Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

59 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Flow Considerations in Industrial Silencer Design
- A New Improved Formula for Calculating Trashrack Losses
- Nozzle design using fluent
- nozzle design
- Nozzle design paper.pdf
- 2012 Fluid Mechanics QP - Amrita University
- spe113215.pdf
- Im316
- 30120140502004-2
- Combined Thermo-hydraulic Analysis of a Cryogenic Jet
- Velocity Coefficients for Free Jets From Sharp-Edged Orifices
- A Model for Gas-liquid Slug Flow in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Tubes
- FLUID : STATIC DYNAMIC
- Mulit Phase 2
- Sonic Nozzle Design
- Supersonic Nozzle Design
- 1_flow_mech
- SV Pump Controls
- V2I1_IJERTV2IS1504
- 7396_1

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Date: May 03, 2009

Author: Vivek Ahuja

Affiliation: Department of Aerospace Engineering, Auburn University, USA

A hydro-nozzle has been placed inside a ducted channel for the purposes of water injection at low

static pressures compared to the atmospheric air available inside the duct with the aim of creating

a suction effect and drawing air in from one end of the duct. This air is then allowed to mix with

the injected air and the net mass flow is allowed to pass through the other end of the duct.

The nozzle has a geometry that has been fixed and is assumed as not being available to change.

The diameters of the duct and the air intake are assumed to be two open variables available for

change to the design engineer. The length of the duct is also available for change. The fluid

(water) properties at the exit of the nozzle are also fixed and known to the designer. The design

goal is to be able to maximize the incoming air from the intake. The goal of this report is to create

a theoretical model for providing the designer with the required information needed to make the

preliminary design choices for meeting the above mentioned goal.

It can be easily seen from the provided numbers that the velocity of the water injection is

sufficiently low so as to preclude the need for including compressibility effects. This allows us to

pressure of the water ( ). The density of water is assumed to be 1000Kg⁄m . The

treat water as if it is incompressible. The pressure value provided at the nozzle orifice is the static

continuity equation (conservation of mass) equation for the water flow coming out of the nozzle

orifice is given as:

= .

(1)

Here ‘ ’ is the velocity component of the water jet which is in the axial direction.

Also, note that:

=

(2)

Equations (1) and (2) allow us to establish the velocity of the water jet exiting the hydro-nozzle

orifice as:

=

(3)

Note that this velocity component of the water flow is in the direction perpendicular to the cross

sectional area of the nozzle. There is also a component of the total water velocity in the tangential

direction created by the nozzle design to allow for better dispersal patterns of the water and

atomization of the resulting distribution with the surrounding air. This process thins out the water

jet in terms of density and the water essentially acts like a thin umbrella shaped sheet of low

pressure in the region downstream of the water jet. For now the umbrella is assumed to be a cone

for simplicity’s sake but a more accurate model for numerical integration will be presented later.

In order to calculate the pressure distribution patterns inside the water ‘umbrella’, we must know

the total velocity of the flow and therefore must know this tangential component of the velocity.

Fortunately, this tangential component of the flow ( ) can be easily evaluated if the angle of

the water dispersal ( ) is known. The resulting velocity vector diagram is shown in

Figure-3. As seen from Figure-3:

(4)

Hence the net velocity of the water is given as:

= # $ + $

(5)

The total velocity of the water jet is now known from equation (5). In addition, we know the

pressure of the water at the exit of the nozzle orifice which is in effect the static pressure of the

flow. The total pressure of the flow is the sum of the static and the dynamic pressures of the flow

1 $

and for the present case is defined as:

, = +

2

(6)

Equation (6) is in effect the application of the Bernoulli’s theorem for the incompressible water

flow. This total pressure for the water remains constant as the water flows downstream of the

nozzle even though the static pressure and dynamic pressure values change.

At this point we are interested in knowing the static pressure at the water cross section (the water

cross section is different from the total cross section of the duct) which is at a distance ‘x’

downstream of the nozzle orifice. However, it should be noted that the gravity and centrifugal

effects on the water cannot be neglected.

The acceleration due to gravity acts on the velocity component of the water which is in the

direction parallel to the vertical duct. The tangential component of the velocity is not affected by

this gravitational force. Nevertheless, the tangential component of the velocity is affected by the

centrifugal acceleration caused by the spiraling rotation of the flow caused inside the nozzle. This

acceleration changes the tangential velocity component with time.

The combined effects of the centrifugal and gravitational forces on the water cause the water jet

to take the shape of an umbrella inside the duct. At this point we are theoretically overlapping two

different physical approaches to the problem. On the one hand is the continuum treatment of the

flow that assumes that the water jet is basically a continuous medium. In this model the continuity

equation and the Bernoulli equations (for incompressible flow only) as described above are

active. However, once we start including gravitational and centrifugal forces, we are moving into

particle kinetics where each particle of the flow feels the effect of the acting forces and behaves

according to Newtonian Physics but where the continuum treatment is no longer valid.

This poses a severe problem in our analysis. Although it is theoretically possible to determine

pressure distributions based on Kinetic Theory, we would then have to include surface tension

effects etc, all of which is not in the least simple to achieve. On the other hand, although the

continuum equations are very simple to use in our analysis, they are hardly realistic in the

physical modeling of the flow. We therefore reach a compromise as follows:

Consider a station ‘x’ downstream of the orifice where we can determine the water cross section

one of two ways: one using the kinetic modeling of the outer region of the water flow and the

other using the continuum theory as shown in Figure-. Notice that the two water cross sections

are different in sizes. If the water jet is treated as a continuum, the inner water cross section

corresponding to the area obtained by ignoring the centrifugal and gravitational forces on the

water jet is entirely occupied by water. As such, the static pressure in this region is uniform and

equal to that obtained from the terms of equation (6).

However, note that the annular area between the physical presence of the outer region of water

and the continuum area is the area that is occupied by air that was already downstream of the

duct. This air is at atmospheric pressure. In other words, the actual physical area occupied by the

flow inside the duct includes both air and water, each of whom is at different pressure. As a

result, the net pressure differential between the air intake and the region inside the water umbrella

will be lower than that obtained from pure continuum theory. Still, the difference in results is

negligible for all practical purposes.

of the hydro-nozzle. At this distance ‘x’, let the water cross section be ) . Now, consider the

To conduct this derivation, consider the cross section of the duct at a distance ‘x’ from the orifice

particle theory calculations. Initially, let’s assume that the centrifugal effects are negligible and so

the tangential component of the velocity remains constant. So the only force acting on the system

is the gravitational acceleration and this acts on the axial component of the velocity. The

* = ) ∗ ,

equations of motion thus are:

(7)

The limiting value of y in equation (7) is equal to the radius of the circular area obtained as:

4

* = -) ∗ . 1

0

(8)

Equations (7) and (8) can be solved for the time value: ‘t’. This is the time required for the

physical area of the umbrella cross section to grow to the required size. However, in the same

time, the axial velocity has been under the effect of the gravitational acceleration. Therefore, the

1

downstream distance at which this area is formed by the physical flow is given as:

2 = ∗ , + 3, $

2

(9)

We can now evaluate the effective total velocity of the water jet at the said location by the

following equations:

) = + 3, , ) = , ) = # ) $ + $ $

(10)

Applying the equation for total pressure (assuming no flow losses at this time so that the total

pressure remains the same as calculated in equation (6)) we get the following expression for the

1 $

static pressure of the water jet at the location ‘x’ downstream of the orifice:

) = , −

2 )

(11)

The difference between the atmospheric pressure outside the duct air intake and the value of the

jet static pressure as calculated from equation (11) is the effective pressure differential acting on

the air for that location.

Note that the above derivation is only applicable for the location ‘x’. other locations between the

orifice and the ‘x’ location will have different values of the pressure because of differing

velocities. As such, the situation may require a numerical integration procedure to improve

accuracy. However, for first order results, the current calculation should prove sufficient by

assuming that the pressure differential is uniform.

Now the area over which this differential acts can be calculated by assuming that the umbrella

acts like a cone (although simple numerical integrations can be performed on the water particle

trajectory to evaluate the umbrella surface area more accurately) so that:

678 = 09) #9) $ + 2 $

(12)

Where,

4

9) = -) ∗ . 1

0

(13)

In order to be able to calculate the mass flow rate of air going through the water umbrella, we

need to turn to the use of compressible flow equations since air cannot be treated as

incompressible as we had treated water thus far. The total pressure of the air is taken as 1

atmosphere and the static pressure is taken as being equal to the water static pressure obtained

from equation (11). The classic isentropic pressure equation for compressible flow is:

= (1 + = <(>?@<

2

Where ‘M’ is the Mach number of the fluid and ‘;’ is the specific heat ratio (γ = 1.4 for air). We

(14)

can now solve equation (14) for the Mach number of air at the umbrella surface:

7 (>?@< 2

= = -[(( < > − 1< ∗ . 1]

) (; − 1<

(15)

Knowing the Mach number, the density and the umbrella surface area, the effective air mass flow

rate is obtained as:

H

= H 678 =I;9J

(16)

Here ‘ ’ is the density of air at standard conditions (~1.223 Kg/m3). ‘J ’ is the standard

temperature of air (~300K) and ‘R’ is the gas constant for air (287 J/Kg-K). Equation (16) can

now be used in any heat transfer equations to analyze the heat transfer rate of the ducted hydro-

nozzle cooling system.

Some results that are readily apparent from the analysis include the following:

a) The length of the duct is directly dependent on the required water cross section area

downstream of the orifice which in turn is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of

air. Hence, higher the required mass flow rate, the longer and wider is the duct.

b) The best design may be possible in case where the required water cross section area is

equal to the duct internal diameter at the distance ‘x’ as calculated above.

c) Having very high dispersal angles (i.e. almost sideways dispersion of water) is

detrimental to the mass flow rate suction since it reduces the area of the umbrella for a

given size of the duct.

- Flow Considerations in Industrial Silencer DesignHochgeladen vonktsnl
- A New Improved Formula for Calculating Trashrack LossesHochgeladen vonNikom Kraitud
- Nozzle design using fluentHochgeladen vonSriram Ganesan
- nozzle designHochgeladen vonramkumar121
- Nozzle design paper.pdfHochgeladen vonjai_selva
- 2012 Fluid Mechanics QP - Amrita UniversityHochgeladen vonAkshay Rajan
- spe113215.pdfHochgeladen vonعبدالغفار بيزان
- Im316Hochgeladen vonManoharan Subramaniam
- 30120140502004-2Hochgeladen vonIAEME Publication
- Combined Thermo-hydraulic Analysis of a Cryogenic JetHochgeladen vonChirag Jain
- Velocity Coefficients for Free Jets From Sharp-Edged OrificesHochgeladen vonMarco Batista Xandó
- A Model for Gas-liquid Slug Flow in Horizontal and Near Horizontal TubesHochgeladen vonEugene Commerell
- FLUID : STATIC DYNAMICHochgeladen vonAn Mohd
- Mulit Phase 2Hochgeladen vonsb ali
- Sonic Nozzle DesignHochgeladen vonsb ali
- Supersonic Nozzle DesignHochgeladen vonRodrigo Varona Garcia
- 1_flow_mechHochgeladen vonVinay Gupta
- SV Pump ControlsHochgeladen vonMarco Hernandez
- V2I1_IJERTV2IS1504Hochgeladen vonharmeeksingh01
- 7396_1Hochgeladen vonjhoward2012np
- EDU Flow Simulation Student 2015 ENG SVHochgeladen vonjorgemariovega4910
- Pipe Flow Expert Software HelpHochgeladen vonbog1dan
- PSV .pdfHochgeladen vonJagan Bose
- 134148627-AGA3-formula.docxHochgeladen vonbahar
- Improving Scale-up Procedures for the Design of Pneumatic ConveyiHochgeladen vonÉmilie Riverin
- Caso Nfay 3 Version 10Hochgeladen vonEdirwinJoseChirinos
- Fluid Mechanics (ECH3113)-Chapter 1 Properties n DefinitionsHochgeladen vonsam19961
- MEASUREMENT-OF-FLOWING-FLUIDS.pptxHochgeladen vonJohn Mark Manalo Rosales
- Problem 5-6Hochgeladen vonRobert Ryan Santiago
- medidores de flujoHochgeladen vonJosé gonzález

- Apf17 Corn Grain CookingHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- wereheatingup_foodindustryHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- wereheatingup_powerindustryHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- wereheatingup_paperindustryHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- Variable FlowHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- energy effective usageHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- 0901b803800303db.pdfHochgeladen vondonya
- CIPHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- keep-your-cool-about-steam-systems-v2-UTL.pdfHochgeladen vonSV SANKARAMOORTHY
- Apf9 Hose StationHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- Audco AIL Ball ValvesHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- 5 COMBIFLAMEHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- 3 Multi FlameHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- 2 Catalog Solid FlameHochgeladen vonnitantharani
- Best Practices Manual-DRYERSHochgeladen vonDidem Paydaş
- Nozzle Design ReportHochgeladen vonnitantharani

- 1.Machine Tool Design Assignment 2017Hochgeladen vonCharles Ondieki
- A Topos Theory Foundation for Quantum MechanicsHochgeladen vonjuannaviap
- guide11.pdfHochgeladen vonjitendermcse9816
- Aerody Design of BladeHochgeladen vonB Bala Venkata Ganesh
- Pwm 2 Level and 3 LevelHochgeladen vonnewrajasingh
- Deflection of BeamsHochgeladen vonMohammedAlasaad
- PDC Lab ReportHochgeladen vonarslan_uetan
- THE EVOLUTION OF SPIRITSHochgeladen vonMeghjit Mazumder
- Simplified Thermal Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Fuel Storage Tanks Exposed to FireHochgeladen vonMiguel Renato Manco Rivera
- Lecture 2 Analysis of Degrees of FreedomHochgeladen vonAhmed Ali
- Ch3 Work and EnergyHochgeladen vonahmadskhan
- 1960Artigo_Gvozdev_The Determination of the Value of the Collapse Load for Statically Indeterminate Systems Undergoing Plastic DeformationHochgeladen vonMarcela Bruna
- chap1psHochgeladen vonsteve lee
- Nature 09346Hochgeladen vonLina Banfi
- Hydrogen EmbrittlementHochgeladen vonjcscobucci
- [Mordini] 3D Numerical Modeling RC BehaviorHochgeladen vonRitesh Kumar
- Davangere University Physics Syllabus (CBCS) 2016-17Hochgeladen vonRavi Kanth M N
- Decoupling of a giant planet from its disk in an inclined binary systemHochgeladen vonLa
- Von Mises Yield CriterionHochgeladen vonRisanto
- Mesoscale Modeling and Computational Simulation Studies of the Self-Assembly of Heterogeneous Colloidal SystemsHochgeladen vonvioabam1505
- EN 1776Hochgeladen vonΜπούρλης Δημήτρης
- Apparent Depth With Critical AngleHochgeladen vonMokhobo Ramakhula
- R Balamurugan FDP Electrical Drives and ControlHochgeladen vonskarthi4
- p2813.pdfHochgeladen vonvicky9993
- Assn 4 ReportHochgeladen vonBhanoday Reddy
- uas pkdstlHochgeladen vonDiLa Resti Wahyuni
- MW Lab Manual FinalHochgeladen vonRavikumaar Rayala
- 249015651-MCQ-for-Electrical-Eng.docxHochgeladen vonDeepakDeep
- 3743.pdfHochgeladen vonMohd. Shawkat Hussain
- Research Paper PhysicsHochgeladen vonBrock Buozis

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.