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Conceptual Designing
Academy of Hospital

• The primary objective of concept designing is to

Administration, Kolkata Chapter

– Arrive at a clearly defined, feasible concept, and

Hospital Architectural Planning and – Present it in a form that results in client understanding
and acceptance.
Designing – Part 3
• To achieve this objective,
– The architect must understand and verify the project
– Explore alternative solutions, and
Prof (Col) Dr R N Basu – Provide a reasonable basis for analyzing the cost of the
Adviser, Quality and Academics project.
Hospital Planning and Management
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Conceptual Designing Conceptual Designing

• Concept design requires that the architect grapples • It is vital that the architect and the client agree the objectives and
outcomes in advance
with the real issues of bulk and form
• Concept design simply can be:
• The architect visualizes the scale and mass and the – A series of sketches, or
general appearance of the building – It can go into considerable depth
• Concept design implies • Concept design is usually an iterative process
– An idea or range of ideas – A series of design meetings takes place with the client
– Through this process,
– A development approach
• A more precise concept is developed
– A guiding concept and a design intent • The client better understands their own project and the architectural concept
• Concept design explores the resolution of the brief – During this time, the architect accommodates the evolving requests of
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Conceptual Designing Conceptual Designing

• The concept design is seldom an “Eureka” moment • The concept design incorporates:
– It is not that a single idea pops up into the head which – The plan form
resolves everything
– Volumetry (i.e., placing of blocks on the site plan)
• The iterative meetings tests ideas
– Architecture and overall shape of the building
• This results in satisfactory resolution of often
conflicting criteria • The concept design should encapsulate:
– These ideas could be aesthetic, organisational, – The spirit
technical, social or contextual – The form
• A successful concept design is one that fulfils most – Principal aesthetic and technical principles
of the criteria that the client, the architect and the
team considers to be important – The real constraints of its site and local legislation
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Conceptual Designing
Design Development
• Deliverables at the end of schematic design:
• Design development (DD) phase of architectural design
– Conceptual site plan begins after the approved conceptual design
– Preliminary building plans with elevations and sections • The aspects of design depicted are:
– Perspective sketches – architectural,
– Study models – structural,
– Electronic visualizations, and – HVAC,
– Electrical,
– Statistical summary of the design area and other
characteristics in comparison to the programme – Plumbing and
requirements – Fire Protection Systems are essential
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Design Development Design Development

• Some other aspects are also integrated with the design • Design Development documents are often
depending on building type. These are:
– acoustic and vibration considerations,
similar to those in schematic design
– lighting concepts, – But contains more detail in the drawings and
– landscaping design, and other specialized factors specifications
• DD may rely on extensive three dimensional • Client reviews these documents
• This is to communicate both the overall design and – Upon his written approval, the construction
details to the design team, the client, and the documentation begins
construction team

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Design Development Design Development

• Building Elevations
• DD Deliverables and Products
– Materials and features, major dimensions and elevations, typical
windows and doors
– Usually, the following is included in DD documents:
• Building sections
• Site plan – Materials, fire ratings and compartments, expansion joints, major
– Zoning and site development requirements, property lines, dimensions and elevations, outline specifications
elevations, pavement and sidewalks, walls and curbs, • Typical wall sections
landscaping, utilities, typical site details – Partition types, fire-rated assemblies
• Floor Plans • Integrated Sections/Plans
– Rooms, corridors, and other spaces, windows, and doors, fire – Architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing
systems depicted on the same drawings to show how they fit
ratings, and compartments, expansion joints, reflected ceilings, together
structural grid major dimensions
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Design Development Design Development

• Plumbing:
• Schedules
– Equipment rooms and distribution zones, riser diagrams, equipment
– Room finishes, doors, windows, vertical transportation rooms, outline specifications
• Structural • Outline specifications:
– Foundation plan, floor framing, roof framing, typical notes and – Brief description of the project, architectural materials and systems,
details, outline specifications engineering specifications
• Mechanical • Visualization:
– Equipment rooms and distribution zones, riser diagrams, – Models, mockups, material samples, renderings, computer models,
equipment rooms, outline specifications animations, sketches, lighting studies

• Electrical • Other material:

– Equipment rooms and distribution zones, riser diagrams, • Code and zoning analysis, floor area summaries, LEED rating
equipment schedule, outline specifications summary

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Working Drawing Working Drawing

• Definition of Working Drawings: • Working drawing provide:
– Set of drawings for the construction of a building – Dimensioned, graphical information
– This includes architectural, structural and service – This is used by the contractor to construct the
drawings works
– The working drawing usually include:
– This can also be used by suppliers to fabricate
• Site drawings, components of the works, or
• General location drawings (plans, sections, elevations ),
• To assemble or install components
• Assembly drawings and details completely dimensioned
and bearing all the indications required for construction.
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Working Drawing Working Drawing

• Traditionally, working drawings consists of two- • Working drawings may include:
dimensional orthogonal projections of the building – Title blocks
– Dimensions
• These are prepared by using Computer Aided
– Notation, and
Design (CAD) software
– Symbols
• However, increasingly, Building Information
• These should be consistent with industry standards
Modeling (BIM) is being used to create 3
– This is necessary so that their meaning is clear
dimensional representations of building for the
• Specification information can be included or on a
separate or in a separate specification
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Working Drawing Working Drawing

• The scale at which drawings are prepared should • Drawings must be structured carefully
reflect the level of detail of the information they – This is required for conveying necessary information to
are required to convey carryout particular parts of the works
• It is important that the purpose of the drawings • To give greater clarity , they may be separated into
and the people that will use them are considered packages
– Working drawing may be prepared for – This is necessary to tailor information to
• Statutory approvals • separate parts of the works
• For contractors to plan the construction works • Specific components, or separate suppliers or traders

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Working Drawing
• The quality of production information is extremely important
• Unless it is prepared and coordinated properly, there will be TO BE CONTINUED
disputes and delays on site as well as cost escalation
• Common problems with working drawing are:
– Poor co-ordination of information
– Errors and omissions
– Information not going to right people
– Poor presentation
• Working Drawings may be updated when the works are
– This reflects changes to the works that may have worked
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