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MEMS Process Integration and

Manufacturability

Dr. Pinyen Lin, Chief Technologist & VP Business Development

Touch Micro-system Technology, Taiwan


Outline

1. MEMS Industry and Products


2. Process Integration and Design for Manufacturability
- Challenges and Best Practice
3. CMOS-MEMS Process Integration
4. Summary
TMT Company Profile

z Strategic Position:
Professional MEMS Technology Developer (Co‐Development)
& Manufacturing Platform Provider (Foundry Service)
z The First Professional MEMS Foundry in Taiwan
z The First 200mm MEMS Foundry in Taiwan   
z MEMS Manufacturing Platforms Available
MEMS Industry
• Growing market, but fragmented: “Unique product with unique functions &
processes”
• Number of fab-less MEMS companies is growing
• Foundry and fab-less MEMS companies form manufacturing partnership.
• From 2007-2008, 25% MEMS units growth was accompanied with “only”
9% increase in value.

Source: Yole Development, Sep. 2009


MEMS Process Integration Cycle
• No “standardized” MEMS processes
− For different applications, there are different optimum processes.
− There is no process platform available at foundries for easy
development of integration
− At least 4-5 years from development to launch a MEMS product

From M. Huff, MEMS and Nanotechnology Exchange


Hurdles on MEMS Process Integration
• From design to products: Need to overcome many hurdles!

Unknown
failures Yield

IP Successful
protection Schedule Product
delay launch

Stiction
Funding
Material
Processing compatibility
Insufficient
difficulty Electronic
Design
Automation
Working with Foundry with Process Integration

• Leverage the well-characterized processes and process


modules (i.e. core competencies) offered at foundries
− Foundries have developed many process modules for
different applications.
• The ultimate goal is to shorten the time to market!
Design for Manufacturability and Best Practice

• From design point of view


− “Desensitize” system’s behavior from the manufacturing
variations
− Avoid using the undesirable aspects of a fabrication process to
define a device’s critical dimensions
• Short-loop runs (i.e., sub-sets of steps) are based on
statistical methods such as DOE for process validation and
problem solving.
• Test structures and diagnostic structures for measuring the
material properties from the process sequence
MEMS Processing Trend for Volume Production

Volume
production with
size & cost
3D WLP & CMOS reduction
integration
Thru-wafer (wafer thinning
Complexity

Processes & 8” wafers)


(DRIE, SOI,
wafer bonding)
Surface
Micromachining

Bulk
Micromachining

Processing Trends
TMT’s Core Process Technology
TMT’s Core Process Technology
Interposer Platform
• An advance passive component targeting at high performance,
small form factor passive-only circuits.

Key Features:
z Ultra thin glass substrate (as thin as 150um) 
z Thick Cu (10 um) as for inductor coil
z High‐Q Inductor: Q>50@6.4GHz
z High density MIM capacitor: 350pF/mm2 
z Enabling Capacitors design with two types of 
Capacitance Density ( 350pF/mm2& 4pF/mm2) 
z Design kit / shuttle bus available
TMT’s Integrated Solutions
z CMOS‐MEMS & WLP Platform

Applications 
z Accelerometer / Gyro / Inertial Sensor 
z Micro‐mirror 
z Microphone and oscillators
MEMS
z Nozzles / Micro‐channel 
CMOS

z Silicon Optical Bench platform

Applications 
z LED Light Engine / Display
MEMS Integration Strategy

• Two examples of MEMS/CMOS packaging

z CMOS and MEMS separated


– need wire bonding between
MEMS and CMOS chips

z MEMS bonded to CMOS as


a single chip
– monolithic integration

Source: Chipworks
MEMS-CMOS Monolithic Integration
• Interleaved MEMS and CMOS
− inserting MEMS process before the back-end interconnect
metallization
− Ex. Analog Devices
− Challenges: MEMS processes intervene CMOS processes;
long development cycles
• MEMS First
− MEMS devices made prior to CMOS
− Ex. Sandia National Lab, SiTime
− Challenges: Surface topography, wafer cleanliness,
material property change
MEMS-CMOS Monolithic Integration

• MEMS Last (i.e. MEMS devices built on top of CMOS wafers)


− Bonded MEMS or processed MEMS on CMOS
− Using existing CMOS layers; Ex. Akustica, Baolab
− Deposit MEMS layers; Ex. Texas Instrument, Miradia,
IMEC, Silicon Labs
− WLP of MEMS on top of CMOS, Ex. Xerox, InvenSense
DLP from Texas Instrument

• Three metals on top of CMOS


• Using metal layers as the
mechanical structure

L. Hornbeck, TI DMD Whitepaper


Miradia Micromirror
• Single crystal Si as hinge for faster
switching time
• Process technology owned by TMT

From D. Wang, Miradia


Micromirrors on top of CMOS
Innovative “Standard” Processes Currently Available for
CMOS-MEMS Integration
These processes have been recently developed:
• Low temperature bonding between CMOS and MEMS (to
enable single crystal Si for MEMS)
− GeAl bonding
− Silicon-silicon oxide bonding
• Cavity bonding
− Cavity SOI
• High density MEMS-CMOS electric connection
• Polymer adhesive for microfluidic packaging (learned from
inkjet printhead)
• Deposition of post-CMOS films for MEMS
− PolySiGe, metal alloys, amorphous Si, etc.
MEMS-CMOS Integration Platform
• Low temperature bonding (single crystal Si), wafer thinning,
TSV, and WLP create the active MEMS device layer.
• This process module (for 8-in wafers) has been offered at
foundry for fab-less MEMS companies.

MEMS Via
MEMS Device
Top-1 metal
Top-2 metal
CMOS Circuitry
Flexible CMOS-MEMS platform
Cap Layer
MEMS Via
MEMS Device
Top-1 metal
Top-2 metal
Top-1 metal
Top-2 metal CMOS Circuitry
CMOS Circuitry
Summary

• Many new innovative processes are available at foundries for


MEMS-CMOS integration
• A flexible integrated platform (developed originally for
micromirrors) is now available for MEMS designs
− MEMS structures (single crystal Si / metal) can be
monolithically integrated to the 8-in CMOS wafer.
• Fabless MEMS design companies are benefited from the
process technology offered by MEMS foundries.
• Shortening the process integration cycles is the key for
success in the MEMS industry.
Acknowledgements

• V. Lin, E. Kang, CS Yang, Touch Micro-system Technology


• M. Huff, MEMS and Nanotechnology Exchange
• S. Bart, Analog Devices
• D. Wang, Miradia
• And many others