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# EQUAL FRICTION METHOD

## (It maintain same friction loss per meter length)

Duct A:-
Speed of air in main duct:-
A (Va)= 7.5 m/s= 1470 FPM
Q= 4 m³/s
Q= A X V
4 m³/s = A X 7.5 m/s
A= 0.5333
Area of circle = Πd²/4
So, d = (A x 4/Π) ½
d= (0.5333 X 4/Π) ½
d=Da = 0.824 m

## Friction loss per mm of WG = (0.002268 X L X Q1.852)

d4.973
Friction loss/mm of WG = 0.002268 X 4 1.852 X 1

4.973
(0.824)

## Friction loss/mm of WG = 0.0774 mm of H2O

Duct A Velocity pressure = {V/4.04}  mm of WG

## PVA = {7.5/4.04} 2 = 3.4463 mm of WG

Duct B: -
Q = AV
1.853
Friction loss = 0.002268 X 3 XL

d4.973

1.852 (1/4.973)
d = {(0.002268 X 3 )/0.0774}

d=db = 0.7402 m
A = Π d2
4

A = Π X (0.7402)2
4
A = 0.43 m2
3 = 0.43 X V
VB = 3/0.43 = 6.9718 m/s
Velocity pressure Pr. = (V/ 4.04)2 mm of WG

## Similarly for other parts

Section A B C D E F G
Q (m/s) 4 3 2.25 1.5 0.75 1 0.5
A (m) 0.533 0.4303 0.3473 0.2567 0.1532 0.1898 0.1132
L (m) 12 11 5 4 5 3 3
D (m) 0.824 0.7402 0.665 0.5718 0.4417 0.4917 0.3798
PV (mm of 3.446 2.978 2.5714 2.0919 1.4683 1.707 1.1952
WG) 3

## Friction pressure drop in the longest duct run A to E

∆Pf = Friction X Length

∆PF = 0.0774 X L
= 0.0774 X 37
= 2.8638 mm of WG

## Dynamic pressure drop: (A to E)

∆Pl = Fitting AB = (1 - R) (PV1 – PV2) {R = 0.75 constant]

## Dynamic losses: - Are caused due to change in direction at elbows,

bends tees, etc. or change in area or velocity (at enlarge &
contraction), suction & discharge loss at dampers etc.

## ∆Pl at ELLOW (D) = K X Pv (pressure loss coefficient).

= 0.22 X 2.0919 PV @ D
= 0.4602 mm of H2O
Velocity pressure loss at outlet
E (PVE) = 1.4683 mm of H2O
Static pressure at outlet E (PSE)
= 3 mm of H2O (Given)
Total loss = Friction loss + Dynamic loss + Velocity pressure at outlet
Total loss = Pf + Pl
= 2.8638 + (0.117 + 0.1016 + 0.1198 + 0.1559+ 0.4602 + 1.4683 + 3)
= 8.2866 mm of H2O

## A-F-G = [0.0774 X (12+3+3) + (1 -0.75) (3.4463 – 1.7071)] + [(1 –

0.75) (1.7007 – 1.1952)] + [0.22 X 1.70071] + 1.1952 + 3
= 6.5253 mm of H2O.

##  In two circuits pressure losses are different but hydraulic principle

says that in two parallel circuits pressure losses should be same.
 We create extra pressure by throttling the air in system by
installing damper. This is the draw back of Equal Friction methods.

## Static Regain Method: -

[Select Ø of 2nd stage so that sum of fitting loss between 1 st & 2nd
stages & loss in 2nd stage should be equal to static regain from 1 st & 2nd
stages].

## Iteration I: - Let Ø db = 0.78 m (randomly)

Q = AXV

3 m/s = Π X (0.78)2 X VB /4

## Velocity pressure PVB = (V/4.04)2

= (6.2783/4.04)2 = 2.415 mm of H2O
A (∆P fitting) B = (1-R) (PVA - PVB)

## = (1-0.75) X (3.4463 – 2.415)

= 0.2578 mm of H2O.

## (∆Pf) B = [0.002268 X Q1.852 X L]

4.973
DB

1.852
= 0.002268 X 3 X 11

4.973
(0.78)

= 0.6565mm of H2O

Loss of branches: - When air enters into branch duct from main
duct pressure loss takes place ∆PL=R (PV1-PV2)
Where PV1 & PV2 = Velocity pressure in main duct before & after
branch

Regain: -
A (∆PR) B = 0.75 (3.4463 – 2.415)
= 0.7734 mm of H2O.
Loss (∆PL) = 0.2578 + 0.6565 = 0.9143 mm of H2O.

## Therefore: This iteration I is wrong

Increase the Ø which will improve the regain & will decrease the loss.

Iteration II: -
Therefore: Let Ø = db = 0.8 m. (assume)
Q = AV
3 m/s = Π/4 (0.8)2 X VB
VB = 3 X 4
= 5.9683 m/s
2
Π X (0.8)

## = (5.9683/4.04) 2 = 2.1824 mm of H2O

A (∆P fitting) B = (1-R) (PVA - PVB)= (1-0.75) X (3.4463 – 2.1824)
= 0.3159mm of H2O.

## (∆Pf) B = 0.002268 X 31.852 X 11

= 0.5788 mm of H2O
4.973
(0.8)
Regain: -
(∆PR) B = 0.75 (3.4463 – 2.1824) = 0.9479 mm of H2O.

## Loss (∆PL) = 0.3157 + 0.5788 = 0.8947 mm of H2O.

(Loss < Regain).
This iteration II is correct.

Section A B C D E F G
d (m) 0.824 0.8 0.74 0.69 0.54 0.48 0.36
PV mm of 3.4463 2.1924 1.6769 0.9869 0.6571 0.8711 1.1909
H2O
∆PL mm of - 0.8947 0.3539 0.5113 0.2248 1.672 0.4019
WG(LOSS)
∆PR mm - 0.9479 0.3791 0.5183 0.2486 1.1814 0.5402
of WG
(Regain)

## Friction Pressure drop in A = ∆Pf A

1.852
= 0.002268 X 4 X 12
= 0.9288 mm of H2O
4.973
(0.824)

## ∑∆PL = 0.8947 + 0.3539 + 0.113 + 0.2248

= 1.9847 mm of H2O.
Total Loss= ∆Pf A +∑ ∆PL+velocity pr.at outlet E +Static Pr at outlet E
= 0.9288 + 1.9847 + 0.6571 + 3
= 6.5706 mm of H2O.

## Total Loss in circuit A-F-G = 0.9288 + 1.672 + 0.4019 + 1.1909 + 3

=6.5888 mm of H2O

## Therefore: Pressure loss is same so no dampering is required. This is

the benefit of static regain method.
Similar calculation to be done for other section:-
1. Total loss in static regain (SR) method 6.5706 is less than equal
friction (EF) method 8.2866. Hence saves energy & gives desired
flow of air in each area popular in clean room application.
2. Ø is SR > EF so capital cost of SR is more.
3. Operation of duct with SR is satisfactory. No dampering is
required at outlet. Volume delivered is also not affected by