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# LEB30503 Signals and Systems

Systems

MEET, MIMET

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Signals

## • A function of independent variables such as time, distance, position,

temperature, pressure, etc.
• A signal carries information:
– x(t) = Acos(ωt + ø); 3 parameters, A, ω, ø
– x(t) = A(t)cos(ωt + ø); Amplitude Modulation (AM)
– x(t) = Acos(ω(t)t + ø); Frequency Modulation (FM)
– x(t) = Acos(ωt + ø(t)); Phase Modulation (PM)
• Examples: speech, audio, seismic, image and video
• A signal can be a function of one, two or N independent variables
– speech and audio are 1‐D signals (functions of time)
– an image is a 2‐D signal (function of spatial coordinates)
– video is a 3‐D signal (function of spatial coordinates and time)
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Types of Signals

## • Analog Signals (Continuous-Time Signals)

– Signals that are continuous in both the dependant and
independent variable (e.g., amplitude and time). Most
environmental signals are continuous-time signals.

## • Discrete Sequences (Discrete-Time Signals)

– Signals that are continuous in the dependant variable (e.g.,
amplitude) but discrete in the independent variable (e.g., time).
They are typically associated with sampling of continuous-time
signals.

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Types of Signals (cont.)

## • Digital Signals (Discrete-Time, Discrete-

Amplitude Signals)
– Signals that are discrete in both the dependant and independent
variable (e.g., amplitude and time) are digital signals. These are
created by quantizing and sampling continuous-time signals or
as data signals (e.g., stock market price fluctuations).

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Types of Signals (cont.)

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Some Typical Signals

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Systems

## • A system is the abstraction of a process or object that

puts a number of signals into some relationship.
• Examples:
– A circuit involving a capacitor can be viewed as a system that
transforms the source voltage (signal) to the voltage (signal)
across the capacitor.
– A CD player takes the signal on the CD and transforms it into a
signal sent to the loud speaker.
– A communication system is generally composed of three sub-
systems, the transmitter, the channel and the receiver. The
channel typically attenuates and adds noise to the transmitted
signal which must be processed by the receiver. 7
Example – Removal of Noise

X
Y
Filter Amplifier Recording
equipment for new
format

## • A varying voltage is termed a signal.

• The filter (device) that transforms the signal at X into that at Y and this
forms a useful basis to define a system. 8
Signal Classification

## • Signals may be classified into:

– Continuous-time and discrete-time signals
– Analogue and digital signals
– Periodic and aperiodic signals
– Energy and power signals
– Deterministic and probabilistic signals
– Causal and non-causal
– Even and Odd signals.

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Signal Classification –
Continuous vs Discrete
• Continuous-time
– The variables are present at all instants of time
– Continuous-Time (CT) signals:
x(t), t – continuous value
– Most of the signals in the physical world are CT
signals – e.g. voltage & current, sound pressure and
volume velocity, temperature, velocity, etc.
Ex. Quarterly gross product

• Discrete-time
– The signals that only available at discrete time
intervals.
– The discreteness occurs either due to nature of the
process.
– Discrete-Time (DT) signals:
x(n), n – integer value only
– Example: DNA base sequence & population of the
n-th generation of certain species.
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Signal Classification
– Analogue vs Digital

• Analog signal
– A signal whose amplitude can take on any value in a continuous range.
– Means that an analog signal amplitude can take infinite number of
values.

• Digital Signal
– A signal whose amplitude can take only a finite number of values.
– Signal associated with a digital computer are digital because they take
on only two values (binary signal)

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Signal Classification
– Analogue vs Digital

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Signal Classification
– Periodic vs Aperiodic
• A signal x(t) is said to be periodic if for some positive constant To

## • The smallest value of To that satisfies the periodicity condition of this

equation is the fundamental period of x(t).
• Periodic signal, by definition, must start at t   and continuing
forever.

## Ex. A periodic signal of period To

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Signal Classification
– Causal vs Non-causal

• Causal signal
– A signal that does not start at t = 0.
– f(t) is a causal signal if
f (t )  0 t0

• Non-Causal signal
– A signal that start before t=0

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Signal Classification
– Energy and Power Signals
• Energy signal
• A signal with finite energy has zero
– A signal with finite energy. power.
• A signal with finite power has infinite
energy.
•Therefore, a signal cannot both be an
energy and a power signal.

• Power signal
– A signal with finite and nonzero power.
– Power is the time average of energy.

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Signal Classification
– Deterministic vs Random
• Deterministic signal
– A signal whose physical description is known completely, either in mathematical
form or a graphical form.

• Random signal
– A signal whose values cannot be predicted precisely but are known only in term
of probabilistic description, such as mean value, mean squared value, and so on.

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Signal Classification
– Even and Odd Signals

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Basic Operations on Signals

## • There are 3 signal operations:

i. Scaling
ii. Shifting

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Basic Operations on Signals
- Scaling
• Amplitude Scaling
– This is an operation on the dependent variable.
– General relationship between input and output:

10
x(t)
8 y(t)

## x(t) Amplifier y(t) 2

Amplitude

Output is identical in
gain 2 0
shape to the input
-2
but is everywhere
-4 twice its amplitude.
-6

-8

-10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time
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Basic Operations on Signals
- Scaling
• Time Scaling
– Time axis is rescaled.
– Problem when apply on discrete signal – what meaning can be given to fractional
x(t) x(0.5t) x(2t)
5 5 5

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1
Amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude
0 0 0

-1 -1 -1

-2 -2 -2

-3 -3 -3

-4 -4 -4

-5 -5 -5
0 10 20 0 10 20 0 10 20
Time Time Time
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Basic Operations on Signals
- Shifting
• Reflected signal
– Can be obtained by putting the value of the signal that was originally at t, at the
point –t, it is hence described as the signal x(-t).

## Reflection of Signal x(t) Reflection of Signal x(t)

4.5 5
x(-t) x(-n) x(n)
4 x(t)
3.5
4

3
A m p litu d e
Amplitude

3
2.5

2
2
1.5

1 1

0.5

0
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Time integer
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Basic Operations on Signals
- Shifting (cont.)
• Time shifting
– To obtain the DELAYED signal the value of the signal that was originally at (t-T)
must now be at point t.
– The delayed signal is hence represented by x(t-T).
– An operation of time ADVANCE would be represented by the signal x(t+T).
– Shifting can only be performed, in the case of a discrete signal, by an integer
number of values.
Time Delay of Signal x(t)
Time Delay of Signal x(t) 5
5
Original Signal Delayed x[n] x[n-N]
x(t) Signal x(t-T) 4
4
A m p litu d e

A m p lit u d e
3
3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 229 10
Time Integer
Basic Operations on Signals
- Shifting (cont.)
Time Delay and Reflection of Signal x(t)
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x(-t) x(t) Delayed version of x(-t)
4
Amplitude

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time

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Basic Operations on Signals

## • If 2 continuous signals are added together

1
x(t)

0
-1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time
1
y(t)

0
-1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time
1
x(t)+y(t)

0
-1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time

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Basic Operations on Signals
• If 2 continuous signals are subtraction together

1
x(t)

0
-1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time
1
y(t)

0
-1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time
2
x(t)-y(t)

0
-2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time

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Two properties of signals:
Even and Odd Signals
• These properties are based on symmetries that signals may have

## • A signal is referred to as an even if it is identical to its time-reversed

counterparts: x(t) = x (-t) or x[n] = x[-n]

300 300

250
x(-t) x(t) 250

200 200

x[-n] x[n]
Amplitude
Amplitude

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50
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-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
Time Time
Two properties of signals:
Even and Odd Signals (cont.)

6000 6000

4000
x(t) 4000

2000
x[n]
2000

Amplitude
Amplitude

0 0

-2000 -2000

## -4000 -x(-t) -4000 -x[-n]

-6000
-6000
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

Time Time

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Two properties of signals:
Even and Odd Signals (cont.)
• Using the definition of even and odd signal, any signal may be
decomposed into a sum of its even part, xe(t) + xo(t), as follows:

x(t )  x (t )  x (t ) 
 x(t )  x(t ) x(t )  x(t )

e o
2 2

EVEN ODD

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Two properties of signals:
Even and Odd Signals (cont.)

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Two properties of signals:
Periodicity
• The feature that makes the signal periodic – the signal repeats
itself indefinitely in the future and has repeated itself
indefinitely in the past.
• If the transformed signal x(t + nT) is same as x(t), then the signal is
periodic.
• A periodic signal x(t), x[n] has the property that:

## x(t  T )  x(t ) for all t.

x ( n  N )  x ( n) for all n.

The time T (or the number N) is known as the period of the waveform.
Note: If a waveform is periodic with T, it is also periodic for any integer
multiple of T. 30
Two properties of signals:
Periodicity (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals

• Exponential signal.
• Sinusoidal signal.
• Complex exponential.
• Unit step and unit impulse.

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Some Basic Signals
- (1)The exponential signal
• Continuous time exponential:
at
x(t )  Ae where A and a are constants.

• Its slope:
dx at
 aAe  ax(t ) where A and a are constants.
dt
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Exponential Signal
4
x 10 Exponential Signal
x 10 3
4

3.5 2.5

3
2
2.5
Amplitude
Amplitude

2
1.5
a<0
1.5
a>0
1

1
0.5
0.5

0
0
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-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Time Index
Time Index
Some Basic Signals
- (1)The exponential signal (cont.)

## • Discrete exponential signal:

anT aT n n
where ,
x[n]  Ae  A(e )  A( z ) A and a are constants.
z  eaT
• OR

x[n  1]  Az n 1  Az n z  x(n) z
8
x 10 Exponential Signal 4
Exponential Signal
x 10
2.5 3

## 2 If z > unity (a +ve this 2.5 If z < unity (a -ve this

1.5
Amplitude

signal.
Amplitude

1.5

1
a<0
a>0 1

0.5
0.5

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0 0
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Time Index Time Index
Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal

• Sinusoidal signals are perhaps the most important type of the signal
that will encounter in signal processing.
• There are 2 basic types of signals:
– The cosine
– The sine
• It can be represented as:

## Phase angle Angular

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Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal (cont.)
• A more general signal can be obtained by advancing a sine wave by
an arbitrary angle φ giving:

## x(t )  A sin(t   )  A sin(t ) cos( )  A cos(t ) cos( )

φ 37
Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal (cont.)
• Property of sinusoidal signal that makes them so useful is that:

## If 2 sinusoids of the same frequency (but of arbitrary amplitude

and phase) are added together they will produce another
sinusoids of the same frequency.

## • If sinusoids are added to sinusoid with frequency that is integer

multiple to that sinusoid (its harmonics) => result = signal output not
sinusoidal but periodic with period equal to fundamental signal.

## • Note: Periodicity will remain no matter how many further harmonics

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Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal (cont.)

x[ n]  A sin(n )

where   T  = normalized frequency
fs
ω is angular frequency of unsampled sinusoid and fs is sampling frequency
• Another way to represent this signal:

x[ n]  A sin(nT   )  A sin(n   )
• Because of the periodicity of the sinusoid,

## A sin(n   )  A sin(n[  2m]   )

• Hence, sampling a sinusoid of normalized frequency θ will produce exactly 40
the same discrete signal as sampling a sinusoid of frequency (θ 2πm).
Some Basic Signals
- (2)The sinusoidal signal (cont.)

By examination of the
sampled signal it is not
possible to determine
which of the three
sinusoids the sample
represent.

## The identity of the

original signal is lost
among ‘alias’ signals and
this effect is known as
aliasing 41
Some Basic Signals
- (3)The Complex Exponential
• This exponential function is very important in signals & systems, and
the parameter s is a complex variable given by:
s    j
• Therefore
st (   j ) t t jwt t
e e e e  e (cos t  j sin t )
• Since s* = σ+jω (the conjugate of s), then
s*t   j t  jwt t
e e e e  e (cos t  j sin t )
• and
t 1 st s*t
e cos t  (e  e )
2 42
Some Basic Signals
- (3)The Complex Exponential (cont.)
• If σ = 0, then we have the function ejωt , which has a real frequency
of ω.
• Therefore the complex variable s = σ+jω is the complex frequency.
• The function est can be used to describe a very large class of signals
and functions. Here are a number of example:

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Some Basic Signals
- (3)The Complex Exponential (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (3)The Complex Exponential (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (4)Unit Step and Unit Impulse

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Some Basic Signals
- (4)Unit Step and Unit Impulse (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (4)Unit Step and Unit Impulse (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (4)Unit Step and Unit Impulse (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (4)Unit Step and Unit Impulse (cont.)

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Some Basic Signals
- (4)Unit Step and Unit Impulse (cont.)

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