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GLOBAL DESIGN REFLECTION

ESSAY, REVISIONS AND


COMPILATION
Nate Rainer
INTA312-W6A1
August 29, 2017
Research Five Major Religions
# of Followers History Gods Practices Text Symbols
The religion of
Abraham (c. 1800
BCE) and the Circumcision at birth, bar/bat
Hebrews, especially mitzvah at adulthood,
after the destruction of One God: observing Sabbath, wearing Hebrew Bible
the Second Temple in Yahweh tallit and tefilin, prayer (Tanakh); Star of David,
Judaism 14 Million 70 CE. (YHVH) services Talmud chai, hamsa, tree
GOD, CHRIST
(FATHER,
Christianity- ISRAEL-ROME (32 SON, & HOLY
Catholic A.D.) JESUS SPIRIT) Bible

One God (Allah Five Pillars: Faith, Prayer,


in Arabic); the Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting.
Based on teachings of same God Mosque services on Fridays. Star and crescent;
the Prophet revealed Ablutions before prayer. No name of Allah in
Muhammad; founded (imperfectly) in alcohol or pork. Holidays Qur'an (sacred Arabic; color
622 CE in Mecca, the Jewish and related to the pilgrimage and text); Hadith green; mosque
Islam 1.6 Billion Saudi Arabia. Christian Bibles fast of Ramadan.  (tradition) silhouette.
Indigenous religion of
India as developed to
present day. Earliest One Supreme
forms (Vedic religion) Reality Yoga, meditation, worship
date to 1500 BCE or (Brahman) (puja), devotion to a god or Vedas,
earlier; major manifested in goddess, pilgrimage to holy Upanishads,
developments 1st-9th many gods and cities, live according to one's Bhagavad Gita, lotus, swastika,
Hinduism 1 billion centuries CE. goddesses  dharma (purpose/ role).  Ramayana, etc.  trisula, om
Buddha eyes,
buddhapada, color
symbolism,
dharma wheel,
Buddhist gods Eight auspicious
include Symbols, golden
buddhas, fishes, mudras,
bodhisattvas, Tripitaka (Pali Om Mani Padme
arhats and Canon); Hum, treasure
deities; such as Mahayana vase, triratna,
Based on teachings of Tara, Kuan Yin, Meditation, mantras, sutras like the victory banner,
Siddharta Gautama in and Amida devotion to deities (in some Lotus Sutra; Wheel of Life,
Buddhism 500 million c. 520 BC, NE Inda Buddha. sects), mandalas (Tibetan)  others.  swastika.
Nate Rainer

INTA312 Global Design

July 25, 2017

Week 1 Assignment 2

Lutheran Research

Lutheranism is one of the five major branches of Protestantism. The history of Lutheranism is

traced back to the teachings of Martin Luther and the 16th-century movements that issued from his

reforms. It is organized in regional and national churches globally with 140 churches. Being the second

largest denomination of the Protestantism, there are 65 million Lutherans found worldwide, roughly 39

million in Europe, 5 million in North America, and 20 million in Asia and Africa (Britannica).

Members of the Lutheran church believe that God is Creator of the universe. They believe God is

continually creating, calling into being each moment of each day. They believe people are given the

capacity and freedom to know and respond to God. This freedom can be positive or negative response

to God and that’s God’s gift to humankind. Baptism and Holy Communion are the two sacraments that

Lutheran’s accept. They believe Jesus Christ is the Messiah and died for their sins on the cross (SPDLC).

Lutheran churches have traditionally used natural building materials like wood, stones, and

bricks for simplicity and to focus a space on worship. Lutheran’s believe the natural materials symbolize

God’s creations, rather than man's creations. Although, they are not as elaborate as Catholic cathedrals,

Lutheran churches are designed in the Gothic style, with a long vertical line and tall steeples and

windows are liberally incorporated. Natural light spilling in from clear-glass and stained windows

symbolizes God’s presence and enhances the natural, earthy qualities of the church (Ramon).
A Lutheran church is composed of four elements: the altar, the pulpit, the nave (congregation),

and the baptismal font. The altar is the most sacred space in a Lutheran church. It is placed on the

highest level, in front of the nave. The pulpit is where the priest delivers the sermons to the nave. The

largest part of the church is the nave and has pews and faces to the pulpit for the congregation to

worship and listen to the sermons from the priest. A baptismal font is typically located in the entrance of

the nave (Ramon).


Works Cited:
"Lutheranism." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 05 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 July 2017.

"The Big Religion Chart." ReligionFacts. N.p., 21 Nov. 2016. Web. 27 July 2017.

"Traditional Designs of Lutheran Churches." Our Everyday Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 July 2017.

"What Do Lutherans Believe?" What Do Lutherans Believe? | St. Philip the Deacon Lutheran Church.
N.p., n.d. Web. 27 July 2017.
Lutheran churches are design with large Baptismal Font
stained glass windows. Lutheran believe
that natural light symbolizes God's pres-
ence. A palm leave is added to represent the Lutheran Heart
Florida Location

Jacksonville Lutheran
Church
Jacksonville, FL Altar
Church Pulpit
Nate Rainer
INTA312 Global Design
August 2, 2017
Week 2 Assignment 1

Research of Four Major Refugee Regions

Middle East Asia/Southeast Africa Central America,


Asia Caribbean
Islands, Mexico
Issues Civil War, Ethnic Conflict, Civil wars, Drug cartels,
Religious political famine gang violence,
Conflicts, corruption, political conflict,
Overcrowding Communism. human
from other areas trafficking
Specific Islamic Region Multiple Spanish
Qualities/Unique languages and Speaking
Issues religions
Reason for Seeking safety Safety and Seeking safety Safety and
refugees to flee and security security from and security security from
from violence Overcrowding, from abuse, murders, crime,
and instability dwindling famine, ethnic violence,
supplies of food violence, political unrest
& water.
Refugee Region Essay and Sketches

The Northern Triangle of Central America consists of El Salvador, Guatemala, and


Honduras. All three countries were part of the Spanish Empire until 1821 when they each
received their independence. Each country has experienced military and civilian governments
since gaining that independence. War has ravaged each of these countries in some form. El
Salvador experienced a 12-year civil war that ended in 1992 when the warring factions signed a
peace treaty. Guatemala’s guerrilla war lasted for 36 years and ended in 1996 leaving 200,000
people died. Hounduras served as an ally to the Salvadoran Government forces fighting the
leftist guerrillas during the 1980s(CIA). Today, these countries are experiencing high numbers of
refugees fleeing their borders. The reasons for these major exoduses are the proliferation of
gangs, the region’s use as a transshipment point for U.S.-bound narcotics, and high rates of
impunity are major factors contributing to insecurity in the region(CFR).

El Salvador’s rural houses are made of adobe with a large front porch. The front porch is
most used area of the home. The inside of their homes is used for sleeping and storage. An El
Salvadorian home may have seven or eight family members living in one or two small rooms.
Modern urban homes have an outdoor space in the front instead of in the middle like homes built
during the colonial period. The homes of the middle and upper class have a large wall topped
with glass and barb wire surrounding the home and garden. This was done in the 1970s for
security. Houses for lower classes do not have a wall. The poorest Salvadorians house may be
made of cardboard or sheet metal (Everyculture).

Guatemala architecture is influenced by the Spanish. Towns and cities include a central
plaza, generally with a public water fountain known as a "pila," around which were situated a
Catholic church, government offices, and the homes of high-ranking persons. A colonial home
would have included a central patio with living, dining, and sleeping rooms separated by
corridors. Like a towns and cities of the country, the homes also had a pila. Entrances from
homes were directly off the street and gardens were limited to the homes interior patio. The
colonial designs still influence today’s town, cities, and the homes located within them. The
wealthy have homes that include a second story and be on the periphery of the town or city.
Many of the older, centrally located homes are now offices or hotels (Everyculture).

Honduras city homes are made of store-bought materials such as brick and cement.
Homes in the countryside are distinct to each ethnic group’s architectural style. Homes of the
poor rural are made of local materials, with floors of packed earth, walls of adobe or wattle and
daub, and roofs of clay tiles or thatch. A kitchen is wood fire built on the floor or on a raised
platform in an outside special home. Homes have a front porch and are used like we would use a
formal parlor. The habitats of the home may draw designs into the mud that is plastered on the
house (Everyculture).
Works Cited:

"Central America's Violent Northern Triangle." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on


Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

"El Salvador." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

"Honduras." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

"Guatemala." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

"The World Factbook: HONDURAS." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence


Agency, 24 July 2017. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

"The World Factbook: EL SALVADOR." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence


Agency, 24 July 2017. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

"The World Factbook: GUATEMALA." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence


Agency, 24 July 2017. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Northern Triangle of Central America
Situation Factsheet (February 2017)." Refworld. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Aug. 2017.
DISPLACEMENT AND SHELTER ESSAY
AND SKETCHES
WEEK 2
ASSIGNMENT 2
Nate Rainer
Dr. Starr
August 5, 2017
Week 2 Assignment 2:

Displacement and homelessness is seen all over the world. Millions have been displaced

temporarily or permanently due to many reasons such as political unrest, weather catastrophes, violation

of human rights, war and other issues. The effects on a person or a group of refugees can depend on the

severity of the event they are seeking refuge from. They will all have basic needs that will need to be

consider when creating a refugee shelter. Other factors that will need to be considered are their

geographic location, religion, if any, marital status, sex, sexual orientation, reason for displacement, etc.

Displaced people suffer from discrimination, experience significant deprivation and are

frequently impoverished. They will experience the loss of economic opportunities, breakdown of cultural

identity, loosening of social and family structures, interruption of schooling and increased poverty levels.

They may have experience grief due to missing or dead family members. Impacts of displacement is felt

more by children, women with young children, the disabled, and the elderly. They experience feelings of

solitude, confusion, fear, and pain and by symptoms of mental illness, a lack of direction, of becoming

uncommunicative, unhappy, and excluded (IFSW).

As an interior designer, we must consider the basic necessities that a displaced person or family

will need. Food, water, and shelter are those main basic necessities that any group of displaced people

will need. Then we would need to consider any culturally specific needs of the group. Family is central to

Honduran daily life and society. Religion is also big part of the Honduran life as they are 97% Roman

Catholic. The location of the new refugee shelter will also need to be consider as it may determine the

type of materials to be used or that are available. Climate is another consideration.

In research of Honduran refugees, they are fleeing their country due to high homicide rates

having the highest tied with El Salvador in 2015. The killings are related to gangs or criminal

organization activity through extortion. The woman of Honduras experience assault on top of the

extortion. Another reason Honduran are fleeing their country is due to an extreme drought due to the El
Nino effect. The drought is effecting food prices and farming in the country, which is creating a

malnutrition for the population (The Brogen Project).

When considering a shelter for Honduran refugee, an interior designer will design to meet those

basic needs of food and water, culture. A table and chairs should be provided for family meals and can

also provide a place for study. Based on the religion of Hondurans, Roman Catholic symbols like a cross

and a place for prayer should be included in the design. A sofa that converts into a bed would provide

space for sleeping. Bunk beds could also be used for larger families. Movable dividers could be installed

for privacy needs. Honduras has a subtropical climate in the lowlands, and temperate climate in the

mountains. Both climates would need to be consider for shelter built there to create a comfortable space

for the refugee. Storage should be provided for any items they may have with them or that they may gain

in the refugee camp like clothing.


Works Cited:

"Ten Facts About Honduran Refugees." The Borgen Project. N.p., 31 Jan. 2017. Web. 06 Aug. 2017.

"Displaced persons." Resource for social workers to share, discover and learn. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Aug.

2017.
SKETCHES
Nate Rainer

Dr. Starr

Global Design| INTA312

August 9, 2017

Natural disasters can strike without warning and their severity can change quickly or be combined

with other issues causing major destruction. Both the Japan Earthquake and Hurricane Sandy are two of

those examples. Each of these disasters took lives, displaced thousands of residents, and cost billions in

dollars to rebuild and rehome.

Japan’s northeastern coast of Honshu experienced a 9.0 earthquake and aftershocks on March 11,

2011. The Japan earthquake is considered one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded. It was so

powerful that it created a series of destructive tsunami waves and triggered tsunami warnings throughout

the Pacific Basin. The tsunami waves were also responsible for shutting down several of the nuclear

plants in the region, most notably, the Fukushima Daiichi (Britannica). The earthquake and tsunami

waves killed 15, 853 and displaced 330,000 people. (BBC).

Hurricane Sandy made US landfall on October 29, 2012 near Atlantic City, NJ moving north up

the East Coast. Seventy-two lives were lost in the wake of Sandy’s aftermath in the US. Although Sandy

did not hit the US as a hurricane, it became a sprawling extratropical cyclone and gain the nickname

Superstorm Sandy by meteorologists and newscasters (Britannica). As of October 30, 2012, 11000 people

in 16 states had taken advantage of 258 Red Cross operated shelters due to destroyed homes and loss of

power throughout the region (Red Cross). Due to a full moon on October 29, the storm surge amplified

the high tides devastating several cities and towns along the Atlantic coast of New Jersey and New York.

Transportation via air, rail, and road transportation was ground to a halt throughout the region. Property

damage was estimated between $30 billion and $50 billion after the storm; however, it had grown to

$71.4 billion by 2014 (Britannica).


Both the Japan Earthquake and Superstorm Sandy are similar because their impact was in highly

populated areas, increasing deaths and physical damage. One of the biggest differences in their impacts

were the predictability of a hurricane/storm verses an earthquake and tsunami. Many people took shelter

prior to Superstorm Sandy hitting the Eastern US Coast. Due to the unpredictability of the earthquake and

tsunamis, the people of Japan were not able to take refuge. The people affected by the Japanese

earthquake and tsunamis continued to be displaced for several years due to the inability to return to their

homes located near the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor. Two years after, there were still a small

number of people in emergency centers. More than 300,000 displaced residents were living in tens of

thousands of prefabricated temporary housing units that had been set up in Sendai and other tsunami-

damaged locations or were in some other type of domicile, such as hotels, public housing units, or private

homes (Britannica). Both disasters received assistance locally, nationally, and internationally by

governments and organizations that were there to help.


Works Cited:
"Relief and rebuilding efforts." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., n.d. Web. 10
Aug. 2017. <https://www.britannica.com/event/Japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-of-2011/Relief-and-
rebuilding-efforts>.
"Japan quake: Loss and recovery in numbers." BBC News. BBC, 11 Mar. 2012. Web. 10 Aug. 2017.
<http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-17219008>.
"Superstorm Sandy." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2017.
<https://www.britannica.com/event/Superstorm-Sandy>.
"Red Cross disaster relief continues in Sandy's aftermath." American Red Cross. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Aug.
2017. <http://www.redcross.org/news/article/Red-Cross-disaster-relief-continues-in-Sandys-aftermath>.
A long-term shelter for refugees of the Japanese Earthquake
need a couple of concepts depending on the side of the fami-
ly. The designs are similar but a large version would be
created for a larger family. Each design would have a solar
panels to provide electricity. The smaller design would have
room for two people to sleep with partitions to provide pri-
vacy between the bedrooms and living spaces.
The larger version would include more places to sit, a kitch-
enette and a bathroom. Each space would incorporate
Japanese cultural items. Plants would be provided in each
design to making it more homey. A porch would be on the
front to allow for a sense of community.
PART I: RESEARCH THREE GLOBAL IMPOVERISHED REGIONS

Region Africa-Chad US-Mississippi Caribbean-Haiti


Delta
Religious/Cultural Northern-Islam 83% Christian, 41%
Issues Southern-Christian Evangelical Christian
(Pew Research
Center)
Climate and Desert, Semidesert Alluvial valley
Topography and
Saharan
Common vernacular Islamic-Northern Federal Shotgun and
architectural Clay and thatch- Geek Revival Gingerbread Houses
style/materials Southern Colonial Revival
Italianate
Gothic Medieval
Neo-Classical
Tudor Revival
Access to cleaning Cooking and drinking Rural areas have little 70% lack portable
drinking water and water is bought but access to water. water
sanitation very expensive. Dirty
water used for clothes
watching and
bathing.
Poverty-related, Former a French High teen pregnancy
socioeconomic issues Colony. High infant and mortality rate.
mortality rate. Life 2008 recession
expectancy for men is caused major loss in
49 years of age and jobs. Majority receive
women is 52 years of Medicare and food
age. Harsh northern stamp assistance.
climate.
PART II: POVERTY ESSAY

Mississippi is the 20th state of the United States of America and received statehood in

1817. It is a low-lying state bordered by Tennessee to north, Alabama to the East, Arkansas and

Louisiana to the West. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain also called the “Delta” extends eastward

from the Mississippi being narrow south of Vicksburg and extends as much as a third of the way

across the state to the north of Vicksburg (CD). The Delta region of Mississippi is one of the

poorest areas in the United States (The Atlantic). One of the poorest communities in the Delta

Region is Tchula and listed at the 5th poorest in the nation. There are about 1885 residents with a

median household income of $13,273(datausa). The state’s average is $37,095. The poverty rate

is at 66.8% (datausa). The unemployment is due to loss of two industries: a sawmill and an

apparel factory. The first black mayor of Tchula, Eddie Carthan, now owns the mansion of the

former daughter of a local planation dynasty, Sara Virginia Jones. During the ownership of the

Jones’, the home housed artwork by artists like Salvador Dali and Andy Warhol and are now

replaced by family photos of Carthan. Carthan grew up in a shack outside of Tchula that his

family purchased during the 1930s through the New Deal project. He stated in article with the

Atlantic, “And I think about how well they lived back then, and how we lived back then. This

house is huge. There are five bedrooms. It has three full bathrooms. We didn’t have bathrooms at

all.” Tchula was a staging ground during the civil-rights era. Today, the remaining community is

97 percent black and poor, since families like the Jones have left the community. Despite being a

poor community, every house has running water. All the jobs have dried up with dwindling

government grants and residents driving to other communities for jobs.

This is seen in many communities throughout the Delta that were figured prominently

during the civil-rights area. Poverty also creates health issues, this is seen in Greenville, another
city in the Delta that was prominent during the civil-rights area. 95% of the residents living there

receive Medicaid. Due to little or no clinics in the rural communities, people travel to Greenville

for medical attention. Greenville is two-thirds black and still segregated when it comes to

education. Most of the white children attend private academies while black children attend public

schools. Residential areas are divided between two extremes: the leafy boulevards of the affluent

white section and the historically poor, black Baptist Town. It has not changed much since 1960

and was used as a 1960 Jackson, MS neighborhood in the movie The Help.

A community center in the Tchula or other parts of the Delta will need to incorporate

many different areas. Religion plays a big part in Mississippi. In Tchula, 27.4% identify as

Evangelical Protestant and 17.2% Black Protestant (City-Data.com). A place for worship or pray

could be incorporated. Since only 56.4% of people in Tchula have graduated from high school,

there is still need for space that can provide additional education and skills training

(Areavibes.com). A community center will include a space to gather and discuss ways of making

the town grow, discuss other issues in the area, and just for a place for the people to congregate

and have a sense of community.


Works Cited:
“The Poorest Countries in the World.” Global Finance Magazine, www.gfmag.com/global-
data/economic-data/the-poorest-countries-in-the-world. Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
Wormald, Benjamin. “Religious Landscape Study.” Pew Research Center's Religion & Public
Life Project, 11 May 2015, www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/state/mississippi/.
Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
“Tchula, MS.” Data USA, datausa.io/profile/geo/tchula-ms/. Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
Huffman, Alan. “How White Flight Ravaged the Mississippi Delta.” The Atlantic, Atlantic
Media Company, 6 Jan. 2015, www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/01/how-white-flight-
ruined-the-mississippi-delta/384227/. Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
PART I: RESEARCH THREE GLOBAL IMPOVERISHED REGIONS

Region Africa-Chad US-Mississippi Caribbean-Haiti


Delta
Religious/Cultural Northern-Islam 83% Christian, 41%
Issues Southern-Christian Evangelical Christian
(Pew Research
Center)
Climate and Desert, Semidesert Alluvial valley
Topography and
Saharan
Common vernacular Islamic-Northern Federal Shotgun and
architectural Clay and thatch- Geek Revival Gingerbread Houses
style/materials Southern Colonial Revival
Italianate
Gothic Medieval
Neo-Classical
Tudor Revival
Access to cleaning Cooking and drinking Rural areas have little 70% lack portable
drinking water and water is bought but access to water. water
sanitation very expensive. Dirty
water used for clothes
watching and
bathing.
Poverty-related, Former a French High teen pregnancy
socioeconomic issues Colony. High infant and mortality rate.
mortality rate. Life 2008 recession
expectancy for men is caused major loss in
49 years of age and jobs. Majority receive
women is 52 years of Medicare and food
age. Harsh northern stamp assistance.
climate.
PART II: POVERTY ESSAY

Mississippi is the 20th state of the United States of America and received statehood in

1817. It is a low-lying state bordered by Tennessee to north, Alabama to the East, Arkansas and

Louisiana to the West. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain also called the “Delta” extends eastward

from the Mississippi being narrow south of Vicksburg and extends as much as a third of the way

across the state to the north of Vicksburg (CD). The Delta region of Mississippi is one of the

poorest areas in the United States (The Atlantic). One of the poorest communities in the Delta

Region is Tchula and listed at the 5th poorest in the nation. There are about 1885 residents with a

median household income of $13,273(datausa). The state’s average is $37,095. The poverty rate

is at 66.8% (datausa). The unemployment is due to loss of two industries: a sawmill and an

apparel factory. The first black mayor of Tchula, Eddie Carthan, now owns the mansion of the

former daughter of a local planation dynasty, Sara Virginia Jones. During the ownership of the

Jones’, the home housed artwork by artists like Salvador Dali and Andy Warhol and are now

replaced by family photos of Carthan. Carthan grew up in a shack outside of Tchula that his

family purchased during the 1930s through the New Deal project. He stated in article with the

Atlantic, “And I think about how well they lived back then, and how we lived back then. This

house is huge. There are five bedrooms. It has three full bathrooms. We didn’t have bathrooms at

all.” Tchula was a staging ground during the civil-rights era. Today, the remaining community is

97 percent black and poor, since families like the Jones have left the community. Despite being a

poor community, every house has running water. All the jobs have dried up with dwindling

government grants and residents driving to other communities for jobs.

This is seen in many communities throughout the Delta that were figured prominently

during the civil-rights area. Poverty also creates health issues, this is seen in Greenville, another
city in the Delta that was prominent during the civil-rights area. 95% of the residents living there

receive Medicaid. Due to little or no clinics in the rural communities, people travel to Greenville

for medical attention. Greenville is two-thirds black and still segregated when it comes to

education. Most of the white children attend private academies while black children attend public

schools. Residential areas are divided between two extremes: the leafy boulevards of the affluent

white section and the historically poor, black Baptist Town. It has not changed much since 1960

and was used as a 1960 Jackson, MS neighborhood in the movie The Help.

A community center in the Tchula or other parts of the Delta will need to incorporate

many different areas. Religion plays a big part in Mississippi. In Tchula, 27.4% identify as

Evangelical Protestant and 17.2% Black Protestant (City-Data.com). A place for worship or pray

could be incorporated. Since only 56.4% of people in Tchula have graduated from high school,

there is still need for space that can provide additional education and skills training

(Areavibes.com). A community center will include a space to gather and discuss ways of making

the town grow, discuss other issues in the area, and just for a place for the people to congregate

and have a sense of community.


Works Cited:
“The Poorest Countries in the World.” Global Finance Magazine, www.gfmag.com/global-
data/economic-data/the-poorest-countries-in-the-world. Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
Wormald, Benjamin. “Religious Landscape Study.” Pew Research Center's Religion & Public
Life Project, 11 May 2015, www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/state/mississippi/.
Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
“Tchula, MS.” Data USA, datausa.io/profile/geo/tchula-ms/. Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
Huffman, Alan. “How White Flight Ravaged the Mississippi Delta.” The Atlantic, Atlantic
Media Company, 6 Jan. 2015, www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/01/how-white-flight-
ruined-the-mississippi-delta/384227/. Accessed 16 Aug. 2017.
Mississippi Delta Community Center
The Mississippi Delta needs
a community center that
meets many needs of the
community. The center
needs to provide educational
services not only for the
youth but also for adults.
There will be rooms for both
youth and adult learning. The
community center will have a
place for worship which can
also be used for other uses
like speeches and community
events. The center design will
be influenced by the architec-
ture currently seen in the
community but with a focus
on the future instead of look-
ing at the past.
GENDER FACILITY POSTER AND
FINAL COMPILATION
Nate Rainer
Dr. Starr
INTA312 | Global Design
August 26, 2017
Nate Rainer

PART I: RESEARCH GENDER INEQUALITY

Region Saudi Arabia Afghanistan India


Religious/Cultural Islamic/Sharia Law Islamic Hindu, Muslim,
Issues Christianity, and
others.
Climate and Variety of habitats Hot summers, cold Wide range of
Topography like mountains, winters with sandy climates in deserts,
valleys, deserts, and desert alpine tundra, humid
meadows, salt pans. topography. tropical regions,
Climate: Rain fed
highlands and Arid
and extra arid lands.
Common vernacular -Limestone Locally sourced -Built of local
architectural - Clay materials and stucco materials
style/materials. -Timber buildings. -Kachcha buildings
-Plaster are rural and built
-Tiling with mud, grass,
- Wind towers bamboo, thatch
-Courtyards And/or sticks
(Shihabi) -Pukka buildings are
make of stone, brick,
clay, metal and other
durable materials
-Earth constructions
-Formal architecture
is modern or
IndoIslamic
style (Bahu)
Access to clean Yes -88 percent have -77 million Indians
drinking water and access to clean water, lack access to potable
sanitation? -only 31 percent water -769 million
have improved people lack access to
sanitation. improved sanitation.
(water.org)
Gender-Related -Sex segregation in -Lack of education -Male birth celebrated
Issues? public places -sexual violence unlike a female birth.
-Expected to wear the -lack of healthcare -Patriarchy system
full Hijab root cause of gender
-Education inequality.
opportunities are -Extreme poverty
highly generated, -No to little education
prohibited from -Male child gets the
studying male best foods
subjects (indiacelebrating.com)
Nate Rainer

-Women not allowed


to travel without
being accompanied
by a male relative.
-Possibility of being
lashed and sent to jail
for committing
adultery – even if the
victim of a gang rape
(Revisesciology.com)

PART II: GENDER INEQUALITY ESSAY


Gender inequality is defined as the unequal treatment of a person or group of people

based on their gender or pre-established cultural gender roles. In Western cultures, this can be

seen in equal pay or equal work between men and women. In other cultures, it can be seen in

what people consider equal human rights like access to water or place in society.

Saudi Arabia is one country some people may think about when thinking about gender

inequality in the world. Their guardianship system continues to treat women as minors. This

means women are not allowed to travel, study, or work without permission from their male

guardians. Saudi Arab is one of the only countries in the world that does not allow women to

drive. Some women have been arrested by driving in protest.

Some other ways women are not equal in Saudi Arabia, they are expected to wear the full

Hijab in public, which only shows their eyes and hands. Public places are also segregated and

often the facilities for women are of lesser quality. Women can earn degrees in education or

social sciences since they are not considered traditionally male subjects like law or engineering.

If a woman commits adultery, they could be lashed and sent to jail (ReviseSociology.com).
Nate Rainer

Women have seen progress over the past view years despite the guardianship system. In

2009 Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Commerce, stopped requiring women to conduct ministerial

business through a male representative. In September 2011, King Abdullah announced women

would be able to vote in the 2015 municipal elections. He also promised to appoint women as

full members of the Shura Council (World Report). In 2013, thirty women took their seats on the

council. The most recent event came as a decree by King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in 2017,

giving Saudi women more access to jobs, higher education, or medical procedures, and to exit

prison, among others, with a male guardian’s permission. Women rights activist are hoping this

will lead to the death of the guardianship system (Aljazerra).

With the changes in policies, women and girls will still need a community center. The

community center will be able to provide job skills training and additional educational

opportunities. Depending on a girls or woman’s skill, the additional education may lead to them

to attend higher education that once may have been denied to them in fields like law and

engineering. The community center should provide a female only space for medical procedures

so girls and woman feel more comfortable. A place for everyone to pray will need to be included

in the design. Maybe future additions could be a driving school for women and girls if the law

changes allowing them to drive around Saudi Arabia.


Nate Rainer

Works Cited:

“Afghanistan.” UNICEF, 18 May 2016, www.unicef.org/infobycountry/afghanistan.html.


“Gender Equality in Saudi Arabia.” ReviseSociology, 9 Feb. 2017,
revisesociology.com/2017/01/22/gender-equality-in-saudi-arabia/. Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
Shihabi, Bassem. “Architecture in Saudi Arabia-A Wide Angle View.” Archnet. 2017. Web.
Orgi. “Religion.” Census of India: Religion, censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/religion.aspx.
Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
“Climate of India.” Climate of India - New World Encyclopedia,
www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Climate_of_India. Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
“Water, Environment and Sanitation | UNICEF.” Unicef India, unicef.in/Story/1125/Water--
Environment-and-Sanitation. Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
“India’s Water and Sanitation Crisis.” Water.org. 2017. Web.
Bahu, Navnirman. “Vernacular Architecture.” Suvarna Lele Architects. August 16, 2010. Web.
“Gender Inequality in India - Concept, Causes and Types.” IndiaCelebrating.com, 24 Dec. 2016,
www.indiacelebrating.com/social-issues/gender-inequality-in-india/. Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
“Saudi women take seats in Shura Council.” Saudi women take seats in Shura Council - Al
Jazeera English, www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/02/2013219201637132278.html.
Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
Jazeera, Al. “Cautious welcome to Saudi decree over guardian system.” Saudi Arabia News | Al
Jazeera, Al Jazeera, 5 May 2017, www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/05/saudi-decree-guardian-
system-170505210416738.html. Accessed 23 Aug. 2017.
Saudi Women and Girls Community Center
The community center will pro-
vide different areas to support the
women and girls of Saudi Arabia.
The architecture will reflect the
old and new designs of Saudi Ara-
bi. Two classrooms will be de-
signed to provide educational for
both the adults and children. There
will be a private medical area.
Since prayer is part of daily life,
Plan an area to pray will be included Pray Area
and face the direction of Mecca.
There will be rugs that can be
rolled up and put away to allow
for a space for other gatherings. A
garden will be designed to provide
food and a place to reflect. An in-
door/outdoor childcare area will be
provided to allow a space for chil-
dren of women attending classes
or need privacy when going to the
medical area.
CLASSROOM
Nate Rainer

Researching and learning about global issues that affect the world’s population has been enjoyable

and sad at the same time. The assignments throughout the course have shown how an interior designer

can help find solutions to help make situations a little easier on those affected by poverty, natural

disasters, gender inequality, and other issues. Global poverty and the issues refugees face are the two

issues I wanted to learn more when we learned about each of those subjects. As I focused on poverty in

the United States, especially in the Mississippi Delta, I really thought about how ending poverty here

would allow resources to be used to help global poverty. Growing up in Northeast Mississippi, I never

realized poverty affected the Delta as much as I did. In researching, I found that racial division has

created the poverty level in the region. As an interior designer, I can see how I could use what I’ve

learned to build a community center to help those living in poverty to have services like job training and

medical needs.

Refugees experience many obstacles as they have to evacuate their homes. In some instances, this

may have been the only home or location they have ever known. They experience Refugees have to go

through so much. A shelter is not only thing they will need once they arrive in their new location. They

will need food, water, medical care, security and a sense of home. Through my research I found there are

many different types of shelters and those differences can be based on the different regions that the people

may have be relocated from. I chose a long-term shelter for those fleeing violence in their home country

as it may be a long time before they are able to returned. It would have to function as a home with culture

elements included.

My research along with reading the research of my peers has helped with knowing about

issues that our world faces. Their research provided valuable information on their respective

regions and provided examples of the architecture and how they would design a shelter or

community center to help those in need. This was really useful to help me on ways of designing

for other cultures and the knowledge of those different cultures.


Nate Rainer

I really have gain perspective of how an interior designer does not only design a beautiful

home, but can be instrumental in designing shelters for those who may have lost their home. I

have learned that a design should be cultural sensitive. This will allow a refugee or homeless

person feel that they can get through their dire situation. I would want to create hope for these

people to build new lives despite their current situation. I want to be able to create a sustainable

shelter or community center that can be used for future use using sustainable materials or if

needed a long-term design. I feel there are many possibilities that an interior design can help the

world’s problems.