse square
planetary orbits & their equations, perturbations
of orbit, Legendre transformations, Hamilton’s law problem, Differential equation for the orbits
equation of motion, Hamiltonian, cyclic and the different shapes of the orbit, planetary
coordinates, Routh’s Procedure, The equations & orbits & their equations, Legendre
examples of canonical transformations, transformations and its applications, Derivation
Lagrange’s bracket & their properties, Poisson’s of Hamilton’s equation of motion, Hamiltonian,
brackets & their properties, Poisson’s brackets & cyclic coordinates, Routh’s Procedure, The
other canonical invariants.
equations & examples of canonical
Recommended Books: transformations, Poisson’s brackets & their
properties, Poisson’s brackets & other canonical
1. “Classical Mechanics”, by H. Goldstein, invariants, Poisson’s theorem, invariance of
Addison-Wesley, reading, 1950
2. “Mechanics”, by L.D. Landau and E.M. Poisson’s bracket under canonical
Lifshitz, Pergamon, Oxford. 1960. transformation.
3. “Classical Mechanics”, by J.W. Leech
Methuen and Co. Ltd., London, 1958. Recommended Books:
4. “Classical Mechanics”, by V.D. Barger
and M.G. Olsson, McGraw-Hill, New 1. Goldstein H, P Charle and J L Safko.
York, 1995. 2001, Classical Mechanics. Addison-
5. “Classical Mechanics”, by L. Chow. Wesley.
6. “Analytical Mechanics”, by L. N. Hand 2. Hand L N and J.D Finch. 1998,
and J.D Finch, Cambridge University Analytical Mechanics. Cambridge
Press, Cambridge, 1998. University Press, Cambridge.
3. Barger V D and M G Olsson. 1995,
Classical Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New
York.
4. Landau L D and E M Lifshitz.
Mechanics. 1960, Pergamon, Oxford.
5. Classical Mechanics by J.W. Leech
Methuen and Co. Ltd., London, 1958.
Classical
PHY-703 3 (3 – 0) PHY-555 Electrodynamics-I 3 (3 – 0)
Electrodynamics-I

2
Electric dipole, Electric field and electric
potential at a point due to dipole, mutual
interaction energy of two dipoles, Force and
Couple on the dipole placed in an external
electric field, Dielectrics: Polarization and
polarization density vector, surface and volume
The Electrostatic field in di-electric media, charge densities due to polarization, electric field
polarization, field outside di-electric media, inside the dielectric, electric susceptibility and
boundary conditions on field vectors, boundary dielectric constant, Poisson and Laplace
value problems involving di-electrics, di-electric equations both for dielectric and space, Solution
sphere in uniform electric field, microscopic to Laplace equation in Cartesian, spherical and
theory of dielectrics. Equation of Poisson and cylindrical coordinates, Uncharged conducting
Laplace, applications of Laplace’s equation to
and dielectric sphere in uniform electric field,
problems (Conductors and dielectrics) having
spherical cylindrical and Cartesian symmetry, Electrostatic Images, Point charge near an
electrical images (conductors and dielectrics). infinite grounded conducting plane, Electric
Electric Current: Nature of the current, current potential, electric field intensity and surface
density and equation of continuity, Ohm’s law, charge density in case of point charge and
steady current in media without sources of e.m.f., conducting sphere.Electric current: nature of
approach to electrostatic equilibrium. The electric current, current density, equation of
magnetic field of static current, Magnetic
Induction, force on current carrying conductors, continuity, Ohm’s law, steady current in media
Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s circuital law, the without source of e. m. f., Approach to
magnetic vector and scalar potentials, the electrostatic equilibrium, Magnetic properties of
magnetic field of a distant circuit. Magnetic steady current: Current carrying element, Force
properties of Matter: Magnetization, vector M on current carrying conductor, Biot-savart law
and H produced by magnetized materials field and their applications, Ampere’s circuital law
equation, boundary conditions on the field
and their applications, Magnetic vector and scalar
vectors.
potential, Magnetic field of a distant circuit,
Recommended Books: Magnetic properties of matter: Magnetization
vectors M, Magnetic current densities due to
1. “Classical Electrodynamics”, by Jackson,
surface and volume currents and vector potential,
Wiley, 1975
2. “Electricity and Magnetism”, by W.J. Magnetic field due to the magnetized material,
Duffin, McGraw-Hill, 1990 Magnetic scalar potential and pole density,
3. “Electromagnetism”, by I.S Grant and Magnetic intensity vector H, Relation between H
W.R Phillips Wiley, 1990 and M, Field equation, Magnetic susceptibility
4. “Introduction to Electrodynamics”, by and permeability, Boundary conditions on the
D.Griffiths Prentice Hall, 1989. field vectors.

Recommended Books:

## 1. Griffiths D.J. 1999, Introduction to

Electrodynamics, 3rd Edition
2. John R. Reitz, 1992, Foundations of
Electromagnetic Theory, 4th Edition
PHY-704 Electronics-I 3 (3 – 0) PHY-557 Electronics-I 3 (3 – 0)

Liner network analysis; superposition, Thevenin, Liner network analysis; superposition, Thevenin,
Norton and Mill man’s theorems, Electronics: the Norton and Mill man’s theorems, Electronics: the
p-n junction, Bias the p-n junction diode, diode, p-n junction, Bias the p-n junction diode, diode,

3
characteristics of diode, different models and characteristics of diode, different models and
types of diodes, half-wave and full-wave rectifier, types of diodes, half-wave and full-wave
full-wave bridge rectifier, capacitor, inductive, rectifier, full-wave bridge rectifier, capacitor,
and πR filters, Zener voltage regulators, regulated inductive, and πR filters, Clipping and clamping
power supply, Clipping and clamping circuits, circuits, Zener voltage regulators, regulated
varactor diodes. Bipolar junction transistor (BJT), power supply, varactor diodes, Optical diodes,
transistor characteristics, biasing circuits such as Light emitting Diodes. Bipolar junction transistor
base bias, emitter bias, voltage-divider bias, (BJT), transistor characteristics, biasing circuits
feedback bias circuits, amplifier classifications, such as base bias, emitter bias, voltage-divider
common emitter amplifier, the emitter followers, bias, feedback bias circuits, amplifier
the common base amplifier. RC-coupled classifications, common emitter amplifier, the
amplifiers, Power amplifiers, (class A, class B emitter followers, the common base amplifier.
amplifiers), introduction to Junction field-effect RC-coupled amplifiers, Power amplifiers, (class
transistors (JFET), JFET biasing circuits, the A, class B amplifiers, class C amplifier),
common source follower, introduction to introduction to Junction field-effect transistors
MOSFET. (JFET), JFET biasing circuits, the common
source follower, introduction to MOSFET.
Recommended Books:
Recommended Books:
1. “Basic Electronics”, by B. Grob, 8th
Edition 1. Floyd, T. L. 2010. Electronic Devices
2. “Electronic Devices”, by Thomas L. 9TH Ed. Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc.,
Floyd. 5th Edition Englewood Cliffs (USA).
3. “Electronic Principles”, by Albert P. 2. Nashelsky, L. & Robert, L. B. 2009.
Malvino, 5th Edition Glencoe-MeGraw- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
Hill Book Co., 10TH Ed. Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc.,
4. “Electronic Devices and Circuit theory”, Englewood Cliffs (USA).
by Robert Boylestad and Louis Nashlsky 3. Malvino, A. P. 2008. Electronic
6th Edition., Prentice-hall International, Principles. 7TH Ed. Glencoe-McGraw-
Inc, (USA): 1996. Hill Book Co.
5. “Electronic Devices and Circuits”, by 4. Grob, B. 2003. Basic Electronics 9TH
Theodre F. Bogart, Jr. 4th edition, Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Prentice-Hall, upper saddle River, NJ
(USA) 1997.
Relativity and Relativity and
PHY-705 3 (3 – 0) PHY-559 3 (3 – 0)
Cosmology Cosmology

## Special Relativity, Galilean relativity, Einstein’s

Special Relativity, Galilean relativity, Einstein’s
postulates of special relativity. Consequences of
postulates of special relativity. Michelson-Morley
special relativity. Michelson-Morley experiment,
experiment. Lorentz transformations, structure of
Lorentz transformations, consequences of
space time, Minkowski space time tensors, the
Lorentz transformations (the relativity of length,
light cone, and four vectors. Relativistic
the relativity of time, concept of simultaneity)
Mechanics, Force equation in relativity, rest mass
Relativistic Mechanics, Transformation of
,KE and total energy, conservation of energy and
relativistic velocities, addition of relativistic
moment, Elements of Tensor Calculus: Manifolds
velocities, Relativity of mass, Force equation in
and coordinates, curves and surfaces, tensor
relativity, rest mass ,KE and total energy,
fields, geodesics, Riemann tensor, metric tensor,
conservation of energy and momentum,
General Relativity equation of geodesics
deviation, Einstein’s field equations. Cosmology the conversion of mass to kinetic energy in
cosmological redshift, Hubble’s law, microwave Uranium Fission, pair production and
background, the Big Bang, Theory, Historical annihilation, The Cerenkov Effect and Cerenkov
background of universe. radiation, Einstein’s mass-energy relationship
and its practical examples, particle of Zero rest
4
Recommended Books: mass, Relativistic Doppler Effect, Aberration of
Light, Tachyons, structure of space time,
1. “Dynamics and Relativity”, by W.D. Geometry of space time, Minkowski space time
McComb, Oxford University Press, 1999 tensors, the light cone, and four vectors (position
2. “Introduction to Cosmology”, by J.V. four vector, four velocity, four momentum, four
Narlikar, Cambridge University Press, force). General relativity, Gravity as a Geometry,
1989. The equivalence principle, clocks in a gravitation
3. “Introducing Einstein’s Relativity”, by field, space time is curved, geodesics, the
R.D’ Inverno, Oxford University Press, geodesic equation, equation of geodesic
1992. deviation, Einstein field equation Manifolds and
coordinates, curves and surfaces, tensor fields,
metric tensor. Cosmology cosmological redshift,
Hubble’s law, microwave background, the Big
Bang, Theory, Historical background of universe,
stars , neutron stars, pulsars , black holes,
quasars, singularity, measuring the distance to
stars, concept of open, closed and flat universe,
dark matter(MACHOs and WIMPs-)

Recommended Books:

## 1. James B. 2005, An Introdu ing to Einstein’s

General Relativity. Hartle Pearson Education
2. Beiser A. 2002. 6th E. Perspectives of
Modern Physics. McGraw-Hill.
3. Resnick, Halliday and Krane. 2002, Physics
Vol. I, 5th Ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc,
New York.
4. Inverno R.D. Introducing Einstein’s
Relativity.1992, Oxford University Press.
5. McComb W D. 1999, Dynamics and
Relativity. Oxford University Press.
6. Narlikar J V. 1989, Introduction to
Cosmology. Cambridge University Press.
Physics Lab
Lab Course-I
PHY-706 Course-I 3 (0 – 3) PHY-561 3 (0 – 3)
(Electromagnetism)
(Electromagnetism)

## 1. To determine the resistance of various 1. To determine the resistance of various

DC conductors by recording their current DC conductors by recording their current
/ voltage characteristics. / voltage characteristics.
2. To study the internal resistance and 2. To study the internal resistance and
matching in various voltage sources and matching in various voltage sources and
draw their power diagrams. draw their power diagrams.
3. To determine impedance and resonance 3. Establishment of relationship between
frequency of inductors in series and electrostatic force and charge,
parallel. electrostatic force and distance between
4. Establishment of relationship between charges and to determine the electric
electrostatic force and charge, constant using Coulomb’s Law / image
electrostatic force and distance between charge.
charges and to determine the electric 4. To study the ferromagnetic hysterisis of a
constant using Coulomb’s Law / image two ring-shaped iron cores by continuous
charge. adjustable direct current and to determine
5. To study the ferromagnetic hysterisis of a the remanence and coersive field
5
two ring-shaped iron cores by continuous strength.
adjustable direct current and to determine 5. Investigation of induced current and
the remanence and coersive field voltage in secondary coil of a
strength. transformer as a function of number of
6. Investigation of induced current and turns and current flowing in the primary
voltage in secondary coil of a transformer coil.
as a function of number of turns and 6. To determine the inductance and phase
current flowing in the primary coil. displacement of coil (single, parallel and
7. To determine the inductance and phase series formations) in AC circuit as a
displacement of coil (single, parallel and function of frequency of voltage source.
series formations) in AC circuit as a 7. To determine the capacitance and phase
function of frequency of voltage source. displacement of capacitor (single,
8. To determine the capacitance and phase parallel and series formations) in AC
displacement of capacitor (single, parallel circuit as a function of frequency of
and series formations) in AC circuit as a voltage source.
function of frequency of voltage source. 8. To determine the dielectric constants of
9. To determine frequency of AC supply different materials.
using a cathode ray oscilloscope. 9. To study the ripple of the output voltage
10. To determine the dielectric constants of of various rectifier circuits as a function
different materials. of the load current strength and the
11. To study the behavior of RLC series and charging capacitance.
parallel circuit and determination of its 10. To study the frequency response of
resonance frequency. (Optional: To simple RC filters by point-by-point
determine the dielectric constant using measurements and the sweep displayed
RLC series circuit.) on the oscilloscope.
12. To study the ripple of the output voltage 11. To investigate the filter characteristics as
of various rectifier circuits as a function a function of frequency of a coil, a
of the load current strength and the capacitor, an Ohmic resistance and
charging capacitance. combinations of these components and to
13. To study the frequency response of determine the phase displacement of the
simple RC filters by point-by-point filters as a function of frequency.
measurements and the sweep displayed 12. To study the behavior of RLC series and
on the oscilloscope. parallel circuit and determination of its
14. To investigate the filter characteristics as resonance frequency. (Optional: To
a function of frequency of a coil, a determine the dielectric constant using
capacitor, an Ohmic resistance and RLC series circuit.)
combinations of these components and to Recommended Books:-
determine the phase displacement of the 1. Kraftmakers, Y. 2007. Experiments and
filters as a function of frequency. demonstrations in Physics, World
Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd.
2. Griffiths D J., Introduction to
Electrodynamics, 3rd Edition
3. Isenberg, C. 1996. Physics Experiments
and Projects for students (Physics
experiments & Projects). Taylor and
Francis, USA.
Methods of Methods of
PHY-707 Mathematical 3 (3 – 0) PHY-552 Mathematical 3 (3 – 0)
Physics-II Physics-II

Special functions, Hermite Polynomial, Legendre Fourier Analysis, Fourier cosine and sine series,
and associate Legendre polynomial. Lagrange change of interval, Fourier integral, complex
polynomial, Bessel function, Neumann function, form of Fourier series, Fourier transform, Fourier

6
Modified and spherical Bessel function, Gamma transform of derivatives, Laplace transform,
function, error function. Fourier series, cosine and Inverse Laplace Transform, Convolution
sine series, change of interval, Fourier integral, theorem, Initial boundary value problem, Laplace
complex form of Fourier series, Fourier transform of derivatives. Physical significance
transform, Fourier transform of derivatives, along with examples of Fourier and Laplace
convolution theorem, Laplace transform, Laplace transforms. Special functions, Hermite, Laguerre,
transform of derivatives. Applications of Fourier Legendre and associate Legendre polynomial.
and Laplace transforms. Boundary value problem Bessel function, Neumann function, and
in physics, boundary value problems and series spherical Bessel function, Gamma function.
solution, the Sturn-Liouville problem, non- Nonhomogeneous equations- Green’s function,
homogeneous boundary value problem and Green’s function in terms of Eigen-function, the
green’s function, Green’s function for one- Sturm-Liouville problem, Green’s function for
dimensional problem eigen-function expansion of Dirac Delta functions,
Green’s function, Green’s function in higher
dimensions, Green’s function for Poisson’s
equation, quantum mechanical scattering
problem. Recommended Books:

## Recommended Books: 1. Dass H.K, R. Verma, 2011, 6th Edition,

Mathematical Physics, S. Chand &
1. “Advanced Engineering Mathematics” by Company Ltd. New Delhi.
E. Kreyszig, Wiley, New York, 1999. 2. Kreyszig E. 2011, 10th Edition,
2. “Mathematical Methods for Physicists” Advanced Engineering Mathematics.
by G. B. Arfken and H. J. Weber, A. Wiley, New York.
Press, New York, 1995. 3. Riley K F, M P Hobson and S J Bence.
3. “Mathematical Methods for Physics and 2006, 3rd Edition, Mathematical Methods
Engineering” by K. F. Riley, M. P. for Physics and Engineering, Cambridge
Hobson and S. J. Bence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
University Press, Cambridge, 1997. 4. Arfken G.B and H.J Weber, F.E Harris,
4. “Complex variable” by Murray R 2012, 7th Edition, Mathematical Methods
Spiegel, Schaum’s outlines series, for Physicists, A. Press, New York.
McGraw Hill 1974. 5. Spiegel M.R 2009, 1st Edition Advanced
Mathematics for Engineers and
Scientists, Schaum’s outlines series,
McGraw Hill.
6. Collins R.E, 2011, 2nd Edition,
Mathematical Methods for Physicists and
Engineers, Dover Publications.
7. Tang K.T, 2010, 2nd Edition,
Mathematical Methods for Engineers and
Scientists 2, Springer.
Quantum Quantum
PHY-708 3 (3 – 0) PHY-554 3 (3 – 0)
Mechanics-I Mechanics-I

Review of concepts of classical mechanics, The Review of concepts of classical mechanics, The
state of a system, Dynamical variables and state of a system, Dynamical variables and
operators, Linear vector space, orthogonal operators, Linear vector space, orthogonal
systems, linear transformations, matrices, change
systems, linear transformations, matrices, change
of basis, Hilbert space, Commuting and non
commuting operators, Heisenberg uncertainty of basis, Hilbert space, Commuting and non
relations, Functions and expectation values, Dirac commuting operators, Heisenberg uncertainty
notation, Hermitian operators, Time evolution of relations, Functions and expectation values,
a system, Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures, Dirac notation, Hermitian operators, Symmetry
Symmetry principles and conservation laws, principles and conservation laws, Orbital angular
7
Orbital angular momentum, Spin, The momentum, Spin, The eigenvalues and eigen
eigenvalues and eigen functions of L2 and Lx, functions of L2 and Lx, Matrix representation of
Matrix representation of angular momentum angular momentum operators, Addition of
operators, Addition of angular momenta.
angular momenta. Properties of one dimensional
Properties of one dimensional potential functions,
Solutions of Schrödinger equation for free potential functions, Solutions of Schrödinger
particles, the potential barrier problems, The equation for free particles, the potential barrier
linear harmonic oscillator, Particle in a box. problems, The linear harmonic oscillator, Particle
Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions, in a box. Schrödinger Equation in Three
Separation of Schrodinger equation in Cartesian Dimensions, Separation of Schrodinger equation
coordinates, Central potentials, The free particle, in Cartesian coordinates, Central potentials, The
Three dimensional square well potential, The
free particle, Three dimensional square well
hydrogen atom, Three dimensional isotopic
oscillator. potential, The hydrogen atom, Three dimensional
isotopic oscillator.
Recommended Books:
Recommended Books:
1. “Introductory quantum Mechanics”, by
R.L. Liboff, Addison Wesley Publishing 1. Zettli N. 2009 “Quantum Mechanics
Company, Reading Massachusetts, 1980. Concepts and applications” J Willy.
2. “Introductory Quantum mechanic”, by 2. Bransden B.H. & Joachain C.J. 1990
B.H. Bransden & C.J. Joachain, “Introductory Quantum mechanics”,
Longman Scientific & Technical London, Longman Scientific & Technical
1990. London.
3. “An Introduction Quantum Mechanics”, 3. Liboff, R.L. 1980. “Introductory
by W.Greiner, Addison Wesley quantum Mechanics”, by Addison
Publishing Company, Reading Wesley Publishing Company, Reading
Massachusetts, 1980. Massachusetts,
4. “Quantum Mechanics”, by N. Zettli 4. W.Greiner 1980 “An Introduction
Quantum Mechanics”, Addison Wesley
Publishing Company, Reading
Massachusetts.
Solid State Solid State
PHY-709 3 (3 – 0) PHY-556 3 (3 – 0)
Physics-I Physics-I

Crystal structure in 2D and 3D, fundamental Crystal structure in 2D and 3D, fundamental
types of lattices, index system for crystal planes, types of lattices, index system for crystal planes,
simple crystal structures, X-ray diffraction, simple crystal structures, X-ray diffraction,
Braggs law, reciprocal lattice, Diffraction of Braggs law, Ewald Construction, reciprocal
waves by crystals, scattered wave amplitude, lattice, Diffraction of waves by crystals, scattered
Brillouin zones, crystal binding and elastic
wave amplitude, Brillouin zones, crystal binding
constants, Classification of Solids, ionic crystals,
covalent crystals, Ionic Radii, II-VI and III-V and elastic constants, Classification of Solids,
compounds, Molecular crystals, metals, Cohesive ionic crystals, covalent crystals, Ionic Radii, II-
energy, The Lenard Jones Potential, Density, VI and III-V compounds, Molecular crystals,
Cohesive energy and Bulk Modulus of crystalline metals, Cohesive energy, The Lenard Jones
solids, The Madelung constant, Cohesion in Potential, Density, Cohesive energy and Bulk
Covalent crystals, elastic waves in cubic crystals.
Modulus of crystalline solids, The Madelung
Vibration of crystals with monatomic basis, two
atoms per primitive basis, quantization of elastic constant, Cohesion in Covalent crystals, elastic
waves, normal vibration modes and phonon, waves in cubic crystals. Brief Introduction to
phonon momentum, inelastic scattering by Defects in Solids, Color Center, Vibration of
phonons, Phonon heat capacity, lattice heat crystals with monatomic basis, two atoms per

8
capacity, Einstein and Debye models. primitive basis, quantization of elastic waves,
normal vibration modes and phonon, phonon
Recommended Books:
momentum, inelastic scattering by phonons,
1. “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, by Phonon heat capacity, lattice heat capacity,
C. Kittle, 7th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Einstein and Debye models.
Inc. 1996.
2. “Solid state physics”, by Neil W. Recommended Books:
Ashcroft, N. David Mermin, CBS
Publishing Asia Ltd. 1987. 1. M. Ali Omer, 2009 “Elementary Solid
3. “Solid State Physics”, by J. S. State
Blakemroe, Cambridge University Press Physics”, 6th Edition. D. Kindersley
1991. Pvt.
Ltd.
2. H. Ibach, H. Luth, 2009 “ Solid State
Physics:
An introduction to the principles of
material
science” 4th Edition by Springer.
3. C. Kittle, 2004 “Introduction to
Solid State Physics”, 8th Edition by John
Wiley and Sons Inc.
Classical
PHY-710 3 (3 – 0) PHY-558 Electrodynamics-II 3 (3 – 0)
Electrodynamics-II

## Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications:

Maxwell’s equations, Differential form of
Maxwell’s equations and the generalization of the
Ampere’s law, electromagnetic energy, vector Faraday law of electromagnetic induction,
and scalar potentials, gauge transformation Maxwell correction of Amper’s law and
(Lorentz gauge, coulombs gauge), pressure of displacement current, Electromagnetic energy
radiations, green’s function for time dependentvector (Poynting vector), Wave equations for
wave equation, retarded scalar and vector scalar and vector potential, Gauge
potentials, Propagation of plane EM waves: Plane
transformations, Lorentz gauge and Coulombs
electromagnetic wave, plane waves in a
gauge, Retarded scalar and vector potentials,
conducting and non-conducting media, linear and
Wave equations for E and H, Time dependent
circular polarization. Reflection & Refraction of
EM waves: reflection and refraction at the wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in a
boundary of two non-conducting media conducting and non-conducting media, Linear
(dielectric) - Normal incidence, reflection & and circular polarization. Electromagnetic wave
refraction at the boundary of conducting media,in matter: Propagation in linear media, Reflection
propagation B/w parallel conducting plates.
and Transmission at the boundary of non-
Radiation emission: The filed of uniformly
moving and accelerated charges, radiation form conducting media (Normal and Oblique
an oscillating dipole, transformation laws of incidence), Reflection at conducting surface,
electromagnetic fields. Frequency dependence of permittivity,
Radiation: Electric and Magnetic dipole, Power
Recommended Books: radiated by a point charge, Radiation reaction,
1. “Classical Electrodynamics”, by Jackson, Electrodynamics and Relativity: Einstein’s
Wiley, 1975. Postulates, Geometry of Relativity, Lorentz
2. “Foundation of electromagnetic theory”, Transformations, Proper time and velocity,
by, J. Riejz, Relativistic energy, momentum, kinematics, and
3. “Electricity and Magnetism”, by W.J. electrodynamics, Magnetism as a relativistic
Duffin, McGraw-Hill, 1990
9
4. “Electromagnetism”, by I.S Grant and phenomenon.
W.R Phillips Wiley, 1990
5. “Introduction to Electrodynamics”, by Recommended Books:
D.Griffiths Prentice Hall, 1989.
1. Griffiths D.J. 1999, Introduction to
Electrodynamics, 3rd Edition
2. John R. Reitz, 1992, Foundations of
Electromagnetic Theory, 4th Edition
PHY-711 Electronics-II 3 (3 – 0) PHY-560 Electronics-II 3 (3 – 0)

## An overview of operational amplifiers (op-amp), An overview of operational amplifiers (op-amp),

the differential amplifier, the inverting and non- the differential amplifier, the inverting and non-
inverting amplifiers, op-amp frequency response, inverting amplifiers, op-amp frequency response,
negative feedback, comparators, integrators and
negative feedback, comparators, integrators and
differentiators, class C amplifiers, phase shift
oscillators, the Wienbridge oscillator, the Colpitts differentiators, Instrumentation amplifier, Log
& Hartley oscillators, the crystal oscillator, and Antilog amplifiers, Constant current source,
switching circuits, Schmitt triggers, the 555 timer, Current to Voltage and Voltage to Current
monostable, bistable, and astable multi vibrators, converters, phase shift oscillators, the
introduction to thyristors, silicon-controlled Wienbridge oscillator, the Colpitts & Hartley
rectifiers, diacs and triacs, discrete photo diodes, oscillators, the crystal oscillator, Schmitt triggers,
opto-isolators, and opto-interrupters. Number
the 555 timer, monostable, bistable, and astable
systems, digital circuits, Bipolar transistor logic
wired logic, unipolar logic, flip flops and latches, multi vibrators, switching circuits, introduction
binary counters, arithmetic circuits, to thyristors, silicon-controlled rectifiers, diacs
and triacs, Number systems, digital circuits,
Recommended Books: Logic gates and Boolean algebra, arithmetic
1. “Electronic Devices”, by Thomas L. circuits, flip flops and latches, binary counters,
Floyd. 5th Edition Analog to Digital and Digital to analog
2. “Electronic Principles”, by Albert P. conversion circuits.
Malvino, 5th Edition Glencoe-MeGraw-
Hill Book Co., Recommended Books:
3. “Introductory electronic Devices and
Circuits”, by Robert T. Payneter, 1. Floyd, T. L. 2010. Digital
Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc. Upper Saddle Fundamentals 10TH Ed. Prentice-
River N.Y. USA, 1994. Hall Intern. Inc., Englewood Cliffs
4. “Electronic Circuits and Systems”, by J.D (USA).
Ryder, Charles M. Thomson, Prentice- 2. Floyd, T. L. 2010. Electronic
Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey Devices 9TH Ed. Prentice-Hall
(USA) 1976. Intern. Inc., Englewood Cliffs
(USA).
3. Malvino, A. P. 2008. Electronic
Principles. 7TH Ed. Glencoe-
McGraw-Hill Book Co.
4. Nashelsky, L. & Robert, L. B. 2009.
Electronic Devices and Circuit
Theory 10TH Ed. Prentice-Hall
Intern. Inc., Englewood Cliffs
(USA).
5. Tocci, R. J. 2010. Digital Systems:
Principles and Applications 11TH
Ed. Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs (USA).
10
Physics Lab
Lab Course-II
PHY-712 Course-II 3 (0 – 3) PHY-562 3 (0 – 3)
(Electronics)
(Electronics).

## 1. Design and measure the equivalent

resistance and capacitance of parallel
series resistive and capacitive circuits
respectively.
2. Design a full-wave rectifier and study its
output without and with a capacitor filter.
3. Design a full-wave rectifier and study its
output with a π filter.
1. Design a full-wave rectifier and study its
4. Design a regulated power supply using
output without and with a capacitor filter.
Zener diode and study its regulation.
2. Design a full-wave rectifier and study its
5. Design clipper and clamping circuits and
output with a π filter.
study the output wave shapes.
3. Design a regulated power supply using
6. Design circuits for logic gates (NOT,
Zener diode and study its regulation.
OR, NOR, AND, NAND, XOR) using
4. Design clipper and clamping circuits and
discrete components.
study the output wave shapes.
7. Design a CE amplifier and study its
5. Design circuits for logic gates (NOT, OR,
frequency response. Determine its low-
NOR, AND, NAND, XOR) using
and upper-limit frequencies and also the
discrete components.
bandwidth.
6. Design differentiator and integrator
8. Design a common source FET amplifier
circuits and study output wave shapes.
and determine its input and output
7. Design a CE amplifier and study its
impedance.
frequency response. Determine its low-
9. Design an RC phase-shift oscillator and
and upper-limit frequencies and also the
determine its frequency by Lissajous
bandwidth.
figures.
8. Design a common source FET amplifier
10. Design an astable multi vibrator and
and determine its input and output
determine its frequency.
impedance.
11. Design a transformer-coupled class A
9. Design an RC phase-shift oscillator and
power amplifier and determine its ac
determine its frequency by Lissajous
power delivered to the load and percent
figures.
efficiency.
10. Design an astable multi vibrator and
12. Design inverting and non-inverting
determine its frequency.
amplifiers using operational amplifiers
11. Design a transformer-coupled class A
using 741 IC’s.
power amplifier and determine its ac
13. Design differentiator and integrator
power delivered to the load and percent
circuits and study output wave shapes
efficiency.
using 741 IC’s.
12. Design Half adder and full adder circuits
14. Design Half adder and full adder circuits
13. Design half subtractor transistor and Full
15. Design half subtractor and Full
Subtractor circuits.
Subtractor circuits.
14. Design inverting and non-inverting
amplifiers using operational amplifiers. Recommended Books:

## 1. Floyd, T. L. 2010. Electronic

Devices 9TH Ed. Prentice-Hall Intern.
Inc., Englewood Cliffs (USA).
2. Nashelsky, L. & Robert, L. B. 2009.
Electronic Devices and Circuit
Theory 10TH Ed. Prentice-Hall
Intern. Inc., Englewood Cliffs

11
(USA).
3. Malvino, A. P. 2008. Electronic
Principles. 7TH Ed. Glencoe-
McGraw-Hill Book Co.
4. Grob, B. 2003. Basic Electronics 9TH
Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Quantum Quantum
PHY-713 3 (3 – 0) PHY-651 3 (3 – 0)
Mechanics-II Mechanics-II

## Matrix representation of operators, digitalization,

Identical Particles, Second Quantization,
Matrix representation of operators, digitalization, Indistinguishability of identical particles,
Identical Particles, Second Quantization, Systems of identical particles, Quantum
Indistinguishability of identical particles, Systems dynamics of identical particle systems, statistics,
of identical particles, Quantum dynamics of
Symmetry of states, Fermions, Bosons. Time
identical particle systems, statistics, Symmetry of
states, Fermions, Bosons. Time independent evolution of a system, Schrödinger and
perturbation theory for non-degenerate and Heisenberg pictures, Time independent
degenerate levels, Time dependent perturbation perturbation theory for non-degenerate and
theory, Variational method, The WKB degenerate levels, Time dependent perturbation
approximation and its applications. Theory of theory, Variational method, The WKB
Scattering, Scattering experiments and cross
approximation and its applications. Theory of
sections, Potential scattering, The method of
partial waves, The Born’s approximation Klein- Scattering, Scattering experiments and cross
Gordon equation, Probability and current sections, Potential scattering, the method of
densities, Dirac relativistic equation. partial waves, The Born’s approximation

## Recommended Books: Recommended Books:

1. “Introductory quantum Mechanics”, by 1. Zettli N. 2009 “Quantum Mechanics
R.L. Liboff, Addison Wesley Publishing Concepts and applications” J Willy.
Company, Reading Massachusetts, 1980. 2. Bransden B.H. & Joachain C.J. 1990
2. “Introductory Quantum mechanic”, by “Introductory Quantum mechanics”,
B.H. Bransden & C.J. Joachain, Longman Scientific & Technical
Longman Scientific & Technical London, London.
1990. 3. Liboff, R.L. 1980. “Introductory
3. “An Introduction Quantum Mechanics”, quantum Mechanics”, by Addison
by W.Greiner, Addison Wesley Wesley Publishing Company, Reading
Publishing Company, Reading Massachusetts,
Massachusetts, 1980. 4. W.Greiner 1980 “An Introduction
4. “Quantum Mechanics”, by N. Zettli. Quantum Mechanics”, Addison Wesley
Publishing Company, Reading
Massachusetts.
Solid State Solid State
PHY-714 3 (3 – 0) PHY-653 3 (3 – 0)
Physics-II Physics-II

## Solid state problem, Born-Oppenhiemer Solid state problem, Born-Oppenheimer

approximation, free electron approximation, approximation, free electron approximation,
density of states, Fermi Dirac distribution, k- density of states, Fermi Dirac distribution, k-
space, concept of Fermi energy and the Fermi space, concept of Fermi energy and the Fermi
surface, free electron description of Heat surface, free electron description of Heat
capacity, electrical conductivity of metals, Hall capacity, electrical conductivity of metals, Hall
effect, Nearly free electron model, origin of the effect, Nearly free electron model, origin of the

12
energy gap, , Bloch functions, motion of electrons energy gap, , Bloch functions, motion of
in electron in a periodic potential, crystal electrons in electron in a periodic potential,
momentum, effective mass, physical crystal momentum, effective mass, physical
interpretation of the effective mass, interpretation of the effective mass, Augmented
Semiconductors, intrinsic and extrinsic Plane Wave method, Semiconductors, intrinsic
semiconductors, intrinsic carrier concentration, and extrinsic semiconductors, intrinsic carrier
mobility, impurity conductivity donor states, concentration, mobility, impurity conductivity
acceptor states, thermal ionization of donors and donor states, acceptor states, thermal ionization
acceptors, simple description pf pn-junction and of donors and acceptors, simple description pf
rectification, Transistors, Semiconductors pn-junction and rectification, Transistors,
heterostructures and outline of solid state lasers, Semiconductors heterostructure and outline of
Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism, Larmor solid state lasers, Diamagnetism and
Diamagnetism, Adiabatic Diamagnetism, Pauli Paramagnetism, Larmor Diamagnetism,
Paramagnetism, Conduction electrons Adiabatic Diamagnetism, Pauli Paramagnetism,
Diamagnetism, introduction to superconductivity. Conduction electrons Diamagnetism,
introduction to superconductivity. Qualitative
Recommended Books: aspects of BCS Theory.
1. “Introduction to Solid State Physics”, by Recommended Books:
C. Kittle 7th Edition: John Wiley and
Sons Inc. 1996. 1. M. Ali Omer, 2009 “Elementary Solid
2. “Solid State Physics”, by Blakemore: State
Cambridge University Press. 1991. Physics”, 6th Edition. D. Kindersley
3. “Solid State Physics”, by Neil W. Pvt.
Ashekrof t and David Mermin: CBS Ltd.
Publ. 1987. 2. H. Ibach, H. Luth, 2009 “ Solid State
Physics:
An introduction to the principles of
material
science” 4th Edition by Springer.
3. C. Kittle, 2004 “Introduction to
Solid State Physics”, 8th Edition by John
Wiley and Sons Inc.
Statistical Statistical
PHY-715 3 (3 – 0) PHY-655 3 (3 – 0)
Mechanics Mechanics

## Classical Statistical mechanics, phase space Laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic

description of physical systems, macro systems variables, reversible adiabatic changes. Entropy,
and micro systems, ensembles, entropy in Microstates and macrostates, ensembles and
statistical mechanics, micro canonical ensemble,
ensemble averaging, approach to equilibrium.
canonical ensemble, grand canonical ensemble,
diatomic molecules, heat capacities of diatomic Classical probability, Statistical probability,
gases and crystals. Quantum statistics, basic binomial and Gaussian probability distributions,
concept of quantum statistics, Pauli exclusion central limit theorem. Microcanonical systems,
principle, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac quantum state, entropy and equilibrium in a
distributions, frequency spectrum of a black body microcanonical system, Canonical ensemble,
and Planck’s radiation law, Liouville’s theorem, partition function, entropy in canonical system,
equality of probability for the perfect gas, energy
Boltzmann distribution, thermodynamical
distribution of conduction electronics in metals,
degree of gas degenerations, completely averages, applications to single particle,
degenerate Fermi-Dirac gas, concept of factorization of partition function. Equipartition
fluctuations, Bose-Einstein condensation, theorem, free energy and its minimization, Gibbs
introduction to density matrix approach. and Helmholtz free energy and applications.

13
Recommended Books Maxwell distribution of molecular speeds,
classical probability of a state, Maxwell-
1. “Statistical Physics” by F. Mandel,
Boltzmann probability distribution, density of
ELBS/John Willey, 2nd Ed. 1988.
2. “Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal states in k-space, distribution of speeds in a
Physics” by F. Reif, McGraw Hill, 1965. classical gas. Black body radiation, Rayleigh-
Jeans theory, Planck distribution, free energy of a
photon gas, Stefan-Boltzmann formula, phonons.
Systems with variable number of particles,
chemical potential, grand canonical ensemble,
relation to thermodynamic variables. Identical
particles, fermions and bosons, partition function
for identical particles, semi-classical
approximations, identical particles localized on a
lattice, thermodynamic properties of a Fermi gas,
Bose condensation

Recommended Books

## 1. Gould H and J Tobochnik.2010,

Thermal and Statistical Physics,
Princeton University Press.
2. Bowley R and M. Sanchez. 2000,
Introductory Statistical
Mechanics, 2nd Ed. Clarenden
Press, Oxford,
3. Huang K.2001, Introductory
Statistical Physics, 1st Ed. CRC.
4. Kittel C and H. Kroemer, 1980,
Thermal Physics, second edition,
W. H. Freeman.
PHY-716 Nuclear Physics-I 3 (3 – 0) PHY-657 Nuclear Physics-I 3 (3 – 0)

Nuclear mass, size, radius, nuclear spin, Nuclear mass, size, nuclear spin, Nuclear
magnetic dipole moments, elective quadruple Binding energy, magnetic dipole moments,
moments, parity and statistics. Observed electric quadruple moments, parity and statistics.
phenomenon of radio activity, explanation of α-
Observed phenomenon of radio activity,
decay, Fermi theory of β-decay, theory of γ-
decay, multipolarity of γ-rays and nuclear explanation of α-decay: Absorption, Range,
isomerism. Yukawa meson theory of nuclear Ionization and Stopping power of alpha particles,
forces, properties of nuclear forces, n-p and p-p theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of β-decay,
scattering at low energies. Passage of charged theory of γ-decay, energetic of γ-decay, Nuclear
particles through matter, proportional counter, isomerism, Internal conversion, Mossbauer
scintillation counter, semi-conductor detector, Effect, Yukawa meson theory of nuclear forces,
emulsion technique, bubble chamber. Linear
properties of nuclear forces, n-p and p-p
accelerator, van de Graff, Synchrocyclotron,
proton synchrotron, betatron. scattering at low energies. Passage of charged
particles through matter, Ionization chamber,
Recommended Books: proportional counter, GM counter, scintillation
counter, semi-conductor detector, bubble
1. “Radiation Detection and Measurement”,
by Glenn, F. Knoll, John Wiley, 1989. chamber. Linear accelerator, van de Graff
2. “Introducing Nuclear Physics”, by generator, Synchrocyclotron, proton synchrotron,
14
Kenneth S. Krane 1995. betatron, photographic emulsion.
3. “Nuclear Physics”, by W.E.Burcham
(McGraw-Hill). Recommended Books:
4. “Text Book of Nuclear Physics”,
C.M.H.Smith (Pergamon). 1. Zhang, Z..M, B.K. Tsai and G. Machin.
2010. Experimental Methods in Physical
Science Vol. 2, Academic Press, USA.
2. Alejandro Garcia and Ernest M. Henley,
(2007). Subatomic Physics, by publisher:
World Scientific Publishing.
3. B R Martin, 2006. Nuclear and
Particle Physics, publisher: New
York: Wiley
4. David, W.I.F., K. Shankland,
L.B McK usker and C.
Baerloche. 2006. Structure
Determination from Powder
Diffraction Data. Oxford
University Press, New York.
5. Povh B, Rith K, Scholz C and
Zetsche F, 2006, Particles and
Nuclei: an Introduction to the
Physical Concepts, 5th Edition,
publisher: Berlin Springer,.
6. Hanlon, J. F. 2003. A User
Guide to Vacuum Technology.
John Wiley and sons, USA.
7. Kaplan Irving Nuclear Physics,
latest edition.
8. lilley John 2001 Nuclear
physics: Basic concepts and
applications,
9. Kenneth S. K. 1995. “Introducing Nuclear
Physics,
PHY-717 3 (3 – 0) PHY-659 3 (3 – 0)
Particle Physics-I* Particle Physics-I*

## Particle Classification, Quantum numbers,

Particle Classification, Quantum numbers,
leptons, hadrons, baryons, mesons, quarks. The
fundamental interactions the electromagnetic leptons, hadrons, baryons, mesons, quarks. The
coupling, the strong coupling, the weak coupling. fundamental interactions the electromagnetic
Symmetry Transformation and Conservation coupling, the strong coupling, the weak coupling.
Laws: Translation in space, rotation in space, the Symmetry Transformation and Conservation
group SU (2) , systems of identical particles, Laws: Translation in space, rotation in space, the
parity, isospin charge conjugation, time reversal, group SU (2) , systems of identical particles,
G parity, CPT theorem. The Electromagnetic
Filed: Gauge invariance and Maxwell’s parity, isospin charge conjugation, time reversal,
equations, polarization ad photon spin, angular G parity, CPT theorem. The Electromagnetic
momentum, parity and C parity of the photon. Filed: Gauge invariance and Maxwell’s
The Klein-Gordan Equation: Non relativistic equations, polarization ad photon spin, angular
quantum mechanics, Lorentz covariance and 4 momentum, parity and C parity of the photon.
vector notation, the Klein Gordon equation, the The Klein-Gordan Equation: Non relativistic
Feynman-Stuckelberg interpretation of E < O
15
solutions, non relativistic perturbation theory quantum mechanics, Lorentz covariance and 4
(brief review), rules for scattering amplitudes in
vector notation, the Klein Gordon equation, the
the Feynman-Stukelberg approach. The Dirac Feynman-Stuckelberg interpretation of E < O
Equation: Covariant form of the Dirac Equation,
solutions, non relativistic perturbation theory
Dirac γ-matrices, conserved current and the
adjoint equation, free particle spinors, anti (brief review), rules for scattering amplitudes in
particles, normalization of spinors and the the Feynman-Stukelberg approach. The Dirac
completeness relations, bilinear covariant, zero Equation: Covariant form of the Dirac Equation,
mass fermion, the two-component neutrino. Dirac γ-matrices, conserved current and the
adjoint equation, free particle spinors, anti
Books Recommended:
particles, normalization of spinors and the
1. “Nuclear and Particle Physics”, by completeness relations, bilinear covariant, zero
Burcham, E.E. and Jobes, M., J., mass fermion, the two-component neutrino.
Longman, (1995)
2. “Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Books Recommended:
Physics”, by Das, A. and Ferbel, T.,
Johan Wiley and Sons, (1994) 1. Burcham, E.E. and Jobes, M., J. (1995)
3. “Concepts of Particle Physics”, by “Nuclear and Particle Physics”,
Gottfired, K. and Weisskopt, F., vol. 1, Longman.
Oxford University Press, (1986). 2. Das, A. and Ferbel, T. , (1994)
4. “Introduction of elementary Particles”, by “Introduction to Nuclear and Particle
Griffiths, D., John Wiley and Sons, Physics”, Johan Wiley and Sons.
(1987). 3. Williams”, W.S.C. (1993) “Nuclear and
5. “Nuclear and Particle Physics by Particle Physics, Oxford University
Williams”, W.S.C., Oxford University Press.
Press, (1993). 4. Gottfired, K. and Weisskopt, F. (1986)
“Concepts of Particle Physics”, vol. 1,
Oxford University Press.
5. Griffiths, D. (1987). “Introduction of
elementary Particles”, , John Wiley and
Sons.
Advanced Advanced 3 (3 – 0)
PHY-718 3 (3 – 0) PHY-661
Electronics* Electronics*

Number Systems and different codes, Number Systems and codes, Logic Gates and
Implementations of Logic Functions by Logic Boolean algebra, Combinational logic, Sum of
Gates, Boolean algebra, electronic logic gates products form, Karnaugh maps method, Digital
and their application in logic design, Karnaugh arithmetic operations and circuits, multiplexer
maps and its use in some design problems, code
and demultiplexers, decoders encoders,
converter logic design. Analog to Digital
Conversion, Digital to analog conversion, Sequential logic, Flip Flops, Synchronous Logic,
converter Specifications. Synchronous Logic, basic binary ripple counter, modulus counters,
Sequential logic, Flip Flops, basic binary ripple BCD counter, synchronous/asynchronous
counter, modulus counters, BCD counter, counter, counter, parallel counters, up-down
synchronous counter, counter, parallel counters, counter application as digital time (clock) shift
up-down counter application as digital time registers, semi conductor, memory elements
(clock) decoders encoders, code converters,
(simple concept), Digital Computer, Concept of
arithmetic functions, shift registers, semi
conductor, memory elements (simple concept), computer system (CPU, input & output devices,
multiplexer and demultiplexer, Digital Computer, computer networking, software system and
Concept of computer system (CPU, input & simulation software) and micro-processor,
16
output devices, computer networking, software Communication systems, Modulation and
system and simulation software) and micro- Demodulation, Classification of signals, Analysis
processor. Sweep Circuit, UJT and the basic and transmission of signals, Amplitude
sweep circuit, circuit to generate triggered sweep,
modulation, Angle/Phase and Frequency
transistor as a sweep generator, time base system
of a C.R.O. including Synchronization. modulations, Pulse code modulation.

## 1. “Electronic Devices”, by Thomas L. 1. Floyd, T. L. 2010. Digital Fundamentals

th
Floyd. 5 Edition 10TH Ed. Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc.,
2. “Electronic Principles”, by Albert P. Englewood Cliffs (USA).
Malvino, 5th Edition Glencoe-McGraw- 2. Tocci, R. J. 2010. Digital Systems:
Hill Book Co., Principles and Applications 11TH Ed.
3. “Introductory electronic Devices and Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc., Englewood
Circuits”, by Robert T. Payneter, Cliffs (USA).
Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc. Upper Saddle 3. Lathi, B. P. 2009. Modern Digital and
River N.Y. USA, 1994. Analog Communication Systems 4TH Ed.
4. “Electronic Circuits and Systems”, by Oxford University Press.
J.D Ryder, Charles M. Thomson, 4. Mano, M. M. 2002. Digital Design 4TH
Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs. Ed. Prentice-Hall Intern. Inc., Englewood
New Jersey (USA) 1976. Cliffs (USA).
5. “Digital Fundamentals”, by Thomas L.
Floyd, #rd Ed. Prentice-hall Intern. Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs (USA). 1986.
Environmental Environmental 3 (3 – 0)
PHY-719 3 (3 – 0) PHY-663
Physics-I* Physics-I*

## The economic system, living in green house,

The economic system, living in green house,
enjoying the sun, Transport of matter, Energy
enjoying the sun, Transport of matter, Energy and
and momentum, the social and political context.
momentum, the social and political context.
Black body radiation, The emission spectrum of
Black body radiation, The emission spectrum of
sun, The transition electric dipole moment, The
sun, The transition electric dipole moment, The
Einstein Coefficients, Lambert – Beer’s law, The
Einstein Coefficients, Lambert – Beer’s law, The
spectroscopy of bio-molecules, Solar UV and
spectroscopy of bio-molecules, Solar UV and life,
life, The ozone filter. The energy Balance, (Zero-
The ozone filter. The energy Balance, (Zero-
dimensional Greenhouse Model), elements of
dimensional Greenhouse Model), elements of
weather and climate, climate variations and
weather and climate, climate variations and
modeling. Diffusion, flow in rivers, ground
modeling. Diffusion, flow in rivers, ground water.
water. Flow equations of fluid Dynamics,
Flow equations of fluid Dynamics, Turbulence,
Turbulence, Turbulence Diffusion, Gaussian
Turbulence Diffusion, Gaussian plumes in air,
plumes in air, Turbulent jets and planes the
Turbulent jets and planes the concept of sound,
concept of sound, sound pressure level,
sound pressure level, frequency & propagation,
frequency & propagation, sound level, measuring
sound level, measuring transient noise, the
transient noise, the acoustic environment,
acoustic environment, Hazardous effects of noise,
Hazardous effects of noise, noise control.,
noise control., Radioactive decay law, sources of
Radioactive decay law, sources of radiation,
radiation, Interaction of Radiation with matter,
Interaction of Radiation with matter, Measuring
Measuring Radiation, Nuclear Fuel Cycle,
Radiation, Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Sources of
Sources of Radioactive waste, Health Hazards,
Radioactive waste, Health Hazards, Radioactive
Radioactive waste management.
waste management.

17
Recommended Books: Recommended Books:

## 1. “Atmospheric Science”, by John 1. Booker E and R V G Belle. 1999,

M.Wallace (Publisher: Academic Press) Environmental Physics. 2nd ed. John
1st Edition, 1997. Wiley and sons. 1999.
2. “Environmental Physics”, by Egbert 2. Grasseur G P. 1999, Atmospheric
Booker and Rienk Van Gron Belle 2nd Chemistry & Global Change. 1st Ed.
ed. John Wiley and sons. 1999. Publisher: Oxford).
3. “Physics of Environmental and Climate”, 3. John M.Wallace. 1997, Atmospheric
Guyot Praxis Publication, 1998. Science. 1st Ed. Publisher: Academic
Press.
4. Physics of Environmental and Climate,
Guyot Praxis Publication, 1998.
Health and Medical 3 (3 – 0) PHY-665 Health and Medical 3 (3 – 0)
PHY-720
Physics-I* Physics-I*

Interactions of lionizing Radiation with Matter: Interactions of lionizing Radiation with Matter:
Introduction; Beta-rays, range-energy Introduction; Beta-rays, range-energy
relationship, mechanism of energy loss, relationship, mechanism of energy loss,
Ionization and excitation, Bremsstrahlung, Alpha, Ionization and excitation, Bremsstrahlung,
rays, Rang-energy relation – ship, Energy Alpha, rays, Rang-energy relation – ship, Energy
transfer, Gamma-rays, exponential absorption, transfer, Gamma-rays, exponential absorption,
interaction mechanism, Pair production. Compton interaction mechanism, Pair production.
scattering, photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption,
photodisintegration, Combined effect, Neutrons, photodisintegration, Combined effect, Neutrons,
Production classification, interaction, Scattering, Production classification, interaction, Scattering,
Absorption. Radiotherapy: Introduction, The Absorption. Radiotherapy: Introduction, The
development of radiotherapy, Radio therapeutic development of radiotherapy, Radio therapeutic
aims, External beam therapy, Brach therapy, aims, External beam therapy, Brach therapy,
unsealed source therapy, Requirements for unsealed source therapy, Requirements for
accuracy and precision, Quality assurance, The accuracy and precision, Quality assurance, The
role of medical physics. Medical Imaging: role of medical physics. Medical Imaging:
Diagnostic X-rays, Production of X-rays, Diagnostic X-rays, Production of X-rays,
Absorption of x-ray to other planes, Partial Absorption of x-ray to other planes, Partial
volume effect, Artifacts, Contrast agent in volume effect, Artifacts, Contrast agent in
conventional radiography and CT, Diagnostic conventional radiography and CT, Diagnostic
Ultrasound, Doppler effect, radionuclide imagine, Ultrasound, Doppler effect, radionuclide
positron emission tomography (PET), Magnetic imagine, positron emission tomography (PET),
resonance imagining (MRI), Contrast agents for Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI), Contrast
MRI. agents for MRI.

## 1. Introduction to Health Physics by 1. Armstrong P and L Martin. Diagnostic

Herman Cember. 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill, Imaging 4th Ed. Blackwell Science Ltd.
New Yourk, 1996. 2. Bushong S C. 1993, Radiologic Science
of Technologists. 5th Ed. Mosby.
2. Thwaits, Radiotherapy Physics by J.R. 3. Cember H. 1996, Introduction to Health
Williams, D.I . Oxford University Press, Physics. 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill, New
New York, 1993. York.
4. Forty R. 2010, ICFA, Instrumentation
3. Diagnostic Imaging, by Peter Armstrong School.
and Martin L. 4th Ed., Blackwell Science 5. Greening J R. 1985, Fundamentals of
18
Ltd. Radiation Dosimetry. 2nd Ed. Adam
Hilger Ltd., Bristol.
4. Radiologic Science of Technologists by 6. Joran C. 2003, CERN, summer student
Stewart C. Bushong, 5th Ed. Mosby, lecturers
1993. 7. RIEGLER W. 2008,CERN, Academic
Training Course.
5. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry, by 8. Williams J R and D I Thwaits, 1993,
J.R. Greening, 2nd Ed. Adam Hilger Ltd., Radiotherapy Physics. Oxford University
Bristol 1985. Press, New York.
Climatology and 3 (3 – 0)
PHY-722 Critical Thinking 2 (2 – 0) PHY-667
Metrology-I*

## Synoptic Meteorology: Composition & structure

of atmosphere, ICAO standard atmosphere,
weather elements, Air mass classification,
Thermodynamic characteristics, General
Circulation.Atmospheric thermodynamics, First
law of thermodynamics and enthalpy; adiabatic
processes and potential temperature. The second
law of thermodynamics; entropy’
thermodynamics of water vapour and moist air’
thermodynamic properties of the water
substance’ phase transition of water’ water
vapour and most air’ Clausious- Clapaeyron’s
equation; Aerological diagram’ selection of
coordinates’ choice of diagrm; analysis of
tephigram. Methods of surface observations &
codes: Reading of routine observation,
barometric corrections & reduction, reading,
setting * maintenance of thermometers, surface
codes, aeronautical codes (Speci & Metar).
Deleted Dynamic Meteorology: Circulation & vorticity,
stokes theorem, vorticity equation, Rossby
waves. Meteorological Instruments:
Meterorological instruments used in
thermometry, barometry, hygrometery, rainfall &
snowfall measurement, wind measurement, cloud
measurement, evaporation measurement,
visibility measurement, sunshine measurement.
Introduction to weather radar system,
introduction to radiosonde equipment.

Recommended Books.

## 1. Vonstorch H. 2001, Statistical Analysis

in Climate Research. 1st Ed. Publisher:
Cambridge. Morgan M, 1991,
Meteorology 3rd Ed. (Publisher:
MacMillion),
2. Brasseur G P, 1999, Atmospheric
Chemistry & Global Change (Publisher:
Oxford), 1st Edition.
3. Hougton, 1985, Hand Book of applied

19
Meterology, 1st Ed. Publisher: Wiley
4. Hidore O. 1984, Climatology 1st ed.
(Publisher: Merrill).
5. Carlson. 1981, Tropical Meterology, 1st
Ed. Publisher: The Pennsylvania State
University.
6. Haltiner and Martin. 1957, Dynamical &
Physical Meteorlogy 1st Ed. (Publisher:
McGraw Hill).
PHY-722 Physics Lab PHY-669 Lab Course-III
Course-III (Atomic 3 (0 – 3) (Atomic & Nuclear 3 (0 – 3)
& Nuclear Physics) Physics)

## Objectives: The candidate must perform at least Eight

experiments from the list given below. 50%
1. To Expose the students to advance weightage must be given to viva-voce about
level experimentation in Physics apparatus, theory of experiments and estimation
2. To make them familiar to such of errors.
experiments where out come can be
used in developing future research 1. To Expose the students to advance level
capabilities and teaching skills experimentation in Physics
3. To make the students confident in 2. To make them familiar to such
their studies by showing and experiments where out come can be used
measuring parameters mostly used in in developing future research capabilities
their theoretical work. and teaching skills
1. To study the characteristics curves of GM 3. To make the students confident in their
counter. studies by showing and measuring
2. To determine the absorption coefficient parameters mostly used in their
of lead for Gamma Rays using GM theoretical work.
counter. 1. To study the characteristics curves of
3. To determine the maximum energy of GM counter.
Beta Particles. 2. To determine the absorption coefficient
4. To determine the range of an Alpha of lead for Gamma Rays using GM
Particle. counter assembly.
5. To measure the half life of a radioactive 3. To determine the maximum energy of
nuclide. Beta Particles using GM counter
6. To study of Random processes and assembly.
fluctuations in Random processes 4. To determine the range of an Alpha
(Gaussian distribution curve). Particle and guess its energy using
7. To study radioactive equilibrium using empirical relations using GM counter
Cs137/Ba137 mini generator. assembly.
8. Demonstration of Ruther Ford Scattering 5. To measure the half life of a radioactive
experiment for charges particles. nuclide.
9. Demonstration of Interaction of 6. To study of Random processes and
Radiations with matter using absorber kit. fluctuations in Random processes
10. Verification of inverse square law. (Gaussian distribution curve) using GM
11. To examine the stopping power of counter assembly.
various substances for Gamma Rays. 7. To study radioactive equilibrium using
12. To study the Zeeman effect for a line in Cs137/Ba137 mini generator using GM
the spectrum of helium. counter assembly.
13. To study the wave characteristics of an 8. Demonstration of Interaction of
electron. (electron diffraction Radiations with matter using absorber kit
experiment.) using GM counter assembly.

20
14. To study the magnetic moment of an 9. Verification of inverse square law using
electron using magnetic resonance GM counter assembly.
method. 10. To study the wave characteristics of an
15. Familiarity with a scintillation counter electron. (electron diffraction
and PMTs. experiment.)
16. Experimental demonstration of He-Neon 11. Determination of Planck’s constant using
Laser. He-Neon laser, and compare its results
17. Determination of diameter of human hair with Photo cell method.
using He-Neon Laser. 12. Determination of velocity of light using
18. Determination of Planck’s constant using He-Neon laser and compare it with other
He-Neon laser, and compare its results standard methods.
with Photo cell method. Recommended Books:
19. Determination of velocity of light using
He-Neon laser and compare it with other 1. Gray T S. Applied Electronics (John-
standard methods. willey and Sons)
20. Determination of Dielectric constant 2. Higgings R J. Experimental Electronics
using RLC series circuit / Dielectric (Mc Graw Hill)
apparatus. 3. Mark H and N.T Olson. Experiments in
21. The Frank-hertz Experiment Modern Physics (Mc Graw Hill)
(measurement of excitation potential of 4. Melissienson A C. Experiments in
Hg. Modern Physics (Academic)
22. Production of vacuum and its rough 5. Squares G L. Practical Physics 3rd Ed.
measurement. Cambridge University Press.
23. To study a characteristic X-Rays
24. Verification of Moseley’s Law
25. To study the back scattering of Beta
particles using GM counter.
Recommended Books:

## 1. “H. Mark and N.T Olson, Experiments in

Modern Physics (Mc Graw Hill)
2. “A.C Melissienson, Experiments in
Modern Physics (Academic)
3. “T.S gray, Applied Electronics (John-
willey and Sons)
4. R.J Higgings, Experimental Electronics
(Mc Graw Hill)
5. G.L Squares, Practical Physics 3rd Ed.
Cambridge University Press.
PHY-723 Plasma Physics 3 (3 – 0) PHY-652 Plasma Physics 3 (3 – 0)

## Introduction. Occurrence of plasmas in nature. Introduction. Occurrence of plasmas in nature.

Definition of plasma. Concept of temperature. Definition of plasma. Concept of temperature.
Debye shielding. The plasma parameter. Criteria Debye shielding. The plasma parameter. Criteria
for plasma. Applications of plasma physics. for plasma. Applications of plasma physics.
Single-particle motions in electromagnetic field. Single-particle motions in electromagnetic field.
Uniform and nonuniform E and B fields. Time- Uniform and nonuniform E and B fields. Time-
varying E and B fields. Fluid description of varying E and B fields. Fluid description of
plasma. Wave propagation in plasma. Derivation plasma. Wave propagation in plasma. Derivation
of dispertion relations for simple electrostatic and of dispertion relations for simple electrostatic and
electromagnetic modes. Introduction to electromagnetic modes. Introduction to
Controlled Fusion: Basic nuclear fusion reactions, Controlled Fusion: Basic nuclear fusion
reaction rates and power density, radiation losses reactions, reaction rates and power density,

21
from plasmas, operational conditions. radiation losses from plasmas, operational
conditions.
Recommended Books:
Recommended Books:
1. “Introduction to Plasma Physics" by
F.F.CHEN, 1974 (Plenum). 1. Bittencourt J A, 2004 Fundamentals of
2. “Principles of Plasma Physics” by Plasma Physics” (second Edition) INPE.
N.A.Krall and A.W.Trivelpiece, 1973 2. Krall N A and A W Trivelpiece, 1986
(McGraw-Hill). Principles of Plasma Physics” by
3. “Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions” (McGraw-Hill).
by S.Glasstone and R.H.Lovberg, 1960 3. Glasstone S and R H.Lovberg, 1975
(D.Van Nestrand). Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions
(D.Van Nestrand).
4. CHEN F F, 1974 Introduction to Plasma
Physics and control fusion, (Plenum).
Computational Computational
PHY-724 3 (3 – 0) PHY-654 3 (3 – 0)
Physics Physics

## Purpose and Philosophy, Scientific programming Introduction, Scientific programming

methodology, Scientific programming languages, methodology, Scientific programming languages,
Numerical solutions of ODEs, Numerical Numerical solutions of ODEs, Euler Method,
integration, Numerical errors and instabilities, Numerical errors and instabilities, Euler
Random number, Random walk, introduction to Improved Method, Runge Kutta 4th order
Monte Carlo techniques, Computer algebra and Method, Adaptive integration technique, Runge
Introduction to MATHEMATICA, Introduction Kutta Fehlberg Method. Numerical quadrature,
to MATLAB, Algorithm development using C++, Riemann’s Sum, Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s
Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Equations f(x) = 1/3 Rule, Simpson’s 3/8 Rule. Random number,
0, Bisection Method, Newton Raphson Method, Random walk, introduction to Monte Carlo
Secant Method, Numerical Solution of Linear techniques, Monte Carlo Integration and
Systems AX = B, Gauss Jordan Method, Cubatures. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear
Cramer’s Rule, Jacobi Method, Gauss Seidel Equations f(x) = 0. Numerical Solution of Linear
iterative Method, Numerical Integration, System of equations, Gauss Jordan Method,
Riemann’s Sum, Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s 1/3 Jacobi Method, Gauss Seidel iterative Method.
Rule, Simpson’s 3/8 Rule, Monte Carlo Numerical solutions of PDEs, Finite elements
Integration, Numerical solutions of ODEs, Euler method, Laplace equation, Heat Equation,
Method, Euler Improved Method, Runge Kutta Explicit and Implicit methods, Crank-Nicholson
4th order Method, Runge Kutta Fehlberg Method, Scheme, Wave equation. Interpolation and data
sorting and curve fitting, Introduction to fitting, Polynomial interpolation, Newton’s
simulation techniques and computer graphics, Polynomial, Newton-Gregory Forwards
computational techniques in investigating and Polynomial, Lagrange Interpolating polynomial,
visualizing fundamental physics. Chi square fitting, Linear Fit. Computer algebra
and Introduction to MATHEMATICA,
Recommended Books: Introduction to MATLAB. Algorithm
development using C++. Simulation techniques
1. “Introductory Computational Physics” by and computer graphics, computational techniques
Andi Klein and Alexander Godunov, in investigating and visualizing fundamental
Cambridge University Press 2006. physics.
2. “Computational Physics: An introductory
Course”, Richard Fitzpatrick. University Recommended Books:
of Texas 2005. 1. Harvey M. Deitel and Paul J. Deitel,
3. “Computational Physics: Problem solving 2012, C++ How to Program, 8/e, Early
with Computers” Ed. 2nd by R. H. Objects Version, Prentice Hall
Landau, M. J. Paez and C. C. Bordieanu. 2. Richard Fitzpatrick, 2011, Introduction
Wiley VCHVerlag GmbH & Co KgaA, to Computational Physics, University of
22
2007. Texas.
4. “A First Course in Computational 3. William H. Press, Brian P. Flannery,
Physics”, by Paul L. Devries, John willey Saul A.
and Sons. N.Y. (1994). 4. Paul L. Devries and Javier E. Hasbun,
5. “Numerical Recipes: The Art of 2010, A First Course in Computational
Scientific Computing”, William H. Press, Physics, John Willey and Sons. N.Y..
Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, 5. Andi Klein and Alexander Godunov,
and William T. Vetterling Cambridge 2006, Introductory Computational
University Press 1988. Physics, Cambridge University Press.
6. R. H. Landau, M. J. Paez and C. C.
Bordieanu , 2007, Computational
Physics: Problem solving with
Computers, Ed. 2nd, Wiley VCHVerlag
GmbH & Co KgaA.
7. Teukolsky, and William T, 1998,
Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific
Computing, Vetterling Cambridge
University Press.
PHY-725 Nuclear Physics-II 3 (3 – 0) PHY-656 Nuclear Physics-II 3 (3 – 0)

## Types of nuclear reaction, Conservation laws of

nuclear reaction, Q-values of nuclear reaction,
Liquid drop model, shell model and collective
threshold energy, transmutation by photons,
model. Conservation laws of nuclear reaction, Q-
values of nuclear reaction, threshold energy, protons, deuterons and α-particles, direct
transmutation by photons, protons, deuterons and reactions, compound nuclear theory of nuclear
α-particles, excited states of nucleus, energy reactions, limitation of compound nucleus,
levels, level width, cross-section for nuclear excited states of nucleus, bound and virtual
reactions, compound nuclear theory of nuclear energy levels, level width, cross-section for
reactions, limitation of compound nucleus, Breit- nuclear reactions, Breit-wigner formula. Liquid
wigner formula, direct reactions. Neutron
drop model, Semi-empirical mass formula,
production and detection, Fission and Fusion
Reactions: Description of nuclear fission, Bohr- volume and surface energies, Shell model:
wheeler theory of nuclear fission, mass and magic numbers and closed shells, spin – orbit
energy distribution of fission fragments. Basic of interaction, Collective nuclear model, nuclear
nuclear reactors, Description of nuclear fusion deformations. The production and detection of
process. Fusion processes in sun and stars, neutrons, Fission and Fusion Reactions,
controlled nuclear fusion, D-D and D-T reactions.
discovery of nuclear fission, fission products,
Recommended Books: Bohr-wheeler theory of nuclear fission, mass and
energy distribution of fission fragments,
1. “Radiation Detection and Measurement”, Description of nuclear fusion process, D-D and
by Glenn, F. Knoll, John Wiley, 1989.
D-T reactions, Fusion processes in sun and stars,
2. “Techniques for Nuclear and Particle
Physics”, by William, R. Leo Springer, Nuclear fission and fusion as a source of energy,
1994. Basic of nuclear reactors, controlled nuclear
3. “Introducing Nuclear Physics”, by fusion.
Kenneth S. Krane 1995.
4. “Nuclear Physics”, by W.E.Burcham Recommended Books:
(McGraw-Hill).
5. “Text Book of Nuclear Physics”, 1. Henley E M and A Garcia.2007,
C.M.H.Smith (Pergamon). Subatomic. World Scientific
Publishing.
2. Povh B, K Rith, C Scholz and F
23
Zetsche, 2006, Particles and
Nuclei: an Introduction to the
Physical Concepts 5th Edition.
Berlin Springer.
3. Martin B R. 2006, Nuclear and
Particle Physics. New York:
Wiley.
4. David, W.I.F., K. Shankland,
L.B McK usker and C.
Baerloche. 2006. Structure
Determination from Powder
Diffraction Data. Oxford
University Press, New York.
5. Hanlon, J. F. 2003. A User
Guide to Vacuum Technology.
John Wiley and sons, USA.
6. Lilley J. 2001, Nuclear physics:
Basic concepts and applications.
7. Krane K S, 1995, Introducing Nuclear
Physics..
8. Nuclear Physics, by Irving
Kaplan latest edition.
9. Zhang, Z..M, B.K. Tsai and G.
Machin.
Quantum
PHY-726 3 (3 – 0) PHY-658 Laser and Optics 3 (3 – 0)
Electronics

## Spontaneous Emission, Stimulated Emission, Review of quantum mechanics, interaction of

Stimulated Absorption, Population, Population radiation with matter, Spontaneous and
Inversion, Threshold conditions for Amplification stimulated emission, absorption, cavity, gain
and feedback, modes in fabry-perot cavit, mode
medium, population inversion, threshold
density, spectral energy density, condition of
lasing Action, Rate equation treatment of two condition, Three and four level laser, pumping
level laser, Three and four level laser, laser mechanisms, properties of a laser beam, Modes
resonators, ray matrices, stable and unstable of a rectangular cavity, Raleigh-Jeans and Planck
resonators, Q-switching properties of laser beam, radiation formula, mode density, homogeneous
monochromatic directionality and brightness. and inhomogeneous broadening of atomic
transitions, amplitude fluctuations and spiking,
Recommended Books:
Rate equation approach to Laser theory,
1. “Laser Fundamentals”, W.T Silvfast, 2nd stationary solution, time-dependent solution,
edition. lasing condition, hole burning effect, Matrix
2. “Laser and Masers”, A.E Seigman, 1997. formulation of Geometrical optics , optical
resonators, Q-switching and mode locking, active
and passive mode-locking, fresnal number, types
of laser, laser applications

Recommended Books

## 1. Svelto O. 2010, Principles of Lasers. 5th

Ed. Springer New York Dordrecht
Heidelberg London
2. Hooker S and C Webb. 2010, Laser
24
Physics Oxford University Press, Inc.
New York
3. Abramczyk H. 2005, .Introduction to
laser spectroscopy. Elsevier.
4. Silfvast W T. 2004, Laser Fundamentals.
Cambridge University Press.
PHY-728 3 (3 – 0) 3 (3 – 0)
Particle Physics-II* PHY-660 Particle Physics-II*
OR

## Hadrons Spectroscopy: Formation experiments, Hadrons Spectroscopy: Formation experiments,

particle wave formalism and the optical theorem, particle wave formalism and the optical theorem,
the Breit-Winger resonance formula, baryon the Breit-Winger resonance formula, baryon
resonances, phase space considerations, resonances, phase space considerations,
production experiments. The Quark Model: The production experiments. The Quark Model: The
group SU (3), quarks, hadrons (baryons, mesons group SU (3), quarks, hadrons (baryons, mesons
in quark model, heave meson spectroscopy, the in quark model, heave meson spectroscopy, the
quarkonium model. The Standard Model quarkonium model. The Standard Model
(qualitative treatment only): Unification of weak (qualitative treatment only): Unification of weak
and electromagnetic interactions Glashow-Salam- and electromagnetic interactions Glashow-
Weinberg Model. Electrodynamics of spinless Salam-Weinberg Model. Electrodynamics of
particles: An “electron” in an electromagnetic spinless particles: An “electron” in an
field A”, “spinless” electron – muon scattering, electromagnetic field A”, “spinless” electron –
the cross section in terms of the invariant muon scattering, the cross section in terms of the
amplitude M, the decay rate in terms of M, invariant amplitude M, the decay rate in terms of
“spinless” electron – electron scattering, electron M, “spinless” electron – electron scattering,
– positron scattering: and application of crossing, electron – positron scattering: and application of
invariant variables, the origin of the propagator. crossing, invariant variables, the origin of the
Electrodynamics of Spin ½ Particles: An electron propagator. Electrodynamics of Spin ½ Particles:
interacting with an electromagnetic field A” , An electron interacting with an electromagnetic
Moller scattering e- e-  e-e- the process e- µ-  field A” , Moller scattering e- e-  e-e- the
e- µ- trace theorems and properties of y matrices., process e- µ-  e- µ- trace theorems and
e- µ- scattering and the process e- e-  µ+ µ- properties of y matrices., e- µ- scattering and the
helicity conservation at high energies, survey of process e- e-  µ+ µ- helicity conservation at
e- e+  e- e+ , µ- µ+ , e- µ-  e- µ- in the high energies, survey of e- e+  e- e+ , µ- µ+
laboratory frame; kinematics relevant to the , e- µ-  e- µ- in the laboratory frame;
parton model, photons, polarization vectors, more kinematics relevant to the parton model, photons,
on propagators, the electron propagator, the polarization vectors, more on propagators, the
photon propagator, massive vector particles, real electron propagator, the photon propagator,
and virtual photons, Compton scattering γ e-  γ massive vector particles, real and virtual photons,
e- pair, annihilation e+ e-  γγ, the + ive Compton scattering γ e-  γ e- pair, annihilation
prescription for propagators, Eeynman rules e+ e-  γγ, the + ive prescription for
QED. propagators, Eeynman rules QED.

## 1. “Relativistic Quantum Mechancis”, by 1. Burcham, E.E. and Jobes, M., J. (1995)

Bjorken,J. D. and Drell, S. D., McGraw- “Nuclear and Particle Physics”,
Hill, (1964) International Edition Longman.
reprinted in (1995). 2. Das, A. and Ferbel, T. , (1994)
2. “Nuclear and Particle Physics”, by “Introduction to Nuclear and Particle
burcham, E. E. and Jobes, M., Longman, Physics”, Johan Wiley and Sons.
(1995). 3. Williams”, W.S.C. (1993) “Nuclear and
3. “Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Particle Physics, Oxford University
25
Physics”, by Da, A. and ferbel, T., Johan Press.
Wiley and Sons, (1994). 4. Gottfired, K. and Weisskopt, F. (1986)
4. “Concepts of Particle Physics”, by “Concepts of Particle Physics”, vol. 1,
Gottfried, K. and Weisskopt, F., Vol. 1, Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Pres, (1986). 5. Griffiths, D. (1987). “Introduction of
5. “Introduction of elementary Particles”, by elementary Particles”, John Wiley and
Griffiths, D., John Wiley and Sons, Sons.
(1987).
6. “Introduction to Elementary Particles”,
by Griffiths, D.John-Wiley and Sons
1987.
PHY-729 Advanced 3 (3 – 0) PHY-662 Advanced 3 (0 – 3)
Electronics Lab Electronics Lab
OR Course* Course*

## 1. Design of UJT relaxation oscillator of a 1. Design of UJT relaxation oscillator of a

variable frequency, measure frequency variable frequency, measure frequency
and amplitude of the out put. and amplitude of the out put.
2. Design RF transistor oscillator, Convert 2. Design RF transistor oscillator, Convert
into a transmitter, detect the transmitted into a transmitter, detect the transmitted
wave by a radio receiver (Both for AM & wave by a radio receiver (Both for AM &
FM). FM).
3. Design an inverting and non-inverting 3. Design and study the application of
D.C amplifier, measurement of operational amplifier, (current to voltage
parameters of given IC operational converter instrumentation amplifier,
amplifier. buffer, voltage clamp, low and high pass
4. design and study the application of filter, half wave rectifier etc.).
operational amplifier, (current to voltage 4. Design and study the Low/High pass
converter instrumentation amplifier, active filters using 741 IC.
buffer, voltage clamp, integrator, 5. Design and study the application of 555
differentiator, low and high pass filter, timers IC (mono-stable, astable and bi-
half wave rectifier etc.). stable multi-vibrators).
5. Design a fixed and self bias transistor 6. Design a fixed and self bias transistor
binary and triggering of binary, using binary and triggering of binary, using
IC’s construct and study RS, JK (Master IC’s construct and study RS, JK (Master
stave), T and D flip-flops. stave), T and D flip-flops.
6. Design and study of a half and full adder 7. Design and study of a half and full adder
with different Boolean expression using with different Boolean expression using
IC’s. IC’s.
7. Synchronous and asynchronous BCD 8. Synchronous and asynchronous BCD
counters, Memory shift register with counters, Memory shift register with IC’s.
IC’s. 9. Frequency counter and optional digital
8. Frequency counter and optional digital clock.
clock. 10. Design and construct and analog to
9. Circuit study and fault findings of digital and digital to analog converters
stabilized power supply, Audio- using IC’s.
oscillator/CRO, multimeter/commercial 11. Design and study of decoder, encoder,
radio and T.V. multiplexer and de-multiplexer circuits
10. Design and construct and analog to and compare the input out put
digital and digital to analog converters waveforms.
using IC’s. 12. To construct and understand an operation
11. Design and study of decoder, encoder, of arithmetic logic unit and study of
multiplexer and de-multiplexer circuits different arithmetic logic operations.

26
and compare the input out put 13. To construct and study of data storage
waveforms. and retrieved using semiconductor
12. To construct and understand an operation memory and understand the process of
of arithmetic logic unit and study of fetching an instruction and its operand
different arithmetic logic operations. with ALU.
13. To construct and study of data storage 14. Using microprocessor trainer’s study of
and retrieved using semiconductor microprocessor application working form
memory and understand the process of host personal computers.
fetching an instruction and its operand 15. Design of Digital Clock.
with ALU. Recommended Books:
14. Using microprocessor trainer’s study of
microprocessor application working form 1. Floyd, T. L. 2010. Digital
host personal computers. Fundamentals 10TH Ed. Prentice-
15. Design of Digital Clock. Hall Intern. Inc., Englewood
Cliffs (USA).
2. Tocci, R. J. 2010. Digital
Systems: Principles and
Applications 11TH Ed. Prentice-
Hall Intern. Inc., Englewood
Cliffs (USA).
3. Lathi, B. P. 2009. Modern
Digital and Analog
Communication Systems 4TH Ed.
Oxford University Press.
4. Mano, M. M. 2002. Digital
Design 4TH Ed. Prentice-Hall
Intern. Inc., Englewood Cliffs
(USA).

Environmental 3 (3 – 0) Environmental*
PHY-730 PHY-664
Physics-II* Physics Lab Course 3 (0 – 3)
OR

Basic metrology, horizontal dispersion of Students are required to study the functioning
pollutants, vertical dispersion of pollutants, and data analysis obtained from various machines
atmospheric dispersion, cleansing the used in Atmospheric & Environmental Physics.
atmosphere. Data collection and organization, The students have to work in some agencies
statistical analysis of climatic data, climatic where these facilities are available. The details of
indices, General characteristics of measuring the activities performed in this lab are as under.
equipments. Measurement of temperature, air
humidity, surface wind velocity, Radiation 1. Solid Aerosols / soils sample collections
balance, precipitation, Atmospheric Pressure, 2. Physio chemical & mechanical properties
automatic weather stations. Composition & of solid aerosols / soils samples.
Structure of atmosphere, Air mass classification, 3. Qualitative & Quantitative analysis solid
Thermodynamic characteristics, General aerosols / soils samples.
Circulation. First law of thermodynamics and 4. Morphological & texture analysis of
enthalpy; adiabatic processes and potential solid aerosols / soils samples.
temperature. The second law of thermodynamics; 5. Climatological data analysis with respect
entropy; thermodynamics of water vapor and to global warming & global cooling
moist air; thermodynamic properties of the water (whether trends)
substance; phase transition of water; water vapor Recommended Books:
and moist air; Clausius-Clapeyron’s equation.
1. Zhang, Z..M, B.K. Tsai and G. Machin.
27
Recommended Books: 2010. Experimental Methods in Physical
Science Vol. 2, Academic Press, USA..
1. “Hand Book of Applied Metrology”, by 2. “The status of Climate Variation in
Hougton (Publisher: Wiley), 1st Edition, Pakistan & Its Impact”, by SMRC. No.
1985. 10 SAARC Met. Research Centre, 1st
2. “Atmospheric Chemistry & Global Edition 2004.
Change”, by Guy. P.Grasseur (Publisher: 3. Hanlon, J. F. 2003. A User Guide to
Oxford), 1st Edition, 1999. Vacuum Technology. John Wiley and
3. “Statistical Analysis in Climate sons, USA.
Research”, by Hans Vonstroch 4. Vonstorch H. 2001, Statistical Analysis
(Publisher: Oxford), 1st Edition, 2001. in Climate Research. 1st Ed. Publisher:
4. “The status of Climate Variation in Cambridge.
Pakistan & Its Impact”, by SMRC. No. 5. David W I F, K Shankland, L.B McK
10 SAARC Met. Research Centre, 1st usker.
Edition 2004. 6. Grasseur G P, 1999, Atmospheric
5. “Applied Climatology”, by Russell Chemistry & Global Change (Publisher:
D.Thompson (Publisher: Routledge), 1st Oxford), 1st Edition.
Edition, 1997. 7. Hougton, 1985, Hand Book of applied
Meterology, 1st Ed. Publisher: Wiley
8. Thompson R D. 1997, Applied
Climatology. 1st Ed. Publisher:
Routledge.
Health and Medical Health and Medical
PHY-731 3 (3 – 0) PHY-666 3 (3 – 0)
Physics -II* Physics -II*

Radiation Dosimetry: History of Absorbed Dose, Radiation Dosimetry: History of Absorbed Dose,
Stochastic and Non-stochastic quantities, units for Stochastic and Non-stochastic quantities, units
absorbed Dose, Absorbed Dose Calorimeters, for absorbed Dose, Absorbed Dose Calorimeters,
Exposure and its measurements. The free-air Exposure and its measurements. The free-air
chamber, Exposure measurement with calibrated chamber, Exposure measurement with calibrated
cavity chamber. The concept of Kerma, absorbed cavity chamber. The concept of Kerma, absorbed
Dose in air, Absorbed dose in other Materials, Dose in air, Absorbed dose in other Materials,
Factors converting Exposure to Absorbed Dose to Factors converting Exposure to Absorbed Dose
wake, High energy calibrations. The Bragg-Gray to wake, High energy calibrations. The Bragg-
Cavity theory. Methods of Dosimetry: Gray Cavity theory. Methods of Dosimetry:
Calorimeters, Ionization chambers, chemical Calorimeters, Ionization chambers, chemical
Dosimetry, Thermo luminescence Dosimetry Dosimetry, Thermo luminescence Dosimetry
(TLD), Photographic Dosimeter, Scintillation (TLD), Photographic Dosimeter, Scintillation
Detectors, other Dosimetric Systems. Health Detectors, other Dosimetric Systems. Health
Physics: Cardinal principles of radiation Physics: Cardinal principles of radiation
protection, minimize time, Maximize distance, protection, minimize time, Maximize distance,
Maximize shielding, Time, Distance and Maximize shielding, Time, Distance and
shielding, Maximum permissible dose, whole- shielding, Maximum permissible dose, whole-
body occupational exposure, whole-body non- body occupational exposure, whole-body non-
occupational exposure, partial body occupational occupational exposure, partial body occupational
exposure, X-ray and pregnancy, Basic radiation exposure, X-ray and pregnancy, Basic radiation
safety criteria, effective dose-equivalent, safety criteria, effective dose-equivalent,
allowable limit on intake (ALI), inhaled allowable limit on intake (ALI), inhaled
radioactivity, derived air concentration, radioactivity, derived air concentration,
Gastrointestinal tract, Basis of radiation safety Gastrointestinal tract, Basis of radiation safety
regulations. regulations
Recommended Books:
Recommended Books:

28
1. Introduction to Health Physics by 1. Cember H. 1996, Introduction to Health
Herman Cember. 3rd Ed/ <cGraw Hill, Physics. 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill, New
New York, 1996. York.
2. Thwaits, Radiotherapy Physics by sssJ.R. 2. Williams J R and D I Thwaits, 1993,
Illiams. D.I, Oxford, University Press, Radiotherapy Physics. Oxford University
New York, 1993. Press, New York.
3. Diagnostic Imaging, by Peter Armstrong 3. Armstrong P and L Martin. Diagnostic
and Martin L. 4th Ed., Blackwell Science Imaging 4th Ed. Blackwell Science Ltd.
Ltd. Oxford, 1998. 4. Bushong S C. 1993, Radiologic Science
4. Radiologic Science of Technologists by of Technologists. 5th Ed. Mosby.
stewart c. Bushong, 5th Ed. Mosby, 1993. 5. Greening J R. 1985, Fundamentals of
5. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry, by Radiation Dosimetry. 2nd Ed. Adam
J. R. Greening, 2nd Ed. Adam Hilger Ltd., Hilger Ltd., Bristol.
Bristol 1985. 6. Joran C. 2003, CERN, summer student
lecturers
7. RIEGLER W. 2008, CERN, Academic
Training Course.
8. Forty R. 2010, ICFA, Instrumentation
School.
Chalk Talk Climatology and
PHY-668
PHY-727 Reading 2 (3 – 0) Metrology-II* 3 (3 – 0)
Assignment

## Climatology: Climatic elements; principles of

climate classification; world climate
classification; climates of Asia; climates of the
sub-continent; the climate of Pakistan. Climate
Change: Meteorological factors affecting climate;
greenhouse gases; El-Nino, La-Nina. Tropical
Meteorology: Tropical general circulation,
Diurnal variations of meteorological elements in
the tropics, A survey of low-latitude weather
disturbances easterly waves’ intertropical
convergence zone. Monsoons, Tropical cyclones,
structure and formation of cyclones. Aviation
Meteorology: meteorological aspects of flight
planning’s, aviation hazards and their association
Deleted with synoptic patterns, aircraft icing, turbulence,
fog, thunderstorms, dust storms, low-level
vertical wind shear, jet stream formation &
structure.

Recommended Books.

## 1. Brasseur G P, 1999, Atmospheric

Chemistry & Global Chang (Publisher:
Oxford), 1st Edition.
2. Vonstorch H. 2001, Statistical Analysis
in Climate Research. 1st Ed. Publisher:
Cambridge.
3. Morgan M, 1991, Meteorology 3rd Ed.
(Publisher: MacMillion),
4. Hidore O. 1984, Climatology 1st ed.
29
(Publisher: Merrill).
5. Haltiner and Martin. 1957, Dynamical &
Physical Meteorlogy 1st Ed. (Publisher:
McGraw Hill).
6. Carlson. 1981, Tropical Meterology, 1st
Ed. Publisher: The Pennsylvania State
University.
7. Hougton, 1985, Hand Book of applied
Meterology, 1st Ed. Publisher: Wiley
PHY-679 Seminar 1 (1 – 0)

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