Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

EQUAL FRICTION METHOD

(It maintain same friction loss per meter length)


Duct A:-
Speed of air in main duct:-
A (Va)= 7.5 m/s= 1470 FPM
Q= 4 m³/s
Q= A X V
4 m³/s = A X 7.5 m/s
A= 0.5333
Area of circle = Πd²/4
So, d = (A x 4/Π) ½
d= (0.5333 X 4/Π) ½
d=Da = 0.824 m

Friction loss per mm of WG = (0.002268 X L X Q1.852)


d4.973
Friction loss/mm of WG = 0.002268 X 4 1.852 X 1

4.973
(0.824)

Friction loss/mm of WG = 0.0774 mm of H2O


Duct A Velocity pressure = {V/4.04}  mm of WG

PVA = {7.5/4.04} 2 = 3.4463 mm of WG

Duct B: -
Q = AV
1.853
Friction loss = 0.002268 X 3 XL

d4.973

1.852 (1/4.973)
d = {(0.002268 X 3 )/0.0774}

d=db = 0.7402 m
A = Π d2
4

A = Π X (0.7402)2
4
A = 0.43 m2
3 = 0.43 X V
VB = 3/0.43 = 6.9718 m/s
Velocity pressure Pr. = (V/ 4.04)2 mm of WG

PVb= (6.9218/4.04)2 = 2.987 mm of H2O

Similarly for other parts

Section A B C D E F G
Q (m/s) 4 3 2.25 1.5 0.75 1 0.5
A (m) 0.533 0.4303 0.3473 0.2567 0.1532 0.1898 0.1132
L (m) 12 11 5 4 5 3 3
D (m) 0.824 0.7402 0.665 0.5718 0.4417 0.4917 0.3798
PV (mm of 3.446 2.978 2.5714 2.0919 1.4683 1.707 1.1952
WG) 3

Friction pressure drop in the longest duct run A to E


∆Pf = Friction X Length

∆PF = 0.0774 X L
= 0.0774 X 37
= 2.8638 mm of WG

Dynamic pressure drop: (A to E)


∆Pl = Fitting AB = (1 - R) (PV1 – PV2) {R = 0.75 constant]

(1) AB = (1 – 0.75) (3.4463 – 2.978) = 0.1170 mm of WG

(2) CD = (1 – 0.75) (2.5714 – 2.091) = 0.1198 mm of WG

(3) BC = (1 – 0.75) (2.978 – 2.5714) = 0.1016 mm of H2O

(4) DE = (1 – 0.75) (2.0919 – 1.4683) = 0.155 mm of H2O

Dynamic losses: - Are caused due to change in direction at elbows,


bends tees, etc. or change in area or velocity (at enlarge &
contraction), suction & discharge loss at dampers etc.

∆Pl at ELLOW (D) = K X Pv (pressure loss coefficient).


= 0.22 X 2.0919 PV @ D
= 0.4602 mm of H2O
Velocity pressure loss at outlet
E (PVE) = 1.4683 mm of H2O
Static pressure at outlet E (PSE)
= 3 mm of H2O (Given)
Total loss = Friction loss + Dynamic loss + Velocity pressure at outlet
Total loss = Pf + Pl
= 2.8638 + (0.117 + 0.1016 + 0.1198 + 0.1559+ 0.4602 + 1.4683 + 3)
= 8.2866 mm of H2O

Total pressure at fan outlet (PT) = Total Loss = 8.2866 mm of H2O

Total loss in other parallel circuit A-F-G:-

A-F-G = [0.0774 X (12+3+3) + (1 -0.75) (3.4463 – 1.7071)] + [(1 –


0.75) (1.7007 – 1.1952)] + [0.22 X 1.70071] + 1.1952 + 3
= 6.5253 mm of H2O.

 In two circuits pressure losses are different but hydraulic principle


says that in two parallel circuits pressure losses should be same.
 We create extra pressure by throttling the air in system by
installing damper. This is the draw back of Equal Friction methods.

Static Regain Method: -


[Select Ø of 2nd stage so that sum of fitting loss between 1 st & 2nd
stages & loss in 2nd stage should be equal to static regain from 1 st & 2nd
stages].

Duct A: - is same i.e. ; dA = 0.824m, PVA = 3.4463 mm of H2O

Duct B: - A (∆P fitting) B + (∆Pf) B = A (∆Pr) B.

Choose Ø dB in such a way that the equation balance.

Iteration I: - Let Ø db = 0.78 m (randomly)


Q = AXV

3 m/s = Π X (0.78)2 X VB /4

VB = 3X4/Π (0.78)2 = 6.2783 m/s

Velocity pressure PVB = (V/4.04)2


= (6.2783/4.04)2 = 2.415 mm of H2O
A (∆P fitting) B = (1-R) (PVA - PVB)

= (1-0.75) X (3.4463 – 2.415)

= 0.2578 mm of H2O.

(∆Pf) B = [0.002268 X Q1.852 X L]

4.973
DB

1.852
= 0.002268 X 3 X 11

4.973
(0.78)

= 0.6565mm of H2O

Loss of branches: - When air enters into branch duct from main
duct pressure loss takes place ∆PL=R (PV1-PV2)
Where PV1 & PV2 = Velocity pressure in main duct before & after
branch

Regain: -
A (∆PR) B = 0.75 (3.4463 – 2.415)
= 0.7734 mm of H2O.
Loss (∆PL) = 0.2578 + 0.6565 = 0.9143 mm of H2O.

Loss > Regain.

Therefore: This iteration I is wrong

Increase the Ø which will improve the regain & will decrease the loss.

Iteration II: -
Therefore: Let Ø = db = 0.8 m. (assume)
Q = AV
3 m/s = Π/4 (0.8)2 X VB
VB = 3 X 4
= 5.9683 m/s
2
Π X (0.8)

Velocity pressure: - PVB = (V/4.04)2

= (5.9683/4.04) 2 = 2.1824 mm of H2O


A (∆P fitting) B = (1-R) (PVA - PVB)= (1-0.75) X (3.4463 – 2.1824)
= 0.3159mm of H2O.

(∆Pf) B = 0.002268 X 31.852 X 11


= 0.5788 mm of H2O
4.973
(0.8)
Regain: -
(∆PR) B = 0.75 (3.4463 – 2.1824) = 0.9479 mm of H2O.

Loss (∆PL) = 0.3157 + 0.5788 = 0.8947 mm of H2O.


(Loss < Regain).
This iteration II is correct.

Section A B C D E F G
d (m) 0.824 0.8 0.74 0.69 0.54 0.48 0.36
PV mm of 3.4463 2.1924 1.6769 0.9869 0.6571 0.8711 1.1909
H2O
∆PL mm of - 0.8947 0.3539 0.5113 0.2248 1.672 0.4019
WG(LOSS)
∆PR mm - 0.9479 0.3791 0.5183 0.2486 1.1814 0.5402
of WG
(Regain)

Friction Pressure drop in A = ∆Pf A

1.852
= 0.002268 X 4 X 12
= 0.9288 mm of H2O
4.973
(0.824)

Friction & Dynamic loss B to E: -

∑∆PL = 0.8947 + 0.3539 + 0.113 + 0.2248


= 1.9847 mm of H2O.
Total Loss= ∆Pf A +∑ ∆PL+velocity pr.at outlet E +Static Pr at outlet E
= 0.9288 + 1.9847 + 0.6571 + 3
= 6.5706 mm of H2O.

Fan Total Pressure: - (FTP) = total Loss = 6.5706 mm of H2O

Total Loss in circuit A-F-G = 0.9288 + 1.672 + 0.4019 + 1.1909 + 3


=6.5888 mm of H2O

Therefore: Pressure loss is same so no dampering is required. This is


the benefit of static regain method.
Similar calculation to be done for other section:-
1. Total loss in static regain (SR) method 6.5706 is less than equal
friction (EF) method 8.2866. Hence saves energy & gives desired
flow of air in each area popular in clean room application.
2. Ø is SR > EF so capital cost of SR is more.
3. Operation of duct with SR is satisfactory. No dampering is
required at outlet. Volume delivered is also not affected by
Damper adjustment.
4. Calculations with SR are complicated.
5. EF required more vanes & dampers for the circulation of air.