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Properties of ethanol and ethanol-water solutions –

Tables and Equations


Eigenschaften von Ethanol und Ethanol-Wasser-Lösungen – Tabellen und Gleichungen

Pavel Kadlec, Svatopluk Henke, Zdeněk Bubník

This paper deals with the physico-chemical properties of ethanol Der Beitrag befasst sich mit den physikalisch-chemischen Eigen-
and ethanol-water solutions. The data of ethanol properties and its schaften von Ethanol und Ethanol-Wasser-Lösungen. Die Daten
water solutions, which were obtained from literature, are presented von Ethanol und der Ethanol-Wasser-Lösungen, die der Literatur
in the form of Equations and Tables.Extended properties include entnommen wurden, werden in Form von Gleichungen und Tabel-
data for pure ethanol (density, vapor pressure, surface tension, vis- len dargestellt. Enthalten sind für reines Ethanol Daten von Dichte,
cosity, molar and specific heat capacity, enthalpy of evaporation, Dampfdruck, Oberflächenspannung, Viskosität, molare und spe-
thermal conductivity and static relative permittivity) and tabled zifische Wärmekapazität, Verdampfungsenthalpie, Wärmeleitfä-
data for ethanol-water solutions (0–100% ethanol) as well: con- higkeit und statische Dielektrizitätszahl und für Ethanol-Wasser-
centrative properties, surface tension and thermal conductivity at Lösungen (0–100 % Ethanol) Konzentrationseigenschaften, Ober-
20 °C, density, viscosity, boiling point and equilibrium liquid-va- flächenspannung und thermische Leitfähigkeit bei 20 ° C, Dichte,
por at normal pressure. Viskosität, Siedepunkt und Dampf-Flüssigkeit-Gleichgewicht bei
Normaldruck.
Key words: ethanol, ethanol-water solution, physico-chemical
properties Stichwörter: Ethanol, Ethanol-Wasser-Lösungen, physikalisch-
chemische Eigenschaften

1 Introduction algorithms for calculations of these properties are shown in the fol-
lowing subchapters.
Data of physico-chemical properties of ethanol are important for
chemical engineering calculations, modeling and the evaluation of
the ethanol production process and use of ethanol for food and non- 2.1 Density ρ of ethanol in g/cm3 for the temperature range
food applications. from –114 to 207 °C
Properties of ethanol are presented in the form of Tables as well
as by formulas. One of the most important goals of this paper is Eq. (1) for the temperature dependence of density of pure ethanol
to develop algorithms for calculation of the extended properties of in the range from –114 to 207 °C was presented by Cibulka [14].
ethanol collected from the literature. Extended properties include In his work other saturated 1-alkanols from C1 to C10 and n-alkanes
data for pure ethanol (density, vapor pressure, surface tension, vis- from C5 to C16 are also critically evaluated.
cosity, molar and specific heat capacity, enthalpy of evaporation,
7 i /3
thermal conductivity and static relative permittivity) and tabulated  T (1)
data for ethanol-water solutions (0–100% ethanol) as well: concen- ρ = 1000 ∑
i =0
Ai  1 − 
 Tc 
trative properties, surface tension and thermal conductivity at 20
°C, density, viscosity, boiling point and equilibrium liquid–vapor
at normal pressure.
2.2 Vapor pressure p0 of ethanol in kPa for the temperature
range from –3 to 96 °C according to the Antoine equation
2 Properties of pure ethanol
The presented eq. (2) for vapor pressure of ethanol dependence on
The data for properties of pure ethanol from various authors are temperature can be found in Reid [6]. It is the temperature depen-
together collected in Table 1 including the numerical reference to dence of vapor pressure according to the Antoine equation (known
the source. since 1887) in the range between –3 to 96 °C. In Reid [6] it is pos-
Temperature dependences of chosen properties of pure ethanol sible to find other more complex vapor pressure equations.
for the temperature range from –20 to 80 °C for commonly used
chemical engineering calculations are summarized in Table 2. The ln p0 = A − B (2)
T +C

Sugar Industry / Zuckerindustrie 135 (2010) No. 10, 607–613 607


Table 1: Properties of ethanol
Property Symbol Unit Numerical value Reference
Chemical properties
Molecular formula C2H6O
Molar mass M g/mol 46.068

Critical constants
Normal boiling point tb °C 78.29 at 101.325 kPa [1]
Critical temperature tc °C 240.75 [1]
Critical pressure pc MPa 6.137 [1]
Critical molar volume Vc cm3/mol 168 [1]
Critical density ρc g/cm3 0.276 [2]
Critical compressibility factor Zc 1 0.248 [2]
Acentric factor Ω 1 0.637 [2]

Physical properties
Melting point tm °C –114.1 [1]
Freezing point tf °C –114.1 at 0.1 MPa [3]
tf °C –108 at 100 MPa [4]
Ebullioscopic constant Eb (K · kg)/mol 1.23 [5]
Van der Waals constants for gas a (Pa · m6)/mol2 1.256 [6]
b m3/mol 8.71 · 10–5 [6]
Density ρ kg/m3 789.24 at 20 °C [5]
Vapor pressure p kPa 5.87 at 20 °C [7]
Dependence of boiling point on pressure ∆tb/∆p K/kPa 0.249 [7]
Isothermal compressibility κ 1/kPa 111.9 [7]
Cubic thermal expansion α 1/K 0.0014 [7]
Surface tension σ mN/m 22.8 at 20 °C [8]
Viscosity η mPa · s 1.195 at 20 °C [5]
Flash point tfp °C 13 [5]
Flammable limits (explosive limits) cFL mL/L 3.3–190 [5]
Autoignition temperature tAu °C 363 [5]
Adiabatic flame temperature in air t °C 1965 [9]
Threshold limit for allowable
airborne concentration cTLV g/L 0.998 859 at 25 °C,
101.325 kPa [6]
Dissociation constant of pure ethanol
to dilute to aqueous solution pKa 15.5 at 25 °C [10]
Permanent dipole moment µ C/m 1.69 [5]
Permittivity (dielectric constant) ε 1 25.45 at 20 °C [11]
Refractive index nD 1 1.361 6 at 589 nm, 20 °C [5]

Thermo-physical properties
Standard molar enthalpy of formation
– pure liquid ethanol ∆Ho kJ/mol –277.6 at 25 °C [5]
– pure gaseous ethanol ∆Ho kJ/mol –234.8 at 25 °C [5]
Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation
– pure liquid ethanol ∆Go kJ/mol –174.8 at 25 °C [5]
– pure gaseous ethanol ∆Go kJ/mol –167.9 at 25 °C [5]
Molar heat capacity
– pure liquid ethanol Cp J/(mol · K) 112.3 at 25 °C [5]
– pure gaseous ethanol Cp J/(mol · K) 65.6 at 25 °C [5]
Specific heat capacity cp J/(kg · K) 2 437.08 at 25 °C [6]
Molar enthalpy of fusion Hfus kJ/mol 4.931 at –114.1 °C [5]
Specific enthalpy of fusion hfus kJ/kg 107.035 at –114.1 °C [5]
Molar evaporation enthalpy hm,Ev kJ/mol 38.56 at 78,29 °C [5]
hm,Ev kJ/mol 42.40 at 25 °C [5]
Specific evaporation enthalpy hs,Ev kJ/kg 836.88 at 78,29 °C [5]
hs,Ev kJ/kg 920.40 at 25 °C [5]
Molar enthalpy of combustion ∆Hcb kJ/mol 1,235.5 at 25 °C [2]
Specific enthalpy of combustion ∆hcb kJ/kg 26,818.5 at 25 °C [2]
Molar entropy Sm J/(mol · K) 282.59 at 25 °C [2]
Entropy of gas formation Sm J/(mol · K) –223.143 at 25 °C [2]
Thermal conductivity λ W/(m · K) 0.167 89 at 25 °C [12]
Energy value (Physiological calorific value) kJ/g 30 [13]


2.3 Surface tension σ of ethanol in mN/m for the temperature 2.4 Dynamic viscosity η of ethanol in mPa · s for the tempera-
range from –114.1 to 243.1 °C ture range –50 to 100 °C

Eq. (3) for the temperature dependence of surface tension of ethanol Eq. (4) is from the book of Perry [18].
is taken from Yaws [16] and is valid from –114.1 to 243.1 °C. The
relation for dependence is known as the Othmer equation [17]. ln η = A + BT −1 + CT + DT 2 (4)

 t2 − t 
n
σ = σ1  (3)
 t2 − t1 

608 Sugar Industry / Zuckerindustrie 135 (2010) No. 10, 607–613


Table 2: Physical properties of pure ethanol – temperature dependences of density, vapor pressure, surface tension, dynamic viscos-
ity, static relative permittivity, molar heat capacity, specific heat capacity, molar evaporation enthalpy, specific evaporation enthalpy,
thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity of ethanol vapor, Prandtl number and Reynolds number, in the temperature range from –20
to 80 °C
Ref. [14] [6, 15] [2, 5, 16] [6, 18] [11, 19] [20] [20] [21] [21] [15] [15, 22]
Temp. Density Vapor Surface Dynamic Static Molar Specific Molar Specific Thermal Thermal Prandtl Reynolds number for
pressure tension viscosity relative heat heat evapor- evapor- conduct- conductivity number velocity of flow v
capacity ation ation ivity for ethanol in m/s
enthalpy enthalpy vapor
0.5 1.0 1.5
t ρ p0 σ η εr Cp cp hm,Ev hs,Ev λ λ Pr Re Re Re
°C kg/m3 kPa mN/m mPa · s 1 J/(mol · K) J/(kg · K) kJ/mol kJ/kg W/(m · K) W/(m · K) 1 1 1 1
–20 823.15 0.34 26.34 2.830 31.41 98.37 2135.34 44.81 972.76 0.17971 0.00969 33.6 14,544 29,089 43,633
–15 818.92 0.51 25.90 2.510 30.54 99.58 2161.47 44.58 967.61 0.17836 0.01016 30.4 16,315 32,630 48,945
–10 814.69 0.76 25.46 2.235 29.71 100.86 2189.36 44.33 962.31 0.17701 0.01063 27.6 18,227 36,455 54,682
–5 810.46 1.11 25.02 1.997 28.91 102.23 2219.04 44.08 956.84 0.17567 0.01111 25.2 20,288 40,575 60,863
0 806.23 1.59 24.58 1.792 28.16 103.68 2250.57 43.82 951.21 0.17435 0.01159 23.1 22,501 45,003 67,504
5 802.00 2.25 24.14 1.612 27.43 105.22 2283.98 43.56 945.41 0.17303 0.01207 21.3 24,875 49,749 74,624
10 797.76 3.14 23.69 1.455 26.74 106.85 2319.30 43.28 939.43 0.17173 0.01256 19.7 27,414 54,828 82,242
15 793.51 4.32 23.25 1.317 26.08 108.57 2356.57 43.00 933.28 0.17044 0.01305 18.2 30,126 60,251 90,377
20 789.24 5.87 22.80 1.195 25.45 110.38 2395.82 42.70 926.93 0.16916 0.01355 16.9 33,016 66,033 99,049
25 784.96 7.88 22.35 1.087 24.85 112.28 2437.08 42.40 920.40 0.16789 0.01404 15.8 36,093 72,186 108,279
30 780.64 10.47 21.90 0.992 24.28 114.27 2480.37 42.09 913.66 0.16663 0.01455 14.8 39,363 78,726 118,089
35 776.29 13.76 21.45 0.906 23.74 116.36 2525.72 41.77 906.72 0.16538 0.01505 13.8 42,834 85,668 128,502
40 771.91 17.89 21.00 0.830 23.22 118.54 2573.13 41.44 899.57 0.16415 0.01556 13.0 46,514 93,028 139,542
45 767.48 23.05 20.55 0.761 22.73 120.82 2622.63 41.10 892.20 0.16292 0.01608 12.3 50,411 100,821 151,232
50 763.00 29.44 20.09 0.700 22.26 123.20 2674.21 40.75 884.60 0.16171 0.01660 11.6 54,533 109,067 163,600
55 758.47 37.27 19.63 0.644 21.82 125.67 2727.88 40.39 876.76 0.16050 0.01712 10.9 58,891 117,782 176,672
60 753.87 46.80 19.18 0.594 21.39 128.24 2783.64 40.02 868.68 0.15931 0.01764 10.4 63,492 126,985 190,477
65 749.20 58.32 18.72 0.548 20.99 130.91 2841.47 39.64 860.35 0.15813 0.01817 9.85 68,348 136,696 205,044
70 744.45 72.15 18.26 0.507 20.60 133.67 2901.36 39.24 851.75 0.15696 0.01870 9.37 73,468 146,936 220,404
75 739.61 88.65 17.79 0.469 20.24 136.52 2963.28 38.83 842.87 0.15580 0.01924 8.92 78,863 157,725 236,588
80 734.68 108.19 17.33 0.434 19.89 139.46 3027.20 38.41 833.71 0.15465 0.01978 8.51 84,543 169,086 253,629

2.5 Static relative permittivity (dielectric constant) εr of etha-


Table 3: Constants for Table 6: Constants for nol for the temperature range from –110 to 250 °C
density (Cibulka [14]) dynamic viscosity (Perry
A0 0.276 [18]) Eq. (5) is presented in the Handbook of Lide [5, 19]. The original
A1 –0.2739686 Constant Value data can be found in the article by Wohlfahrt [11].
A2 10.49591
A3 –49.98835 A –7.10566
A4 123.0696 B 1.67513 · 103 ε r = A + BT + CT 2 + DT 3 (5)
A5 –162.4311 C 1.03679 · 10–2
A6 108.7218 D –1.71008 · 10–5
A7 –28.7993
Tc 513.88 2.6 Molar and specific heat capacity (Cp, cp) of ethanol in
J/(mol · K) and J/(kg · K) for the temperature range from
Table 7: Constants for –114 to 105 °C
static relative permittivity
Table 4: Constants for va- (Lide [19]) Eqs. (6) and (7) are taken from Zábranský [20].
por pressure (Reid [6]) Constant Value
Constant Value −1 2 3
A 1.51450 · 102 
A 1.68969 · 101 –8.70200 · 10–1
Cp T  T T T T
B = A1 ln  1 −  + A2  1 −  + A3 + A4   + A5   + A6  
B 3.80398 · 103 C 1.95700 · 10–3 R  Tc   Tc   Tc   Tc   Tc 
C –4.16800 · 101 D –1.55120 · 10–6
(6)
Cp
cp = (7)
Mm
Table 8: Constants for mo-
Table 5: Constants for sur- lar and specific heat capac-
face tension (Yaws [16]) ity (Zábranský [20])
Constant Value Units Constant Value 2.7 Molar and specific evaporation enthalpy (hm,EV, hs,EV) of
σ1 22.8 mN/m R 8.314 ethanol in kJ/mol and kJ/kg for the temperature range
t1 20.0 °C Tc 513.92 25 to 196 °C
t2 243.1 °C A1 15.4028
n 0.8760 1 A2 0.359101
A3 9.35649 Eqs. (8) and (9) are according to Majer [21].
A4 25.7454 β
A5 –41.4812  T  T
hm,Ev = A  1 −  exp  −α  (8)
A6 80.3298  Tc  Tc
Mm 0.04607

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h Table 9: Constants for Table 12: Density, molar and specific heat capacity of 96%
hs,Ev = m,Ev
(9)
Mm enthalpy of evaporation ethanol-water solution
(Majer [21]) Temp. Density Molar heat Specific heat
Constant Value capacity capacity
2.8 Thermal conductivity λ t ρ Cp cp
of ethanol in W/(m · K) in Tc 513.9 °C kg/m3 J/(mol · K) J/(kg · K)
A 50.43
the range –114 to 190 °C α –0.4475 –20 838.62 104.27 2263.36
β 0.4989 –15 834.99 105.34 2286.58
Eq. (10) for the dependence Mm 0.04607 –10 831.32 106.49 2311.51
–5 827.60 107.72 2338.13
of thermal conductivity on the 0 823.83 109.02 2366.46
thermodynamical temperature is 5 820.00 110.41 2396.49
according to the book of Miller Table 10: Constants for 10 816.13 111.87 2428.23
[15]. thermal conductivity of 15 812.20 113.41 2461.66
pure ethanol liquid (Mill- 20 808.21 115.03 2496.80
25 804.16 116.72 2533.64
λ = A + BT + CT 2 (10) er [15]) 30 800.04 118.50 2572.18
Constant Value 35 795.86 120.35 2612.42
40 791.60 122.29 2654.37
A 2.6293 · 10–1 45 787.28 124.30 2698.02
B –3.8468 · 10–4 50 782.87 126.39 2743.36
2.9 Thermal conductivity λ C 2.2106 · 10–7 55 778.38 128.55 2790.42
of ethanol vapor in 60 773.80 130.80 2839.17
W/(m · K) in the range 65 769.13 133.12 2889.62
from 0 to 1000 °C 70 764.36 135.53 2941.78
Table 11: Constants for 75 759.49 138.01 2995.64
80 754.50 140.57 3051.20
Eq. (11) for the dependence of thermal conductivity of
pure ethanol vapor (Mill- Note: Adapted according to Yaws [2].
the thermal conductivity on the
temperature is according to Mill- er [22])
er [22]. Constant Value
A –7.79580 · 10–3
B 4.16600 · 10–5
λ = A + BT + CT 2 + DT 3 (11) C 1.21417 · 10–7 4 Properties of ethanol-water solutions
D –5.18325 · 10–11 for the concentration range from 0 to 100%

Tables for ethanol-water solutions for the concentration range 0–


2.10 Prandtl number Pr of pure ethanol 100% were adapted according to data from the literature.

Prandtl numbers Pr of pure ethanol in Table 2 were calculated ac-


cording to eq. (12) by means of the known eqs. (4) for dynamic 4.1 Densities ρ of ethanol-water solutions in kg/m3
viscosity η, (6) and (7) for specific heat capacity (cp) and (10) for
thermal conductivity λ. The densities of ethanol-water solutions for the temperature range
0–80 °C were taken from and adapted according to Osborne [23],
η ⋅ cp
Pr = (12) Recommendation Internationale No. 22: Alcoométrie, Tables al-
λ coométriques internationales [24], Tables alcoométriques: Organi-
sation Internationale de Métrologie Légale [25] and Washburn [26,
27]. The density data are shown in Table 13.
2.11 Reynolds number Re of pure ethanol for a
flow-through pipe of diameter d = 100 mm

Reynolds numbers Re of pure ethanol in Table 2 were


calculated for a flow-through pipe of diameter d = 100
mm for three values of velocity of flow v in m/s (0.5; Table 13: Density ρ of aqueous ethanol solutions in kg/m3
1.0; 1.5) according to eq. (13) by means of the known
Ethanol Temperature t in °C
eqs. (1) for density ρ and (4) for dynamic viscosity η. content 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
wE in %
Re = v ⋅ d ⋅ρ (13) 0 999.70 999.10 998.20 997.05 995.65 994.03 992.22
η 10 983.90 983.01 981.84 980.40 978.72 976.82 974.72
20 972.49 970.65 968.61 966.36 963.92 961.31 958.53
30 959.74 956.83 953.79 950.64 947.38 944.00 940.52
40 942.35 938.79 935.15 931.45 927.67 923.82 919.89
3 Properties of 96% ethanol-water 50 921.59 917.73 913.81 909.82 905.77 901.65 897.47
60 899.24 895.20 891.10 886.96 882.75 878.48 874.14
solution 70 875.99 871.84 867.63 863.37 859.05 854.67 850.22
80 851.94 847.69 843.41 839.08 834.70 830.27 825.76
Table 12 gives basic properties such as density, molar 90 826.52 822.25 817.95 813.60 809.20 804.76 800.26
100 797.76 793.51 789.24 784.96 780.64 776.29 771.91
and heat capacity of 96% ethanol-water solution ac-
Note: Adapted according to Osborne [23], Recommendation Internationale [24], Tables
cording to Yaws [2]. alcoométriques [25], Washburn [26, 27].

610 Sugar Industry / Zuckerindustrie 135 (2010) No. 10, 607–613


Table 14: Viscosity η of aqueous ethanol solutions in mPa · s
Ethanol Temperature t in °C
content 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
wE in %
10 3.311 2.179 1.501 1.160 0.907 0.734 0.609 0.514 0.430
20 5.319 3.165 2.142 1.553 1.160 0.907 0.736 0.608 0.505
30 6.940 4.050 2.667 1.870 1.368 1.050 0.834 0.683 0.567
40 7.140 4.390 2.846 2.020 1.482 1.132 0.893 0.727 0.601
50 6.580 4.180 2.813 2.020 1.499 1.155 0.913 0.740 0.612
60 5.750 3.770 2.547 1.930 1.447 1.127 0.902 0.729 0.604
70 4.762 3.268 2.214 1.767 1.344 1.062 0.856 0.695
80 3.690 2.710 1.881 1.531 1.203 0.968 0.789 0.650
90 2.732 2.101 1.542 1.279 1.035 0.848 0.704 0.589
100 1.792 1.455 1.195 0.992 0.830 0.700 0.594 0.507 0.434
Note: Adapted according to Reid [6], Perry [18], Dykyj [28], Dyr [29].

Table 15: Surface tensions and Table 16: Concentrative properties of aqueous ethanol solutions at 20 °C
thermal conductivities of aqueous Reference [31, 32] [5] [5] [5] [5] [5] [5]
ethanol at 20 °C Ethanol Ethanol Molality Molarity Density Refractive Freezing Dynamic
content content index point viscosity
Reference [30] [15] (589 mn)
Ethanol Surface Thermal wE vb b c ρ nD ∆t η
content tension conductivity % % (v/v) mol/kg mol/L kg/m3 1 K mPa · s
wE σ λ
% mN/m W/(m · K) 0 0.00 0.000 0.000 998.2 1.3330 0.00 1.000
1 1.26 0.219 0.216 996.3 1.3336 0.40 1.046
0 72.01 – 3 3.76 0.671 0.646 992.7 1.3348 1.23 1.140
10 47.53 0.461 5 6.24 1.142 1.074 989.3 1.3360 2.09 1.228
20 37.97 0.416 7 8.71 1.634 1.498 986.2 1.3374 2.99 1.331
30 32.98 0.374 9 11.16 2.147 1.921 983.3 1.3388 3.96 1.442
40 30.16 0.335 11 13.61 2.683 2.341 980.5 1.3403 5.00 1.563
50 27.96 0.295 13 16.04 3.243 2.759 977.8 1.3417 6.13 1.694
60 26.23 0.263 15 18.46 3.830 3.175 975.2 1.3432 7.36 1.826
70 25.10 0.230 17 20.87 4.446 3.589 972.6 1.3447 8.69 1.955
80 23.82 0.205 20 24.46 5.427 4.205 968.7 1.3469 10.92 2.142
90 22.72 0.180 24 29.20 6.855 5.018 963.2 1.3498 14.47 2.370
100 22.80 0.169 28 33.87 8.441 5.817 957.1 1.3524 18.43 2.581
Note: Adapted according to Miller [15], 32 38.45 10.215 6.601 950.4 1.3546 22.44 2.726
Vazquez [30]. 36 42.94 12.210 7.370 943.1 1.3566 25.98 2.803
40 47.32 14.471 8.120 935.2 1.3583 29.26 2.846
44 51.60 17.055 8.853 926.9 1.3598 32.68 2.850
48 55.77 20.036 9.568 918.3 1.3610 36.04 2.832
52 59.85 23.515 10.266 909.5 1.3621 39.20 2.789
4.2 Dynamic viscosity η of ethanol- 56 63.81 27.626 10.945 900.4 1.3630 42.06 2.701
60 67.68 32.559 11.605 891.1 1.3638 44.93 2.547
water solutions in mPa · s 64 71.45 38.589 12.250 881.8 1.3644 47.52 2.415
68 75.11 46.125 12.877 872.4 1.3650 49.52 2.281
The dynamic viscosities of ethanol-water 72 78.67 55.816 13.486 862.9 1.3654 2.148
76 82.12 68.736 14.077 853.3 1.3657 2.015
solutions for the temperature range 0–80 80 85.46 86.824 14.649 843.6 1.3658 1.881
°C were adapted according to Reid [6], 84 113.957 15.197 833.5 1.3656 1.741
Perry [18], Dykyj [28] and Dyr [29] and 88 159.178 15.724 823.2 1.3653 1.606
92 249.620 16.225 812.5 1.3646 1.475
are shown in Table 14. 96 520.946 16.697 801.3 1.3636 1.342
100 17.133 789.3 1.3616 1.195
Note: Adapted according to Lide [5], Šťastný [31], Žáček [32].
4.3 Surface tension and thermal
conductivity of ethanol-water
solutions at 20 °C
nm, freezing point depression ∆t (K) and dynamic viscosity η
The surface tensions and thermal conductivities of ethanol-water (mPa · s) are shown for ethanol content wE in % (m/m), νb in %
solutions for a temperature of 20 °C were taken from and adapted (v/v), molality b (mol/kg) and molarity c (mol/L). These data were
according to Miller [15], Vazquez [30] and are shown in Table 15. taken from and adapted according to Lide [5], Šťastný [31] and
Žáček [32].

4.4 Concentrative properties of ethanol-


water solutions at 20 °C 4.5 Boiling point tb of ethanol-water solutions in °C

Table 16 shows the survey of various ways for concentrations of The boiling points tb of ethanol-water solutions for 7 values of
ethanol-water solutions at 20 °C for ethanol contents wE from 0 pressure (26.66; 53.32; 79.98; 101.31; 130.76; 108.67; 138.10 kPa)
to 20% (m/m) with steps of 2% and for the range of 20–100% were taken from and adapted according to Dykyj [28] and Dyr [29]
with steps of 4%. Density ρ (kg/m3), refractive index nD at 589 and are shown in Table 17.

Sugar Industry / Zuckerindustrie 135 (2010) No. 10, 607–613 611


Acknowledgements
Table 17: Boiling points tb of aqueous ethanol solutions in °C
The work is supported by the research project MSM6046137305 of
Ethanol Pressure p in kPa
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.
content
wE in % 26.66 53.32 79.98 101.31 103.76 108.67 138.10
0 66.5 83.3 93.2 100.0 106.3 111.4 143.4 Symbols
10 60.5 76.7 87.0 91.2 100.6 105.8 137.7 a Van der Waals constants for gas in (Pa · m6)/mol2
20 56.2 72.0 82.0 87.0 94.7 100.0 131.0 b Van der Waals constants for gas in m3/mol
30 54.0 69.3 79.3 84.5 91.2 96.5 126.4
40 53.5 67.7 77.7 83.0 89.5 94.3 123.8 b Molality in mol/kg
50 51.2 66.2 75.0 82.0 88.0 92.8 122.0 c Molarity in mol/L
60 50.5 64.9 74.6 80.9 87.0 91.9 120.9 cFL Flammable limits (explosive limits) in mL/L
70 49.8 64.5 74.2 80.0 86.1 91.1 120.0
75 49.5 64.3 74.0 79.5 85.6 90.7 119.5 Cp Molar heat capacity in J/(mol · K)
80 49.2 64.8 73.7 79.2 85.3 90.4 119.0 cp Specific heat capacity in J/(kg · K)
85 48.9 63.2 73.5 78.8 85.0 90.0 118.5 cTLV Threshold limit for allowable airborne concentration in g/L
90 48.6 63.3 73.2 78.5 84.8 89.7 118.0
95 48.3 63.5 72.8 78.3 84.4 89.3 117.4 Eb Ebullioscopic constant in (K · kg)/mol
100 48.1 63.6 72.6 78.3 84.2 89.0 117.0 Hfus Molar enthalpy of fusion in kJ/mol
Note: Adapted according to Dykyj [28], Dyr [29]. hfus Specific enthalpy of fusion in kJ/kg
hm,Ev Molar evaporation enthalpy in kJ/mol
hs,Ev Specific evaporation enthalpy in kJ/kg
Table 18: Equilibrium liquid-vapor of ethanol-water solutions Mm Molar mass in g/mol
at normal pressure nD Refractive index
Mole fraction Temper- Mass fraction Temper-
p0 Vapor pressure in kPa
of ethanol xE ature t of ethanol wE ature t pc Critical pressure in MPa
(for xE) (for wE) pKa Dissociation constant of pure ethanol to dilute to aqueous
liquid vapor liquid vapor
1 °C 1 °C
solution
Pr Prandtl number
0.00 0.0000 100.0 0.00 0.0000 100.0
0.01 0.1191 96.8 0.01 0.1243 98.6 Re Reynolds number
0.03 0.2616 92.5 0.03 0.2896 96.2 Sm Molar entropy in J/(mol · K)
0.05 0.3425 89.8 0.05 0.3940 94.3 Sm Entropy of gas formation in J/(mol · K)
0.10 0.4451 86.1 0.10 0.5386 90.8
0.20 0.5292 83.1 0.20 0.6579 86.7 t Adiabatic flame temperature in air in °C
0.30 0.5765 81.6 0.30 0.7114 84.5 t Temperature in °C
0.40 0.6167 80.6 0.40 0.7448 83.0 T Temperature in K
0.50 0.6575 79.7 0.50 0.7711 81.9
0.60 0.7027 79.0 0.60 0.7964 80.8 tAu Autoignition temperature in °C
0.70 0.7552 78.5 0.70 0.8247 79.9 tb Normal boiling point in °C
0.80 0.8186 78.2 0.80 0.8609 79,0 tc Critical temperature in °C
0.90 0.8978 78.1 0.90 0.9130 78.2
0.97 0.9663 78.2 0.97 0.9682 78.1 Tc Critical temperature in K
0.99 0.9885 78.3 0.99 0.9887 78.2 tf Freezing point in °C
1.00 1.0000 78.3 1.00 1.0000 78.3 tfp Flash point in °C
azeotrope: xE,liquid = 0.904; wE,liquid = 0.960; t(xE) = t(wE) = 78.17 °C tm Melting point in °C
Note: Adapted according to Holeček [33], Yaws [34]. Tr Reduced temperature in K
v Velocity of flow in m/s
vb Ethanol content (Volume fraction) in % (v/v)
4.6 Equilibrium liquid-vapor of the mixture ethanol-water at Vc Critical molar volume in cm3/mol
normal pressure wE Ethanol content (mass fraction) in % (m/m)
xE Ethanol content (mole fraction) in % (n/n)
Table 18 shows equilibrium liquid-vapor of ethanol-water solu- Zc Critical compressibility factor
tions at normal pressure, including the composition of the azeo- α Cubic thermal expansion in 1/K
tropic mixture. These data were taken from and adapted according ∆Go Standard molar Gibbs energy of formation pure liquid/gas-
to Holeček [33] and Yaws [34]. eous ethanol in kJ/mol
∆Hcb Molar enthalpy of combustion in kJ/mol
∆hcb Specific enthalpy of combustion in kJ/kg
5 Discussion and conclusion ∆Ho Standard molar enthalpy of formation pure liquid/gaseous
ethanol in kJ/mol
The data of ethanol properties and its aqueous solutions, which ∆tb/∆p Dependence of boiling point on pressure in K/kPa
have been obtained from the literature, are here presented in the ε Permittivity (dielectric constant)
form of Equations and Tables. The paper enlarges on the previous η Viscosity in mPa · s
work of Henke [35], where algorithms for calculation of extended κ Isothermal compressibility in 1/kPa
properties of pure ethanol were discussed, by reporting the proper- λ Thermal conductivity in W/(m · K)
ties of 96% ethanol-water solutions and ethanol-water solutions in µ Permanent dipole moment in C/m
a whole range of concentrations. ρ Density in kg/m3
In further work the authors intend to develop new formulas for cal- ρc Critical density in g/cm3
culating the properties of 96% ethanol and ethanol-water solutions σ Surface tension in mN/m
as well. Ω Acentric factor

612 Sugar Industry / Zuckerindustrie 135 (2010) No. 10, 607–613


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Authors’ address: Pavel Kadlec, Svatopluk Henke, Zdeněk Bubník, Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Technology, In-
stitute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic; e-mail: pavel.kadlec@vscht.cz; svatopluk.
henke@vscht.cz; zdenek.bubnik@vscht.cz

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