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org/papers

Building

Construction

Sukhee Cho, Senior Researcher, Hyundai Industrial Development &

Construction

Keywords: Core

Structure

2. Journal paper

3. Conference proceeding

4. Unpublished conference paper

5. Magazine article

6. Unpublished

© Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat / Han-Soo Kim; Sukhee Cho

Column Shortening of Concrete Cores and

Composite Columns in a Tall Building

1

Principal Research Engineer, Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development

2

Senior Research Engineer, Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development

Abstract

The effect of column shortening is a major consideration in the design and construction of tall buildings,

especially in concrete and composite structural systems. The method presented in the PCA report by Fintel

and Ghosh is the most widely used for the analysis of column shortening, but results can be very different

depending on the time function of shrinkage suggested by ACI, CEB-FIP and PCA. Therefore it is necessary

to compare the calculated column shortening with the field measurement for the more adequate shortening

compensation.

This paper describes the predicted and measured column shortening of a reinforced concrete core wall and

two steel embedded concrete columns in a 256m tall building. The properties of in-situ concrete are

determined by laboratory tests, and strains had been measured for 21 months. The measured strains are

compared with strains calculated depending on three time functions of shrinkage. The strain difference

between steel and concrete in a composite column is also investigated.

Column shortening is a major consideration in the proportions of steel shape.

design and construction of tall buildings, especially in This paper presents the predicted and measured

concrete and composite structural systems. The shortenings of a reinforced concrete core wall and two

method presented in the PCA report by Fintel et al. steel embedded composite columns in a 69-story tall

(1987) is the most widely used for the analysis of building. The properties of the in-situ concrete are

concrete column shortening, but the amount of column determined by laboratory tests, and strains had been

shortening can be very different depending on the time measured for 21 months. The measured strains are

function of shrinkage suggested by ACI, CEB-FIP, and compared with strains calculated by three different

PCA. Song et al. (1997) adopted the time function of time functions of shrinkage, as suggested by ACI,

shrinkage suggested by ACI, while Kim et al. (1999) CEB-FIP, and PCA. The strain difference between

compared measured concrete column shortening of the steel and concrete in a composite column is also

KLCC tower in Malaysia with the prediction adopting investigated.

the time function of shrinkage of CEB-FIP 78.

Because of their efficiency and lower material and 2. Description of the building and measurement

labor costs, composite columns are being increasingly The building consists of a tower and podium with a

used to construct tall buildings. The shortening total height of 256 m. It has 69 levels above ground

behavior of concrete filled steel columns has been (including 9 podium levels) and 6 underground levels.

studied in other researches (Terry et al., 1994)(UY and The vertical members of the building consist of two

DAS, 1997), while the steel embedded concrete reinforced concrete cores and seventeen perimetric

column has merely been likened to a reinforced composite columns. Steel girders are used for

concrete column that has a steel ratio of rebar plus connecting columns to cores and were designed as

steel shape. This seems reasonable when the steel ratio both-ends pin connections. The floor system comprises

of a column is relatively low, but the behavior has not deck plates with 12 cm concrete topping. The building

is shown in Fig. 1.

Contact Author: Han-Soo Kim, Principal Research Engineer, Three vertical members are investigated for column

Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development, shortening: a core wall W1, and two composite

#102-4, Mabuk-Ri, Goosung-Eup, Yongin-Si, Kyunggi-Do columns C65 and C70. Dimensions of members are

449-912, Korea shown in Table 1. As the steel column in the composite

Tel: +82-31-280-7306 Fax: +82-31-280-7080 column is not only for erection but also for structure,

e-mail: hskim@hdec.co.kr

Table 2. Steel Percentages in composite columns (%)

C65 C70

Level

Shape Rebar Shape Rebar

52-69 1.9 1.2 1.9 1.2

34-51 8.3 1.3 12.3 1.2

10-33 13.1 1.2 20.9 1.2

B6-9 14.5 1.2 7.4 1.2

*All values are the averages in their levels

measured by vibrating wire gauges. To gain axial

strains, two gauges were mounted on either side of the

web center of a steel column and two gauges were

embedded in a core wall. The reason for installing

gauges to steel shape in the composite column is that

the steel girder connected to the steel column

determines the floor level. Fig. 2 shows the installed

gauges at the core wall and the composite column.

C61 C62

Strain gauges were installed at every tenth level (i.e.

WG-1

level 4, 16, 25, 36, 45, and 56) and the results of level

Wall 1

4 are presented in this paper.

C63 The measurements were initiated just after pouring

C64

WG-2

concrete. Measured data were all compensated

considering temperature effects. Strain measurements

Wall 2

C65

were obtained once every day during the first month

and once per week afterwards for a total of 21 months,

C66 from March 2001 to November 2002, when the

construction of the structure was completed and

interior works were under way.

C70

C71

C69

much higher than in a general reinforced concrete (a) Core wall (b) Composite column

column or steel embedded composite column. Table 2

shows that sectional ratios of the steel column to the Fig. 2. Installed Strain Gauges

entire section vary from 1.9 to 20.9%, and those of

reinforcing bars comprise 1.2 to 1.3%. Design

strengths of concrete for vertical elements are 49MPa 3. Calculation of column shortening

A computer program was developed to calculate

(level B6 to 34), 39.2MPa (level 35 to 52), and

column shortening. The program is based on the

34.3MPa (level 53 to 69).

analysis procedure of the PCA report and enables users

to select a function of shrinkage with time suggested

Table 1. Dimensions of wall and columns (cm)

by ACI, CEB-FIP, and PCA, which show considerable

W1 C65 C70

Level difference.

Thickness BxD BxD Material properties for analysis were determined by

52-69 50 material tests of in-situ concrete. Specimens were

34-51 80x80 taken from the concrete strength of 49 MPa (Type I)

70 90x70

10-33 and 39.2 MPa (Type II), but samples of 34.3 MPa

1-9 140x140 could not be obtained so assumed values are used for

B3-B1 100 100x100

150x150

that strength.

B6-B4 110x110

3-1 Elastic strains where t is time in days after concrete pouring, t s is

Elastic strains of concrete with time are determined time in days of initial wet curing,

from compressive strength, f 'c (t ) , and elastic h = 2 Ac / u represents the nominal size of the member

modulus, Ec (t ) , in Eq. (1) and (2), respectively. (cm), Ac is the cross-sectional area (cm2), u is the

perimeter of the cross section exposed to the

t

f 'c (t ) = ⋅ f 28 (MPa) (1) atmosphere (cm), and v / s is the volume to surface

4 . 0 + 0 . 85 t

ratio (in).

Shrinkage tests were carried out in accordance with

E c (t ) = 0.043w1.5 f 'c (t ) (MPa) (2) the requirements of KS F 2424 (2000). Regression

analysis, as shown in Table 3, indicates that the

where t is the age of concrete (in days), f 28 is the predicted ultimate shrinkages of ACI and CEB-FIP are

compressive strength of concrete at the age of 28 days similar and that those of PCA are a little higher for

(MPa), and w is the unit weight of concrete. For both Type I and II. The ultimate shrinkage strains for

high-strength concrete above 41 MPa, ACI-363R the calculation are finally decided as 850x10-6 (Type I)

(1992) suggests the elastic modulus in Eq. (3). and 570x10-6 (Type II), considering material tests and

field conditions.

Ec (t ) = 3,320 f 'c (t ) + 6900 (MPa)

for 21MPa < f 'c (t ) < 83MPa (3) Table 3. The ultimate shrinkage strains by regression analysis

ACI CEB-FIP PCA Applied

The test results show that the obtained compressive Eq. (5) Eq. (6) Eq. (7) Value

strengths are in good accordance with predictions of Type I 819x10-6 817x10-6 838x10-6 850x10-6

Eq. (1). The compressive strengths at the age of 28 Type II 545x10 -6

545x10 -6

553x10 -6

570x10-6

days are 53.4 MPa (Type I) and 62.0 MPa (Type II).

For the elastic modulus, Type I is more accordant with

Eq. (3), while Type II is more accordant with Eq. (2).

3-3 Creep Strains

In this paper, Eq. (1) and (2) are used for calculating Creep strains suggested by the PCA report can be

elastic strains. determined by multiplying acting stress σ and

specific creep (ε cr )u with coefficients of age of

3-2 Shrinkage strains concrete at loading CRt ' , member size CRv / s ,

The PCA report suggested shrinkage strains with relative humidity CRH , creep with time CRt , and

time in the form of Eq. (4). In the equation, shrinkage residual creep of reinforced concrete CRrf , as shown

strains are taken from multiplying the ultimate in Eq. (8). Specific creep refers to occurred creep

shrinkage strain (ε sh ) u with coefficients of the strains per unit stress, which is taken from fitting data

volume to surface of a member SH v / s , relative of material tests with time functions of creep. The time

humidity SH H , shrinkage with time SH t , and functions of creep are in Eq. (9) and (10), and the PCA

residual shrinkage of reinforced concrete SH rf : report uses the equation of the ACI code, Eq. (9).

ε sh ,t = (ε sh )u × SH v / s × SH H × SH t × SH rf (4) ε cr ,t = σ × (ε cr )u × CRt ' × CRv / s × CRH × CRt × CRrf (8)

The ultimate shrinkage strain can be determined by

regression fitting the data obtained from material tests (t − t ' ) 0.6

CRt , ACI = (9)

with the time function of shrinkage. The time function 10 + (t − t ' ) 0.6

of shrinkage differs according to codes, as shown in 0.3

Eq. (5) to (7). ACI (1997) and CEB-FIP (1990) suggest (t − t ' )

CRt ,CEB = (10)

a function like Eq. (5) and (6), while the PCA report β H + (t − t ' )

prefers Eq. (7), which is based on the published work

of Hansen and Mattock. In these equations, it is where t ' is time in days to first loading after

notable that CEB-FIP and PCA consider the influence concrete pouring.

of member size when shrinkage occurs with time.

t − ts 18

SH t , ACI = (5) RH h

35 + (t − t s ) β H = 1501 + 1.2 + 250 ≤ 1500 (11)

100 10

(t − t s )

SH t ,CEB = (6)

3.5 × h 2 + (t − t s ) where RH is relative humidity (%)

SH t ,PCA = 0.36×v / s (7)

26.0e + (t − t s ) carried out in accordance with the requirements of KS

F 2453 (2003). The results are shown in Table 4. In

this paper, Eq. (9) is taken as the time function of data and the temperature of concrete stabilized after 7

creep and values of 83.5x10-6 /MPa (Type I) and to 10 days.

53.1x10-6 /MPa (Type II) are eventually applied as The calculated strains show considerable difference

specific creeps, considering both material tests and according to the time functions of shrinkage. The rate

field conditions. Table 5 presents a summary of of stains of ACI is much more rapid than that of either

material properties that were applied to calculate CEB-FIP or PCA, which have similar patterns. The

column shortening. calculated strain of ACI at 100 days is 36% of the

strain at 1,000 days, whereas the strains of CEB-FIP

Table 4. The specific creep by regression analysis (1/MPa) and PCA are only 14% and 8.6%, respectively. In

ACI CEB-FIP Applied addition, the strain of ACI at 1,000 days is predicted to

Eq. (9) Eq. (10) Value be 601x10-6, which is 30% and 55% greater than that

Type I 82.5x10-6 79.2x10-6 83.5x10-6 of CEB-FIP and PCA, respectively. This difference

Type II 51.1x10-6 48.6x10-6 53.1x10-6 comes from consideration of the effect of member size.

The volume to surface ratio of W1 is 37.3 cm.

Comp. Specific measured

Ultimate -700

Analysis(ACI)

Level Strength at 28 Creep Type

Shrinkage -600 Analysis(CEB)

days (MPa) (1/MPa) Analysis(PCA)

-500

)

53-69 34.3* 116.6x10-6* 650x10-6* -

-6

-6 -6 -400

35-52 62.0 53.1x10 570x10 II

Strain(x10 -300

B6-34 49.0 83.5x10-6 850x10-6 I

-200

*Material properties of levels 53-69 were determined within

-100

ranges that the PCA report suggested.

0

100

Day

100 1000

erected 3 to 5 levels below the top of core walls. The Fig. 3. Measured and calculated strains of W1 at level 4

concrete pouring of composite columns and slabs are

also followed for about 10 to 12 levels below the top

of core walls. The construction cycle of typical floors Table 6. Axial strains with time of core walls at level 4

is about 4 to 5 days. Strain (x10-6)

Loads are categorized into 6 types according to their 10 100 620* 1,000 10,000

construction sequence. The period for building core days days days days days

walls is 641 days and for building whole structures is Measurement 40.8 73.6 453.5 - -

740 days. Live load by occupants is expected to go

Analysis

into effect after 971 days. Live load for the calculation 35.3 219.0 564.7 600.9 632.4

(ACI)

of column shortening is reduced to 10% of design live W1 Analysis

load, considering that the real live load is much less 12.3 65.4 407.0 462.4 680.1

(CEB-FIP)

than the design live load.

Analysis

4.5 33.3 340.9 386.2 541.6

(PCA)

4. Calculated and measured strains

4-1 Core wall * When the measurements stopped.

Calculated and measured strains of W1 are

presented in Fig. 3 and Table 6. In the graph, the

legends of calculated strains indicate the time function The measured strains of W1 had a pattern similar to

of shrinkage used to calculate shrinkage. The strains CEB-FIP and PCA. The measurement of W1 had good

are plotted with log-scale to 1,000 days, considering accord with the two predictions and had a final strain

all loads up to when residents are expected to move of 453.5x10-6 at 620 days.

into the building. The measured strains tended to

fluctuate in early days; they sharply increased or 4-2 Composite columns

decreased without any critical change in field Under the calculation procedure presented in this

conditions. This fluctuation was probably caused by paper, a steel column embedded in concrete is

temperature changes due to the hydration of concrete. regarded like a rebar in a concrete column and the

The temperature of the concrete rose up to 65℃ at 2 effect of steel on shrinkage and creep are considered

days against an outside temperature of 1℃. Measured using the factors of residual shrinkage and residual

creep. This seems reasonable if the ratio of steel to 92x10-6. After 130 days, the gap is maintained to the

gross section is low when the steel column is used for end of measurement. The final strain of the concrete at

erecting the frame. However, when steel embedded 464 days is 483.8x10-6 while the steel is 380.5x10-6.

composite columns used for tall buildings have a much This result seems to indicate that there is a little initial

higher steel ratio for structural purposes, it is not slip between steel and concrete until they are fully

certain that the presented procedure can be also unified at 130 days. The strains gained at the concrete

applied to. This section, therefore, focuses on the show better accordance with strains calculated from

strains occurred in steel and concrete in the composite CEB-FIP and PCA, but the strains gained at the steel

column. The investigated columns and percentages of increased less than all calculations. The column C65

steel shape and rebar are shown in Fig. 1 and Table 2. presents similar results. In Fig. 5, the measured strains,

The volume to surface ratio is 19.6 cm for C65 and which were the strains of the steel shape, have lower

32.5 cm for C70. values than calculated strains.

-800

measured(Conc)

Strain (x10-6)

-700

measured(Steel) 10 100 464* 1,000 10,000

-600 Analysis(ACI) days days days days days

-500 Analysis(CEB) Measurement 60.5 101.5 386.0 - -

-6

)

Analysis(PCA)

-400 Analysis

24.6 220.2 546.6 619.1 642.6

Strain(x10

-300 (ACI)

-200 C65 Analysis

17.9 153.2 472.8 565.1 679.5

-100 (CEB-FIP)

0 Analysis

15.0 150.6 485.8 579.1 636.8

100

(PCA)

Measurement 32.0 72.5 380.5 - -

200

1 10 100 1000 Analysis

Day 31.7 213.8 618.6 736.0 769.2

(ACI)

Fig. 4. Measured and calculated strains of C70 at level 4 C70 Analysis

20.7 120.6 512.3 648.6 806.8

(CEB-FIP)

Analysis

16.7 101.5 479.8 611.8 731.8

(PCA)

-800

measured * When the measurements stopped.

-700

Analysis(ACI)

-600 Analysis(CEB)

)

-6

Analysis(PCA)

-500

more appropriate to calculate column shortening with

Strain(x10

-400

the time function of shrinkage of CEB-FIP or PCA

-300

than with that of ACI. It also implies that the procedure

-200 used in this paper might overestimate shortening of the

-100 composite column because the calculation does not

0 completely consider the complicated behavior between

1 10

Day 100 1000 concrete and steel such as initial slip and stress

redistribution. The shortening compensation of

Fig. 5. Measured and calculated strains of C65 at level 4 composite columns should be determined in the earlier

stages of construction, before steel columns are

manufactured. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a

The strains of steel and concrete due to shortening more accurate method of calculating column

are measured at C70 and are shown in Fig. 4 and Table shortening that considers the characteristics of steel

7. In the graph, ‘measured (Conc)’ means the average embedded composite columns.

strain gained at the four corners of the concrete, and

‘measured (Steel)’ means the average strain gained at 5. Conclusions

both web centers of steel columns. Measurements This paper presents the measured and calculated

began just after pouring concrete to the column. column shortenings of a 69-story building. The

Measured strains of the steel and the concrete also conclusions of the investigation are summarized as

fluctuated for 10 days, similar to core walls. The rate

follows:

of strains of the concrete is more rapid than that of the

steel up to 130 days, making the maximum difference 1) The material properties of the in-situ concrete are

verified by laboratory tests. A computer program 5) As the field compensation should be determined in

that adopted the three time functions of shrinkage the early stages of construction, it is important to

based on ACI, CEB-FIP, and PCA is developed for properly predict shortening from the initial

the calculation of column shortening. measurement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop

a more accurate calculation method of column

2) From the investigation of the core wall W1, the

shortening considering the characteristics of steel

calculated strains show some notable difference embedded composite columns.

according to the time functions of shrinkage. The

strain curve adopted in ACI shows the most rapid References

rate and the largest amount of strain. The 1) ACI Committee 209 (1997) Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage and

measured strains are more compatible with the Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures. American Concrete

Institute.

calculated strains by CEB-FIP and PCA. The core 2) ACI Committee 363 (1992) State-of-the-Art Report on High

wall has a large volume to surface ratio 37.3 cm, Strength Concrete, American Concrete Institute.

but the ACI time function of shrinkage does not 3) B. UY and S. DAS. (1997) Time effects in concrete-filled steel box

columns in tall buildings. The structural design of tall buildings. Vol.

consider change of the volume to surface ratio 6, 1-22.

effectively. 4) Comite Euro-International Du Beton (1993) CEB-FIP Model Code

3) The strains of concrete and steel are both 1990, Thomas Telford Services Ltd.

5) H. C. Song et al. (1997) Influence of column shortening in tall

measured at the composite column C70. The strain

concrete buildings. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea.

rate of the concrete is more rapid than that of the 13 (12), 289-297.

steel, but the gap is maintained after 130 days. 6) Korean Standard Association (2000) Testing Method for Length

This implies that the concrete and steel are not Change of Mortar and Concrete. KS F 2424.

7) Korean Standard Association (2003) Testing Method for Creep of

fully unified during the initial period. Concrete in Compression. KS F 2453.

4) As steel beams and girders are connected with 8) Mark Fintel, S.K. Ghosh and Hal Iyengar (1987) Column

steel shape in the composite columns, strains shortening in tall structure-prediction and compensation.

Engineering Bulletin No. EB108D. PCA.

obtained from the steel columns are considered as 9) P.J. Terry, M.A. Brandford and R.I. Gilbert (1994) Creep and

the shortening amount of the composite column. shrinkage in concrete-filled steel tubes. Tubular structures VI. Proc.

The measured steel strains from C65 and C70 also 6th International symposium on tubular structures, 293-298.

have patterns similar to the calculated strains by 10) W. S. Kim et al. (1999) Measured and Predicted column shortening

of a tall reinforced concrete building. Journal of the Korea Concrete

CEB-FIP and PCA, but their amounts are smaller Institute, 11 (3), 161-169.

than were calculated.

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