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Hochbau

Bâtiment

Buildings
Die Sporthallen Mülimatt in Brugg
Sports hall Mülimatt, Brugg

Massimo Laffranchi, Armand Fürst

Fig. 1
Ansicht der Faltwerkstruktur mit verglasten Flächen an den Stirn- und Längsseiten.
View of the folded-plated concrete structure with glazed facades at the front and longitudinal sides.
(© Kanton Aargau, Foto: René Rötheli, Baden).

Einleitung Introduction und den auf Aare- und Bahnseite


Das neue Sportausbildungszent- The new sport facility with two unterschiedlich hohen Längsfassa-
rum mit zwei Dreifachturnhallen, triple gyms together with several den ein einheitliches Erscheinungs-
diversen kleineren Turnhallen minor gyms and classrooms as bild. Die Dachträger stabilisieren
und Sporträumen, Unterrichtsräu- well as an outdoor sports field die verglasten Stirnflächen. Das
men sowie Sportaussenplätzen was built in a single location monolithische Betontragwerk
wurde an einem einzigen Stand- giving appropriate consideration wirkt ausserdem als wetterfeste,
ort beim Naherholungsgebiet an to the recreational area along the gefaltete Haut. Die Wärme-
der Aare in Brugg erstellt. river Aare. dämmung im Dachbereich ist in
Das Gebäude ist aufgrund des Due to the distinctive location and der heruntergehängten Decke
exponierten Standorts, seiner its striking external dimensions, integriert, die an den Dach-
beachtlichen Abmessungen und the building is an eye-catcher for trägern befestigt ist. Die Stiele
der Nähe zum Bahndamm ein rail travellers. This consideration, schützen und beschatten ihrerseits
Blickfänger für die Bahnreisen- as well as the need for an effi- die verglasten Flächen der Längs-
den. Diese Feststellung sowie das cient and light structure resulted fassaden. Das Regenwasser wird
Bestreben, ein effizientes und in a thin-walled, folded-plate con- in den Rinnen der Dachfalten
leichtes Tragwerk zu realisieren, crete shell structure that encloses gesammelt und entlang der
um die freie Spannweite der all the sports and teaching facili- Stielflächen abgeleitet (Fig. 2).
ungeteilten Dreifachhallen von ties (Fig. 1 and 3). It rises from
50 m zu überbrücken, führte zum two different ground levels and Konzepte für das vorfabri-
Entwurf einer dünnwandigen, extends over the roof surface and zierte Faltwerk
gefalteten Betonschale, die alle the longitudinal facades. The gla- Während die Fundationen, das
Sport- und Unterrichtsräume um- zed faces at the front of the buil- Tragwerk des erdberührten Sockel-
hüllt (Fig. 1 und 3). Das auf die ding are stabilised by the front geschosses sowie sämtliche De-
Geländeneigung abgestimmte, roof beams. Further, the monolit- cken und Einbauten der Sport-
asymmetrische Faltwerk in Sicht- hic concrete structure distinguis- halle vor Ort betoniert wurden,
beton verleiht der Dachfläche hes the sports hall and acts as a besteht die darüber gespannte

42
weatherproof folded membrane. Faltwerkstruktur aus Betonfertig-
The ceiling within the thermal teilen. Im Werk liessen sich wirt-
insulation is fixed to the bottom schaftlich optimierte Lösungen
of the roof beams, whilst the und eine hohe Ausführungs-
column beams protect and shade qualität durch den Einsatz von
the glazing on the long side of selbstverdichtendem Beton und
the building. Rainwater is collec- der Vorspanntechnologie erzie-
ted in the roof folds and runs len. Kleine Spannglieder mit be-
along the surface of the column sonderen, schmalen Endveranke-
beams, which function as drain rungen in den Rahmenecken er-
gutters as a result of their shape möglichten dünnwandige, vorge-
(Fig. 2). spannte Faltwerkscheiben, ohne
das angestrebte Erscheinungsbild
Description and design of der Sichtbetonflächen zu beein-
the prefabricated structure flussen. Die Fertigteile wurden so
As opposed to the foundations, gross wie möglich gewählt, um
the underground structure as die Anzahl der Ortbetonfugen zu
well as the floor slabs and walls of minimieren. Die Grenzen betref-
the sports hall, which are made of fend Grösse und Gewicht setzten
in-situ concrete, the folded-plate die Einrichtungen zur Handha-
frame structure is realised in pre- bung der Elemente im Werk und
cast concrete. Thus, the most cost- die Bedingungen für den Stras-
Fig. 2
effective solution and high execu- sentransport. Die 27 kürzeren
Die äusseren Stielflächen wirken auch als
tion quality can be guaranteed by Stiele der südlichen Fassade auf
Rinnen für das abfliessende Regenwasser
taking advantage of self-compac- der Bahnseite sind 11,1 m lang
Längsseiten.
ting concrete technology and of und 35 t schwer. Jene der nördli- The columns function as drain gutters.
the possibilities given by the post- chen Fassade auf der Aareseite (© Studio Vacchini Architetti, Locarno).
tensioning method. The thickness weisen eine Länge von 14,3 m
of the structural members is re- und ein Gewicht von 43 t auf. Die
duced to a minimum, allowing 81 Dachträgerelemente weisen
placement of small tendons in the eine konstante Länge von 16,3 m
section and their anchorages in und ein Gewicht von 49 t auf. Bauherrschaft
the frame corners, without alter- Die Stiel- und Dachträgerelemen- Kanton Aargau, vertreten durch die
Immobilien Aargau, Departement
ing the appearance of the fair- te werden durch bewehrte Ort- Finanzen und Ressourcen, und
faced concrete structure. The size betonfugen und eine nach der Stadt Brugg
of the elements is chosen to mini- Montage eingezogene Dachvor- Planungsteam
Bauingenieur: Fürst Laffranchi
mise the total number of joints. spannung zu 27 monolithischen Bauingenieure GmbH, Wolfwil;
Element weight and length is Rahmeneinheiten mit einer Spann- Architekt: Studio Vacchini Architetti,
limited by the handling in the weite von 52,6 m miteinander Locarno; Landschaftsarchitekt: Paolo
Bürgi, Camorino
production facility and by the verbunden. Die 30 mm breiten Ausführung
conditions for road transporta- Spaltfugen entlang der Dach- Arigon Generalunternehmung AG,
tion. The 27 shorter column beam kante zwischen den Rahmenein- Zürich mit den Subunternehmern
Element AG, Veltheim (Betonvorfa-
elements on the railway side have heiten werden mit Mörtel vergos- brikation); VSL (Schweiz) AG, Subin-
a length of 11.1 m and a weight sen und mit verschweissten Stahl- gen (Vorspanntechnik); Jäggi AG,
of 35 t. Those on the river side bauteilen mechanisch verbunden. Brugg (Baumeisterarbeiten)

have a length of 14.3 m and a Dadurch wird eine Schalenwir-


weight of 43 t each. The 81 roof kung der Dachfläche für die ver-
beam elements have a constant änderlichen Einwirkungen erzielt Owner
length of 16.3 m and a weight of (Fig. 7). Sämtliche Fertigteile wei- Canton Aargau, represented by the
Immobilien Aargau, Department of
about 49 t. sen eine Querschnittshöhe von Finance and Resources, and Brugg
The roof- and column-beam ele- 2,59 m und eine konstante Breite Planning team
ments are connected by in-situ von 2,93 m auf. Die mittlere Civil engineers: Fürst Laffranchi
Bauingenieure GmbH, Wolfwil;
concrete joints and internal post- Stärke der Dachstruktur, bezogen Architect: Studio Vacchini Architetti,
tensioning tendons to form 27 auf die Grundrissfläche, beträgt Locarno; Landscape architect: Paolo
monolithic ‘frame units’ (FU) with lediglich 0,37 m. Bürgi, Camorino
Execution
a span of 52.6 m. The 30 mm wide Die Rahmeneinheiten stabilisie- Arigon Generalunternehmung AG,
gaps between the FUs are grout- ren das Gebäude in Querrichtung. Zurich (main contractor) with the
ed by a special cement grout. Die am Rahmeneck unter Dach subcontractors Element AG, Veltheim
(prefabricated concrete); VSL (Schweiz)
Additionally, welded steel plates angeordneten Diagonalscheiben AG, Subingen (post-tensioning); Jäggi
along the roof ridge provide a werden durch ein in Längsrich- AG, Brugg ( construction work)
rigid connection and enable the tung durchgehendes, horizonta-

43
Fig. 3
Ansicht der Sporthallen von der Aareseite: Das durchgehende Foyer unterhalb
der zwei Dreifachhallen ist gut erkennbar.
View of the sports hall from the river side: the foyer underneath the two tri-
ple gyms is recognisable.
(© Kanton Aargau, Foto: René Rötheli, Baden).

les Zugglied verbunden (Fig. 9). desired shell action for live loads fen. Die kleinen Spannglieder im
Dadurch wird die Form des (Fig. 7). The precast roof and Verbund mit maximal 6 Litzen
Faltwerkdachs erhalten und die column beams have a constant und einer Vorspannkraft bis P0 =
Stiele wirken als Teile eines über section height of 2.59 m and a 1,1 MN finden innerhalb der
die gesamte Gebäudelänge auf- constant width of 2.93 m. The Dach- und Stielscheiben Platz
gespannten Rahmens, der die average thickness of the roof (Fig. 5). Die Breite der festen
Längsstabilisierung sicherstellt. structure related to the covered
Der Horizontalschub der Rahmen- horizontal surface is 0.37 m.
einheiten wird durch die vorge- The FUs guarantee the stability of
spannte Deckenplatte des Sport- the structure in the transverse
hallenbodens aufgenommen, die direction. In the longitudinal
somit auch als Zugglied wirkt (Fig. direction, the diagonal panels at
4). Die bei jedem Stiel angeordne- the frame corners (Fig. 9) are con-
ten Ortbetonpfähle sind an ihrem catenated and accommodate a
Kopf in ein steifes Bankett einge- continuous tension tie that ensu-
bunden und übertragen die verti- res the folded form. In addition,
kalen Kräfte in die untere, steife- they connect the column beams
re Kiesschicht. Jeder Pfahl weist at the top to a continuous multi-
einen Durchmesser von 0,80 m ple frame, which guarantees the
und eine Länge zwischen 7,0 und longitudinal stability.
11,0 m auf. Das Ortbetontrag- The thrust of every FU is equili-
werk ist unabhängig vom Falt- brated by a tie connection to the
werk der Hallen in der oberen, post-tensioned concrete slab of
mittelsteifen Kiesschicht flach the gym floor (Fig. 4). Thus, only
fundiert. Setzungsdifferenzen bis vertical forces have to be carried
zu 20 mm lassen sich durch die from each column to the underly-
schlanken Verbindungen aus rost- ing compact gravel layer by a sin-
freien Zugstäben zwischen den gle concrete pile. All piles have a
Stielen und der Sporthallendecke diameter of 0.80 m and variable
aufnehmen. lengths between 7.0 and 11.0 m.
In order to reduce the risk of pos-
Fig. 4
Technologie und sible differential pile settlements,
Spannglieder und deren
Konstruktives a rigid foundation beam (pile
Verankerungen im Stiel und im
Vorspannung cap) connects the piles at the top.
anschliessenden Dachträgerelement
Das Konzept für die Vorspannung The in-situ sports hall structure is sowie Zugverbindung zwischen Stiel
des Faltwerks wurde ausgehend founded independently in the und Sporthallendecke.
von der gewünschten Tragwerks- upper gravel layer on a ground Tendons and anchorages in column
form und mit Rücksicht auf die slab. Relative settlements of up to and roof beams, tension ties connec-
dünnwandigen Bauteile entwor- 20 mm can be accommodated by ting the column with the gym slab.

44
Fig. 5
Längsschnitt und Querschnitte einer Rahmeneinheit mit Elementeneinteilung, Ortbetonfugen und Spanngliedern.
Longitudinal and cross sections of a frame unit (FU) showing the precast roof and columns beams, the cast-in-situ joints
and the post-tensioning tendons.

the slender stainless tie bars con- Anker in den Rahmenecken wurde the whole structure and concret-
necting the column beams to the eigens für das Projekt minimiert. ing of the joints in situ. The
gym’s floor slab. Die vorfabrizierten Stiele wurden strands were inserted in the ducts
im Werk vorgespannt (Fig. 10). and stressed at intermediate an-
Technology and detailing Die vorkonfektionierten Spann- chorages located in block-outs on
Post-tensioning glieder à 4 Litzen für den End- the roof ridge, which were subse-
The conceptual design for the zustand sowie zusätzliche Mono- quently filled with concrete and
post-tensioning was developed litzenspannglieder ohne Verbund are not visible in the final state
taking into account the desired für die Transport- und Montage- (Fig. 11). All cross sections are
structural form and the thin-wall- phase wurden aus einer Spann- compressed under dead and live
ed structural members. The nische am Stielfuss aktiviert. Die loads: the average concrete com-
grouted tendons are small sized Dachspannglieder wurden erst pression stress due to post-ten-
with up to 6 strands and a pre- nach der Montage der Dachträ- sioning is σc,End = – 4.6 MPa.
stressing force of P0 = 1.1 MN, in gerelemente auf provisorischen
order to fit into the member sec- Türmen und dem Betonieren Self-compacting concrete
tions (Fig. 5). They require little respektive Vergiessen der Quer- All prefabricated elements are
space in the frame corner for the und Längsfugen konfektioniert. made of the same high-strength
dead-end anchorages, specially Die Litzen wurden in die self-compacting concrete (SCC) of
developed for this project. The Hüllrohre eingestossen und aus the strength class C50/60. The ele-
prefabricated column beams einer Spannnische auf der Dach- ments – with V- and Y-shape –
were post-tensioned at the facto- oberseite mit kompakten Zwi- were casted upside down to ensu-
ry (Fig. 10). Stressing of the ten- schenverankerungen gespannt. re both optimal filling of the
dons was carried out from the Die Nischen wurden anschlies- formwork from above and a best-
column base, where the live send ausbetoniert und sind im possible compact surface without
anchorages are located in a com- Endzustand nicht erkennbar (Fig. air occlusions on the upper and
mon block-out. Supplementary 11). Sämtliche Querschnitte sind outer faces of the members. For
monostrand tendons had to be unter den ständigen und den ver- the same reasons, the maximum
provided for the construction änderlichen Einwirkungen vorge- aggregate size was reduced to 8
phase. On the other hand, the spannt. Die mittlere Betondruck- mm. The fair-faced concrete sur-
precast roof beams were post- spannung aus der Vorspannung faces are protected by hydropho-
tensioned only after erection of beträgt σc,Ende = – 4,6 MPa. bic impregnation. The directly

45
Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig.8
Gerüsttürme für die temporäre Nischen und Stahlplattenverbindung Rostfreie Zugglieder für die
Abstützung der Dachträger. in den 3 cm breiten Längsfugen an Verbindung zwischen Stiel und
Temporary support of the roof beams der Dachoberkante. Sporthallendecke.
using falsework. Block-outs for welding plate connec- Stainless ties between the gym slab
tions in the 3 cm-wide gap on the and one column beam.
roof ridge.

Selbstverdichtender Beton rain exposed sides are treated die unabhängig voneinander fun-
Sämtliche Fertigteile wurden aus with a supplementary transpa- diert sind, mussten so entworfen
dem gleichen hochfesten, selbst- rent sealing. The roof surfaces are werden, dass sie Ausführungsto-
verdichtenden Beton (SVB) der protected by a UV-resistant poly- leranzen und Differenzialsetzun-
Festigkeitsklasse C50/60 herge- urethane liquid membrane. gen aufnehmen können. Die rost-
stellt. Die Fertigteile für Dach und freien Zugglieder (D = 40 mm),
Stiele mit V- respektive variablem Structural details die den Horizontalschub von
Y-Querschnitt wurden mit den The connections between the jedem Stiel zur Sporthallendecke
Sichtflächen nach unten beto- precast members and the in-situ übertragen, wurden vorgängig in
niert, um die Schalung aus den concrete structure had to be de- Rohreinlagen der Decke einge-
Einfüllpunkten auf der Oberseite signed to take into account the führt und nach Errichten des
optimal zu verfüllen und damit estimated differential settlements Stiels mit einem Muffenstoss an-
die im Endzustand dem Regen and placement inaccuracies. The geschlossen (Fig. 8). Ein freier
und Wasserabfluss ausgesetzten stainless tension ties (D = 40 mm) Zwischenraum von 20 mm um
Betonflächen möglichst kompakt that transfer the thrust of every den Stab ermöglicht allfällige
und frei von Lunkern auszubil- frame unit to the gym’s floor slab, Differenzialsetzungen. Stiel und
den. Aus den gleichen Gründen were previously inserted into tu- Fundationsbankett werden durch
beträgt das Grösstkorn lediglich 8 bular openings placed in the slab, das Verschweissen von eingeleg-
mm. Sämtliche Sichtbetonflächen then connected to the column ten Stahlplatten bei der Montage
sind durch eine Tiefenhydro- beams after their erection (Fig. 8). verbunden. Die schmale Fuge
phobierung geschützt. Die direkt A 20 mm space all around the tie zwischen Stielfuss und der Funda-
dem Regen ausgesetzten Stiel- allows for settlements. mentaussparung wird anschlies-
flächen sind zusätzlich durch eine The base point connection of the send durch einen hochfesten
farblose Versiegelung geschützt. column beams is realised by corres- Vergussmörtel verfüllt. Die Aus-
Auf der Dachaufsicht wurde voll- ponding steel plates encased in führungstoleranzen wurden vor-
flächig eine UV-resistente Flüssig- the column and in the foundation gängig durch das Nivellieren der
kunststoffabdichtung auf Poly- beam, which were welded during Einlagen im Bankett und bei Be-
urethanbasis aufgebracht. erection. The gap between the darf mit Schiftplatten ausgegli-
column base and the foundation chen.
Konstruktive Durchbildung was grouted afterwards by a
Die Verbindungen zwischen dem high-strength cement grout. In- Herstellung
vorfabrizierten Faltwerk und dem accuracies were compensated in Für die Herstellung der kurzen
Ortbetontragwerk der Einbauten, advance through levelling and if und langen Stiele sowie für die

46
Fig.9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11
Zugglieder in der Diagonalscheibe Vorspannung der Stiele im Werk, Vorspannung der Dachträger auf der
unter Dach im Rahmeneck vor dem Ankernische und Stahl-Fussplatten. Baustelle dank
Betonieren der Aussparung. Post-tensioning of the column beams Zwischenverankerungen an der
Tension tie in the diagonal panel at at the factory, block-out and steel Dachaufsicht.
the frame corner before concreting. base plates. Post-tensioning of the roof beams in
(© VSL AG, Subingen). situ by means of intermediate
anchorages.
(© VSL AG, Subingen).

necessary by means of supplemen- mittleren respektive die seitlichen Autoren/Authors


tary steel plates. Fertigteile des Dachs waren insge- Massimo Laffranchi
samt vier Schalungen erforder- Dr. sc. techn., dipl. Bauing. ETH
laffranchi@fuerstlaffranchi.ch
Construction lich. Die vier Elementtypen konn-
The short and long column beams ten daher parallel in einem einzi- Armand Fürst
as well as the midspan and lateral gen Werk in Zyklen von zwei bis Dr. sc. techn., dipl. Bauing. ETH
fuerst@fuerstlaffranchi.ch
roof beams all required their spe- drei Tagen pro Bauteil produziert
cific steel formwork. Thus, the werden. Die Betonmischung wur- Fürst Laffranchi Bauingenieure GmbH
four element types were manu- de für eine rasche Festigkeitsent- CH-4628 Wolfwil

factured simultaneously in one wicklung optimiert. Das Drehen


factory and in a work cycle of 2 to der schweren, auf der Kopfseite
3 days per element. The concrete betonierten Fertigteile erforderte
composition was optimised to eine besondere Drehvorrichtung.
achieve a rapid development of Montiert wurden die Fertigteile
strength. The rotating of the mithilfe eines 500-t-Raupenkrans,
heavy elements, which were cast der neben der Sporthalle zusam-
upside down, required a special mengebaut worden war. Die Dach-
mechanism. träger wurden bis zu ihrer Vor-
The handling and assembling of spannung von Gerüsttürmen ge-
the precast elements was carried tragen (Fig. 6). Diese wurden über
out with the aid of a 500 t craw- ein System von hydraulischen
ler crane placed beside the hall. Pressen abgesenkt, deren Kräfte
The roof beams were carried by sich fein steuern liessen. Die
temporary falsework until the Errichtung des Faltwerks in zwei
post-tensioning was completed. Phasen erforderte insgesamt vier
The lowering of the falsework Monate, die Kosten der Sporthalle
was controlled by a system of inklusive Ausbau und technischer
hydraulic jacks. The erection of Ausrüstung betragen 25 Millio-
the large span structure required nen Franken.
a total time of 4 months.
The costs for the sports hall inclu-
sive of technical equipment are of
25 million Swiss Francs.

47
Une nouvelle toiture pour le Musée Olympique à Lausanne
A new roof for the Olympic Museum at Lausanne

Aurelio Muttoni

Introduction Introduction Système porteur


Dans le cadre de l’agrandissement As part of upgrading and extend- La structure est une grille de pou-
du Musée Olympique à Lausanne ing the Olympic museum in Lau- tres à trame régulière. 96 sommiers
(Suisse), une nouvelle toiture a sanne a new roof was built to transversaux de 18 à 21 m de lon-
été construite sur l’ancien bâti- cover the existing building (finish- gueur, une hauteur de 1,00 m et
ment réalisé en 1990. La structure ed in 1990). The new roof also un espacement de 0,75 m sont
de cette toiture, fonctionnant acts as an unusual canopy, shad- suspendus à des poutres métalli-
aussi comme brise-soleil sur sa ing natural light in the south part ques longitudinales couvrant les
partie sud, est une grille de pou- of the building. It consists of a 71,25 m de longueur (Fig. 2a). Ces
tres en béton fibré à ultra-hautes grid of beams cast in ultra-high dernières sont appuyées sur des
performances. Une comparaison performance fibre-reinforced con- murs en béton et sur des colonnes
avec d’autres options (bois lamel- crete (UHPFRC). A comparison métalliques. Sur la partie sud orien-
lé-collé, aluminium extrudé) a with other options (timber and tée vers le lac, les sommiers trans-
démontré que ce matériau peut aluminium members) showed the versaux sont en porte-à-faux sur
être intéressant si tous les aspects UHPFRC solution to be the most une longueur de 4,50 m jusqu’à
sont considérés (économie, dura- competitive when considering all 9,00 m (Fig. 2b). La partie nord sur
bilité, facilité d’exécution, aspect requirements of the structure le restaurant et une partie au sud
architectural, poids et délais (economy, durability, ease of con- de la façade vitrée sont couvertes
d’exécution). Des éléments de struction, architectural expression, par une tôle à profil trapézoïdal
grandes dimensions (longueurs weight and construction details). qui assure le contreventement
jusqu’à 21 m) ont pu être réalisés The long lengths of the beams horizontal. A l’extrémité sud
en assemblant éléments plus (up to 21 meters) were obtained fonctionnant comme brise-soleil,
courts par la technique des joints by assembling shorter members la tôle est remplacée par des pou-
conjugués et de la précontrainte using the match casting techni- tres longitudinales espacées de
par post-tension. En outre, le que in combination with post- 0,75 m et de 0,55 m de hauteur
BFUHP permet de réaliser des élé- tensioning. In addition, the use of appuyées sur les porte-à-faux
ments durables malgré leurs fai- UHPFRC allowed the manufacture fonctionnant comme raidisseurs et
bles dimensions et leur élance- of durable elements, despite the s’opposant ainsi au déversement
ment. limited thickness used and the des sommiers transversaux. Les
pronounced slenderness of the sections de tous les éléments sont
Le Musée Olympique et sa beams. trapézoïdales avec largeurs varia-
nouvelle toiture bles entre 80 et 100 mm. Puisque
Le Musée Olympique, réalisé en The Olympic Museum and la partie en porte-à-faux des som-
1990 sur la rive du Lac Léman à its new roof miers transversaux se situe à l’ex-
Lausanne, est devenu avec le The Olympic Museum was built in térieur, un joint en proximité de
temps le musée le plus fréquenté 1990 at the shores of Lake la façade Sud a dû être disposé
de la ville. La fréquentation Geneva and today it is already the pour les séparer thermiquement
accrue ainsi que des nouvelles exi- most frequently visited museum de la partie à l’intérieur. Ce joint
gences muséales ont rendu néces- in Lausanne. It was decided to thermique est conçu pour repren-
saire un agrandissement et la réa- upgrade and extend the museum dre l’effort tranchant et le mo-
lisation d’une nouvelle toiture sur due to the large number of visits ment de flexion qui sont maxi-
l’ancienne terrasse afin d’abriter per year and at the same time to maux à cet endroit. Certains som-
un nouveau restaurant et une implement a number of new re- miers transversaux entièrement à
nouvelle salle de banquets. Sur la quirements for museums. An im- l’extérieur ont une longueur in-
partie sud, la nouvelle couverture portant part of the project was to interrompue de 21 m. Les autres,
fonctionne aussi comme brise-sol- build a new roof over the existing interrompus par le joint thermi-
eil. La nouvelle structure couvre terrace to accommodate a new que, ont une portée variable
toute la partie du bâtiment orien- restaurant. On its south part, the entre 9,00 et 13,50 m à laquelle
tée vers le lac sur un front de new roof also acts as a canopy, s’ajoute le porte-à-faux au-delà
71,25 m et une largeur de 21,00 m shading natural light. The new du joint (Fig. 2b).
(Fig. 1). Les travaux ont eu lieu structure covers the part of the Lors de la phase initiale du projet,
entre janvier 2012 et septembre building facing the lake with a plusieurs options ont été étudiées
2013. total length of 71.25 m and a pour ce qui concerne la matériali-

48
(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 1
a) Façade sud du Musée Olympique et nouvelle toiture pendant les travaux,
b) vue vers le lac depuis l’intérieur et c) vue de la partie fonctionnant comme
brise-soleil.
a) South facade of the Olympic Museum and new roof during construction,
b) view towards the lake, and c) view of the canopy.

49
(a)
A

21.000
A
71.250

(b)

Fig. 2
a) vue en plan et b) schéma d’une poutre transversale avec portée de 13,50 m et porte-
à-faux de 4,50 m (coupe A–A dans la vue en plan).
a) plan view and b) view of a transverse beam with a span of 13.50 m and a cantilever
of 4.50 m (cross section A–A in plan view).

sation (BFUHP, bois lamellé collé, width of 21.00 m (Fig. 1). The est composé de deux tubes en
aluminium extrudé). En considé- work was started in January 2012 acier inoxydable dans lesquels
rant tous les aspects économiques and finished in September 2013. trouvent place les deux torons
(coûts de production et d’entre- dans la partie supérieure tendue.
tien), techniques (complexité des Structural system Ces tubes, avec les gaines des
détails constructifs), exécutifs The structure of the roof consists câbles de précontrainte, ont été
(facilité de montage et possibilité of a regular grid of beams. In the injectés par coulis de ciment après
d’assurer les délais), de durabilité transverse direction, the beams mise en tension des câbles sur le
et architecturaux, l’option en have a length varying between 18 chantier. Dans la partie inférieure
BFUHP a été retenue. and 21 m. They are 1.00 m in des sommiers, la force de com-
height and are spaced at 0.75 m. pression est reprise par des pla-
Préfabrication, montage et These beams are suspended from ques en acier inoxydable soudé.
détails constructifs steel girders covering the 71.25 m La fixation des raidisseurs sur les
Les éléments en BFUHP ont été length of the roof (Fig. 2a). The sommiers transversaux a été faite
préfabriqués dans une usine située steel girders are supported on par le biais de plaques en acier
à environ 80 km du chantier. Pour concrete walls and steel columns. inoxydable fixées aux raidisseurs
faciliter le décoffrage des moules In the south part, facing the lake, par des tiges lors du bétonnage
métalliques (Fig. 4a), les sections the transverse beams have canti- (Fig. 4a et 4b). Lors du montage,
des sommiers et des raidisseurs levers ranging from 4.50 m to les plaques ont été boulonnées
sont trapézoïdales avec épaisseurs 9.00 m (Fig. 2b). To ensure lateral sur les sommiers inférieurs par le
variables entre 80 et 100 mm. A stability, the north part (over the biais d’écrous vissés sur des tiges
cause de l’élancement des élé- restaurant) and some regions of filetées en attente (Fig. 3d). Le
ments, pour faciliter le transport et the south part are covered by a même détail a été utilisé pour
le montage, les sommiers de 21 m steel sheet of trapezoidal shape. suspendre les sommiers transver-
de longueur ont été fabriqués et This steel sheet is replaced in the saux aux poutres métalliques lon-
transportés en deux pièces de outermost south regions by longi- gitudinales (Fig. 4c).
10,50 m (Fig. 3b) et assemblées tudinal stiffeners, spaced at 0.75 m La résistance à la flexion des som-
sur place au droit de joints conju- and with a height of 0.535 m, miers transversaux est assurée
gués précontraints par deux supported on the cantilevers and essentiellement par les torons
câbles mono-torons post-tendus acting as diaphragms (to resist post-tendus. Afin de permettre la
(Fig. 3c). Pour les autres sommiers, lateral instability of the transver- fixation des gaines vides lors du
le joint thermique a fait office de se beams). All sections were tra- bétonnage, des barres de montage
joint conjugué (Fig. 4c). Ce joint pezoidal-shaped with a thickness dans le sens transversal et longi-

50
varying between 80 and 100 mm. tudinal ont été utilisées. A ces ar- (both production and maintenan-
Taking into account the fact that matures s’ajoutent les tiges verti- ce), technical aspects (complexity
the cantilevers are exposed to cales nécessaires pour les fixations of construction details), construc-
environmental conditions in the des éléments et la suspension des tion technique (ease of construc-
south part, a joint was provided sommiers (Fig. 4a et 4b). tion and limited construction
close to the south façade for ther- Les raidisseurs longitudinaux ont time), durability issues and/or
mal insulation purposes. This joint la même largeur (80 –100 mm) architectural needs, UHPFRC was
transfers the shear and bending mais sont de moindre hauteur finally selected.
moments, which are highest at (535 mm) et leur longueur varie
this region, of the transverse entre 3,00 et 12,00 m. Ils ont été Precasting, erection and
beams. Some of the transverse coulés de la même façon et la detailing
beams have a length of 21 meters résistance à la flexion des élé- The UHPFRC members were pre-
without joints. The others are not ments dépassant une certaine cast in a specialized factory locat-
continuous (with the thermally longueur est assurée par deux ed 80 km from the construction
insulating joint), have inner spans torons prétendus en usine (mé- site. In order to enhance the ease
ranging from 9.00 to 13.50 m (Fig. thode des fils adhérents). of demoulding (Fig. 3a), the cross-
2) and are followed by the canti- sections of the beams were trape-
lever region. Caractéristiques du BFUHP zoidal with varying thicknesses
During the design of the structu- et dimensionnement between 80 and 100 mm. Due to
re, several options regarding the Le «béton spécial industriel» (BSI® the slenderness of the members,
material to be used for the roof avec 200 kg/m3 de fibres métal- and to improve transportation and
were investigated (UHPFRC, tim- liques, lf = 20 mm, øf = 0,3 mm) a erection of the beams, the beams
ber, extruded aluminium). Taking été utilisé pour tous les éléments with a total length of 21 meters
into account economic aspects en BFUHP. Aucun traitement ther- were fabricated as two pieces of

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 3
a) préparation du coffrage métallique, b) manutention en usine des éléments de 10,50 m de
longueur, c) joint conjugué des sommiers de 21 m et d) montage des raidisseurs longitudinaux sur
les sommiers transversaux.
a) arrangement of steel formwork, b) handling of the 10.50 m elements, c) match-casted joint for
the 21 m beams and d) erection of longitudinal stiffeners over the transversal beams.

51
(a) (b) (c)

pre-stressed
strand ø 15.7 mm 80
2 threaded bars M12
steel longitudinal beam
pre-stressed strand 2 threaded bars M12 supported by steel columns

500
ø 15.7 mm
stainless steel tubes with injected
reinforcement 100 post-tensiong strands inside
FLA 80 x 20
bar ø 18 mm
stainless steel
100
strand ø 15.7
post-tensioned

2 threaded bars M12 190

1000

1000
strand ø 15.7
2 threaded bars M12 post-tensioned 6

reinforcement
bar ø 18 mm
80 stainless steel plates
steel column

Fig. 4
a) et b) détail de la fixation des raidisseurs supérieurs sur les sommiers transversaux en dessous et
c) détail du joint thermique et de la suspension des sommiers transversaux sur les sommiers métalliques
longitudinaux.
a) and b) detail of joint between longitudinal and lower transversal beams and c) detail of thermally
insulating joint and of the suspension of transverse beams from the steel beams.

mique n’a été appliqué lors du 10.50 m each (Fig. 3b). These pie- dimensionnées selon les règles
bétonnage. La conformité du bé- ces were later assembled at the classiques pour reprendre la tota-
ton a été contrôlée par des essais construction site by means of the lité des efforts de traction à l’état
de compression sur cubes coulés match-casted joints and post-ten- limite ultime dus à la flexion, à
(100 x100 x100 mm), par des essais sioning (monostrand) tendons l’effort tranchant et à la diffusion
de traction sur carottes (ø = 50 mm, (Fig. 3c). For the other beams, the dans le plan due aux forces con-
l = 200 mm) prélevées d’un som- thermally insulating joint was centrées (forces d’ancrage des
mier d’essai et par essais de flexion used as a match-casted joint (Fig. câbles post-tendus et forces intro-
sur prismes (90 x 90 x 400 mm) dé- 4c). This joint consisted of two duites par les joints thermiques).
coupés du même élément (4 pris- tubes in stainless steel, where the La résistance assurée par les fibres
mes dans le sens vertical et 4 dans two monostrand tendons were a par contre été considérée pour
le sens longitudinal) ou coulés sur located (in the tension side of the
place. member). These tubes, together
Les essais ont montré une variabi- with the ducts, were grouted
lité relativement faible pour ce with mortar after post-tensioning Equipe/Team
qui concerne la résistance à la com- the strands. In the bottom side, Client/Owner
pression après 28 jours (valeur the compression forces are trans- CIO, Comité International Olympique,
Lausanne
moyenne = 188 MPa, écart type = ferred by means of welded stain- Architecture
9,8 MPa à 28 jours) et la résistan- less steel plates. B+W architecture sàrl,
ce à la traction de la matrice ci- Assembling the transversal beams Ueli Brauen + Doris Wälchli, Lausanne
Conception de la structure et
mentaire (entre 8 et 12 MPa). Le and longitudinal stiffeners was ingénierie/Structural design and
comportement après fissuration carried out using stainless steel engineering
est par contre relativement varia- plates fixed to the longitudinal Muttoni et Fernández, Ingénieurs
Conseils SA, Ecublens (Lausanne)
ble. Ceci est dû essentiellement à members prior to concreting (Fig. Eléments préfabriqués/
la distribution des fibres et à leur 4a and 4b). During erection, the Precast elements
orientation peu homogène dues plates were bolted to the trans- MFP Préfabrication SA, Marin-
Epagnier, et Dénériaz SA, Lausanne
à la présence des armatures (bar- verse stiffeners (by means of nuts Fourniture de matériaux et assistance
res de montage et tiges de fixa- screwed to bolts partly cast outside technique/Material supply and tech-
tion) ainsi que des gaines des the concrete of the transverse nical assistance
EIFFAGE TP – Département BSI®,
câbles de précontrainte dans les beams, Fig. 3d). In the same way F-Neuilly sur Marne
sommiers transversaux et des the transverse beams were sus- Construction métallique/
torons prétendus dans les raidis- pended from the longitudinal Steel elements and erection
Stephan SA, Fribourg
seurs longitudinaux. steel girders (Fig. 4c). Précontrainte/Prestressing
Pour cette raison, les armatures The flexural strength of the trans- Freyssinet SA, Moudon
passives et prétendues ont été verse beams is ensured by the

52
post-tensioning strands. Trans- reprendre les forces d’adhérence ces in the structural elements at
verse and longitudinal bars were des torons prétendus et assurer la the expansion joints). The contri-
also installed to ensure correct diffusion hors du plan des forces bution of fibres enhances (and
placing of the duct. In addition to concentrées. La résistance élevée was considered) in the bond pro-
this reinforcement, vertical bars à la compression a été indispensa- perties of concrete and to ensure
were also arranged to fix or to ble afin d’assurer des épaisseurs the strength of the out-of-plane
suspend the beams (Fig. 4a and b). réduites malgré l’introduction spreading of the concentrated
The longitudinal stiffeners have d’effort concentrés importants forces. The very high compressive
the same thickness (80–100 mm) (ancrage des câbles et joints ther- strength was required in order to
but have a lower height (535 mm) miques, voir Fig. 4c). keep the dimensions very limited
and their length varies between Afin d’empêcher le déversement despite the significant concen-
3.00 and 12.00 m. They were cast des sommiers minces, tous les trated forces (anchorage of ten-
in the same way. The bending appuis sont disposés en dessous dons and thermic joints, see Fig.
strength of the longest members des poutres longitudinales métal- 4c).
was ensured by means of two liques (sommiers en BFUHP sus- In order to avoid lateral instabili-
strands prestressed in the factory pendus) et les tiges de fixation ty of the thin and slender beams,
before pouring the concrete. aux éléments longitudinaux (rai- all supports were arranged on
disseurs et poutres métalliques) bottom of the longitudinal steel
UHPFRC properties and ont été dimensionnées pour re- beams and the rods used to fix
design criteria prendre les efforts de second them to the longitudinal ele-
The ”béton spécial industriel” ordre qui pourraient en dériver. ments were designed accounting
(BSI® with 200 kg/m3 metallic for the potential second order
fibres, lf = 20 mm, øf = 0.3 mm) Conclusions effects.
was used for all members with Une étude de variantes a permis
UHPFRC. No thermal treatment de comparer la solution en BFUHP Conclusions
was applied after concreting. The à deux options en bois lamellé- A detailed study of structural
quality of the concrete was check- collé et en aluminium extrudé. solutions for the new roof of the
ed by compression tests on D’autres options avaient été écar- Olympic Museum allowed a com-
100 x 100 x 100 mm cubic speci- tées dans une phase préliminaire parison between a solution in
mens, by tension tests on drilled pour différentes raisons. Cette ultra-high performance fibre
cores from one specimen (ø = 50 étude a démontré que le BFUHP reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) and
mm, l = 200 mm) and 4-point- est un matériau intéressant pour others in timber and extruded
bending tests on prisms (90 x 90 x la réalisation d’une toiture avec aluminium. The timber and alu-
400 mm) sawn from the same ele- des exigences accrues. En outre, le minium solutions were finally not
ment. The tests exhibited a relati- BFUHP permet de réaliser des élé- selected for a number of reasons.
vely low scatter with respect to ments durables malgré leurs fai- This study has shown UHPFRC to
the concrete compressive strength bles dimensions et leur élance- be an interesting material for
at 28 days (average value equal to ment. Cependant, il est encore à building roofs under demanding
188 MPa, standard deviation vérifier si le taux de fibres ne conditions. In addition, the
equal to 9.8 MPa at 28 days) and pourrait pas être réduit en consi- UHPFRC allows producing durable
the tensile strength of the cement dérant le fait que de toute façon, elements despite thin dimensions
matrix (between 8 and 12 MPa). dans des éléments d’une certaine and high slenderness. Neverthe-
The behaviour after cracking dimension, des armatures ordi- less, it is still to be checked if the
however was more variable. This naires passives ou actives sont amount of fibres can be reduced
is essentially due to the relatively indispensables pour reprendre les accounting for the fact that for
inhomogeneous distribution and efforts plus importants. members with quite significant
orientation of fibres because of dimensions, the placing of ordi-
the presence of linking threaded nary or prestressed reinforcement
rods, post-tensioning ducts (with is unavoidable to ensure suffi-
their support bars during pour- Auteur/Author cient strength to withstand the
ing) and pre-tensioning strands. Aurelio Muttoni internal forces.
For this reason, the ordinary and Prof. Dr ès techn. ing. dipl. EPFZ
Muttoni et Fernández,
prestressed reinforcement have Ingénieurs Conseils SA
been designed according to the CH-1024 Ecublens
classical design methods so that aurelio,muttoni@mfic.ch

they ensure resistance to all the


tension forces at the ultimate
state due to bending, shear and
in-plane spreading of concentrat-
ed forces (anchorage forces of
post-tensioning tendons and for-

53
La salle de spectacle « Equilibre » à Fribourg
The new ”Equilibre” theatre in Fribourg

Henri Brasey, François Prongué, Jean-François Klein

Introduction Introduction voisins tandis que sa forme en


La nouvelle salle de spectacle de This new theatre in Fribourg, lo- pente est dictée par la présence
Fribourg sise entre l’Avenue de la cated between the Avenue de la des gradins de l’auditoire de 700
Gare et le parc des Grand’Places Gare and the Grand’Places Park, is places. La hauteur dégagée sous
constitue une prouesse techni- a real feat of engineering. The les dernières rangées permet
que. On se rend compte des ca- theatre's features are best appre- l’aménagement d’un vaste foyer
ractéristiques de la salle de spec- ciated by looking at its longitudi- d’entracte merveilleusement ou-
tacle en considérant sa coupe lon- nal section. With a total length of vert sur le parc et offrant une vue
gitudinale. D’une longueur totale 63.55 m, it is characterised by two imprenable sur les Alpes (Fig. 3).
de 63,55 m, elle se caractérise par impressive overhanging parts (can- Le porte-à-faux côté ville repré-
deux porte-à-faux impression- tilevers); the one on the town side sentant un poids de l’ordre de
nants ; celui côté ville mesure projects 15.50 m and is 21.50 m 13 500 kN et celui du côté parc un
15,50 m à une hauteur de 21,50 m above the esplanade, the one poids d’environ 25 000 kN, la
au-dessus de l’esplanade, celui facing the Grand'Places Park pro- prouesse technique de l’ingénieur
côté parc des Grand’Places mesu- jects 19.20 m and is between 7.0 m a été de mettre en équilibre ces
re 19,20 m pour une hauteur va- and 9.0 m above the ground (Fig. deux efforts. Cela a été possible
riant entre 7,0 m et 9,0 m (Fig. 1). 1). This view shows the logic and grâce à une collaboration étroite
Cette coupe met en évidence la simplicity of the design. entre l’ingénieur et l’architecte
logique et la simplicité du con- ainsi que à l’utilisation de la pré-
cept. The building’s distinctive contrainte et celle de béton auto-
features plaçant. La précontrainte est utili-
Particularités de l’ouvrage The cantilever facing the town sée non seulement dans les sens
Le porte-à-faux côté ville accueil- comprises two floors and houses longitudinal et transversal mais
le en deux étages les bureaux de the offices for the theatre’s admi- également dans le sens vertical.
l’administration du théâtre ainsi nistration staff and the rehearsal La longueur totale des câbles de
que les salles de répétition. Il dé- rooms. It makes space for a large précontrainte est de l’ordre de
gage une vaste place publique au public area at the foot of the 3230 m (Fig. 4 et 6).
pied du bâtiment (Fig. 2). Du côté building (Fig. 2). The cantilever on Une autre particularité de cet
parc la création du porte-à-faux the park side was necessary be- ouvrage réside dans l’utilisation
est imposée par la présence d’un cause of an existing restaurant de béton auto-plaçant pour limi-
restaurant existant et d’un passa- and road access to the neighbour- ter les nuisances lors des bétonna-
ge routier d’accès aux immeubles ing buildings, whilst its sloping ges et plus particulièrement ga-

Fig. 1
Coupe longitudinale.
Longitudinal section.

54
Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Le côté ville de la salle de spéctacle avec la place publique Le côté parc avec l’auditoire de 700 places surplombant le restaurant.
à son pied. The park side with the 700-seat auditorium overhanging the restaurant.
The side of the theatre facing the town with the public
area in front.

shape is dictated by the tier rantir le confort des utilisateurs Seismic study
system of the auditorium, which du cinéma multiplexe en sous-sol Because of its unusual shape, es-
has a seating capacity of 700. The sur lequel se trouve partiellement pecially the two cantilevers form-
clear height underneath the last la salle de spectacle. ing a wide elevated structure built
few rows makes space for a large on a narrow base, an exhaustive
interval foyer with a wonderfully Calcul sismique seismic study was carried out. The
open aspect, overlooking the Compte tenu de sa géométrie purpose of this was to determine
park and offering an unrestricted particulière et notamment de la the forces in the main load-bear-
view of the Alps (Fig. 3). présence de ses deux porte-à-faux ing structures in this accidental
The cantilever on the town side formant un large de corps de risk scenario using the so-called
produces a force of approximate- bâtiment surélevé encastré sur response spectra method. The
ly 13,500 kN, and that on the park une base de bâtiment étroite, un structure was modelled therefore
side approximately 25,000 kN, calcul sismique poussé a été réali- in three dimensions (Fig. 5) in
and the technical challenge sé. L’objectif était de déterminer order to first determine its eigen-
facing the engineer was to balan- les efforts dans les éléments por- frequencies and, from these, to
ce these two forces. This was teurs principaux sous cette situa- derive the internal forces and
achieved by means of close colla- tion de risque accidentelle à l’aide moments that would be induced
boration between the engineer de la méthode dite des spectres in the structure under the seismic
and the architect and the use of de réponse. Le bâtiment a donc accelerations stipulated by the
prestressing and self-placing con- été entièrement modélisé en trois standard.
crete. Prestressing is used not only dimensions (Fig. 5), afin d’en dé-
in the longitudinal and transverse terminer, dans un premier temps, Execution
directions but also vertically. The ses fréquences propres de vibra- From a technical point of view,
total length of the prestressing tion et d’en tirer, après application the building poses several inter-
cables is around 3,230 m (Fig. 4 des actions sur l’ouvrage et des esting challenges, since the canti-
and 6). accélérations sismiques prévues lever housing the auditorium is
Another particular feature of this par la norme, les efforts internes. located 8 m above the ground
structure is the use of self-placing and measures more than 19 m in
concrete to minimise disruption Exécution length. As it was not possible to
during concreting and, even more Techniquement, la construction use temporary shoring during the
importantly, to avoid inconveni- présente quelques défis intéres- construction phase, the construc-
ence to the people using the mul- sants, le porte-à-faux supportant tion stages were stabilised using
tiplex cinema in the basement, on l’auditoire situé à 8 m du sol, prestressing cables, which were
top of which part of the theatre is mesure plus de 19 m de long. Un successively tensioned after cou-
built. étayage provisoire pour la phase pling. These are arranged in the

55
Maître de l’ouvrage/Owner
Ville de Fribourg, pour Coriolis
Infrastructures
Architecte/Architect
Côté ville Côté parc Dürig AG, Zurich
Ingénieurs/Engineers
Groupement d’ingénieurs BT:
Brasey Ingénieurs SA, Fribourg, et
Fig. 4 T-Ingénierie SA, Genève
Schéma de la précontrainte longitudinale et verticale. Entreprise/Contractor
Implenia Construction SA, Fribourg
Longitudinal and vertical prestressing layout.

de construction n’étant pas possi- two big concrete walls on either contrainte d’unités plus petites
ble, c’est à l’aide des câbles de side of the seating tiers. The cho- soit 7 torons de 150 mm2 (7T15S /
précontrainte mis en tension suc- sen unit is 13 x 150 mm2 strands P0 = 1367 kN) sont quant à eux
cessivement après couplage que (13T15S /P0 = 2,539 kN), whilst disposés dans les dalles constitu-
les étapes de construction ont pu tensioning is carried out at the ants ainsi un élément travaillant à
être stabilisées. Ces derniers sont free end (Fig. 7). la traction rectiligne disposé hori-
disposés dans les deux grands On the town side, even though zontalement.
murs-voiles béton disposés de part the cantilever is higher up (21 m La réalisation s’est fait en 2 étapes
et d’autre des gradins. L’unité from the ground) it was possible principales : d’abord la construc-
choisie est 13 torons de 150 mm2 to build in the conventional man- tion classique du corps central de
(13T15S /P0 = 2539 kN) et les mises ner, using falsework supported on 28,55 m de long puis la réalisation
en tension se font à l’extrémité the esplanade (Fig. 8). The pre- par phases symétriques équili-
dans le vide (Fig. 7). stressing cables of smaller units, brées des deux porte-à-faux côté
Du côté ville, bien que plus haute i.e. 7 x 150 mm2 strands (7T15S/P0 = ville et côté parc. Cette réalisation
(21 m au-dessus du sol) la cons- 1,367 kN) are laid in the slabs, complexe a été faite en 9 phases
truction s’est faite de manière tra- thereby creating a horizontal ele- pour le côté parc et 6 phases pour
ditionnelle à l’aide d’un échafau- ment under tension. le côté ville. La méthode était celle
dage prenant emprise sur l’espla- The construction process was di- de l’avancement avec couplage
nade (Fig. 8). Les câbles de pré- vided into 2 main stages: first of des câbles avant chaque phase.

Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Modèle statique tridimensionnel et mode vibratoire Schéma de la précontrainte de la dalle du 6ème étage.
global transversal sous accélération sismique. Prestressing layout for the 6th storey floor slab.
Structural model and global transverse vibration modes
under seismic acceleration.

56
Fig. 7 Fig. 8
Stabilisation des étapes de construction côté parc. Construction traditionnelle avec échafaudage.
Supporting the construction steps on the park side. Conventional building with falsework.

all the conventional construction La numérisation et les simulations Auteurs/Authors


of the 28.55 m long central body tridimensionnelles rendues possi- Henri Brasey
and then construction of the two bles par le développement relati- ing. dipl. EPFZ
Brasey Ingénieurs SA
cantilevers on the town side and vement récent de nouvelles mé- CH-1701 Fribourg
the park side in symmetrical and thodes et programmes de calcul brasey@brasey.ch
balanced phases. This complex ont permis de planifier avec toute François Prongué
procedure was achieved in 9 steps la sécurité nécessaire les 15 pha- ing. dipl. EPFL
Freyssinet SA
in the case of the cantilever ses mentionnées ci-dessus. CH-1510 Moudon
facing the park and 6 steps for Au point de vue historique, no- francois.prongue@freyssinet.ch
the cantilever facing the town. tons que les études ont débuté en Jean-François Klein
The method was to extend and octobre 2007 et que la réalisation Dr ès sc. techn., ing. dipl. EPFL
T ingénierie SA
couple the cables before each a duré de juin 2008 à juillet 2011. CH-1211 Genève
new step. Cette durée de 3 ans, pour un jfk@t-ingenierie.com
Thanks to digitisation and three- volume construit de l’ordre de
dimensional modelling, made 39 000 m3, est le reflet de la com-
possible by the relatively recent plexité de ce chantier en plein
development of new calculation centre urbain de Fribourg.
methods and computer software,
it was possible to plan the 15 steps
mentioned above with the requi-
site degree of safety.
As far as the sequence is concern-
ed, the design studies started in
October 2007 and construction
lasted from June 2008 to July
2011. This three-year timescale to
construct a volume of around
39,000 m3 reflects the complexity
of this building site, situated right
in the centre of Fribourg.

57
Manufacture Cartier Horlogerie à Couvet
Cartier Horlogerie factory at Couvet

Philippe Menétrey, Jonathan Krebs

Introduction Introduction tifs et le restaurant. Les dimensions


Cartier Horlogerie, branche du Cartier Horlogerie, a member of du bâtiment, définies par la surfa-
groupe Richemont, est une des the Richemont group, is one of ce nécessaire à l’étage de produc-
marques pionnières de l’horloge- the pioneering brands of modern tion, sont importantes. La base du
rie moderne dont les premières horology, the first watches of bâtiment est un rectangle de 80
montres datent de la fin du which date back to the end of the m de long par 70 m de large. Le
XIXème siècle. Suite à la décision XIXth century. Following the deci- parti-pris architectural est d’atté-
de Swatch de ne plus commercia- sion of Swatch not to sell its nuer la perception du rez-de-
liser ses mouvements aux mar- movements to brands outside the chaussée en réalisant un bâtiment
ques externes au groupe, Cartier group, Cartier Horlogerie has sur pilotis. Les espaces nécessitant
Horlogerie a choisi de renforcer decided to strengthen its know- des murs sont ainsi regroupés
son savoir-faire en matière de how of watch movements. Situat- dans la partie centrale du bâti-
mouvements horlogers. Située à ed at Couvet, in the Val-de-Tra- ment tandis que les zones péri-
Couvet, dans le Val-de-Travers, la vers, the new Cartier Horlogerie phériques, qui accueillent les par-
nouvelle manufacture Cartier factory is devoted entirely to the kings, sont entièrement ouvertes.
Horlogerie est entièrement dévo- manufacture of watch move-
lue à la fabrication de mouve- ments and their assembly. Choix des matériaux et du
ments horlogers et à leur assem- The building is designed in such a système structural
blage. way that the whole of the pro- Généralités
Le bâtiment est conçu de façon à duction can be located on one Hormis les enjeux inhérents au
rassembler l’ensemble de la pro- floor. This area, free of all parti- développement du projet archi-
duction sur un unique étage. Ce tions, is separated into two zones, tectural, plusieurs contraintes ont
plateau, libre de toutes cloisons, one devoted to the machining of orienté la conception de la struc-
est séparé en deux zones ; l’une parts of the movements and the ture ; la mauvaise qualité du sol
dévolue à l’usinage des mouve- other to their assembly. The build- en place, la présence de radon, la
ments, l’autre à leur assemblage. ing has three floors. The ground charge utile importante à l’étage
Le bâtiment comporte trois éta- floor is designed for parking, de production, les délais de cons-
ges. Le rez-de-chaussée est desti- cloakrooms, technical installations truction du gros-œuvre limités à
né aux parkings, vestiaires, instal- and the reception area. The first sept mois et les objectifs finan-
lations techniques ainsi qu’à la floor is the production floor and ciers du maître d’ouvrage en sont
réception. Le premier étage est the attic contains the administra- les principales.
l’étage de production et l’attique tive offices and the restaurant. Pour satisfaire au mieux à ces con-
regroupe les espaces administra- The dimensions of the building, traintes, la structure porteuse est

Fig. 1
Photomontage de la manufacture.
Photomontage of the manufacture.
(© Richemont Intl. SA)

58
Fig. 2
Coupe longitudinale.
Longitudinal section.

defined by the surface necessary différentiée par niveau comme vi- therefore decided to support the
for the production floor, are sible sur la Figure 2. factory on a network of 215 piles
large. The base of the building is inserted with vibratory pile divers
a rectangle 80 m long by 70 m Pieux about 30 m long. As the conditi-
wide. The architectural bias is to Le site, délimité par l’Areuse au ons of support varied throughout
reduce the perception of the nord et le versant au sud, est the site, the piles have been
ground floor by constructing a caractérisé par une couche d’envi- constructed on the basis of a sett-
building on piles. The spaces ron 30 m de dépôts lacustres et lement criterion similar for all the
necessary for the walls are thus alluvions fluviatiles de consistan- piles (following the example of
grouped in the central part of the ce molle. Une frange d’alluvions the driven piles), in order to make
building while the peripheral peu compactes surplombe ces the construction of the piles more
zones, where the parking spaces dépôts. uniform and to limit the risk of
are located, are entirely open. L’ensemble du site est en consoli- differential settlement. The sett-
dation lente. Il a donc été choisi lement criterion has been cali-
Choice of materials and d’appuyer la manufacture sur un brated on the basis of PDA tests.
the structural system réseau de 215 pieux à refoule-
General ment d’environ 30 m de longueur. Foundation slab
Apart from the issues inherent in Les conditions d’appui étant A general foundation slab is con-
the development of the architec- variable sur le site, les pieux ont structed on top of the piles. It is
tural project several constraints été réalisés sur la base d’un « cri- reinforced by longitudinal ribs in
affected the design of the struc- tère de fonçage » similaire pour both directions. In order to con-
ture. The poor quality of the tous les pieux (à l’instar des pieux trol the problems of sealing to
ground, the presence of radon, battus), afin d’homogénéiser le avoid radon the foundation slab
the high load-bearing capacity of niveau de travail des pieux et de of 25 cm is made of watertight
the production floor, the time limiter le risque de tassement dif- concrete and its reinforcement is
required to construct the building férentiel. Le « critère de fonçage » designed in such a way that it
shell being limited to seven a été calibré sur la base d’essais meets the increased requirements
months and the financial objecti- PDA. of cracking. In view of the large
ves of the owner were the princi- dimensions of the foundation
ple ones. Radier slab and in order to limit the num-
To satisfy these constraints as far Un radier général est disposé au- ber of reinforcing bars, the slab
as possible, the supporting struc- dessus des pieux. Il est renforcé has been made in separate steps
ture has different functions on par des longrines dans les deux and then connected together
each level as shown on Figure 2. directions. Afin de régler les pro- after hardening of the concrete.
blèmes d’étanchéité au radon, le
Piles radier de 25 cm est réalisé en Production floor slab
The site, bordered by the Areuse béton étanche et ses armatures The production floor slab rests on
to the north and the side, is cha- sont dimensionnées de manière à columns spaced 14.40 m apart.
racterised by a layer of about 30 m respecter les exigences accrues de The load-bearing capacity speci-
of lacustrian deposits and alluvial fissuration. Etant donné les di- fied by the owner was 1 t /m2 in
fluviates of soft consistency. A mensions importantes du radier order to allow plenty of flexibility
fringe of alluvia that is not very et afin de limiter la quantité d’ar- in the production areas. The pro-
compact overhangs these deposits. matures, ce denier à été réalisé en duction floor slab is therefore
The whole site is in a state of étapes dissociées puis clavé après made of pre-stressed concrete as
long-term consolidation. It was durcissement du béton. described further down.

59
Fig. 3
Montage de la charpente sur atelier.
Assembly of the roof structure on the workshop.

Dalle de production
La dalle de production repose sur
des colonnes espacées de 14,40 m.
La charge utile définie par le maî-
tre d’ouvrage est 1 t /m2 afin de
permettre une grande liberté
d’aménagement dans les espaces
de production. La dalle de pro-
duction est donc en béton pré-
contraint, comme décrit ci-après.

Dalle et toiture en structure


mixte acier-béton
La dalle sur atelier est une dalle
mixte acier-béton permettant de
franchir les grandes portées de
14,40 m. La dalle est constituée
d’une charpente métallique dont
les poutres principales sont de
type HEB 600 disposées dans la
trame des colonnes, comme illus-
tré à la Figure 3. La charpente mé-
tallique est recouverte d’une tôle
Fig. 4 nervurée métallique. La dalle en
Vue en plan et coupes de la précontrainte. béton a une épaisseur de 14 cm.
View in plan and sections of the pre-stressing.
La dalle toiture est également
une dalle mixte acier-béton avec
des poutres de type HEA 400. Les
colonnes du niveau administra-
tion/restaurant sont en acier. Leur
section, rectangulaire, a été vo-
lontairement affinée de façon à
les intégrer à la façade vitrée.

Cages d’escalier et d’ascenseur


Les cages d’escalier et d’ascen-
seurs sont en béton armé et font
Fig. 5 office de noyaux de stabilisation
Tracé et détails de la précontrainte dans le sommier et dans la dalle. permettant de s’affranchir de
Trace and details of the pre-stressing in the beam and in the floor slab contreventements en façade.

60
Fig. 6
Coupe transversale d’un sommier
précontraint. Fig. 7
Transverse section through a pre- Pose de la précontrainte.
stressed lintel. Installing the pre-stressing.

Floor slab and roof in a composite Dalle de production providing the high load-bearing
steel-concrete structure précontrainte capacity. The lintels enable the
The floor slab on the workshop is La dalle de production, conçue efficiency of the pre-stressing to
a composite steel-concrete floor pour porter bidirectionnellement, be increased and to simplify the
slab permitting the large spans of est réalisée sur une trame de som- fitting of the cables while elimi-
14.40 m. The floor slab is formed miers orthogonaux alignés sur la nating the conflicts between the
of a metallic roof structure the trame des colonnes, comme illus- cables of the beam and of the
main girders of which are of the tré à la Figure 4. Cette conception floor slab. The floor slab has a
HEB 600 type fitted in the frame- permet de franchir les grandes thickness of 50 cm and the beam
work of the columns, as illustrat- portées tout en supportant la has a section of 90 cm wide and
ed in Figure 3. The metallic roof charge utile élevée. Les sommiers 110 cm high, floor slab included,
structure is covered by a ribbed permettent d’augmenter l’effica- which makes a very efficient
metallic sheet. The concrete floor cité de la précontrainte et de sim- structure.
slab has a thickness of 14 cm. plifier la mise en place des câbles The pre-stressing in the beam is
The roof floor slab is also a com- en supprimant les conflits entre made up of two cables of seven
posite steel-concrete floor slab les câbles des sommiers et de la strands of T15S steel alloy
with type HEA 400 girders. The dalle. La dalle a une épaisseur de Y1860S7-15.7 following a parabo-
columns of the offices/restaurant 50 cm et les sommiers ont une sec- lic trace as shown in Figures 4 and
level are made of steel. Their rec- tion de 90 cm de large par 110 cm 5. This pre-stressing, with only
tangular cross section has been de haut, dalle comprise, ce qui en two cables, enables 60% of the
deliberately reduced so that they fait une structure très efficace. permanent loads to be balanced.
can be integrated into the glazed La précontrainte des sommiers est The massive floor slab is equally
façade. composée de deux câbles de sept pre-stressed in both directions.
torons T15S de nuance d’acier The pre-stressing is made up of
Stairwell and lift shaft Y1860S7-15.7 suivant un tracé T15S cables of four strands of the
The stairwell and lift shafts are parabolique comme illustré aux steel alloy Y1860S7-15.7 installed
made of reinforced concrete and Figures 4 et 5. Cette précontrain- in flat ducts every 1.8 m. The pre-
act as a centre for stabilisation te, avec seulement deux câbles, stressing of the floor slab follows
which means that diagonal braces permet de balancer 60 % des a trapezoidal trace to simplify its
are not required. charges permanentes. introduction as shown in Figure 5.
La dalle massive est également The production floor slab of
Pre-stressed production précontrainte dans les deux sens. 5600 m2 was constructed in eight
floor slab La précontrainte est composée de steps, each of about 700 m2, with-
The production floor slab, design- câbles de quatre torons T15S de out any working joint. The longi-
ed to carry loads bidirectionally, is nuance d’acier Y1860S7-15.7 instal- tudinal pre-stressing of the lintels
built on a frame of orthogonal lés en gaines plates tous les 1,80 m. and the pre-stressing in the floor
supporting beams aligned to the La précontrainte de la dalle suit slab is achieved with cables fitted
frame of columns, as illustrated in un tracé trapézoïdal afin de sim- in the factory and the connec-
Figure 4. This design enables the plifier sa mise en œuvre, comme tions to the concreting joints are
big spans to be bridged while illustré à la Figure 5. made with couplers.

61
(a) (b)

Fig. 8
Vue a) du dessus et b) du dessous de la dalle de production.
View a) of the upper side and b) of the underneath of the production floor slab.

La dalle de production de 5600 m2 The pre-stressing in the transverse duction, des portées avec une
est réalisée en huit étapes, d’envi- beam is achieved with empty trame de 14,40 x 14,40 m, de la
ron 700 m2 chacune, sans aucun ducts in which the pre-stressing charge utile de 1 t /m2, des carac-
joint de travail. La précontrainte cables are threaded in after con- téristiques géotechniques défavo-
longitudinale des sommiers et la creting. This makes it possible to rables du site et de la durée de
précontrainte en dalle sont réali- do away with couplers in the cen- construction limitée à sept mois.
sés avec des câbles montés en tral zone, the thickness of which La structure porteuse a donc été
usine et les raccords aux joints de is reduced to 30 cm in order to différenciée par niveaux pour
bétonnage sont réalisés avec des increase the usable height in the satisfaire à ces exigences. Une
coupleurs. technical rooms. dalle en béton précontraint sur
La précontrainte des sommiers The use of bidirectional pre-stress- sommiers a été développée pour
transversaux est réalisée avec des ing is justified by the stresses in la dalle de production, dont la
gaines vides dans lesquelles les the structure at the ultimate limit charge utile est de 1 t /m2. Cette
câbles de précontraintes sont en- state. It also permits the behav- solution a montré toute son effi-
filés après bétonnage. Ceci permet iour of the floor slab to be improv- cacité puisque la trame de 14,40 x
de s’affranchir de coupleurs dans ed considerably in the service 14,40 m a été franchie avec des
la zone centrale, dont l’épaisseur state and also to reduce substan- sommiers de 1,10 m de hauteur et
est réduite à 30 cm afin d’aug- tially the quantity of passive rein- une dalle de 50 cm d’épaisseur.
menter la hauteur utile dans les
locaux techniques.
Pour des raisons de durabilité, les
niches ont été cachetées une fois Participants Intervenants
les injections des gaines réalisées. Owner Maitre d’ouvrage
L’utilisation de la précontrainte Cartier Horlogerie, Branch of Cartier Horlogerie, Branch of
Richemont Intl. SA Richemont Intl. SA
bidirectionnelle se justifie par les Architects Architectes
sollicitations de la structure à A&A atelier d’architecture – A&A atelier d’architecture –
l’état limite ultime. Elle permet Atelier A5 Atelier A5
Civil engineers Ingénieurs civils
en outre d’améliorer considérable- INGPHI SA, INGPHI SA,
ment le comportement de la dalle ingénieurs en ouvrages d’art ingénieurs en ouvrages d’art
à l’état de service et également Piles Pieux
Marti techniques de fondations SA Marti techniques de fondations SA
de diminuer de manière substan- Reinforced concrete Béton armé
tielle la quantité d’armatures pas- F. Piemontesi SA F. Piemontesi SA
sives mises en place. Le taux d’ar- Pre-stressing Précontrainte
Freyssinet SA Freyssinet SA
mature moyen de la dalle de pro- Metallic roof structure and façades Charpente métallique et façades
duction a ainsi pu être réduit à Progin SA – Berisha SA Progin SA – Berisha SA
110 kg/m3.
The factory in figures La manufacture en chiffres
Conclusion Reinforced concrete 6900 m3 Béton armé 6900 m3
Reinforcing steel 850 to Acier d'armature 850 to
La construction de la manufactu- Pre-stressing steel 20 000 kg Précontrainte 20 000 kg
re Cartier Horlogerie à Couvet Metallic roof structure 610 to Charpente métallique 610 to
était soumise à des exigences par- Volume constructed 60 000 m3 Volume construit 60 000 m3
Cost of the structures CHF 10 600 000 Coût des structures
ticulières au niveau de la surface, porteuses CHF 10 600 000
5600 m2 pour la surface de pro-

62
Fig. 9
Vue du bâtiment réalisé.
View of the building constructed.

forcement installed. The average Les dalles des étages et de toiture with a composite steel-concrete
amount of reinforcement of the ont été réalisées avec une structu- structure. This structure enables
workshop floor slab could thus be re mixte acier-béton. Cette struc- the spans of 14.40 m to be cover-
reduced to 110 kg/m3. ture permet de franchir les por- ed with sections of type HEB 600
tées de 14,40 m avec des profilés and a floor slab of 14 cm thick-
Conclusion de type HEB 600 et une dalle de ness.
The design of the Cartier Horlo- 14 cm d’épaisseur. These floor slabs also enable a
gerie factory at Couvet was sub- Ces dalles permettent ainsi de surface area of 210 m2 to be
jected to specific requirements re- couvrir des surfaces libres de tous covered thus offering great flexi-
garding the surface area, 5600 m2 porteurs de 210 m2 offrant ainsi bility for the user.
for the production area, spans with une très grande flexibilité pour Apart from its complexity, the
a frame of 14.40 x 14.40 m, the l’utilisateur. project of the new factory for
load-bearing capacity of 1t/m2, the De part sa complexité, le projet Cartier Horlogerie required the
unfavourable geotechnical charac- de la nouvelle manufacture introduction of different load-
teristics at the site and the dura- Cartier Horlogerie a nécessité la bearing structures for each floor,
tion of the construction time that mise en œuvre de structures por- demonstrating the potential of
had to be limited to seven months. teuses différentes pour chaque concrete structures very well.
The supporting structure has the- étage, démontrant bien la puis-
refore been designed differently sance des structures en béton.
for each level to satisfy these re-
quirements. A ribbed floor slab
made of pre-stressed concrete has
been developed for the workshop Auteurs/Authors
floor slab, where the carrying ca- Philippe Menétrey
pacity can be up to 1 t /m2. This so- Dr ès techn. ing. dipl. EPFL
phm@ingphi.ch
lution has shown its efficiency
since the frame of 14.40 x 14.40 m Jonathan Krebs
has been covered with beams Ing. civil HES
jonathan.krebs@ingphi.ch
1.10 m high and a floor slab 50 cm
thick. INGPHI SA
The floor slabs of the floors and Ingénieurs en ouvrages d’art
CH-1003 Lausanne
of the roof have been constructed

63
Erweiterungsbau Kongresszentrum Davos
Extension of the Davos Convention Centre

Joseph Schwartz

Einleitung Introduction drei Häusern und einem Hallen-


Das Kongresszentrum Davos wur- The Davos Convention Centre was bad mithilfe der neu zu ergän-
de von renommierten Architekten built by famous architects in four zenden Räume zu einem klaren
in vier Bauetappen gebaut. Das separate stages. The first Conven- Gebäudekomplex zusammenzu-
erste Kongresshaus wurde 1969 tion Hall was designed by Ernst führen und neu zum südwestli-
von Ernst Gisel entworfen. Nach Gisel in 1969. After the first ex- chen Kurpark hin zu orientieren.
einem ersten Ausbau 1979 wurde tension in 1979 it was developed Dies konnte nur gelingen, indem
es 1989 zum Kongresszentrum ent- into a Convention Centre in 1989. die teils chaotische innere Er-
wickelt. Mit der Erweiterung von With the extension of 2009/10 by schliessung in ein übersichtliches
2009/10 durch den Basler Archi- the Basel architect Heinrich Degelo System umgewandelt wurde, das
tekten Heinrich Degelo ist das the Convention Centre is now lo- so in Erscheinung tritt, als sei es
Kongresszentrum neu gegen den cated opposite the spa gardens von Anfang an so geplant gewe-
Kurpark ausgerichtet und die ver- and the different parts of the sen (Fig. 1).
schiedenen Häuser sind durch building are directly connected by Durch die Anordnung des Ein-
eine repräsentative Wandelhalle a prestigious foyer. A statically gangs an die südliche Talstrasse
direkt verbunden. Eine freischwe- freely suspended, spectacular entstand eine grosszügige Er-
bende, statisch spektakuläre Wa- honeycomb ceiling covers the schliessung des Gesamtkomplexes
bendecke überspannt den neuen new plenary hall. The striking zum bestehenden Kurpark hin
Plenarsaal. Als Wahrzeichen für entrance portal was designed as (Fig. 2a), mit der einzigartigen
den weltberühmten Kongressort the emblem for the world famous Sicht aus der Eingangshalle auf
Davos wurde das markante Ein- Davos Convention Centre. die Davoser Bergwelt. Die sechs
gangsportal konzipiert. neuen Säle im Innern ermögli-
Architectonic design chen eine zusätzliche Öffnung
Architektonisches Konzept The biggest challenge in the 2008 des Blicks auf die Schönheit der
Die grösste Herausforderung beim competition to extend the Davos Landschaft. Das Prunkstück der
2008 durchgeführten Wettbewerb Convention Centre consisted in Anlage ist ohne Zweifel der neue
zur Erweiterung des Kongress- bringing together the existing Plenarsaal für 1800 Teilnehmer,
zentrums Davos bestand darin, labyrinths from three buildings dessen elegante, freischwebende
das bestehende Labyrinth aus and an indoor swimming pool. Wabendecke aus Stahlbeton sich

Bestehendes Kongresshaus
1 Eingangsbereich
2 Alter Saal
3 Hallenbad
1

2/7 Erweiterung Kongresshaus


9 4 Haupteingang/Anlieferung
7
8 5 Plenarsaal (grosser Saal)
5/6
9 6 Grossraumbüro
3 7 Wandelhalle
8
7 8 Kleine Säle
9
9 Lichthöfe
4
N

Fig. 1
Schematische Situation (© Degelo Architekten).
Schematic Situation (© Degelo Architekten).

64
(a) (b)

Fig. 2
Neuer Eingangsbereich des Kongresszentrums (a) und Wabendecke des Plenarsaals (b).
New entrance area of the Convention Centre (a) and honeycomb ceiling of the plenary hall (b).
© Ruedi Walti

This was done with the help of von der fünfeckigen Grundriss- load bearing components. For the
the new halls and those to be form ableitet (Fig. 2b). Das Muster remainder only comparatively
extended so that the complex aus überkreuzten Sechsecken ist small adjustments were necessary.
forms a single building, which auch als «Cairo Pentagonal Tiling» In the foyer area some walls were
faces the spa gardens to the bekannt, das bei den antiken replaced by floor beams .
southwest. This could only be Mosaiken angewendet wurde. The extension building has a poly-
done by changing the rather gonal floor plan of approx. 4350 m2
chaotic inner situation into a Allgemeine Beschreibung and contains a maximum of four
coherent system that looks as if it der Interventionen storeys of different heights. In the
had been planned like that from Das bestehende Kongresshaus area of the large halls with an
the start (Fig. 1). wurde südostseitig durch den area of about 1350 m2 three sto-
By arranging the entrance at the neuen Baukörper umschlossen. reys were combined to give a hall
southern end facing Talstrasse a Im Bereich der Berührungsebenen with a height of about 8.5 m. The
large part of the total complex der Fassade zum Erweiterungs- rooms arranged adjacent to the
looked onto the existing spa gar- bau mussten einzelne Fassaden- large hall and the platform can
den (Fig. 2a), with a unique view bereiche abgebrochen und durch be used for various purposes. In
from the entrance hall towards neue tragende Bauteile ersetzt the lowest floor on the Talstrasse
the mountains around Davos. The werden. Am Bestand waren aus- side there are the technical
six new halls inside provide addi- serdem nur vergleichsweise gerin- rooms, a side stage, a catering
tional views of the beautiful ge Anpassungen erforderlich. Im room and cloakrooms. The re-
countryside. The showpiece of Bereich des Wandelhallenumbaus maining long area between the
the complex is without doubt the wurden einzelne Wände durch swimming pool and Convention
new plenary hall for 1800 partici- Unterzüge ersetzt. Hall was left unchanged by the
pants. Its elegant, freely support- Der Erweiterungsbau hat eine building work. The space under
ed, honeycomb ceiling made of polygonale Grundrissfläche von the floor slab of the large hall is
reinforced concrete is derived ca. 4350 m2 und enthält maximal used for technical ducts. There is
from a pentagonal shape (Fig. vier unterschiedlich hohe Geschos- no conventional basement.
2b). The model for intersecting se. Im Bereich des grossen Saals Above the new building there are
hexagons, each dividing into four mit einer Fläche von ca. 1350 m2 six small rooms in the spa garden
pentagons, is also known as werden drei Geschosse zu einem storey. The rooms are separated
”Cairo Pentagonal Tiling”, which
was used in antique mosaics.
Bauherr Owner
General description of the Landschaft Davos Gemeinde Landschaft Davos Gemeinde
Architekt Architect
work carried out Degelo Architekten, Basel Degelo Architekten, Basel
The existing Convention Hall was Projektingenieur Project Engineer
bordered on the south east side Dr. Schwartz Consulting AG, Zug, in Dr. Schwartz Consulting AG, Zug, in
Zusammenarbeit mit DIAG Davoser conjunction with DIAG Davoser
by the new building complex. In Ingenieure AG, Davos Ingenieure AG, Davos
the area of the contact levels of Bauausführung Contractor
the façade of the extension build- Toneatti AG, Bilten Toneatti AG, Bilten

ing some façade areas had to be Fertigstellung Completion


demolished and replaced by new November 2010 November 2010

65
chen Haupteingang durch eine
breite Wandelhalle erschlossen.
Im Bereich der alten abzubre-
chenden Bühne greift die neue
Wandelhalle in das bestehende
Kongresshaus ein. Über dem gros-
sen Saal befinden sich im Prome-
nadengeschoss ein offenes Gross-
raumbüro sowie ein Technikraum.
Die geneigt verlaufende Vordach-
konstruktion besteht aus zwei
Platten, die durch dazwischenlie-
gende Rippen verbunden sind.
Generell gründet der gesamte
Fig. 3 Erweiterungsbau auf einer Tief-
Die Wabendecke im Bau. fundation mit bewehrten Bohr-
The honeycomb ceiling during construction. pfählen aus Ortbeton mit einem
Durchmesser von 90 bis 120 cm
und Längen zwischen 7 und 9 m.
ca. 8,5 m hohen Raum zusammen- by three internal courtyards. The Im Bereich der Erschliessung des
gefasst. Die neben dem grossen small rooms are accessed from the grossen Saals auf der Nordseite
Saal und dem Podium angeordne- southern entrance by a wide wurde eine kombinierte Pfahl-
ten Räume weisen unterschiedli- foyer. In the area of the old stage Plattengründung ausgeführt.
che Nutzungen auf. Im untersten to be demolished, the new foyer
Talstrassengeschoss sind es Tech- is taking shape in the existing Besonderheiten des Trag-
nikräume, eine Seitenbühne, ein Convention Hall. Above the large werks und konstruktive
Cateringraum und Garderoben. hall there is a promenade floor Lösungen
Die restliche längliche Fläche zwi- with an open plan office and a Die Tragstruktur ist in monoli-
schen Hallenbad und Kongress- technical room. The inclined ca- thisch verbundener Stahlbeton-
haus wird unverändert von der nopy roof design consists of two bauweise ausgebildet, wobei der
Anlieferung belegt. Der Raum slabs, which are connected by ribs Grossteil der Decken im Verbund
unter der Bodenplatte des gros- that lie between them. vorgespannt wurde. Die neuen
sen Saals wird für Technikkanäle In general, the complete extension Gebäudeteile wurden zur Erzie-
genutzt. Ein herkömmliches Unter- building is supported on a deep lung von Synergien betreffend
geschoss ist nicht vorhanden. foundation incorporating rein- Erdbebenwiderstand fugenlos mit
Über der Anlieferung befinden forced piles made of cast-in-situ jenen des Bestands verbunden.
sich sechs kleine Säle im Kurpark- concrete with a diameter of 90 to Die Lastabtragung der Decke über
geschoss. Die Säle sind durch drei 120 cm and lengths of between 7 dem grossen Plenarsaal erfolgt
innenliegende Höfe unterteilt. and 9 m. In the area around the bei einer maximalen Spannweite
Die kleinen Säle sind vom südli- lift and stairs to the big hall, on von 45 m über eine räumliche
Tragwirkung. Beteiligt an dieser
Tragwirkung sind einerseits die
als plattenbalkenartiger Rost wir-
kende Wabendecke selbst, sowie
Macalloy-Stab andererseits die Konsolwände in
MSP Ø 40mm
Kombination mit den Decken im
Promenadengeschoss.
Die eigentliche Wabendecken-
konstruktion wurde auf einer
Macalloy-Stab
MSP Ø 40mm
horizontalen Schalungsebene in
weissem Ortbeton C30/37 herge-
stellt (Fig. 3). Eine besondere Her-
ausforderung stellte die Umlen-
kung der grossen Zugkräfte im
unteren Bereich der zusammen-
KNOTENPUNKTE
laufenden Stege dar. Gewählt
wurde eine Lösung mit 40 mm
1m
starken Macalloy-Stäben, die
Fig. 4 schlaff eingelegt und jeweils an
Umlenkung der Zugkräfte im unteren Stegbereich: Foto und Detailskizze. ihren Enden im Verbindungs-
Deviating the tensile forces in the lower web area: photo and detailing. punkt einen kräftigen Vollstahl-

66
the north side, a combined pile-
raft foundation was used.

Features of the structure


and design solutions
The structure consists of a mono-
lithically connected reinforced
concrete structure in which the
majority of the floor slabs in the
composite design are pre-stressed.
The new parts of the building
were connected without joints
with those of the existing ones to Fig. 5
achieve synergies regarding earth- Zusätzliches, räumliches Tragsystem aus Konsolwänden
quake resistance. und Wabendecke.
The load transfer of the floor slab Additional 3D structural system of corbel walls and
over the large plenary hall is honeycomb ceiling.
achieved with a maximum span of
45 m exploiting a spatial structu-
ral system. Contributing to this dorn durchdringen, an dem sie ports, on which the honeycomb
support are firstly the honeycomb mit Muttern verankert sind (Fig. ceiling is also suspended. The
itself, acting as a slab-beam type 4). Um das duktile Verhalten des horizontal support forces of this
of grid, and secondly the walls Zugsystems nachzuweisen, wur- corbel walls are transmitted to
with corbels in combination with den 1:1-Versuche der Verbindung the roof slab. The resulting mem-
the floor slabs in the promenade durchgeführt. Die Platte oberhalb brane forces converge in the slabs
floor. der Wabenrippen wurde mit ver- due to the quasi axisymmetric
The actual honeycomb construc- lorenen Schalungselementen aus arrangement of the corbel walls
tion was manufactured on a hori- Stahlbeton hergestellt, die vor- in a force triangle in the ground
zontal formwork in white cast-in- gängig mit den Lampenöffnun- plan. The membrane tensile for-
situ C30/37 concrete (Fig. 3). A gen und weiteren technischen ces are completely absorbed by
particular challenge was the de- Installationselementen versehen means of prestressed members,
viation of the large tensile forces wurden. the majority of which follow the
in the lower area of the converg- Die Flachdecke oberhalb des Pro- resulting force triangle between
ing webs. The solution chosen menadengeschosses trägt die Ver- the corbel walls and are anchored
involved 40 mm thick Macalloy tikallasten auf die Wabendecke in the area behind them (Fig. 6).
rods, which are loosely laid and, ab. Zusätzlich zur Biegetragwir- Both strand systems that can take
at their ends at the connection kung der Wabendecke wird ein tension forces of up to 3500 kN
point, pass through a strong solid weiteres räumliches Tragsystem and wire systems that can take
steel mandrel to which they are im Grossraumbüro des Promena- tension forces of up to 3700kN
anchored with nuts (Fig. 4). Full- dengeschosses aktiviert (Fig. 5). were used as tendon cables. The
scale tests on the joint were car- Die Unterkanten der drei konsol- corbel walls are also prestressed
ried out in order to demonstrate artigen Wände aus Beton C30/37 with diagonally running tedons
the ductile behaviour of the ten- bilden in den Saalgrundriss aus- that produce favourable deviation
sile system. The slab above the kragende linienförmige Auflager, forces in the serviceability state
honeycomb ribs was produced by an denen die Wabendecke zusätz- (Fig. 7). Additional central pre-
means of lost formwork made of lich aufgehängt ist. Die horizon- stressing is arranged in the slab
reinforced concrete elements, talen Auflagerkräfte dieser Kon- over the promenade storey, in
which had previously been fitted solwände werden in die Decken order to control or deviate the
with lamp openings and further eingeleitet. Die resultierenden membrane compressive forces.
technical installation elements. Membrankräfte schliessen sich The big canopy roof in the
The flat slab above the promena- dabei in den Decken infolge der entrance area is designed as a 3D
de storey carries the vertical loads quasi-axialsymmetrischen Anord- structural system, consisting of a
acting on the honeycomb ceiling. nung der Konsolwände in einem lower and an upper reinforced
In addition to the bending effects Kräftedreieck im Grundriss kurz. concrete slab as well as the inter-
of the honeycomb ceiling a further Die Membranzugkräfte werden mediate connecting webs. To
3D system is activated in the open vollständig mit Vorspanngliedern ensure that the building met the
plan office of the promenade sto- aufgenommen, die mehrheitlich physical requirements regarding
rey (Fig. 5). The lower edges of dem entstehenden Kräftedreieck thermal insulation, most of the
the three corbel walls made of zwischen den Konsolwänden fol- canopy webs were made of ther-
C30/37 concrete in the hall plan gen und im Bereich hinter den mally insulating lightweight con-
form cantilevering linear sup- Konsolwänden verankert sind crete LC12/13.

67
(Fig. 6). Als Spannkabel kamen Concluding remarks Das grosse Vordach im Eingangs-
sowohl Litzensysteme mit Spann- The requirements placed on the bereich ist als räumliches Tragwerk
kräften bis zu 3500 kN als auch design, the planning and the ausgebildet, bestehend aus einer
Drahtsysteme mit Spannkräften development for the extension of unteren und einer oberen Stahl-
bis zu 3700 kN zum Einsatz. Die the Davos Convention Centre betonplatte sowie den dazwi-
Konsolwände sind ihrerseits eben- were considerably higher than for schenliegenden verbindenden
falls mit diagonal verlaufenden a conventional building and Stegen. Zur Gewährleistung der
Spanngliedern vorgespannt, die reached the level of bridge con- bauphysikalischen Ansprüche be-
für das Verhalten im Gebrauchs- struction. The excellent coopera- treffend Wärmedämmung wur-
zustand günstig wirkende Umlenk- tion of all parties concerned in the den die an den Innenbereich an-
kräfte erzeugen (Fig. 7). In der project – owner, architect, con- grenzenden Vordachstege weit-
Decke über dem Promenadenge- sulting engineer, other technical gehend in Wärmedämm-Leicht-
schoss ist eine zusätzliche zentri- planners, building site manager, beton LC 12/13 ausgeführt.
sche Vorspannung angeordnet, contractor, concrete supplier and
um die Membrandruckkräfte kon- post-tensioning company – en- Schlussbemerkungen
trolliert zu führen bzw. umzulen- abled the building to be success- Die Anforderungen an den Ent-
ken. fully completed. wurf, die Projektierung und die
konstruktive Ausbildung waren
beim Erweiterungsbau des Kon-
gresszentrums Davos wesentlich
Kabeltyp A:
höher als bei einem konventio-
Litzenspannsystem
Typ 12-06 (Po = 2230 kN) nellen Hochbau und erreichten
Kabeltyp B: das Niveau eines Brückenbau-
Litzenspannsystem
Typ 19-06 (Po = 3531 kN)
werks. Die hervorragende Zusam-
menarbeit aller am Projekt Be-
teiligter – Bauherr, Architekt, Bau-
tI ingenieur, weitere Fachplaner,
I ch
sic
ht si
An
An Bauleiter, Unternehmer, Beton-
Ans Ansich
nitt nitt III

lieferant und Spannfirma – er-


III

icht t II
II
Scchnhitt III Sch

Ans
icht
möglichten die erfolgreiche Reali-
Ans II
S

icht
II sierung des Bauwerks.

Autor/Author
Joseph Schwartz
Prof. Dr. sc. techn., dipl. Bauing. ETH
Dr. Schwartz Consulting AG
CH-6300 Zug
Ansicht I

jschwartz@drsc.ch
Ansicht I

10 m

Fig. 6
Vorspannung zur Aufnahme der Membranzugkräfte.
Prestressing to withstand the membrane tensile forces.

Ansicht I
Kabeltyp B Kabeltyp B

Kabeltyp D Kabeltyp D

Ansicht II Schnitt III Kabeltyp B:


Litzenspannsystem
Kabeltyp E Typ 19-06 (Po = 3531 kN)

Kabeltyp C:
Kabeltyp D Drahtspannsystem
Kabeltyp C

Typ 1000 (Po = 990 kN)


Kabeltyp C

Kabeltyp C

Kabeltyp C

KabelTyp D:
Drahtspannsystem
Typ 1400 (Po = 1395 kN)

Kabeltyp E:
Drahtspannsystem
Typ 3700 (Po = 3689 kN)

10 m

Fig. 7
Anordnung der Vorspannung in den Konsolwänden.
Arrangement of the prestressing system in the corbel walls.

68
Schulhaus Grono – Kraft und Form
Grono School – Force and Form

Patrick Gartmann

Fig. 1
Ansicht des fertiggestellten Schulhauses Grono aus Osten (© Miguel Verme).
View of the finished school at Grono from the east (© Miguel Verme).

Einleitung Introduction ben. Die Hanglage wird genutzt,


In der Gemeinde Grono haben ein In the municipality of Grono an um Schule und Kindergarten ei-
Architekt und ein Ingenieur ge- architect and an engineer have gene Zugänge und Aussenräume
meinsam ein Schulhaus realisiert, collaborated to build a school zu ermöglichen: Jeweils durch
das durch ein aussergewöhnliches with an unusual supporting fra- eine mittige, kreisrunde Öffnung
Tragwerkskonzept seinen prä- mework of striking architectural der aussenliegenden Gebäude-
gnanten architektonischen Aus- appearance. The structure was struktur betritt man auf der
druck erhält. Das Bauwerk wurde honoured with the Architecture Hangseite über eine Brücke das
mit dem «Architektur- und In- and Engineer prize for earthqua- Schulhaus und auf der Talseite
genieurpreis erdbebensicheres ke-resistant buildings in Switzer- den ein Geschoss tieferliegenden
Bauen 2012» der Schweiz ausge- land 2012. Kindergarten mit Hort. Im mittle-
zeichnet. ren Stockwerk – dem Eingangs-
Situation geschoss des Schulhauses – befin-
Situation The village of Grono lies to the den sich Bibliothek, Saal und
Das Dorf Grono liegt südlich des south of San Bernardino in the Lehrerzimmer, darüber liegen die
San Bernardino im Misox, einem region of Misox, an Italian speak- Klassenzimmer. Im Untergeschoss
italienischsprachigen Teil des Kan- ing part of the Grisons. The new befinden sich Werk- und Technik-
tons Graubünden. Das neue Schul- school building is located below räume.
haus liegt unterhalb der Haupt- the main street. The subdivision
strasse. Das einfach gegliederte of the building’s volume is simple; Zusammenarbeit Ingenieur
Volumen, quadratisch im Grund- its outline is a square facing all und Architekt
riss und allseitig orientiert, ist von directions, surrounded by a circu- Das Ziel der intensiven Zusammen-
einer kreisrunden Mauer umge- lar wall. The slope of the location arbeit zwischen Ingenieur und

69
20 m

Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Situation und Erdgeschoss (© Raphael Zuber). Die tragende Fassadenstruktur ergibt sich aus dem
Situation and ground floor plan (© Raphael Zuber). Einschreiben von Ellipsen in die Wandscheiben.
The load-bearing façade structure is achieved by the pro-
duction of ellipses in the wall elements.

has been used to give both the Architekt sind effiziente und lisation of a harmonious load-
school and the kindergarten their zugleich formal ansprechende bearing structure. All other ele-
separate entrances and outside Strukturen. Die Flexibilität, die ments are subordinate to this
spaces. Each entrance consists of a Gleichwertigkeit von Kindergarten structure, which is made of co-
central, circular opening in the und Schule sowie die Ökonomie loured cast-in-situ concrete. The
exterior structure of the building. standen bei diesem Bauwerk intermediate walls, which are
While the school can be accessed bereits beim Wettbewerbsent- made of white-washed brick, as
on the sloping side across a wurf im Vordergrund. Ingenieur well as the glazing and the build-
bridge, the entrance to the kin- und Architekt entwickelten ge- ing services follow the given con-
dergarden and nursery is located meinsam das Bauwerk mit den ditions pragmatically. Here, the
one floor below on the valley geschwungenen Kragarmschei- engineer not only reacts to the
side. The middle floor of the ben, die auch als übereck geführ- architectural design, but he influ-
building – where the school’s te Bogenöffnungen gelesen wer- ences and shapes it in order to
entrance is located – features a den können. Die Fassade ist die sharpen its appearance both aes-
library, a hall and a staffroom. konsequente formale Umsetzung thetically and statically. The result-
The classrooms are located on the eines in sich stimmigen Trag- ing structure has a strong visual
top floor. The basement contains werks. Dieser Struktur aus einge- presence that combines architec-
workshops and building services. färbtem Ortbeton sind alle ande- tural and engineering-related cri-
ren Elemente untergeordnet. Die teria and demonstrates how the
Cooperation between Zwischenwände aus geschlämm- two disciplines are mutually de-
engineer and architect tem Backstein, die Verglasungen pendent. The strong shell can be
The objective of the close coope- und die Haustechnik folgen dabei repeatedly adapted to meet the
ration between engineer and pragmatisch den gegebenen Be- requirements of its users and is
architect was the creation of both dingungen. Der Ingenieur rea- able to accommodate different
efficient and aesthetically attrac- giert hier nicht nur auf den fashion trends and preferences
tive structures. Flexibility in use, Architektenentwurf, sondern be- for the internal layout while re-
the equivalence of kindergarten einflusst und prägt ihn, um maining open to changes in the
and school, as well as economic sowohl formal wie statisch seinen building’s purpose.
aspects were given priority alrea- Ausdruck zu schärfen. Dies ergibt
dy at the competition design einen Bau mit hoher visueller Design of the load-bearing
stage of the project. The engineer Präsenz, der die architektoni- structure
and the architect co-developed schen wie ingenieurmässigen Kri- Material
the building with its curved canti- terien miteinander verbindet und The complete load-bearing struc-
levering walls, which can also be zeigt, wie sich die beiden Diszi- ture of the building uses concrete
seen as arched openings stradd- plinen gegenseitig bedingen. Ein with a fire resistance of R 60.
ling the corners. The shape of the starker Rohbau, der sich immer Concrete is extremely varied in its
façade reflects the consistent rea- wieder seinen Nutzern anpassen appearance, and if it is employed

70
Hauptspannungen: Resultatkombination erdbeben
Bauherrschaft/Client
Hauptspannungen: Resultatkombination kombiTS16Litzen
Comune politico di Grono
Architekt/Architect
Raphael Zuber, Chur
Bauingenieur/Civil engineer
Conzett Bronzini Gartmann AG, Chur
Baumeister/Contractor
Casada SA, Malvaglia

Preis/Prize
Architektur- und Ingenieurpreis
erdbebensicheres Bauen 2012/
Architect and Engineer prize for
Fig. 4
earthquake-resistant buildings 2012
Auftretende Hauptspannungen in den Fassaden.
Principal stresses in the façades.

kann, verschiedene Modeströmun- consciously, it can highlight the das Fundament geleitet. Die
gen und Vorlieben des Innenaus- architectural space and the struc- Kräfte der Fassade laufen zen-
baus überlebt und auch spätere tural significance of the indivi- trisch auf jeder Seite zusammen
Umnutzungen zulässt. dual parts of the building. At und werden somit an nur vier
Grono School, concrete is used Stellen abgeführt. Dies ermög-
Konzept des Tragwerks both as load-bearing and space- licht stützenlose Stockwerke, die
Material shaping material. Moreover, by je nach Bedürfnis frei eingeteilt
Die gesamte Tragkonstruktion adding coloured pigments, con- werden können, und spielt die
des Bauwerks wird in Beton mit crete can be dyed quite easily. In Ecken der Geschosse frei. Die
einem Brandwiderstand von R 60 the case of Grono school, 3.0% of Fassaden sind damit so angeord-
erstellt. Beton ist in seiner Er- yellow and 0.6% of black iron net, dass Verkürzungen der De-
scheinung äusserst vielfältig und oxide pigments in powder form cken aus Schwinden, Temperatur-
kann über den differenzierten was added to the concrete mixtu- änderung und Vorspannung (elas-
Einsatz die architektonisch-räum- re in order to adjust it to the tisch und Kriechen) nicht zu erheb-
liche und die strukturell-kon- colour of the surrounding area. lichen Zwangsbeanspruchungen
struktive Bedeutung des einzel- der Decken führen. Diese werden
nen Gebäudeteils unterstützen. Structure als schlaff bewehrte Flachdecken
Beton wird als tragendes und The compact, square outline of in einer Stärke von 36 cm ausge-
raumbildendes Material einge- the building measures 25 by 25 führt. Die Spannweiten betragen
setzt. Mit Farbpigmenten lässt metres. It ideally supports the fra- maximal 11 m. Vom Erdgeschoss
sich der Beton zudem auf einfa-
che Weise einfärben. Der Beton-
mischung wurden 3,0% gelbe und Spannglieder
0,6% schwarze Eisenoxidpigmen-
te in Pulverform zugemengt, um
den gewünschten Farbton der
Umgebung zu erhalten.

Struktur
Die kompakte und quadratische
Grundform von 25 x 25 m ist ideal
für den Tragwerksentwurf dieses
viergeschossigen Bauwerks, das Schnittkraft My (Stabachsen) [kNm] für: kombiTS, nur Zwängungen
für eine spätere Aufstockung mit
einem fünften Geschoss konzi-
piert wurde. Vertikale Beweh-
rungsanschlüsse mit Kupplungen
wurden dafür bereits eingebaut.
-11044.64

Die Tragstruktur besteht aus einem


Erschliessungskern, einer halb-
611.11

kreisförmigen Treppenwand sowie


vier tragenden, vorgespannten Fig. 5
Fassaden. Die vertikalen Lasten Statisches Modell eines aus acht Kragarmen gebildeten
werden direkt über den Er- Stockwerks.
schliessungskern, die Treppen- Statical model (showing section forces) of storey formed
wand sowie über die Fassaden in of eight cantilever elements.

71
mework design of the four-storey bis zum 2. Obergeschoss können Thanks to the use of load-bearing
structure, which has been design- die Räume mit beliebigen, nicht- multi-storey frames as façades,
ed so a fifth storey can be added tragenden Wänden aufgeteilt the building’s structural stability,
at a later point. The necessary ver- werden. torsional stresses and secondary
tical reinforcement connections Mit tragenden Stockwerkrahmen bending moments are well under
with the corresponding couplings als Fassaden lassen sich die drei control: The wide-based façades
have already been installed. The Zielsetzungen an die Stabilität, with their circular cut-outs provi-
load-bearing structure itself con- die Torsionsverdrehung und die de significant horizontal resis-
sists of a central access core, made Zwängungen lösen. Die breiter tance in x-direction and thus stif-
up of a semi-circular staircase wall aufsitzenden Fassaden (mit den fen the structure against horizon-
and four load-bearing, prestres- kreisförmigen Aussparungen) tal effects such as wind and earth-
sed façades. Vertical loads are übernehmen dank ihres grossen quakes. Any effects in y-direction
transmitted into the foundations horizontalen Widerstands die are absorbed by the staircase wall
directly via the core, the staircase Aussteifung gegen horizontale and the central access core. This
wall and the façades. The forces Einwirkungen, wie Wind und Erd- arrangement meets the following
on the façade converge towards beben, in x-Richtung. In y-Rich- requirements:
the centre on each side of the tung übernehmen dies die Trep- – It ensures the stability of the
building and are thus transmitted penwand und der Erschliessungs- structure by employing at least
in only four places. As a result, kern. Diese Anordnung erfüllt die three vertical wall elements.
none of the floors requires any folgenden Anforderungen: – To avoid large torsional stres-
columns and can thus be organis- – Für die Stabilität müssen min- ses due to wind (wind force
ed freely according to the users’ destens drei vertikale Scheiben centre) and earthquakes (mass
specific needs. At the same time, vorhanden sein. centre), a square outline is
the corners of each storey are – Zur Vermeidung grosser Tor- ideal. The position and cross
freed of any structural elements. sionsbeanspruchung aus Wind sections of the multi-storey
This arrangement of the façades (Windkraftzentrum) und Erd- frames, the staircase segments
ensures that contractions of the beben (Massenzentrum) ist die and the elevator core form the
floor slabs due to shrinkage, tem- quadratische Grundrissform structure’s stiffness centre
perature changes and pre-stres- ideal. Die Lage und Quer- (shear centre and centre of
sing (elastic and creep) do not schnitte der Stockwerkrahmen, rotation). The centres of wind
lead to significant stresses in the des Treppenwandsegments und force, mass and stiffness lie
floor slabs. The floor slabs are des Liftkerns generieren das close together and thus ensure
constructed as reinforced flat Steifigkeitszentrum (Schubmit- minimum loading of the fra-
slabs with a thickness of 36 cm telpunkt und Drehzentrum). mes and low building torsion.
and a maximum span of 11 m. All Für eine minimale Beanspru- The actual eccentricity in the x-
floor areas from the ground floor chung der Rahmen und eine direction is ex = 0.17 m and in
up to the 2nd floor can be subdi- geringe Gebäudetorsion liegen the y-direction ey = 2.22 m.
vided with any number of non- Windkraft-, Massen- und Stei- The structure was calculated as
load-bearing walls. figkeitszentrum nahe beisam- non-ductile with q = 2.0. The faça-
des taper elliptically to the outside
into cantilevers and thus reprodu-
ce the static forces of the concrete.
The large vertical normal force
(Nk = – 6600 kN) from permanent
loads has a very positive effect on
the reinforcement content of the
façade at the level of embedment
of the basement (My = –9300 kNm).
Due to the prestressing of the
symmetrical cantilevers with 16
strands of 150 mm2 cross sectional
area (P0 = 3125 kN) each, the com-
plete façade cross section is over-
compressed. The design of the
structure in the front elevation
thus corresponds to the stresses.
Fig. 6
Bauaufnahme: Einige Wände des Erdgeschosses sind Design details
geschalt und bewehrt. The moveable and fixed anchor-
Picture of building: Some walls of the ground floor show ages for the prestressing require
the formwork and the reinforcement. space. Therefore, the 40 cm

72
Fig. 7
Blick ins zentral angeordnete, halbkreisförmige Treppenhaus (© Miguel Verme).
View of the centrally arranged semi-circular staircase (© Miguel Verme).

men. Die tatsächlichen Exzen- strong façade was linearly widen- benötigen Platz. Die 40 cm starke
trizitäten betragen in x-Rich- ed in ground plan and in each of Fassade wurde im Grundriss je-
tung ex = 0,17 m und in y- the corners over a length of 4.90 m weils in den Ecken auf einer
Richtung ey = 2,22 m. from 40 cm to 90 cm on the in- Länge von 4,90 m linear von 40 cm
Das Bauwerk wurde als nicht duk- side. In elevation, the ideal shape auf 90 cm nach innen verbreitert.
til mit q = 2,0 gerechnet. Die Fas- of the cubic parabola was replac- In der Ansicht wurde die ideale
saden verjüngen sich ellipsenför- ed by nearly congruent ellipses. Form der kubischen Parabel durch
mig gegen aussen zu Kragarmen The necessary additional height Ellipsen ersetzt, die annähernd
und zeichnen dadurch die stati- for the anchoring is produced by deckungsgleich sind. Durch das
schen Kräfte des Betonbaus nach. displacing the vertex of the ellipse Verschieben des Scheitelpunkts
Die grosse vertikale Normalkraft from the corner by almost 2.20 m der Ellipse vom Eck um knapp
(Nk = – 6600 kN) aus ständigen towards the centre. 2,20 m zum Zentrum entstand nun
Lasten wirkt sich beim Einbinde- The shape and geometry of the die benötigte Mehrhöhe für die
horizont über dem Untergeschoss ellipse remains the same for all Verankerungen.
(My = –9300 kNm) sehr positiv auf storeys, although the heights of Die Form und Geometrie der
den Bewehrungsgehalt der Fas- the storeys vary. The effect can be Ellipse bleibt für alle Geschosse
sade aus. Durch die Vorspannung seen on each of the façade feet. immer dieselbe, obwohl die Ge-
der symmetrischen Auskragungen From the design point of view, schosshöhen unterschiedlich sind.
mit 16 Litzen à 150 mm2 Quer- the curved cantilevered walls can Die Auswirkung lässt sich am je-
schnittfläche (P0 = 3125 kN) wird be imagined as curves that extend weiligen Fassadenfuss erkennen.
der gesamte Fassadenquerschnitt around the corners at right Konstruktiv kann man sich die
überdrückt. Die Gestaltung der angles. The classical keystone or geschwungenen Kragscheiben
Konstruktion im Aufriss entspricht centre key known from traditio- auch als um 90° übereck geführte
somit den Beanspruchungen. nal arch designs is replaced by the Bogen vorstellen. Der klassische
two prestressing cables crossing Schluss- oder Scheitelstein bei
Konstruktive Einzelheiten at right angles, reproducing the Bogenkonstruktionen wird durch
Die beweglichen und festen Ver- same static effect within the con- die beiden übereck gekreuzten
ankerungen der Vorspannung crete. Vorspannkabel ersetzt. Die stati-

73
24.80

3.66

2.855
Grundriss Schnitt Ansicht

Fig. 8
Längsschnitt durch einen Fassadenbogen mit Vorspannung sowie Detail der
Verschränkung der Vorspannung in der Fassadenecke.
Longitudinal section through a curved façade element with prestressing as well
as a detail of the crossing of the prestressing cable in the corner of the façades.

Another special feature of the sche Wirkung im Beton ist diesel- Autor/Author
structure can be found in the be. Patrick Gartmann
floor slabs which are running Eine andere Besonderheit sind die dipl. Bauing. FH SIA und
dipl. Arch. FH SIA
from the inside to the outside. von innen nach aussen durchlau- Conzett Bronzini Gartmann AG
The monolithic connection of fenden Geschossdecken. Die mo- CH-7000 Chur
façades and floor slabs makes nolithische Verbindung von p.gartmann@cbg-ing.ch

sense from a design point of view Fassaden und Deckenplatten ist


and does not require any cantile- konstruktiv sinnvoll, benötigt
ver plate joints. To still meet the keine Kragplattenverbindungen
requirements as far as building und lässt sich bauphysikalisch mit
physics are concerned, an edge Randdämmungen von 1,20 m
insulation of 1.20 m width on the Breite an der Untersicht und voll-
soffit and full surface insulation flächigen Dämmungen unter dem
under the supporting floor are Unterlagsboden lösen.
used.
Bauausführung
Construction work Die präzise Herstellung dieses
The accurate construction of Schulhauses in Sichtbetonqualität
Grono school in fair-faced concre- stellte eine Aufgabe dar, die in
te represented a task which re- intensiver Zusammenarbeit von
quired close cooperation bet- Planern und Ausführenden zu
ween the design and execution lösen war. Die psychologischen
teams. Psychological aspects in Aspekte in Bezug auf die Aus-
relation to the contractors must führenden dürfen nicht vernach-
not be neglected, for it is they lässigt werden, denn sie sind es,
who convert the ideas of the de- die die Ideen der Planenden um-
signers into an actual building. It setzen. Es ist naheliegend, dass
is obvious that motivated teams motivierte «Sichtbeton-Bauteams»
who specialise in fair-faced con- bessere und präzisere Arbeit lie-
crete deliver better and more fern und so ihren Berufsstolz wie-
accurate work and thus redisco- der entdecken. Die besten Bau-
ver their professional pride. Also, teamerfahrungen werden zudem
experience shows that the best erreicht, wenn jeder Ausführende
results in a construction team are die Verantwortung für die fach-
achieved if each participant ac- gerechte Umsetzung selber über-
cepts responsibility for the techni- nimmt.
cally correct implementation of
his part.

74
Canopée en béton armé à la « Maison de l’Écriture »
à Montricher
Concrete Canopy of ”Maison de l’Ecriture” in Montricher

Aurelio Muttoni, Miguel Fernández Ruiz

Introduction
Cet article présente une canopée
en béton armé bâtie à la maison
de l’Écriture à Montricher. Cette
canopée est appuyée sur des
colonnes préfabriquées en béton
armé centrifugé avec des hau-
teurs allant jusqu’à 18 mètres. La auditorium
forme de la canopée a été déter-
minée sur la base du champ de library
cisaillement d’un plancher dalle
avec la même trame de colonnes.
Les principes utilisés pour la con-
ception et le dimensionnement
de la canopée sont expliqués dans
cet article, de même que les
aspects principaux concernant les Fig. 1
technologies utilisées pour sa Vue de la canopée de la Maison de l’Écriture
construction. Top view of the canopy of the MdE.

La Maison de l’Écriture et
sa canopée Introduction hauteurs variant entre 9 et 18 mè-
La Maison de l’Écriture (MdE) est An innovative concrete canopy tres. La canopée connecte les dif-
un centre dédié à la promotion has been designed and construct- férentes parties de la MdE (Fig. 1)
de la littérature. Le projet est ed for the Maison de l’Ecriture in et offre aux cabanes suspendues
composé de deux bâtiments (une Montricher. This canopy is suppor- des points pour leur accrochage
bibliothèque et un auditoire) de ted by slender prefabricated (Fig. 2).
même que de plusieurs cabanes columns up to 18 metres high and
suspendues (actuellement en cons- was designed according to the Conception de la canopée
truction). La canopée de la MdE shear field of an ideal flat slab. In Dans la forêt, une canopée n’est
est l’un de ses symboles. Elle occu- this paper, the principles used for ni un ensemble de brins, ni une
pe environ 4500 m2 et a une the shear field design are present- masse continue. De la même
épaisseur de 400 mm. Elle s’ap- ed as well as the main aspects façon, la canopée de la Maison de
puie sur des colonnes très élan- concerning the various technolo- l’Écriture n’est ni une grille de
cées en béton centrifugé avec des gies used for its construction. poutres, ni une dalle plate, mais

Fig. 2
Photos de la canopée avec ses colonnes préfabriquées.
Photos of the canopy of the MdE with its slender precast columns.

75
(a) y x (b)

In-plane In-plane
shear force v y shear force v x
z
Cross-section
shear force v y
vy vx
Cross-section
shear force v x

dx = 1 dy = 1

(c) (d)
In-plane principal
shear force v 0
φ0
vx vy
φ0
In-plane Cross-section principal
In-plane shear force v 0
shear forces v y shear forces v x

v0 = v x2 + v y2
vy
tan ( φ0 ) = v
x

Fig. 3
Concept de champ de cisaillement et modèle sandwich : a) vue d’un élément ;
b) forces agissant dans le noyau ; c) forces agissant dans les panneaux ; et
d) direction et intensité de l’effort tranchant principal.
The concept of shear field. Sandwich model of a reinforced concrete slab element:
a) general view of the element; b) forces acting on the core; c) forces acting on
the panels; and d) magnitude and direction of the principal shear force.

The “Maison de l’Ecriture” quelque chose d’intermédiaire. Sa (where shear forces are larger)
and its canopy forme transcrit la position idéale become continuous. However, at
The “Maison de l’Ecriture” (MdE) des membrures qui devraient être a certain distance from the
is a centre dedicated to literature, noyées à l’intérieur d’une dalle columns the shear forces are
with the aim to preserve and to continue pour transmettre des moderate, resulting into linear
promote it. It consists of two charges gravitaires sur les colon- members.
buildings (a library and an audito- nes et les murs qui la supportent.
rium), and a number of suspend- La position théorique des « brins » The concept of the shear field of
ed residences (currently under de cette forme complexe a été a slab
construction). The canopy of the déduite à partir d’un calcul numé- The shear field is a vector field
MdE is one of its symbols. This rique, selon un modèle élastique representing the direction (ϕ0)
400 mm thick structure covering linéaire des champs de cisaille- and magnitude (v0) of the princi-
4,500 m2 is supported on slender ment : le béton marque l’espace pal shear force per unit length in
centrifuged concrete columns qui définit les directions principa- a slab. With respect to reinforced
with heights varying between 9 les de l’effort tranchant d’une concrete slabs, a sandwich model
and 18 m. It links the different dalle qui couvrirait l’ensemble de is particularly useful to explain
parts of the MdE (Fig. 1), and la Maison de l’Écriture. the physical meaning of such
offers the anchorage points for parameters. It considers a slab di-
suspending the residences (Fig. 2). Le concept du champ de cisaille- vided into three regions (Fig. 3a):
ment d’une dalle a core carrying shear forces (Fig.
Conceptual design Le champ de cisaillement est un 3b) and two outer panels (Fig. 3c)
In a forest, a canopy is not an champ vectoriel qui représente la carrying in-plane shear and nor-
assembly of branches, neither a direction (ϕ0) et l’intensité (v0) de mal forces (thus equilibrating
continuum mass. In the same la direction principal de l’effort internal bending and torsional
manner, the canopy of the MdE is tranchant unitaire d’une dalle. moments). With respect to the
neither a flat slab nor an assem- Pour des dalles en béton armé, un core, the shear forces per unit
bly of beams. Its shape expresses modèle sandwich est particulière- length acting in the cross-section
the theoretical location and ment adapté afin d’expliquer la (vx and vy ) are in equilibrium with
shape where the shear forces are signification physique de ces the in-plane shear forces develop-
transmitted inside a slab towards paramètres. Il considère la dalle ed in the upper and in the lower
the supports (its shear field). Thus divisée en trois régions (Fig. 3a) : faces of the core, see Figure 3b.
the regions near the columns un noyau transmettant l’effort Such in-plane shear forces are in

76
(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 4
Analyse du champ de cisaillement de la canopée : a) trame regulière ; b) trame
sans colonne entre la bibliothèque et l’auditoire ; et c) détermination de la
géométrie à partir du champ de cisaillement.
Shear field analysis of the canopy: a) regular column spacing; b) one column
eliminated between library and auditorium; and c) obtaining the canopy geo-
metry.

tranchant et deux panneaux exté- turn in equilibrium with the colonnes et des bâtiments était
rieurs (Fig. 3c), qui équilibrent la force-increments acting in the calculé. Cette analyse a permis
torsion et les moments de flexion. panels as shown in Figure 3c. The d’adapter la forme de la canopée
Au sein du noyau, les deux com- in-plane shear forces (vx and vy ) aux conditions de bord réels et de
posantes de l’effort tranchant are two vectors whose resultant is raffiner sa forme pour l’adapter
unitaire (vx et vy ) sont en équilibre the principal shear force, defined aux besoins de l’architecture.
avec les efforts rasants dévelop- by its magnitude (v0) and by its in- Après plusieurs essais, la forme de
pés dans les panneaux supérieur plane direction (ϕ0), see Figure la Figure 4 était retenue comme
et inférieur (Fig. 3b). 3d. satisfaisante des points de vue de
Les composantes unitaires de l’ef- It can be noted that the in-plane l’architecture et du comporte-
fort tranchant (vx et vy ) sont ainsi principal shear force is in equili- ment statique. Une colonne entre
les composantes de l’effort tran- brium with the cross-section prin- la bibliothèque et l’auditoire était
chant unitaire agissant, qui peut cipal shear force in the core of the finalement enlevée afin d’amélio-
également être défini par son sandwich, which has the same rer la qualité de l’espace dans
intensité (v0) et sa direction (ϕ0), magnitude (v0) and develops in a cette zone. Comme la Figure 4b le
voir Figure 3d. Une manière gra- plane perpendicular to the direc- montre, la géométrie du champ
phique compacte de l’exprimer tion ϕ0 (Fig. 3c,d). The shear field de cisaillement était alors adap-
consiste à dessiner l’enveloppe can be represented by a set of tée à cette circonstance. Une fois
des directions principales d’effort lines with direction ϕ0 at each
tranchant avec une épaisseur du point and whose thickness is pro-
trait proportionnelle à son inten- portional to its magnitude (v0).
sité. Un tel dessin s’avère très pra- Such plots help understanding Equipe/Team
tique afin de comprendre le com- the shear forces developing in a Client/Owner
portement statique de la structu- slab and thus how the forces are Fondation Jan Michalski, Montricher
Entreprise totale/Total contractor
re. transmitted to the supports of the Losinger-Marazzi SA, Bussigny
slab. Architecture
Recherche de la forme pour la Mangeat Wahlen, architects associés,
Nyon
canopée de la MdE Form-finding in the canopy of Conception de la structure et
Afin de trouver la forme de la the MdE ingénierie/Structural design and
canopée de la MdE, le champ de In order to determine the shape engineering
Muttoni et Fernández, Ingénieurs
cisaillement d’une dalle plate of the canopy of the MdE the Conseils SA, Ecublens (Lausanne)
appuyée sur la même trame de shear field of a flat slab support-

77
ed on the existing buildings and que le champ de cisaillement était tely constant (Lcr /Ø ≈ 30). This
columns was computed. This déterminé, seulement la matière optimized the mechanical beha-
allowed tailoring the canopy to nécessaire afin de transmettre viour of the members and was in
the boundary conditions as well l’effort tranchant était retenue agreement with the architectural
as refining its shape to adapt it to (voir Fig. 4c). Le champ des expression (refer to Fig. 2). To do
the architectural needs. moments (moments de flexion et so, some columns required to be
After a number of preliminary moment de torsion) de la structu- clamped in the foundations while
designs, the shape of Figure 4a re était ainsi modifié par rapport others were simply supported on
was selected as satisfactory from à celui d’une dalle plate (les nap- the foundations (to enhanced
an engineering and architectural pes supérieures et inférieures du ease of construction of the prefa-
point of view. A column between sandwich n’étant plus continues bricated members).
the library and auditorium was partout). Cependant, le champ de
eventually removed to enhance cisaillement de la dalle continue Detailed design
the space in the place between et celui de la canopée restent Once the final geometry was esta-
them (Figure 4b), and the result- identiques car les forces de la blished, the canopy was designed
ing shear field thus adapted to canopée sont amenées jusqu’aux by using a 3-D model of the struc-
this situation. supports suivant la direction des ture (accounting for the plane
Once the shear field was selected, brins (ainsi justifiant la démarche and linear regions). This allowed
only the required material for suivie pour trouver la forme de la determining the internal forces in
carrying shear was kept (refer to canopée). the structure, as its structural
Fig. 4c). The moment field (bend- behaviour depends on the actual
ing and torsion moments) of the Bâtiments placing of the members and on
resulting structure was thus modi- Outre la canopée, deux bâtiments their linkage. On that basis, the
fied with respect to that of the conventionnels ont été bâtis, une reinforcement was designed.
continuous slab (as the top and bibliothèque et un auditoire. Les The reinforcement was adapted
bottom layers of the sandwich bâtiments ont des murs de 12 to the various regions of the
model are no longer present mètres de hauteur sur le niveau structure. For typical spans of
everywhere). However, the shear du sol, ce qui imposait à la cano- approx. 7 m, concrete was rein-
field of the continuous slab and pée de devenir une surface conti- forced by using ordinary reinfor-
of the canopy is still the same, as nue à leur engagement. cement and steel fibres (20 kg/m3,
the forces in the canopy are trans- Fig. 5a). The fibres allowed reduc-
mitted to the supports by follow- Colonnes ing the required minimum rein-
ing the direction of the beams Une canopée forestière est ap- forcement amount and helped in
(thus justifying the selected pro- puyée sur des troncs élancés de la zones where ordinary reinforce-
cedure to find the shape of the même façon que la canopée de la ment was difficult to place due to
structure). MdE est appuyée sur des colonnes complex geometries. Non-pre-
en béton élancées. Ces colonnes stressed strands were also used
Buildings ont une hauteur variable entre 9 (1/4” diameter, fp0.1k = 1,770 MPa)
Besides the canopy, two conven- et 18 mètres et avec des diamè- to suitably reinforce the member
tional buildings were introduced tres variant entre 450 et 350 mm. and to provide continuous rein-
as part of the construction, a Les colonnes sont préfabriqués en forcement in the nodal regions.
library and an auditorium. The béton centrifugé et ont un élan- In the linear members, reinforce-
buildings have continuous walls cement mécanique à peu près ment followed the shape of the
of 12 m height above the soil constant (Lcr /Ø ≈ 30). Ce dernier members and was composed of
level. Thus, the canopy also tur- critère permettait d’optimiser le groups of up to 4 bars of diame-
ned out to be a continuous slab at comportement statique tout en ter 10 mm bent “in situ”. In order
their interface (Fig. 2). respectant l’expression architec- to resist shear, torsion and devia-
turale de l’ensemble (Fig. 2). Pour tion forces, transverse pins were
Columns ce but, certaines colonnes étaient arranged on the sides of the
A forest canopy is supported by encastrées dans leur fondation members. This reinforcement was
slender trunks in the same man- tandis que d’autres étaient sim- developed in the nodal (continu-
ner as the canopy of the MdE is plement appuyées (afin de simpli- ous) regions, with a classical
also supported on a number of fier la construction et la pose des orthogonal reinforcement layout
slender columns. These columns éléments). (see Fig. 5a).
have variable height varying bet- Steel heads were placed over the
ween 18 and 9 meters and with Dimensionnement columns (Fig. 5b). These elements
diameters varying between 450 Une fois la géométrie de la struc- were specifically designed to pro-
and 350 mm. They were prefabri- ture définie, la canopée a été cal- vide sufficient punching shear
cated in centrifuged concrete. culée à l’aide d’un modèle 3D de strength and anchorages requir-
The mechanical slenderness of la structure (tenant compte des ed for suspending the residences.
the columns was kept approxima- régions en forme de dalle et des The shear heads were composed

78
(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 5
Construction : a) armature ordinaire et torons non-précontraints ; b) têtes métalliques ; et c) gaînes de précontrainte.
Construction: a) placing of ordinary reinforcement and non-prestressed strands; b) steel heads; and c) post-tensioning
tendons.

brins). Sur la base de ce modèle, of four prismatic members with des cabanes. Ces éléments prisma-
les efforts de réduction étaient threaded holes (for screwing the tiques permettaient en outre la
déterminés et l’armature finale- anchorage pieces of the resi- soudure des profils latéraux et
ment dimensionnée. L’armature a dences). These prismatic members des tôles de la tête (de 35 mm
été adaptée aux différentes ré- also served to weld the lateral d’épaisseur).
gions de la structure. Pour des profiles as well as the main plates Une zone particulière se trouve
portées typiques de 7 mètres, le (35 mm thick). dans l’engagement entre la biblio-
béton était renforcé avec des bar- A special zone was the region thèque et l’auditoire, où une co-
res d’armature ainsi que 20 kg/m3 between the library and auditori- lonne avait été enlevée (Fig. 4b).
de fibres (voir Fig. 5a). Les fibres um, where a column was remov- Dans cette zone, la portée corres-
ont permis de réduire l’armature ed (Fig. 4b). In this zone, therefo- pond au double de la portée typi-
minimale et ont aidé dans les re, the span length was thus dou- que et les flèches étaient très
zones difficiles à armer. En outre, bled and deflections were signifi- importantes par rapport au reste
des torons non-précontraints cantly larger than in the rest of de la canopée. En conséquence,
étaient également disposés (1/4” the canopy. As a consequence, des câbles de post-tension furent
de diamètre, fp0.1k = 1770 MPa) post-tensioning tendons were disposés (Fig. 5c) permettant de
afin d’armer correctement l’élé- also placed (Fig. 5c), which allow- balancer une fraction adéquate
ment et d’avoir une armature ed suitably balancing a considera- des charges permanentes et me-
continue sur les zones nodales. ble fraction of the permanent nant ainsi à des flèches compara-
Dans les brins, l’armature suivait loads leading to deflections simi- bles au reste de la structure.
la forme des membres et était lar to those for the rest of the
composée par des groupes de 4 structure.
barres de diamètre 10 mm pliées
sur place. Afin de résister à l’ef- Auteurs/Authors
fort tranchant, la torsion et les Aurelio Muttoni
forces de déviation, des épingles Prof. Dr ès techn. ing. dipl. EPFZ
aurelio.muttoni@mfic.ch
transversales étaient disposées de
chaque côté de l’élément. Cette Miguel Fernández Ruiz
armature était ancrée dans les Dr ing. dipl. UPM
miguel.fernandezruiz@mfic.ch
zones nodales (sur les colonnes)
où l’armature était disposée sui- Muttoni et Fernández,
vant une trame orthogonale clas- Ingénieurs Conseils SA
CH-1024 Ecublens
sique (Fig. 5a).
Sur les colonnes, des têtes métal-
liques étaient disposées (Fig. 5b).
Ces éléments étaient conçus spé-
cifiquement afin d’offrir une résis-
tance suffisante au poinçonnement
ainsi que pour permettre l’ancra-
ge des cabanes suspendues. Les
têtes métalliques avaient quatre
profils prismatiques avec des
trous filetés à l’intérieur permet-
tant de visser les pièces d’ancrage

79
Construction d’une coque en béton armé à Chiasso
Construction of an ellipsoidal concrete shell in Chiasso

Aurelio Muttoni, Franco Lurati, Miguel Fernández Ruiz

Introduction Introduction 51,8 m (axe court) × 22,5 m (hau-


Cet article résume les propriétés This paper summarizes the main teur). L’ellipsoïde est sectionné
principales ainsi que les méthodes properties and building techni- par un plan horizontal qui est
utilisées pour la construction d’une ques used for the construction of constitué d’un socle en béton
coque à forme ellipsoïdale en bé- an ellipsoidal concrete shell with composé de voiles verticaux trans-
ton armé avec une portée maxi- a maximum span of 92.8 m and a versaux, avec une hauteur totale
male de 92,8 m et avec une épais- general thickness of 10 cm. The de 18,24 m, voir Figure 1. Une
seur type de 10 cm. La structure structure was cast both in sprayed description plus détaillée de la
était bétonnée avec du béton concrete (for large slopes) and in géométrie et des raisons qui la
projeté (dans les zones de pente ordinary concrete (for moderate justifient peut être consultée sous
importante) et avec du béton or low slopes) and was reinforced [1].
coulé en place (pour les zones with conventional reinforcement, L’épaisseur de la coque était
avec pente modérée ou faible). Le metallic fibres, post-tensioning variable. Une valeur de 100 mm
renforcement de la coque est and shear studs depending on the était tenue par défaut, justifiée
composé de barres d’armature location and internal forces of the par de raisons constructives (enro-
conventionnelles, de même que shell. bage minimal) et afin d’écarter
de fibres métalliques, de précon- les risques de voilement. Quatre
trainte et de clous en acier selon Design nappes d’armature étaient dispo-
les différents zones et les efforts Geometry and main properties sées, deux à l’intrados et deux à
de réduction agissant. of the shell l’extrados de la coque. Les nappes
The ellipsoid shell has axis dimen- d’armature étaient orientées sui-
Conception et dimension- sions of 92.8 m (long axis) × 51.8 m vant les directions radiales (méri-
nement (small axis) × 22.5 m (height). The diens) et tangentielles (parallèles)
Géométrie et propriétés principa- ellipsoid is cut by a horizontal de l’ellipsoïde. Ceci était justifié
les de la coque plane and is supported on a con- comme étant la disposition la plus
Les dimensions de la coque ellip- crete basement composed of efficace pour des raisons stati-
soïdale sont 92,8 m (axe long) × transverse walls, leading to a total ques. La disposition de quatre

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1
Dimensions principales : a) coupe selon l’axe longue ; et b) coupe selon l’axe court.
Main geometrical dimensions: a) section along long axis; b) section along small axis.

80
(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 2
Construction de la coque : a) étayage ; b) disposition de la précontrainte ;
c) projection du béton ; et d) béton coulé sur place.
Construction of the shell: a) temporary scaffolding; b) placing of prestressing
tendons; c) spraying of concrete; and d) pouring of concrete.

height for the shell of 18.24 m, nappes d’armature permettait le structional reasons, to ensure
see Figure 1. An extended des- contrôle des moments de flexion suitable crack control (which may
cription on the geometry and its et des efforts tranchants se déve- potentially occur depending on
reasons can be consulted else- loppant à la base de la coque the load cases) and to ensure suf-
where [1]. (intersection avec le socle), dans la ficient safety against buckling of
The thickness of the shell was zone précontrainte et pour con- the structure.
variable. A value of 100 mm was necter les profils en acier d’une In addition to the ordinary rein-
selected as the default thickness. pièce disposée dans l’ouverture forcement, 35 post-tensioning
This was justified by constructio- zénithale de la coque (Fig. 1). tendons (0.6” monostrand tendon)
nal reasons (minimum thickness Dans d’autres régions, les were arranged near the equator
of necessary reinforcement cover) moments de flexion et les efforts of the shell (from level +5.50 m to
and also to ensure sufficient tranchants étaient très modérés, level +12.60 m, see Fig. 1) to carry
safety against buckling. Four rein- voir négligeables. Cependant, la membrane tension along the
forcement layers were provided, disposition de quatre nappes horizontal direction (they present-
two at the intrados and two at d’armature était respectée pour ed in addition a limited dimension
the extrados of the shell. The des raisons constructives, pour for the plastic duct thus minimiz-
reinforcement layers were orient- assurer un comportement correct ing the disturbance in the com-
ed in the radial (meridian) and vis-à-vis de la fissuration (pouvant pression field developing through
tangential (parallel) directions. se développer pour certains cas the shell). The thickness of the
This was selected as the most de charges) et pour écarter des shell was increased in this region
effective layout for statical rea- risques de voilement. to 120 mm (between levels + 4.24
sons. The arrangement of the En plus de l’armature convention- and +13.35 m).
four layers was required to con- nelle, 35 torons de précontrainte At the level of the connection to
trol bending moments and shear (mono-torons de 0,6” de diamè- the concrete basement (between
forces developed at the basement tre) étaient disposés à proximité levels + 4.24 and +5.14 m) shear
connection, near the prestressed de l’équateur de la coque (depuis studs were also installed to provi-
zone and for connecting to the le niveau +5,50 m jusqu’au niveau de sufficient shear strength and
steel piece placed at the zenith +12,60 m, voir Fig. 1) afin de re- deformation capacity in this re-
opening (Fig. 1). Bending moments prendre les efforts membranaires gion (subjected to parasitic shear
and shear forces in other regions dans la direction horizontale. forces and bending moments).
were quite small. Four reinforce- L’épaisseur de la coque était, pour The thickness of the shell was also
ment layers were nevertheless des raisons constructives, augmen- 120 mm from level +21.60 m to
arranged in all regions for con- tée dans cette zone à 120 mm the zenith opening. On the top

81
Fig. 3
Ouvrage fini.
Completed work.

(entre les niveaux + 4,24 m et part, the increased thickness allow- longueur de 30 mm et un rapport
+13,35 m). ed the concrete shell to be con- longueur-sur-diamètre de fibre
Au niveau de la connexion avec le nected to a steel structure placed de 80. Les fibres étaient disposées
socle en béton (entre les niveaux at the zenith opening (10.21 m × afin d’améliorer le contrôle de la
+ 4,24 m et +5,14 m), des clous 5.70 m), allowing daylight to fissuration (particulièrement dans
(armature transversale avec têtes reach the inside of the mall. In la région précontrainte) et pour
d’ancrage) étaient disposés afin addition, between levels + 4.81 m améliorer la capacité de déforma-
de garantir une résistance et ca- and +18.78 m a number of circu- tion du béton soumis à des efforts
pacité de déformation suffisante lar openings (diameter 0.40 m) tranchants et des forces normales
dans cette région (soumise à des were also arranged, see Figure 1. accrues (zone de liaison avec le
moments de flexion et à des socle). Le béton projeté comportait
efforts tranchant accrus). L’épais- Concrete properties 300 kg/m3 de ciment et 25 kg/m3
seur de la coque dans cette zone The structure was cast using spray- de chaux. Cette dernière était dis-
était augmentée à 120 mm, tout ed concrete from level + 4.24 m to posée afin d’améliorer la mise en
comme depuis le niveau +21,60 m level +19.90 m. This allows using place du béton. Des tailles de gra-
jusqu’à l’ouverture zénithale conventional (one-side) form- nulats entre 0 et 4 mm étaient
(10,21 m × 5,70 m). Cette dernière work for the entire shell. Where utiliséss pour 70% de la structure,
augmentation d’épaisseur permet the slope was sufficiently limited le reste étant entre 4 et 8 mm.
de connecter une structure métal- (lower than 20°, from level +19.90 L’addition d’eau était effectué
lique à travers laquelle la lumière to level + 22.48 m) concrete was dans le pistolet de projection
entre dans l’espace intérieur de la poured conventionally. For both (projection par voie sèche).
coque. En outre, entre les niveaux concrete types a characteristic com-
+ 4,81 m et +18,78 m, des ouvertu- pressive strength (fck) at 28 days Construction de la coque
res circulaires de 0,40 m de dia- equal to 30 MPa was specified. Le coffrage de la coque était dis-
mètre étaient disposées, voir In the sprayed concrete region, posé sur des cintres et un étayage
Figure 1. between level + 4.24 m and level en bois, Figure 2a. Le coffrage
+13.36 m, hooked metallic steel était composé de panneaux en
Propriétés du béton fibres (30 kg/m3) were used. The bois pliés sur place et vissés (Fig.
La structure était bétonnée avec
du béton projeté depuis le niveau
+4,24 m jusqu’au niveau +19,90 m.
Ceci permettait d’utiliser du cof-
frage conventionnel (seulement
d’un côté) pour toute la coque.
Quand la pente était suffisam- Equipe/Team Références/References
ment faible (moins de 20°, depuis Client/Owner [1] A. Muttoni, F. Lurati, M. Fernán-
Centro Ovale 1 SA, Chiasso dez Ruiz; Concrete shells – Towards
le niveau +19,90 jusqu’au niveau efficient structures: Construction of
Architecture
+22,48 m), le béton était coulé or- Elio Ostinelli, Chiasso an ellipsoidal concrete shell in
dinairement. Pour les deux types Conception de la structure et Switzerland, Structural Concrete,
ingénierie/Structural design and Ernst & Sohn, Germany, Vol. 14, No.
de béton, la résistance caractéri- 1, pp. 43–50
engineering
stique à la compression (fck) à 28 Aurelio Muttoni, Franco Lurati,
jours était spécifiée à 30 MPa. Miguel Fernández, Mendrisio et
Dans la région du béton projeté, Lausanne
Entreprise de construction/contractor
entre les niveaux + 4,24 m et Muttoni SA, Bellinzona
+13,36 m, des fibres métalliques Coûts/Costs
avec crochet (30 kg/m3) étaient CHF 5 300 000.– (TVA et honoraires
utilisées. Ces fibres avaient une inclus / VAT and design costs inluded)

82
fibres had a length of 30 mm and 2b). L’armature était ensuite dis- operation ensured correct post-
a length-to-diameter ratio of 80. posée et le béton était projeté ou tensioning transfer to the concre-
The fibres were introduced to coulé sur place (Fig. 2c et 2d). Le te. Finally, the vertical struts of
enhance crack control (in the temps requis pour disposer les the scaffolding supporting the
post-tensioned region) and to armatures et pour bétonner la top region of the shell were gra-
improve the ductility of concrete coque était d’environ 3 mois au dually released, leading to the
under high normal and shear for- total. complete decentring of the struc-
ces (at the connection to the Après le bétonnage, la coque ture. Measured deflections record-
basement). The sprayed concrete était décintrée. Ceci est probable- ed during the process were in
comprised 300 kg/m3 of cement ment l’opération la plus délicate good agreement with predicted
and 25 kg/m3 of lean lime. The ayant mené plusieurs fois dans le values. Some pictures of the com-
latter was to enhance the worka- passé à des effondrements totaux pleted work can be seen in Figure
bility of the concrete. The aggre- ou partiels des coques. Dans le cas 3.
gate sizes between 0 and 4 mm de la coque de Chiasso, une série The cost of the concrete structure
were 70% of the total, the rest de phases étaient définies afin corresponded to 49% for the scaf-
ranging between 4 and 8 mm. que le décintrage ne soit pas la folding and formwork, 21% for
The addition of water was perfor- situation du projet déterminante. ordinary reinforcement, 5% for
med at the spraying gun. D’abord, la moitié des câbles de post-tensioning, 24% for the
post-tension était mis en tension sprayed concrete and 1% for the
Construction of the shell (un sur deux). Ensuite, la partie poured in-situ concrete. This
Formwork was placed against a du coffrage en contact avec la shows the relatively large cost of
wood scaffolding, Figure 2a. The zone précontrainte était enlevée, scaffolding and formwork for
formwork consisted of panels suivi par la mise en tension de la these types of structures, and
bent in situ and fixed in their cor- totalité des câbles de post-tension. points to a fruitful future re-
responding position (Fig. 2b). The Cette démarche permettait d’as- search topic to obtain more effi-
reinforcement was then placed surer le transfert correct et effec- cient techniques.
and concrete was sprayed or pou- tif des forces de précontrainte à
red in situ (Fig. 2c and 2d). The la coque. Finalement, les étais
time required for placing of the verticaux étaient graduellement
reinforcement and concreting the descendus, menant au décintrage
shell was about 3 months in total. complet de la coque. Les flèches
After concreting, decentering of mesurées pendant ce procédé
the shell was carried out. This is étaient en bon accord avec les Auteurs/Authors
probably the most critical phase valeurs prédites. Quelques photos Aurelio Muttoni
and has led in some cases to the de la structure finalisée peuvent Prof. Dr ès techn. ing. dipl. EPFZ
Muttoni et Fernández,
collapse of a shell structure. In the être observés dans la Figure 3. Ingénieurs Conseils SA
present case the shell was con- Les coûts de l’ouvrage sont répar- CH-1024 Ecublens
structed in a number of phases in tis à 49% pour le coffrage et aurelio,muttoni@mfic.ch

order to avoid decentring to be l’étayage, 21% pour l’armature Franco Lurati


the governing design situation. ordinaire, 5% pour la précon- Ing. dipl. EPFZ
Lurati Muttoni Partner SA
First, half of the post-tensioning trainte, 24% pour le béton proje- CH-6850 Mendrisio
force was applied (one out of two té et 1% pour le béton coulé sur franco.lurati@lmpartner.ch
tendons post-tensioned). Then, place. Ceci montre que les coûts Miguel Fernández Ruiz
the wood scaffolding in contact associés au coffrage et à l’étayage Dr ing. dipl. UPM
Muttoni et Fernández,
with the post-tensioned zone was demeurent très importants et que Ingénieurs Conseils SA
removed, followed by the post- des techniques plus efficaces sont CH-1024 Ecublens
tensioning of all tendons. This encore à développer. miguel.fernandezruiz@mfic.ch

83
Palestra doppia a Chiasso
Double gymnasium in Chiasso

Andrea Pedrazzini, Eugenio Pedrazzini, Roberto Guidotti

Introduzione Introduction dalla falda la cui quota può supe-


La costruzione in oggetto s’inse- The building in question is part of rare di quasi due metri la platea
risce nel contesto del campus sco- the school and museum complex dello stabile.
lastico e museale della città di of the city of Chiasso. The build- Di seguito saranno esposte le par-
Chiasso. L’edificio si compone di ing consists of two elements: a ticolarità strutturali e di messa in
due elementi: una copertura a sé separate square roof over the opera della copertura e dello zoc-
stante con pianta quadrata corri- gymnasium and a partially buried colo.
spondente alla sala ginnica e uno rectangular plinth-like base that
zoccolo rettangolare parzialmen- connects with the school build- Considerazioni strutturali
te interrato che si relaziona con ings and parking lot on the north La copertura
gli edifici scolastici e il parcheggio side by means of a terrace and La sala ginnica è coperta median-
presenti sul lato nord per mezzo the entrance, with the garden to te un solaio a cassettoni con 7 travi
di una terrazza e l’entrata, con il the south by means of a wide precompresse di luce 32,85 m,
giardino verso sud attraverso flight of steps, with the street and altezza 1,24 m (rapporto di snel-
un’ampia gradinata,con il campo square to the east by means of a lezza L/H = 26,5) e spessore 35 cm
stradale e la piazza verso est barrier and with the M.A.X Mu- in ciascuna direzione portante e
mediante uno sbarramento e con seum and Workshop Space to the un solaio di spessore compreso tra
il m.a.x Museo e lo Spazio Offi- west with a large fountain. i 16 e i 18 cm staccato termicamen-
cina verso ovest con un’ampia The roof consists of a prestressed, te dalle pareti perimetrali. La pre-
fontana. reinforced concrete lattice (grid compressione delle travi è calibra-
La copertura è costituita da un form) suspended in space by four ta agli sforzi a flessione riscontrati
solaio a cassettoni in calcestruzzo wall beams centrally supported by nel comportamento elastico della
armato precompresso sospeso nel V-shaped elements (pillars) joined struttura (22 trecce da 150 mm2
vuoto mediante quattro travi pa- to the base at a single point. nelle tre travi centrali, 19 trecce
reti appoggiate centralmente su The plinth supports the roof and nelle due travi seguenti e da 9
un cavalletto a V quindi congiun- deals with the special problems trecce nelle travi di bordo) ed è
te al basamento in un solo punto. regarding waterproofing and up- disposta con andamento poligo-
Lo zoccolo funge da appoggio lift due to the groundwater table, nale con deviazioni a 1⁄4 e 3⁄4 della
alla copertura e si confronta con i whose level can exceed the floor luce in modo tale da prevenire
particolari problemi d’impermea- level of the building by almost l’intersezione dei cavi nei punti
bilità e di galleggiamento imposti two metres. d’incrocio delle travi.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2
Pianta piano terra. Pianta livello –1.
Ground floor plan. Level –1 plan.

84
395
226
Fig. 3
Sezioni.
Sections.

Fig. 4
Andamento cavi graticcio.
Lattice cable orientation.

Fig. 5
Andamento cavi travi parete.
All beam cables orientation.

Below, we explain the structural Lungo il perimetro le travi del so- encountered in the elastic beha-
and installation features of the laio appoggiano su 4 travi parete viour of the structure (22 strands
roof and the plinth. di altezza 3,95 m e spessore 40 cm of 150 mm2 in the three central
con una precompressione tale da beams, 19 strands in the next two
Structural considerations prevenire la fessurazione del cal- beams and 9 strands in the outer
The roof cestruzzo (2 cavi di 8 trecce da beams) and is arranged in a poly-
The gymnasium is covered by a 150 mm2 ciascuno). gonal layout with offsets at 1⁄4
lattice ceiling with 7 prestressed Al centro ciascuna trave parete è and 3⁄4 across the open space in
beams with a span of 32.85 m, disposta su una forcella (pilastro a such a way as to prevent the inter-
height of 1.24 m (slenderness forma di V) con struttura mista di section of the cables at the points
ratio L/H = 26.5) and thickness of tubolari d’acciaio (ROR 273.25/ of intersection of the beams.
35 cm in each load-bearing direc- S355) e calcestruzzo capace di Along the perimeter, the roof
tion, and a slab between 16 and accogliere le installazioni tecni- beams rest on 4 wall beams 3.95 m
18 cm thick, thermally insulated che e i pluviali. high and 40 cm thick with pre-
from the perimeter walls. The Se considerate singolarmente le compression sufficient to prevent
pre-compression of the beams is travi pareti risultano instabili ma the cracking of the concrete (2 ca-
calibrated to the flexural stresses la loro unione determina una bles of 8 strands of 150 mm2 each).

85
trazione / tension
compressione /
compression

Fig. 6 Fig. 7
Funzionamento facciata. Funzionamento stabilità.
Force transfer in the façade. Stability function.

struttura capace di resistere alle At the centre of each wall beam gio della copertura al terreno e la
sollecitazioni orizzontali (vento e there is a fork (V-shaped pillar) resistenza alle sollecitazioni idro-
sisma). Considerando una forza with a combined structure of steel statiche risultanti dalla falda la
incidente su una facciata, le pare- tubes (ROR 273.25/S355) and con- cui quota massima si pone 1,80 m
ti ortogonali allo sforzo impedi- crete that can accommodate tech- al di sopra della platea.
scono la rotazione delle travi com- nical services and downspouts In un bilancio globale delle solle-
planari allo stesso le quali tras- (drainpipes). citazioni verticali agenti ne risulta
mettono la forza a terra median- Individually, the wall beams are che una platea con spessori stan-
te una sollecitazione assiale delle unstable but together they form dard non è sufficiente a contra-
forcelle. Una situazione analoga a structure able to withstand stare la spinta idrostatica agente
la si riscontra anche nel caso di horizontal loads (wind and earth- e che il conseguimento dell’equi-
una sollecitazione a torsione della quake). If one considers a force librio mobilita necessariamente
struttura dove le singole facciate acting on one façade: the walls at anche il carico risultante dalla co-
si sostengono reciprocamente. La right angles to the force prevent pertura. Da questa riflessione ne
sovrapposizione di questi campi the rotation of its ground beams, consegue l’opportunità di una
tensionali determina la stabilità which transmit the force to the distribuzione del carico della co-
della struttura ad ogni genere di ground through axial stressing of pertura in platea il tutto a benefi-
sollecitazione orizzontale. the V-shaped pillars. The same cio anche della tipologia della
situation exists in the case of tor- fondazione disposta in superficie
Lo zoccolo sional behaviour on the structure sul terreno alluvionale piuttosto
Da un punto di vista statico lo where the single façades interact che su pali.
zoccolo si confronta con la ridi- to provide mutual support. The La distribuzione delle forze d’ap-
stribuzione delle forze d’appog- overlap of these tension fields poggio della copertura in platea è
renders the structure stable under ottenuta mediante l’irrigidimen-
any kind of horizontal load. to della stessa con due travi incro-
ciate disposte sotto platea.
Committente/Client The plinth Assieme alle pareti di bordo gli
Cantone Ticino, Sezione della logistica/ From a static point of view, the architravi disposti sotto platea
Canton Ticino, Logistics Department
Architetti/Architects plinth handles the redistribution suddividono la stessa in quattro
Nicola Baserga e Christian Mozzetti, of the forces supporting the roof porzioni quadrate di ca. 16,50 m
Muralto to the ground and the resistance di lato.
Ingegneri/Engineers
Ingegneri Pedrazzini Guidotti Sagl, against the hydrostatic pressures L’esecuzione di contrafforti verti-
Lugano resulting from the groundwater cali in continuità con la trave
Impresa di costruzione/Contractor table whose maximum level is estendono lo stesso principio d’ir-
Mafledil SA, Osogna
1.8 m above the floor level. rigidimento adottato per la pla-

86
Fig. 8
Facciata Sud (© Filippo Simonetti).
South Façade (© Filippo Simonetti).

In the global balance of vertical tea anche alle pareti est ed ovest Construction aspects
stresses, a floor of standard thick- dello stabile. The roof
ness is not sufficient to withstand The installation of the roof was
the hydrostatic force and the load Aspetti costruttivi constrained by the particular aes-
applied by the roof is also neces- La copertura thetic requirements of the wall
sary to achieve equilibrium. This La messa in opera della copertura beams, which are made of fair
consideration marks the suitabili- è stata vincolata dai particolari faced concrete without any ten-
ty of distributing the roof load to requisiti estetici delle travi parete sioning niches for the prestressing
the floor, bringing only benefits eseguite in calcestruzzo a faccia a cables.
to this type of foundation, which vista senza alcuna nicchia di tesa- The latticed roof slab was cast
is placed on the surface of the tura dei cavi precompressi. and prestressed before the peri-
flood plain rather than being sup- La soletta di copertura a cassetto- meter façades. This procedure
ported on piles. ni è stata gettata e precompressa required dimensioning the rib of
The distribution of the forces sup- prima delle facciate perimetrali. the gridwork in such a way as to
porting the roof on the floor is Questo modo di procedere ha support both the distributed
achieved by stiffening it with two condizionato la centina del gra- weight of the concrete during the
crossed beams under the floor. ticcio dimensionata in modo tale casting step and the concentrated
Along with the outer walls, the da sostenere sia il peso distribuito load at the ends of the beams
under-floor beams divide the del calcestruzzo durante la fase di after the tensioning of the pre-
floor into four square areas of getto che il carico concentrato stressing cables.
approx. 16.50 m on each side. risultante alle estremità delle Due to the limited capacity of the
The creation of vertical buttresses travi dopo la tesatura dei cavi di concrete mixer at the construc-
as a continuation of the beam precompressione. tion site, the casting of the lattice
extends the same stiffening prin- A causa della capacità limitata roof (approx. 330 m3) was carried
ciple adopted for the floor to the dell’impianto di betonaggio del out on two consecutive days: first
east and west walls of the build- cantiere il getto della soletta a the 14 beams of the gridwork,
ing. cassettoni di copertura (ca. 330 m3) followed by the roof slab.

87
Fig. 9 Fig. 10
Casseratura graticcio di copertura. Struttura grezza dopo il disarmo.
Roof lattice formwork. Bare structure after removal of formwork.

è stato realizzato in due giorni The tensioning of the cables was Autori/Authors
consecutivi: dapprima le 14 travi carried out in two steps: 30% 3 Andrea Pedrazzini
del graticcio in seguito la soletta days after casting and the remain- Ing. civile dipl. ETHZ SIA OTIA

di copertura. ing 70% after 21 days. Eugenio Pedrazzini


La tesatura dei cavi é avvenuta in The perimeter wall beams were Ing. civile dipl. ETHZ SIA OTIA

due fasi: 30% a 3 giorni dal getto cast in 4 stages, each in an L Roberto Guidotti
e i restanti 70% dopo 21 giorni. shape, with casting interruptions Dr ing. civile dipl. EPFL SUP OTIA

Le travi pareti perimetrali sono in the middle area of the façade. Ingegneri Pedrazzini Guidotti Sagl
state gettate in 4 tappe, ciascuna The prestressing cables, which are CH-6900 Lugano
a forma di L, con interruzione di arranged in parallel with fixed and ingegneri@ing-ppg.ch

getto nella zona mediana della moveable heads counterpoised at


facciata. the corners, were tensioned in
I cavi di precompressione, disposti three phases: 30% 3 days after
parallelamente e con teste fisse e casting, 70% after 14 days and
mobili contrapposte agli angoli, 100% approx. 28 days after cast-
sono stati tesati in tre fasi: 30% a ing the last portion of the beam.
3 giorni dal getto, 70% dopo 14 The V-shaped pillars were pre-
giorni e 100% dopo ca. 28 giorni fabricated at the construction site
del getto dell’ultima porzione and positioned with a truck crane
della trave. at the respective support points.
Le forcelle sono state prefabbrica-
te in cantiere e posate mediante The plinth
autogru nei rispettivi punti di The floor and the perimeter walls
appoggio. of the plinth of the building were
conceived with the ”white tank”
Lo zoccolo waterproofing system. Both in
La platea e le pareti perimetrali the floor and in elevations, ele-
dello zoccolo dell’edificio sono ments of controlled cracking were
concepite con il sistema «vasca grouted several months after cast-
bianca». Sia in platea che nelle ing in order to guarantee that the
elevazioni sono stati predisposti underground structure remains
degli elementi di fessurazione waterproof.
controllata iniettati qualche mese
dopo i getti in modo tale da
garantire l’impermeabilità della
costruzione.

88
Abitazione sul lago di Sarnen
House on Lake Sarnen

Mario Monotti

Introduzione Introduction l’impiego del calcestruzzo quale


La costruzione è un edificio di pic- The structure is a small dwelling unico materiale da costruzione.
cole dimensioni, ca. 100 m2 abita- with around 100 m2 of living space, L’analisi delle colonne ha eviden-
bili, ubicato a Wilen sulle rive del located in Wilen on the shore of ziato come un’intersezione trop-
lago di Sarnen nella Svizzera cen- Lake Sarnen in Central Switzer- po elevata da terra dei puntoni
trale. L’abitazione è concepita per land. The house was designed to obliqui e una disposizione asim-
approfittare in modo ottimale take full advantage of the beauti- metrica dei pilastri allontanasse le
della bellezza del paesaggio visi- ful landscape, with uninterrupted traiettorie delle forze dalla strut-
bile senza interruzioni dai quat- views from all four sides of the tura portante determinando delle
tro lati. Organizzati su diversi structure. Organised on various sollecitazioni a flessione degli ele-
livelli, gli spazi interni offrono tre levels, the internal spaces offer menti portanti e, conseguente-
diversi sguardi del lago: quello three different views of the lake: mente, un movimento rotatorio
orizzontale sull’acqua dal sog- horizontally over the water from dell’intera copertura. Per miglio-
giorno (quota 0.00), quello a pelo the living room (0.00 altitude), at rare il comportamento struttura-
d’acqua dalla camera (quota –1.00) surface level from the bedroom le, i pilastri sono stati posti in asse
e quello dall’alto dalla cucina (–1.00 altitude) and looking down con il tetto verso il lago e in corri-
(quota +1.00). Contro terra, sotto on it from above in the kitchen spondenza del sostegno del tetto
la cucina, con accesso dalla came- (+1.00 altitude). A bathroom and sopra la cucina verso monte. Nella
ra, trovano spazio un servizio e il utility room are located under- configurazione scelta tre punti
locale tecnico. Ai locali interni si ground beneath the kitchen, with d’appoggio della copertura risul-
aggiunge un ampio spazio ester- access from the bedroom. In addi- tano fissi e l’origine del movimen-
no coperto che si estende in tion to the internal rooms there is to della struttura è confinato in
modo asimmetrico sui quattro lati a generous amount of covered un solo elemento portante, il
dell’abitazione. Oltre alla partico-
lare disposizione interna, la co-
struzione ricava la propria valen-
za dalle tensioni risultanti tra la Montagne
struttura portante in calcestruzzo
faccia a vista con singolare ric- Camera 20
Cucina 26
chezza geometrica e le sgarberie
architettoniche che, rompendo le
simmetrie e variando le quote
degli spazi interni, rendono ancor
più arduo l’esercizio estremo Soggiorno 43
della costruzione costretta a sor-
reggere con soli due pilastri il
carico dell’intera copertura.
Di seguito sono esposte alcune
Lago
riflessioni strutturali e gli aspetti 0 1 5

costruttivi che hanno accompa-


gnato la messa in opera dell’abi-
tazione.

Riflessioni strutturali
L’organizzazione degli spazi in-
terni, la copertura con tetto a
falde e la tipologia delle colonne
portanti sono state assunte come
parametri inderogabili. La pro-
gettazione strutturale è stata
focalizzata sulla disposizione dei Fig. 1
pilastri e sugli aspetti costruttivi Pianta e sezione sud/nord.
della copertura presupponendo Plan and south/north section.

89
Thoughts about the
structure
The organisation of the internal
spaces, the pitched roof and the
type of load-bearing columns
were taken as fundamental para-
meters. The structural design
focused on the positioning of the
pillars and the constructional
aspects of the roof, presupposing
Fig. 2
Modello statico.
that concrete would be the only
Static model. construction material.
Analysis of the columns showed
that an intersection of the diago-
nal struts too high above the
ground and the asymmetrical
outdoor space, which extends puntone obliquo sovrastante la location of the pillars would
asymmetrically on all four sides of camera. La rotazione del tetto detach the flow of forces from
the building. In addition to the indotta dalla deformazione del the load-bearing structure, lead
unique internal design, the struc- pilastro al di sopra della camera è to bending stresses in the load-
ture owes its appeal to the inter- stata controllata mediante la pre- bearing elements and a rotation
play resulting from the load- compressione del braccio inclina- of the entire roof. To improve the
bearing fair-faced concrete struc- to del pilastro e una forza ausilia- structural behaviour, the pillars
ture, with a singular geometric ria di bilanciamento indotta atti- were placed in alignment with
richness and startling architectu- vamente per mezzo di un tirante the roof facing the lake and in
re, which by breaking up symme- posto in cucina nell’angolo della correspondence with the roof
tries and varying the height of facciata. L’efficacia dei provvedi- support over the kitchen facing
the internal spaces makes the menti intrapresi ha trovato ampio the mountain. In the chosen con-
construction work even more dif- riscontro con la deformazione figuration, three supports of the
ficult, since the entire weight of verticale misurata lungo la faccia- roof are fixed and the source of
the roof is supported by just two ta al termine della costruzione. structural movement is confined
pillars. Più che sugli aspetti statici, la pro- to a single load-bearing element,
Some information is given below gettazione della copertura si è the diagonal strut located above
on the structure and the design focalizzata sulle problematiche the bedroom. The rotation of the
aspects involved in erecting the costruttive determinate dal getto roof induced by the deformation
building. del calcestruzzo su superfici ob- of the pillar above the bedroom is

Fig. 3
Cassero e armatura pilastri.
Formwork and pillar reinforcement.

90
Fig. 4
Cassero e elementi prefabbricati copertura.
Formwork and prefabricated roofing elements.

lique con pendenze fino all’80%. controlled by pre-stressing of the L’edificio è stato fondato su 16
In continuità con i pilastri, la inclined arm of the pillar and an pali battuti in ghisa duttile di
struttura portante del tetto è auxiliary balancing force actively lunghezza compresa tra 10 e 15 m
stata ridotta a singole aste inter- induced through a tie rod located e resistenza di 800 kN. La scelta di
connesse rigidamente. La geome- in the kitchen in the corner of the una fondazione profonda è stata
tria di questi elementi è stata rica- façade. The effectiveness of the determinata dalle caratteristiche
vata mediante pannelli prefabbri- measures taken was clearly del terreno, dalla particolare vici-
cati di calcestruzzo armato di demonstrated through the verti- nanza al lago e dalla concentra-
spessore minimo (6 cm) rifiniti in cal deformation measured along zione dei carichi.
modo tale da fungere da cassero the façade when construction Lo zoccolo dell’edificio (locale
a perdere. Oltre a semplificare la was completed. tecnico e camera) è stato concepi-
messa in opera gli elementi pre- More than on statical aspects, the to con il sistema «vasca bianca»
fabbricati hanno contribuito in design of the roof focused on (iniezione dei giunti di lavoro) in
modo sostanziale al contenimen- construction problems caused by calcestruzzo impermeabile faccia
to delle imprecisioni esecutive the need to cast concrete on slant- a vista in modo tale da resistere
permettendo al contempo di ri- ing surfaces with slopes of up to alla spinta del terreno e alle solle-
durre il peso proprio della struttu- 80%. In continuity with the pil- citazioni idrostatiche relative a
ra. Separata termicamente dal lars, the load-bearing structure of un’ immersione di 1,75 m.
tetto, la gronda è stata gettata the roof was reduced to indivi- I pilastri presentano una sezione a
sul posto quale elemento conclu- dual rigidly-connected rods. The quadrilatero concavo invariata (di
sivo della costruzione. shape of these elements was ob- 0,29 m2 lato lago e 0,25 m2 lato
tained using thin (6 cm) prefabri- monte) sul primo tratto e rastre-
Aspetti costruttivi cated reinforced concrete panels, mata nei bracci (da 0,27 a 0,20 m2
Le diverse fasi del cantiere sono finished so as to serve as lost lato lago rispettivamente da 0,23
descritte brevemente corredate formwork. In addition to simplify- a 0,16m2 e da 0,25 a 0,18 m2 lato
dalle cifre essenziali che carat- ing the work, the prefabricated monte). Il cassero dei pilastri è
terizzano la costruzione. elements made a large contribu- stato concepito con due lati fissi e
L’edificio è stato inserito nel pen- tion to limiting execution impre- due mobili in modo tale da favo-
dio naturale mediante uno scavo cisions, while simultaneously rire la posa dell’armatura diseg-
di 300 m3 con altezza 5 m e svilup- making it possible to reduce the nata in ogni singola posizione.
po 15 m. Lo scavo è stato assicura- weight of the structure. Thermal- Entrambi i pilastri sono stati messi
to mediante calcestruzzo spruzza- ly separate from the roof, the in opera in una sola tappa me-
to e 13 ancoraggi passivi di lung- eaves were cast on site, as the diante pompaggio di calcestruzzo
hezza 8 m e resistenza 190 kN. final structural element. tipo SCC 30/37 dal piede. Il ramo
più obliquo del pilastro lato
Construction aspects monte è stato precompresso con
The various construction stages 2 cavi di 4 trefoli cadauno aventi
Committente/Owner are described briefly below, to- testa fissa al piede del pilastro e
privato/private gether with the basic figures. mobile sul lato esterno della
Architetto/Architect
Christian Scheidegger, Zurigo The building was inserted in the copertura. Quale tirante di bilan-
Ingegnere civile/Civil engineer natural slope with a 300 m3 exca- ciamento è stata impiegata una
Monotti Ingegneri Consulenti SA, vation, height of 5 m and length barra Stafix M27.
Locarno
Impresa di costruzione/Contractor of 15 m. The excavation was rein- Le travi portanti della copertura,
Melk Durrer AG, Kerns forced using cast concrete and 13 ottenute mediante la posa di ele-
passive anchors with a length of menti prefabbricati su un telaio di

91
Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Vista sud (© Karin Gauch, Fabien Schwartz). Vista nord (© Karin Gauch, Fabien Schwartz).
South view (© Karin Gauch, Fabien Schwartz). North view (© Karin Gauch, Fabien Schwartz).

8 m and a capacity of 190 kN. The legno, sono state gettate in opera the base of the pillar and move-
building has a foundation of 16 in un’unica tappa con chiusura able on the external side of the
ductile cast iron piles, with progressiva del cassero sul lato roof. A Stafix M27 bar was used
lengths ranging from 10 to 15 m superiore. as a balancing tie rod.
and a load capacity of 800 kN. La gronda è stata fissata al telaio The load-bearing beams of the
The decision to opt for a deep della copertura mediante 12 pro- roof, obtained by placing prefa-
foundation was determined by fili in acciaio con peso complessi- bricated elements on a timber
the characteristics of the ground, vo di 2,1 t parzialmente rivestiti frame, were cast in a single ope-
in particular the nearness to the con materiale isolante. Analoga- ration with progressive closing of
lake and the concentration of the mente ai pilastri, la gronda è the formwork on the upper side.
loads. stata messa in opera in una sola The eaves were attached to the
The basement (utility room and tappa con calcestruzzo tipo SCC roof frame using 12 steel sections
bedroom) was designed with a 30/37 pompato all’interno di un with a total weight of 2.1 t, par-
”white tank” system (injection of cassero ermetico. tially covered with insulating ma-
working joints) in waterproof Complessivamente, per la costru- terial. Similarly to the pillars, the
fair-faced concrete, so as to resist zione sono stati impiegati 135 m3 eaves were cast in a single opera-
the earth pressures and the di calcestruzzo (55% nello zocco- tion using SCC 30/37 concrete,
hydrostatic pressures associated lo, 2% nei pilastri, 24% nella pumped inside a hermetically-
with a depth below the water copertura e 19% nella gronda) e sealed formwork.
level of 1.75 m. 28 t d’armatura (40% nello zocco- In total, 135 m3 of concrete was
The pillars have an unvarying con- lo, 5% nei pilastri, 36 % nella co- used in construction (55% for the
cave quadrilateral section (0.29 m2 pertura e 19% nella gronda). plinth, 2% for the pillars, 24% for
lake side, 0.25 m2 mountain side) the roof and 19% for the eaves),
in the first part, which tapers in Conclusioni as well as 28 t of reinforcement
the arms (from 0.27 to 0.20 m2 Malgrado le modeste dimensioni, (40% for the basement, 5% for
lake side, from 0.23 to 0.16 m2 l’edificazione dell’abitazione sul the pillars, 36% for the roof and
and from 0.25 to 0.18 m2 moun- lago di Sarnen ha richiesto ogni 19% for the eaves).
tain side, respectively). The form- genere di lavoro specialistico del
work for the pillars was designed genio civile. La riuscita dell’opera Conclusions
with two fixed sides and two è stata conseguita grazie ad un Despite its modest size, the con-
moveable sides, so as to facilitate grande impegno e un rapporto di struction of the house on Sarnen
the casting of the reinforcement amicizia tra tutti gli addetti ai Lake required the use of every
in each individual position. Both lavori. type of specialist civil engineering
pillars were rendered operational work. The success of the work
in a single casting, by pumping was achieved thanks to notable
SCC 30/37 type concrete from the Autore/Author efforts and a friendly working
base. The most oblique part of Mario Monotti relationship between all involved.
the mountain-side pillar was pre- Prof. Dr. sc. techn., dipl. Bauing. ETH
Monotti Ingegneri Consulenti SA
stressed with 2 cables of 4 strands CH-6600 Locarno
each, with the head attached to mario@monotti-sa.ch

92
Elefantenpark «Kaeng Krachang» im Zoo Zürich –
Betontragwerk
Elephant House ”Kaeng Krachang” in the Zurich Zoo –
Concrete structure

Fabian Persch

Einleitung Introduction hen zwischen den Auflagern er-


Im Frühjahr 2014 wird der Elefan- In spring 2014 the elephant park geben sich aus architektonischen
tenpark «Kaeng Krachang» als ”Kaeng Krachang” in the Zurich Vorgaben, wie den vorgesehen
neue Attraktion des Zürcher Zoos Zoo will be opened as a new Besuchereinblicken, den Höhen
für das Publikum geöffnet. Kern- attraction to the public. Centre- von Tordurchfahrten und der
stück des 10 000 m2 grossen Gehe- piece of the 10,000 m2 large com- Grösse der Elefanten.
ges ist eine kreisförmige Halle, die pound is a roundish concrete hall Als besonders komplex stellt sich
von einer spektakulären Holzdach- roofed by an impressive curved der 270 m lange Ringbalken dar,
konstruktion überspannt wird. wooden structure. The giant roof der der unregelmässigen Form
Das riesige Dach mit einer Fläche with an area of 6,000 m2 and 85 m des Schalenrands folgt. Obwohl
von 6000 m2 und einem Durch- in diameter acts as a self-support- er Spannweiten von bis zu 40m
messer von 85 m wirkt dabei als ing shell-structure, whose loads zwischen den einzelnen Auflager-
freitragendes Schalentragwerk, are transferred via a reinforced punkten zu überbrücken hat und
dessen Lasten über einen Stahlbe- concrete ring beam to the local dabei die Durchbiegungen für die
tonringbalken in lokale Dachfun- roof foundations. The roof's geo- Fassadenplanung in einem engen
dationen abgeleitet werden. Die metry was incrementally develop- Rahmen begrenzt bleiben müs-
Geometrie des Dachs wurde mit- ed with the aid of an FE shell sen, soll er als filigranes, kaum
hilfe eines FE-Schalenmodells in model. With an irregular appea- sichtbares Bauteil im Dachrand in-
einem statischen Formfindungs- rance and a flowing shape its aim tegriert werden. Dieses Ziel lässt
prozess schrittweise entwickelt. is to harmoniously fit into the sur- sich nur durch den Einbau von
Mit seiner zufällig wirkenden rounding landscape. At the same Vorspannkabeln realisieren. Die
geschwungenen Form soll es sich time, the curved edge is geared tatsächlich auftretenden Verfor-
einerseits harmonisch in die Land- to the building's utilisation con- mungen lassen sich bei diesem
schaft einfügen, gleichzeitig ist cept. The rises of the arches bet- Prototypen im Vorfeld nicht exakt
der gekrümmte Rand aber auch ween the supports are determin- definieren, sondern nur über
dem Nutzungsprogramm des Ge- ed by architectural requirements, Sensitivitätsanalysen eingrenzen.
bäudes angepasst. Die Bogenhö- such as the planned visitors’ views, Nicht nur planerisch, auch in der

Fig. 1
Künstlerischer Entwurf (Quelle: Markus Schietsch Architekten).
Artist’s impression (source: Markus Schietsch Architekten).

93
Fig. 2
Nutzungskonzept Elefantenhaus (Quelle: Walt+Galmarini).
Utilisation concept for Elefantenhaus (source: Walt+Galmarini).

clearance heights and size of ele- Ausführung stellt das Betontrag- Not only with regard to the de-
phants. werk eine grosse Herausforde- sign but also with the execution,
A particularly complex compo- rung dar. So müssen grosse Teile the concrete structure presents a
nent of the structure is the 270 m der Bewehrung und die Vor- major challenge. Due to the 3D
long ring beam that follows the spannkabel aufgrund der dreidi- geometry of the structure, large
uneven form of the roof edge. mensionalen Geometrie des Bau- sections of the reinforcement and
While bridging spans of up to 40 m werks mithilfe von 3-D-Plandar- the post-tensioning tendons have
with only very small deflections stellungen mit Koordinatenanga- to be measured to millimetre
permitted, the beam is meant to be millimetergenau eingemessen accuracy with the aid of 3D plans
be thin and invisibly integrated in werden. with detailed information of the
the roof. These requirements can coordinates.
only be met by the use of post- Betontragwerk
tensioning. Predictions of actual Die Anordnung des Tragwerks Concrete structure
deflections of this prototype are ergibt sich aus den architektoni- The layout of the structure is
difficult and can only be limited schen Vorgaben für die Nutzung given by the architectural requi-
by means of sensitivity analyses. der Halle. Ziel bei der Tragwerks- rements for the utilisation of the

Fig. 4
Modell Dachfundation (Quelle:
Fig. 3 Walt+Galmarini).
Betontragwerk (Quelle: Walt+Galmarini). Model roof foundation (source:
Concrete structure (source: Walt+Galmarini). Walt+Galmarini).

94
Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Bewehrung einer Dachfundation mit Holzdachkonstruktion mit Wandscheiben.
Spannkabeln für die Wandscheiben. Timber roof construction with shear walls.
Reinforcement of a roof foundation
with bracing cables for the shear
walls.

planung war es, alle ohnehin be- building. The aim of the design BBRV 3700 sind jeweils mit Kör-
nötigten Betonbauteile zur Ab- was to integrate all existing con- ben aus schraubbarer Bewehrung
tragung der Dachlasten hinzuzu- crete members of the structure millimetergenau relativ zur Boden-
ziehen und so auf zusätzliche for the transfer of the roof load, platte der Fundation eingemes-
Elemente möglichst zu verzichten. and thus avoid additional ele- sen. Das Betonieren der Wand-
So dient beispielsweise die Aussen- ments as much as possible. Thus, scheiben erfolgt in mehreren ver-
wand der Stallungen als lineares the exterior wall of the stables, tikalen Etappen. Die Wandköpfe
Auflager für den Ringbalken und for instance, serves as a linear werden zusammen mit dem Ring-
die vorgesehenen Regenwasser- bearing for the ring beam, and balken betoniert.
speicher sind als lokale Dachfun- the planned rainwater tanks are
dationen ausgebildet und an den designed as local roof foundations Ringbalken
unterirdisch verlaufenden Medien- and connected to the under- Um die planmässigen Beanspru-
kanal angebunden. ground services duct. chungen aufnehmen zu können
sowie im aussergewöhnlichen Be-
Lokale Dachfundationen mit vor- Local roof foundations with pre- messungszustand – wie beispiels-
gespannten Wandscheiben stressed shear walls weise beim Ausfall von Felsan-
Die Schalenkräfte werden vom The ring beam transfers the roof
Ringbalken über vorgespannte loads to the roof foundations,
Wandscheiben in die lokalen Dach- which are anchored by piles to
fundationen abgetragen. Die ho- resist the vertical load compo-
rizontale Komponente wird dabei nent, and by permanent rock
durch permanente Felsanker, die anchors for the horizontal load
vertikale Komponente über Pfäh- component. Projektdaten/Project data
le in den Untergrund abgeleitet. It is essential for the roof's stabili- Bauherr/Owner
Von zentraler Bedeutung für die ty that the shear walls only per- Zoo Zürich AG
Gesamtleitung/General direction
Formstabilität des Dachs ist, dass mit very small horizontal move- cga Consulting Group Aeberhard,
die Wandscheiben nur geringe ments. Any deflection of the walls Dättlikon
horizontale Verschiebungen er- results in a flattening of the roof Architekt/Architect
Fischer Architekten AG, Zürich
fahren. Jede hier auftretende Ver- shell. For this reason, each shear Landschaftsarchitekt/
formung hat ein Abflachen der wall is prestressed with a vertical Landscape architect
Schale zur Folge. Daher ist jede post-tensioning tendon to the vetschpartner Landschaftsarchitekten
AG, Zürich
Wandscheibe für Beanspruchun- level of the live load. The fixed- Bauingenieur/Civil engineer
gen auf Gebrauchslastniveau mit end anchorages of the wire cables Walt+Galmarini AG, Zürich,
einem vertikalen Spannglied vor- BBRV 3700 together with the BlessHess AG, Luzern
Ausführung/Contractors
gespannt. Die festen Verankerun- cages with threaded reinforce- Landolt & Co. AG, Kleinandelfingen
gen der Drahtkabel vom Typ ment are measured to millimetre

95
Fig. 7 Fig. 8
Spanngliedverlauf im Ringbalken (Quelle: Walt+Galmarini). Regelschnitt Ringbalken.
Geometry of curved tendon in the ring beam (source: Walt+Galmarini). Standard section of ring beam.

accuracy relative to the bottom kern und damit der horizontalen in accidental design situations –
slab of the foundation. The con- Stützung eines Widerlagerbe- such as the failure of rock-anchors
creting of the shear walls is car- reichs – wie ein Zuggurt wirken and hence the horizontal support
ried out in several vertical stages. zu können, ist der Ringbalken mit of an abutment zone – the ring
The tops of the walls are cast at insgesamt neun Drahtspannglie- beam is prestressed with nine type
the same time as the ring beam. dern vom Typ BBRV 1900 mit BBRV 1900 post-tensioning ten-
Längen von 70 bis 120 m und dons with lengths of up to 120 m
Ring beam einer Vorspannkraft von jeweils and a prestressing force of 190 t
To withstand the design loads as 190 Tonnen vorgespannt. Die per tendon. The tendon layout is
well as to act as a tension flange Spanngliedführung ist dabei drei- three-dimensional, i. e. the cables
are arranged in such a way that,
vertically, the ring beam lifts the
roof in the spans, and, horizontal-
ly, is tied to the wall abutments.
Two tendons are always arranged
in parallel to avoid twisting of the
ring beam. The position of the
tendons and the prestressing
niches had to be specified and
measured on to millimetre accu-
racy. Since the tendons run over
several concreting stages, the
empty ducts were installed prior
to concreting and the wire bund-
les were eventually pulled in
using a winch.
Reinforcement and post-tensio-
ning tendons were installed in a
”wooden channel” that was sub-
sequently closed with the shutte-
ring to a ”wooden pipe” and fil-
led with self-compacting concre-
te. The lowest layer of the multi-
layer wooden roof served as the
soffit formwork and together
with the upper formwork and the
formwork sides was also left in
the structure.
Fig. 9 The casting of the ring was car-
Verlegte Hüllrohre und Spannnische. ried out in 15 stages with a
Placed sheath and prestressing niche. weight of up to 50 t of fresh con-

96
Fig. 10 Fig. 11
Einziehen der Drahtbündel in vorverlegte Hüllrohre. Befestigen der Konterschalung.
Pulling in the bundle of wires in the previously placed Fixing the upper formwork.
sheath.

dimensional, d. h. die Kabel sind crete. Due to its formula, the Nach dem mehrstufigen Anspan-
derart angeordnet, dass sie in ver- installed concrete Holcim Selfpact nen der Kabel wurde das Dach,
tikaler Richtung eine Dachanhe- 3716CL, despite of the low tem- das bis dahin von einem Lehrge-
bung im Feldbereich und in hori- peratures, was able to achieve the rüst gestützt wurde, abgesenkt
zontaler Richtung ein Zusammen- necessary strength for stressing und die Belastung auf den Ring-
spannen mit den Wandscheiben after only three days. After stress- balken beziehungsweise die Dach-
bewerkstelligen. Dabei sind je- ing the tendons, which was car- fundationen übertragen. Mithilfe
weils zwei Kabel parallel ange- ried out in several steps, the roof von Fiberglassensoren werden die
ordnet, um eine Verdrillung des that so far had been supported by Dehnungen überwacht und so
Ringbalkens zu verhindern. Die falsework, was lowered, and the Rückschlüsse auf die tatsächlich
Position der Spannkabel als auch loads were transferred to the ring vorhandenen Kräfte und Momen-
der Verankerungsnischen musste beam and the roof foundations, te gezogen und mit den Berech-
millimetergenau bestimmt und respectively. The deflections of nungsmodellen verglichen.
eingemessen werden. Da die Vor- the structure are monitored with
spannkabel über mehrere Beto- fibre-glass sensors such that con-
nierabschnitte verlaufen, wurden clusions can be drawn as to the Autor/Author
jeweils zuerst die leeren Hüll- actual forces or moments and Fabian Persch
rohre verlegt und anschliessend comparisons with the results of dipl. Bauing. FH
Stahlton AG
die Drahtbündel mit einer Winde the calculation models can be CH-8340 Hinwil
eingezogen. made. fabian.persch@stahlton.ch
Die Bewehrung und Vorspannung
wurde in eine «Holzrinne» einge-
baut, anschliessend mit einer Kon-
terschalung zu einer «Holzröhre»
geschlossen und mit selbstver-
dichtendem Beton (SCC) ausge-
füllt. Als Bodenschalung diente
dabei die unterste Lage des
Mehrschichtholzdachs, und auch
die Konterschalung an der Ober-
seite und die Randabschalungen
verblieben anschliessend im Bau-
werk. Das Betonieren des Rings
erfolgte in 15 Etappen mit bis zu
50 Tonnen Frischbetongewicht.
Aufgrund der Rezeptur erreichte
der verwendete Beton vom Typ
Holcim Selfpact 3716CL trotz der
tiefen Aussentemperaturen be-
reits nach drei Tagen die zum
Vorspannen benötigte Festigkeit.

97