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Medical Synonym Lists

from Medieval Provence:


Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa,
Sefer ha-Shimmush, Book 29
Études sur
le Judaïsme Médiéval
Fondées par
Georges Vajda

Dirigées par
Paul B. Fenton

TOME XXXVII
Medical Synonym Lists
from Medieval Provence:
Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa,
Sefer ha-Shimmush, Book 29
Part 1: Edition and Commentary of List 1
(Hebrew – Arabic – Romance/Latin)

By
Gerrit Bos
Martina Hussein
Guido Mensching
Frank Savelsberg

LEIDEN • BOSTON
2011
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Shem Tov ben Isaac, of Tortosa, 13th cent.


Medical synonym lists from medieval Provence : Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa, Sefer
ha-Shimmush, Book 29.
p. cm. – (Études sur le judaïsme médiéval ; t. 37)
Contains lists of terms in Hebrew, Aramaic and Provençal, with their equivalents in Arabic,
Latin and Provençal transliterated into Hebrew; commentary in English.
These supplementary lists were appended by Shem Tov ben Isaac of Tortosa to his Sefer
ha-Shimush, a translation into Hebrew of Tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an al-ta'lif by Abu al-Qasim
Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zahrawi.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-90-04-16764-3 (hard cover : alk. paper)
1. Medicine, Medieval–Terminology. 2. Plants in the Bible–Terminology. 3. Plants in
rabbinical literature–Terminology. 4. Hebrew language, Medieval–Glossaries, vocabularies, etc.
5. Aramaic language–Glossaries, vocabularies, etc. 6. Provençal language–Glossaries,
vocabularies, etc. 7. Arabic language–Transliteration into Hebrew. 8. Latin language, Medieval
and modern–Transliteration into Hebrew. 9. Provençal language–Transliteration into Hebrew.
10. Shem Tov ben Isaac, of Tortosa. Sefer ha-Shimmush. Book 29. I. Bos, Gerrit, 1948- II. Abu
al-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zahrawi, d. 1013? Tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an al-ta'lif. III. Title. IV.
Series.

R128.S54 2010
610.1'4–dc22
2009032747

ISSN: 0169-815X
ISBN: 978 90 04 16764 3

Copyright 2011 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing,
IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in
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CONTENTS

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
General Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Source Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Hebrew Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
. General Overview and Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
.. Aims and Organisation of this Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
.. Transcription System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
. Medieval Synonym Lists in Hebrew Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
. Shem Tov’s Synonym Lists in the Sefer ha-Shimmush . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
.. Biographical and Historical Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
.. Background and Motivation of the Sefer ha-Shimmush and
the Two Synonym Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
. How Shem Tov’s Synonym Lists Were Compiled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
.. Sources for Hebrew and Arabic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
.. Sources for Romance and Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
.. Creation of New Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. The Vernacular Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
.. Jewish-Romance Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
.. The Old Occitan Language and How It Is Reflected in the
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
.. Dialectal Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
.. Catalan, French and Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
.. Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
. The Edition and the Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
.. Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
.. Notes on the Manuscript Filiation and Choice of Base
Manuscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
.. Norms Used in the Edition and Organisation of the
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
vi contents

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Texts and Dictionaries . . . . . . . . 67
Other Texts Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

edition of sefer ha-shimmush,


book , synonym list 
Alef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Bet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Gimel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Dalet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Waw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Zayin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Het
. ..................................................................... 209
Tet
. ...................................................................... 239
Yod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Kaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Lamed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Mem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Nun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Samekh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Ayin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Pe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Sade
. .................................................................... 429
Qof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Resh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Shin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Tav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529

Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
ABBREVIATIONS

General Abbreviations

abbr. abbreviation Lat. Latin


ad loc. ad locum lit. literally
add. addidit loc. cit. loco citato
adj. adjective masc. masculine
Akk. Akkadian M. Fr. Middle French
a.o. amongst others M.l. Mishnaic language
Arab. Arabic M. Lat. Middle Latin
Aram. Aramaic Med. Lat. Medieval Latin
art. article mod. modern
bibl. biblical Mod. Fr. Modern French
bk. book Mod. Occ. Modern Occitan
c. century MS manuscript
Cat. Catalan MSS manuscripts
cf. confer n. note
ch. chapter n.d. no date
col. column Nif. Nif ’al
corr. correction no. number
doc. documentation O MS Oxford
ed. editor / edition O. Cat. Old Catalan
eds editors Occ. Occitan
e.g. exempli gratia O. Fr. Old French
em. emendavit O. Sp. Old Spanish
esp. especially o.l. other language
f./ff. and the following om. omisit
fem. feminine O. Occ. Old Occitan
fol. folio P MS Paris
fols folios p./pp. page/pages
Fr. French part. participle passive
Gr. Greek pass. passive
Hebr. Hebrew Pers. Persian
ibid. ibidem plur. plural
i.e. id est R. Rabbi
imp. imperfect rabbin. rabbinic
inf. infinitive repr. reprint
It. Italian rev. revised
l. line Sept. Septuagint
viii abbreviations

sing. singular V MS Vatican


Suppl. Supplement VLat. Vulgar Latin
s.v. sub voce vol. volume
Syr. Syriac vols volumes
trad. tradition Vulg. Vulgate
transl. translation

Source Abbreviations

Biblical Sources Rabbinic Sources


Am Amos b Babylonian Talmud
Chron Chronicles m Mishnah
Dan Daniel y Jerusalem Talmud
Deut Deuteronomy Gen. R. Genesis Rabbah
Ea Ezra Ex. R. Exodus Rabbah
Ec Ecclesiastes Targ. Targum
Es Esther Targ. O. Targum Onkolos
Ex Exodus Tos. Tosefta
Ez Ezekiel
Gen Genesis Tractates of the Mishnah and the
Hb Habakkuk Talmud
Hg Haggai Ab Abot
Hos Hosea Arakh Arakhin
Is Isaiah AZ Abodah Zarah
Jer Jeremiah BB Baba Batra
Jon Jonah Bekh Bekhorot
Jl Joel Ber Berakhot
Job Job Bez. Bezah
.
Js Joshua Bik Bikkurim
Ju Judges BM Baba Mezia
.
Kings Kings BQ Baba Qamma
Lam Lamentations Dem Demai
Lev Leviticus Eduy Eduyyot
Mal Malachi Erub Eruvin
Mi Micah Git Gittin
Na Nahum Hag
. Hagigah
.
Neh Nehemiah Hal
. Hallah
.
Num Numbers Hor Horayot
Ob Obadiah Hul
. Hullin
.
Prov Proverbs Kel Kelim
Ps Psalms Ker Keritot
Rt Ruth Ket Ketubbot
Sam Samuel Kil Kilayim
Song Song of Songs Kin Kinnim
Zech Zechariah Maas Ma#aserot
Zp Zephania MaasrSheni Ma#aser Sheni
abbreviations ix

Mak Makkot Sanh Sanhedrin


Makhsh Makhshirin Shab Shabbat
Me Me#ilah Sheb Shebu#ot
Meg Megillah Shebi Shebi#it
Men Menahot. Sheq Sheqalim
Mid Middot Sot Sotah
Miqw Miqwa"ot Suk Sukkah
MQ Mo#ed Qatan Taan Ta#anit
Naz Nazir Tam Tamid
Ned Nedarim Tem Temurah
Neg Nega#im Ter Terumot
Nid Niddah Tevul Tevul Yom
Ohol Oholot Toh Tohorot
Orl Orlah Uqz Uqzin
.
Par Parah Yad Yadayim
Peah Pe"ah Yeb Yebamot
Pes Pesahim
. Yom Yoma
Qid Qiddushin Zab Zabim
RH Rosh Ha-Shanah Zeb Zebahim
.

Hebrew Abbreviations

éøâäá 䧧á ïåâë ⧧ë


éáøòá ò§§á øîåìë 짧ë
æòìá 짧á ùåøéô §ô
æòìá ò§§ìá ùåøéô §éô
àåä §åä øîåì äöåø 짧ø
INTRODUCTION

. General Overview and Preliminaries

.. Aims and Organisation of this Edition


This is the first volume of a three volume publication dedicated to the
commented critical edition of the two synonym lists that appear in
book twenty-nine of the Sefer ha-Shimmush by Shem Tov ben Isaac de
Tortosa.1 The Sefer ha-Shimmush is itself a translation of the Kitāb at-
tas. rı̄f li-man #ajiza #an at-ta"lı̄f (The Arrangement of Medical Knowledge

1 This publication is the result of two projects funded by the Deutsche Forschungs-

gemeinschaft (DFG) from  to . We would like to express our thanks to the
DFG and, in addition, to Julia Zwink, Jessica Kley, Judit Mock, Jan Thiele and Richard
Praetorius, who helped us with our lexical research and various other aspects of this
edition. Several other articles have been published as part of our research on the syn-
onym lists edited in this and the following volumes and have been partially integrated
into this introduction, in particular (see the bibliography for a list of abbreviations):
HebMedSyn, MTerMed, TermMedOc, and, in addition: G. Bos / L. Ferre / G. Mensching,
“Textos médicos hebreos medievales con elementos romances y latinos: Edición y análi-
sis del ‘Sefer ha-Shimmush’ y otras listas de sinónimos”, in IANUA  (), pp. –
; G. Bos and G. Mensching, “Shem Tov Ben Isaac, Glossary of Botanical Terms,
Nos. –”, in Jewish Quarterly Review  (), pp. –; M. Hussein, “Ein Beitrag
zur Erforschung der mittelalterlichen hebräischen Fachsprache der Medizin: Die Edi-
tion des . Buches des Sefer ha-Shimmush des Shem Tov ben Isaak von Tortosa”,
in A. Kuyt and G. Necker (eds), Orient als Grenzbereich? Rabbinisches und außerrab-
binisches Judentum, Wiesbaden  (Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes,
vol. ), pp. –; G. Bos, “Medizinische Synonymliteratur in hebräischen Quellen
zwischen Rezeption und Innovation: Shem Tov Ben Isaac von Tortosa und seine Über-
setzung des Kitab al-tasrif von al-Zahrawi”, in D. Boschung and S. Wittekind (eds),
Persistenz und Rezeption. Weiterverwendung, Wiederverwendung und Neuinterpretation
antiker Werke im Mittelalter, Wiesbaden , pp. –; G. Bos, “The Creation and
Innovation of Medieval Hebrew medical terminology: Shem Tov Ben Isaac, Sefer ha-
Shimmush”, in A. Akasoy and W. Raven (eds), Islamic Thought in the Middle Ages. Studies
in Text, Transmission and Translation, in Honour of Hans Daiber, Leiden / Boston ,
pp. –; G. Bos, “Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition: Shem Tov Ben
Isaac, Sefer ha-Shimmush, book ”, in Journal of Semitic Studies LV/ (), pp. –
.
 introduction

for One Who Is Not Able to Compile a Book for Himself ) by the Andalu-
sian physician Abū l-Qāsim Halaf ibn ‘Abbās az-Zahrāwı̄, known in the
Western world as Abulcasis. Shem ˘ Tov omitted the original Arabic, Syr-
ian, Persian, and Ibero-Romance indices in his translation and substi-
tuted them instead with the two lists that are at issue here. The first
list, which is edited in this volume, starts with the Hebrew or Aramaic
term, followed by the Arabic synonym, and then—in about seventy per-
cent of the entries—by the vernacular term, which is usually Old Occ-
itan, and / or by a Latin synonym. As will be explained in detail in sec-
tion ., this list was intended to help the reader identify and clarify
the Hebrew terminology used by the author in his translation of the
Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f. The second list, which is to be edited in volume two,
starts with the Old Occitan or Latin term followed by its Arabic syn-
onym and, in some cases, with its Hebrew or Aramaic equivalent, and
was intended to be used and consulted independently of the Sefer ha-
Shimmush.
The use of Romance languages was a standard procedure in Hebrew
glossaries and synonym lists of this type, as they were mainly compiled
in Southern France and on the Iberian Peninsula. The literature on
this subject has therefore usually identified these languages as Spanish,
French, and sometimes Italian.2 Our work on the synonym lists by Shem
Tov quickly showed that the Romance variety employed in this case
is Occitan, the autochthonous language of Southern France. For this
reason, a major part of the present publication will be dedicated to
this language, especially in the commentaries on the individual medico-
botanical terms.
Our critical edition is based on the three manuscripts known to con-
tain the synonym lists of the Sefer ha-Shimmush, MSS Paris, BN héb.
, Vatican Ebr. , and Oxford, Hunt Donat .3 Apart from creat-
ing a critical edition, our main aim is to provide a commentary on the
terminology found in these lists, in particular medieval Hebrew and Occ-
itan medico-botanical terminology, both of which have remained largely
unknown until now. Our edition thus makes a contribution towards an
understanding of these terminologies. One essential task has been to
clarify the meaning of the individual Hebrew and Occitan terms, which
often has to be deduced from the meaning of the corresponding, much

2Cf. HebMedSyn, in particular pp. –.


3Cf. . for details. In the following, we shall use the abbreviations P (Paris), V
(Vatican) and O (Oxford) to refer to these manuscripts.
introduction 

more well-known Arabic and Latin terms. It should also be noted that
a Hebrew medico-botanical terminology had not yet been established at
the time when Shem Tov was compiling these synonym lists. Thus, as will
be shown later in this introduction, the two lists we have edited here can
be viewed as an attempt to create such a terminology. We have therefore
also tried to retrieve the sources used by the author when deciding on
which Hebrew term to use.
As stated above, the first volume of this publication is dedicated to the
first synonym list (Hebrew-Arabic-Occitan / Latin) contained in the Sefer
ha-Shimmush. The second list, which is ordered according to the Occitan
or Latin terms, will be published in volume two. These two volumes will
then be supplemented by a third one containing indices for all of the
languages that appear in the edition and our commentaries.
This introduction is intended to serve as a general introduction to all
three volumes and is structured as follows. Section  provides a brief
introduction to literature on medieval medico-botanical synonyms. We
then focus on the Jewish physician Shem Tov ben Isaac de Tortosa and
his Sefer ha-Shimmush (section ), paying particular attention both to
the biographical and historical contexts in which he worked as well as
to the background to and the motivation for his writing the Sefer ha-
Shimmush and compiling the two synonym lists. In section , we carry
out a detailed examination of the lexicographic practice adopted by Shem
Tov, addressing the issue of how his synonymies were established. We
then provide an overview of the most important sources used by Shem
Tov as well as the methods he employed to create his own Hebrew
medico-botanical terminology. The last part of this section summarises
the effects and influence of the terminology created by Shem Tov. Section
 is dedicated to the Romance languages, with a particular focus on
Occitan. This section is to some extent aimed at scholars from outside
the field of Romance philology and provides some basic information
on Occitan, a Romance language that was of great literary importance
in the Middle Ages and is still spoken today as a minority language
in Southern France as well as in small areas of Italy and Spain. The
information provided in this section is essential for the reader to be able
to follow the commentaries on the Romance medico-botanical terms.
Since the Romance terms in our synonym lists are written in Hebrew
characters rather than in the standard Latin alphabet, we also address
some of the problems arising from this fact which had to be taken into
consideration when we were identifying and interpreting the Romance
material. Section  is dedicated to more technical matters. In ., we
 introduction

describe the three manuscripts from which the text was obtained, while
in ., we describe the norms and procedures used in our edition and
commentary.

.. Transcription System


In the course of the following sections, the form of the synonym lists,
their origin and the lexical material used in them, which consists of a
great number of Hebrew, Arabic, Latin and Romance medico-botanical
terms, shall all be discussed extensively. We would therefore like to
begin by providing a summary of the transcription system to be used
throughout the three volumes.
Our transcription of the Hebrew, Arabic, Latin and Romance terms
which are expressed using Hebrew letters in the manuscripts mostly
follow modern, well-established transliteration standards, such as those
suggested by the Encyclopaedia Judaica (E.J.). Our decision to use a tran-
scription system based on Latin characters for the Hebrew alphabet is
motivated by the fact that the Latin, Romance and Arabic terminology is
also expressed in Hebrew characters in our manuscripts. This transcrip-
tion makes the terms in these languages accessible to both scholars of
the corresponding disciplines as well as to readers from the history of
medicine and other fields. It also enables the reader to follow our argu-
mentation for the interpretation of each term.
The transliteration aims to establish, whenever possible, a one-to-one
correspondence between Hebrew consonants and Latin based translit-
eration signs, thus maintaining the full range of interpretational content
contained in the original Hebrew character based version. This means
that our particular interpretation is not reflected in the transliteration.
For example, when a word is written with Bet, we spell it with an upper-
case B, even if our interpretation implies that its phonetic value was frica-
tive and not occlusive. We proceed in a similar way with the Hebrew con-
sonant character Shin: even if our lexical interpretation sees it as a Sin, or
as a non-palatal sibilant of Romance or Arabic, we still use an upper-case
S̆ for the transliteration. In cases where vowel signs have been added to
the Hebrew consonant text, the vowels are transliterated using lower-case
transcription signs.
introduction 

The following table illustrates our transcription system:

Hebrew Name Transcription


letter sign
à Alef "
á Bet B
â Gimel G
§â Gimel Ğ
ã Dalet D
ä He H
§§ä Tā" marbūt.a H
å Waw W
æ Zayin Z
ç Het
. H .
è Tet
. T.
é Yod Y
ë Kaf K
ì Lamed L
î Mem M
ð Nun N
ñ Samekh S
ò Ayin #
ô Pe P
ö Sade
. S.
÷ Qof Q
ø Resh R
ù Shin S̆
ú Tav T

The second variant of the letter Gimel shows a diacritic (Rafe), which the
scribes used to indicate a palatal pronunciation, such as [ʤ] in Romance
and Arabic. In MS P, the Arabic Tā" marbūt.a () is represented by the letter
He with two diacritical points above the letter, which we have transcribed
as §§ä.

. Medieval Synonym Lists in Hebrew Characters

It is not our intention here to provide an exhaustive discussion of


the history of medieval synonym lists.4 Broadly speaking, as MacKin-

4 The reader is referred to the following books and articles: M. Steinschneider, “Zur

Literatur der ‘Synonyma’ ”, in J.L. Pagel, Die Chirurgie des Heinrich von Mondeville, Berlin
 introduction

ney5 points out, medical synonym lists form part of a sub-category of


medieval writings characterised by their alphabetical arrangement. Apart
from rare cases of general medical treatises arranged in alphabetical
order and handbooks of materia medica, the majority of such alphabeti-
cally structured medical writings comprised medical glossaries and lex-
icons. According to MacKinney,6
[t]hese appear under the titles glossaria, hermeneumata, synonyma, vocab-
ularia, index, expositio nominum, etc., and are usually characterized by
the id est formula; that is, each entry is followed by id est (or a variation
thereof) and the explanatory material. Such works are clearly distinguish-
able from concordances and pharmaceutical handbooks in that their chief
purpose was philological (i.e., the clarification of word meanings) and not
the presentation of purely medical information.

MacKinney7 distinguishes between three different phases of evolution


within the Western world: ) Latin lists of Greek terms in the early
Middle Ages (glossaria, hermeneumata), ) Latin lists of Greek and
Arabic terms, due to the influence of Arabic medicine during the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries, ) “polylingual lexicons”, in which Latin, Arabic
and Greek terms were provided with equivalents in European vernacular
languages. The synonyma appear to be typical for the second phase;
they can be distinguished from the hermeneumata and early glossaria
in that “they contain a larger proportion of non-herbals and of three-
to four-line descriptions.”8 These lists often accompanied Latin versions
of Arabic authorities, such as the Index to the translation of Ibn Sı̄nā’s
Kitāb al-Qānūn attributed to Gerald of Cremona, or were of independent
(Western) origin such as the famous Alphita.9

, pp. –; M. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und
die Juden als Dolmetscher, Berlin , repr. Graz ; L.C. MacKinney, “Medieval Med-
ical Dictionaries and Glossaries”, in J.L. Cate and E.N. Anderson (eds), Medieval and
Historiographical Essays in Honor of James Westfall Thompson, Chicago , pp. –
; M. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, Leiden / Köln  (Handbuch der Orientalis-
tik I, Ergänzungsband VI,); G. Endress, “Die Entwicklung der Fachsprache” and “Die
wissenschaftliche Literatur: Medizin”, both published in W. Fischer (ed.), Grundriss der
Arabischen Philologie, Band III: Supplement, Wiesbaden , pp. – and –;
B.M. Gutiérrez Rodilla: La esforzada reelaboración del saber. Repertorios médicos de interés
lexicográfico anteriores a la imprenta, San Millán de la Cogolla .
5 Op. cit., p.  ff.
6 Op. cit., pp. –.
7 Op. cit., p. .
8 MacKinney, op. cit., p. .
9 MacKinney, op. cit., pp. –. For the Alphita, see I. Mandrin, Griechische und

griechisch vermittelte Elemente in der Synonymenliste Alphita, Bern et al. , and the
introduction 

A similar tradition also existed in Arabic medical writing: one of the


ways in which the Arabs tried to solve the problems created by the
fusion of Greek, Syriac, Indian, Persian, Berber, and Ibero-Romance
plant and drug names was to establish corresponding synonyms. Thus,
all major pharmaceutical handbooks had special sections or chapters
dealing extensively with synonyms, such as in Ibn al-Bayt.ār’s Kitāb al-
Jāmi# and in the Kitāb al-Musta#ı̄nı̄ by Ibn Biklāriš. In addition to the
synonym discussions that were integrated into such major works, the
Arabs also compiled stand-alone lists of synonyms compiled separately,
which can be considered a special branch of lexicographical literature
and were closely related to the Syriac Puššāq šmāhē.10
The Jewish synonym list tradition (including the two lists compiled
by Shem Tov) seems, in general, to fit into the typology and chronology
outlined above, whilst crucially anticipating (by the thirteenth century
already) the subsequent polylingual lexicon phase by including vernac-
ular synonyms in a systematic fashion. The practical use of these lists
should be taken into account in future research on the history of Jew-
ish synonym lists, which has yet to be carried out in a comprehensive
manner.11 During the Middle Ages, when there was no uniform system
for identifying plants and herbs, there was a genuine risk of a doctor
administering the wrong drug to a patient. This risk was particularly
acute given the fact that doctors frequently moved to and settled in dif-
ferent countries at this time, thus meaning they were often faced with
an entirely different linguistic environment. Jewish doctors in particular
were faced with this problem when, in the wake of the Berber invasions
of the Almohads and Almoravids in the eleventh and twelfth centuries,
many of them emigrated from Southern Spain to the Northern, Chris-
tian part of Spain and to Southern France. They thus moved from a soci-
ety where Jews used and understood Arabic in addition to Hebrew and
Romance to a society where their knowledge of Arabic was soon lost. This
shift in languages led to an urgent need for “lexica or glossaries in which
technical-medical expressions were listed alphabetically, especially the

recent edition by A. García González, Alphita. Edición crítica y comentario, Florence .
Since our work on list one published in the present volume was completed in early ,
García González’s edition has not been quoted in our commentary. Instead, we used
the older edition by S. Renzi (RAlph), the Spanish version contained in the Sinonima
delos nonbres delas medeçinas griegos e latynos e arauigos (abbr. Sin; the critical apparatus
mostly includes material from the Latin version) and the commentary by R. Creutz (CA).
10 Cf. M. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, pp. – and –.
11 For what follows, cf. G. Bos, “Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition”.
 introduction

names of simple medicines.”12 As will be shown in section , it was these


practical aspects that formed the driving force for Shem Tov to compile
the two synonym lists.
In the field of Jewish studies, the medical genre of synonym lists has
been sorely neglected by modern research in spite of the comprehensive
bibliographical surveys carried out by Moritz Steinschneider in the nine-
teenth century. Steinschneider’s work highlighted the importance of this
particular genre for deciphering individual plant names in pharmaco-
logical fragments, recommending in particular the edition of the glos-
sary compiled by Shem Tov ben Isaak and the one extant in MS Florence,
Mediceo Laurenziana Or. .13 The only notable exceptions are a recent
concise survey of Hebrew medical glossaries in manuscripts by J.P. Roth-
schild that forms an appendix to an article on the manuscript tradition of
the Hebrew-Italian glossary of Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed pre-
pared by Moses of Salerno,14 and the synonym list with Catalan elements
edited by Magdalena Nom de Déu (GHAT). The apparent lack of inter-
est shown by Jewish studies scholars for this particular area stands in
stark contrast to the interest that this area has enjoyed in the fields of
Latin and of Arabic studies. The latter can boast of a recent bibliograph-
ical survey by Ullmann,15 while one of its best known glossaries, namely
the one compiled by Maimonides under the title Sharh. asmā" al-#uqqār,
is available both in a critical edition and in French, Hebrew, and English
translations.16

12 Definition by M. Steinschneider, “Zur Literatur der ‘Synonyma’ ”, p.  (English

translation: Bos). Some of the following issues are discussed in “Shem Tov Ben Isaac,
Glossary of Botanical Terms, Nos. –” and in HebMedSyn –.
13 Cf. M. Steinschneider, “Donnolo. Pharmakologische Fragmente aus dem . Jahr-

hundert”, in Virchows Archiv, vols – and  (–; vol. , pp. –; vol. ,
pp. –; vol. , pp. –; vol. , pp. –), vol.  (), pp. –; idem,
“Zur Literatur der ‘Synonyma’ ”, pp. –; idem, “Glossar zu den Synonymen Cap.
IX des Antidotarius”, in J.L. Pagel, Chirurgie des Heinrich von Mondeville, Berlin ,
pp. –; and his Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als
Dolmetscher, pp. –.
14 J.P. Rothschild, “Remarques sur la tradition manuscrite du glossaire hébreu-italien

du Commentaire de Moïse de Salerne au Guide des égarés (en appendice, note sur les
glossaires medicaux hébreux; liste de manuscrits hébreux contenant des glossaires)”, in
Lexiques bilingues dans les domaines philosophique et scientifique (Moyen Âge—Renais-
sance), Actes du Colloque international organisé par l’École Pratique des Hautes Études—
IVe Section et l’Institut Supérieur de Philosophie de l’Université de Louvain (Paris, –
juin ), édités par J. Hamesse et D. Jacquart, Turnhout , pp. –.
15 Cf. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, pp. –.
16 See Me in the list of abbreviations in the bibliography for the reference.
introduction 

In the course of our projects concerning this type of lists, we have


reviewed a considerable number of lists other than those by Shem Tov.17
It could be shown that most of them were composed in Southern France
or in Catalonia. In contrast, synonym lists of possible Northern French,
Spanish or Italian origin seem to be quite rare. We have also established
an initial typology of medico-botanical synonym lists written in Hebrew
characters:18
A. Lists without lexical material in Hebrew but written in the Hebrew
alphabet, such as Latin-Arabic-Romance synonym lists.
B. Lists that contain lexical material in Hebrew, but no Hebrew lem-
mata, e.g. Arabic-Hebrew-Romance-Latin lists.
C. Lists arranged according to Hebrew lemmata, with synonyms in
other languages (such as Arabic, Latin and / or Romance).
We can assume that the type A lists in particular are often transcriptions
of Arabic or Latin lists, such as the version of the Alphita that is extant in
MS Parma .19 The type B lists may, to some extent at least, have orig-
inated in a similar fashion through the addition of Hebrew synonyms,
whereas the type C lists have to be regarded as original compilations or
rearrangements according to the Hebrew lemmata. As far as Shem Tov’s
lists are concerned, the first one—edited in this volume and described in
section  of this introduction—is a type C list. The second one is a type
B list (Occitan-Hebrew-Arabic) and will be presented and edited in the
second volume.
At this point, it cannot be said whether and to which degree the
Latin and Arabic medical synonym tradition provided a model for Shem
Tov or whether he even used the Alphita or similar lists in the Latin
tradition as a source. Some of the Latin terms and a few of the Arabic-
Latin / Romance synonymies featured in Shem Tov’s lists can also be
found in the Alphita. It also seems probable (maybe even highly so) that
Shem Tov possessed a copy of another well-known word list, namely the
Arabic-Latin index of the Latin translation of the Qānūn by Ibn Sı̄nā
compiled by Gerald of Cremona (–).20 At least as far as the
Hebrew-Arabic correspondences are concerned however, it is rather the
Jewish rabbinic tradition (not including the Bible) that Shem Tov drew

17 See HebMedSyn.
18 See HebMedSyn –.
19 See HebMedSyn  ff.
20 See Sin for this index, in particular pp. –.
 introduction

upon in order to establish his synonymies. We shall return to this subject


in section , which covers the “production” of the two synonym lists. In
this section, it should become clear that the two lists edited by us in this
and the forthcoming volume form a quite exceptional case within the
genre of medical synonym lists: whereas most of the lists known to us
from both the Western and Jewish traditions are anonymous, Shem Tov,
on the other hand, is an individual author whose writings also provide
us with information concerning the background of his lists as well as the
methods he used to compile them.

. Shem Tov’s Synonym Lists in the Sefer ha-Shimmush

.. Biographical and Historical Context


Shem Tov ben Isaac was born in  in the Catalan city of Tortosa.
He traveled to the Near East for business before, at the age of thirty,
beginning to study in Barcelona at some point after  under R. Isaac
ben Meshullam. He subsequently spent some time in Montpellier, and
was later active as a physician and translator in Marseille.21 Although
Marseille had previously been an independent and sovereign city, it was
forced to recognise the sovereignty of Charles of Anjou in . In return,
Anjou provided the inhabitants with a constitution (Les Statuts de Mar-
seille), which regarded Jews and Christians as equal citizens.22 Anjou even
protected and intervened on behalf of the Jews when necessary, such as
in , when he issued a special decree against the inquisitors who were
attempting to introduce even more stringent measures against the Jews
than those that had been decided both at the Fourth Lateran Council in

21 On Shem Tov ben Isaac, his life and literary activity, see E. Renan, Les Rabbins
français du commencement du quatorzième siècle, Paris , repr. Farnborough ,
p. ; M. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden
als Dolmetscher, pp. –; H. Gross, Gallia Judaica. Dictionnaire géographique de la
France d’après les sources Rabbiniques, Paris , pp. –; S. Muntner, “R. Shem Tov
Ben Isaac of Tortosa about the life of the European Jewish doctor and his ethics”, in Sinai
Jubilee Volume, Jerusalem , pp. –; G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of
Science,  vols, New York , vol. ., pp. –; J. Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and
Medieval Society, Berkeley / Los Angeles / London, , pp. –; G. Bos, “The Creation
and Innovation of Medieval Hebrew medical terminology”, pp. –.
22 Cf. A. Crémieux, “Les Juifs de Marseille au Moyen Age”, in Revue des Études Juives

 (), pp. – and –, here pp. –.


introduction 

 and at subsequent Councils.23 The Jewish doctors in Marseille found


themselves in a particularly privileged position, enjoying as they did spe-
cial rights both with regard to their colleagues in the rest of Provence and
their fellow citizens. As Marseille suffered from frequent epidemics and
there were only few Christian physicians, they were tolerated in the city
by sheer necessity and sometimes even employed by the municipality, in
contrast to the Jewish doctors in the rest of Provence.24 It was in the city
of Marseille that Shem Tov translated az-Zahrāwı̄’s Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f.25 Call-
ing it “Sefer ha-Shimmush”, Shem Tov started his translation in the year
 and completed it at an unknown date.26 In addition to the Kitāb
at-tas. rı̄f, Shem Tov also translated Abū Walı̄d Muhammad
. ibn Rushd’s
Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s De Anima,27 Abū Bakr Muhammad .
ibn Zakariyya ar-Rāzı̄’s medical encyclopaedia Kitāb al-Mans. ūrı̄,28 and
Hippocrates’ Aphorisms with Palladius’ commentary.29

23 Cf. Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. .


24 Cf. Crémieux, Les Juifs de Marseille au Moyen Age, p. ; I. Alteras, “Jewish
Physicians in Southern France during the th and th Centuries”, in Jewish Quarterly
Review  (/), pp. –, in particular p. .
25 On the Kitāb at-tasrı̄f, see D. Jacquart and F. Micheau, La médecine arabe et l’occident
.
mediéval, Paris , pp. – and passim.
26 The year  is derived from the introduction to the translation (cf. Muntner, “R.

Shem Tov Ben Isaac of Tortosa”, p. , paragraph []). In the same introduction, Shem
Tov relates an incident that occurred in Marseille in the year  (cf. Muntner, op. cit.,
p. , paragraph []). From this, it can be concluded that Shem Tov either wrote the
introduction after compiling the lists and that the year  marks its completion, or
that he completed the work at an earlier date and then subsequently revised it, inserting
the incident mentioned above in the process. The first assumption seems to be that
of M. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Handschriften der K. Hof- und Staatsbibliothek
in München, nd rev. enl. ed., Munich  p. , no. : “(–).” The second
assumption seems to be that of Renan, Les Rabbins français du commencement du
quatorzième siècle, p. , who, however, draws on an unknown source to assert that Shem
Tov completed the work in  and then revised it in . This is also the opinion of
Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, p. , and Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and
Medieval Society, p. . Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters
und die Juden als Dolmetscher, p. , remarks that he completed the translation between
– (= Muntner, “R. Shem Tov Ben Isaac of Tortosa”, p. ).
27 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden

als Dolmetscher, p. ; Averroës, Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s De Anima. A Crit-


ical Edition of the Arabic Text with English Translation, Notes, and Introduction by
Alfred L. Ivry, Provo , pp. xxviii–xxix, . n. .
28 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als

Dolmetscher, pp. –.


29 His commentary is no longer extant in Greek, but it has recently been rediscovered

by Hinrich Biesterfeldt and Y. Tzvi Langermann, who hope to publish a preliminary study
of Palladius’ commentary soon, to be followed by a full edition and analysis.
 introduction

.. Background and Motivation of the


Sefer ha-Shimmush and the Two Synonym Lists
Shem Tov’s translation of az-Zahrāwı̄’s Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f is especially
important, as it represents an attempt to create a new Hebrew medical
terminology based on the terminology of the Bible, Mishnah and Tal-
mud, as well as on medieval commentaries and translations.30 In some
cases, he also uses loan-translation or semantic borrowing as a method
for translating terms not attested in any Hebrew source. Shem Tov’s main
reason for translating the Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f was to provide Jews with eas-
ier access to medical knowledge, meaning they would no longer have to
depend on non-Jewish doctors.31 With regards to his method of transla-
tion, he remarks that he uses names from the Bible, rabbinic literature or
Romance as far as possible in his translation. He uses the Arabic term for
any diseases, organs, drugs, wild and domestic animals, insects and ver-
min whose names he is unable to obtain from these sources, remarking
that the lengthy period of exile suffered by the Jews has led to reduced
knowledge of Hebrew within their numbers.32 In order to emphasise the
intention behind his translation once more, Shem Tov extols its qualities,
remarking that it can be put to use for individuals and crowds, for the wise
and the foolish, for kings and paupers and at any time and any place. He
goes on to warn physicians emphatically against substituting one remedy
for another similar one or buying an unfamiliar remedy from a pharma-
cist, as that might lead to their receiving an entirely different remedy,
whether intentionally or not.33 Shem Tov adds that, in some countries,
those who make mistakes regarding the names of herbs, seeds and plants

30 S. Muntner (art. “medicine”, in E.J. :) remarks that the translation of az-

Zahrāwı̄’s Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f by Abraham Shem Tov [sic] is “of particular importance because
he introduced a new Hebrew terminology based mainly on terms used in the Talmud.”
31 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters, p. . See

paragraphs []–[] of Shem Tov’s Introduction to the Sefer ha-Shimmush, edited by


Muntner in “R. Shem Tov Ben Isaac of Tortosa”, pp. –; the relevant passages are on
pp. –. See also the Catalan translation in E. Feliu and J. Arrizabalaga, “El pròleg
de Semtov ben Issac, el Tortosí, a la seva traducció hebrea del Tas. rı̄f d’Abū al-Zahrāwı̄”,
in Tamid  (), pp. –, especially pp. –.
32 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. ; Steinschneider (op. cit., p. ) summarises the text as
follows: “Alle Krankheiten, Glieder, Mittel etc., für welche er einen Ausdruck in der Bibel,
in der Sprache der Weisen oder in der Landessprache gefunden, habe er danach benannt,
sonst den arabischen Terminus beibehalten, da sich durch das Exil die Kenntnis der hebr.
Sprache vermindert habe.”
33 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraphs [], []–[], see Muntner,

op. cit., p. ; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .


introduction 

then also end up misleading others.34 As an example, he talks about four


different species of the same plant, one of which was called fanğankušt
(chaste-tree, Vitex agnus castus L.) by Persian doctors,35 meaning ‘five
leaves’, while Christians referred to it as pentaphyllon (cinquefoil, Poten-
tilla reptans L.),36 which also means ‘five leaves’.37 This was a source of
confusion for many physicians according to Shem Tov. Some physicians
thought that fanğankušt was a fragrant tree as large as a man (or even
large enough for a man to hide under) with fruits called agnus castus
and that pentaphyllon was a plant without a stem consisting of five leaves
growing directly from the earth. Other physicians, however, thought that
fanğankušt was a plant that could be used to get rid of sexual lust38 rather
than a tree, and that pentaphyllon was a plant with a stem.39
Another example of a possible mix-up of remedies is taken from
Maimonides, who warns against prescribing the wrong species of black
nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.).40 Many physicians prescribe one spe-
cies for internal diseases, and another, similar species, which can be
easily distinguished from the previous one when it has been dried and
its fruits become black, when it is still fresh, for external diseases, as it is
poisonous. If the second species is mistaken for the first one and its juice
is ingested, it causes severe suffocation, hiccups, and nausea accompanied
by yawning and vomiting of blood.41 Shem Tov also stresses how the

34 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. –.


35 Cf. Maimonides, Sharh asmā" al-#uqqār, Me  (English translation: Rosner, abbr.
.
M); A. Dietrich, Dioscurides Triumphans (abbr. DT), :. The actual meaning of the
Persian term is not ‘five leaves’, but ‘five fingers’ (panfi angušt); cf. VL :: “quinque
digiti”.
36 Cf. Maimonides, Sharh asmā" al-#uqqār (Me); M ; DT :.
.
37 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .


38 For the effect of the chaste tree as an antiaphrodisiac, cf. Ibn al-Jazzār, On Sexual

Diseases: A critical edition, English translation and introduction of Bk.  of Zād al-
musāfir wa-qūt al-hā
. dir
. (Provisions for the Traveller and the Nourishment of the Settled).
Translation and study by Gerrit Bos, London , p. : “Galen maintained that the
women of the inhabitants of Athens used to spread chaste-tree and then sleep upon it
during their high festivals so that the lust for coitus would leave them” (= Galen, De simpl.
med. temp. et fac., VI,  (C.G. Kühn, Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia,  vols, Leipzig –
, repr. Hildesheim , vol. , p. ).
39 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .


40 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., pp.

–; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .


41 Shem Tov’s quotation is taken from Maimonides’ On Poisons (BMP ): “To the

[substances] taken by mistake belongs the soporific type of black nightshade (Solanum
 introduction

area where a species is grown can influence how it looks by quoting


Maimonides’ statement in the Mishneh Torah, Sefer Zera#im, which states
that a species can take on many [different] forms depending on where it
is grown and in what type of soil and that such forms of the same species
can differ from one another to such an extent that they can look like
entirely different species.42 Shem Tov invokes Maimonides once again
to remark that the opposite can also happen, namely that two different
species can look so similar to one another that they appear to be the
same. He also quotes from the same source in order to provide a range
of different examples of this, such as garden lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and
wild lettuce (Lactuca scariola), chicory (Cichorium intybus) and wild
chicory (Cichorium pumilum), garden leek (Allium porrum) and field
leek (Allium ampeloprasum), garden coriander (Coriandrum sativum)
and wild coriander (Smyrnium conatum Boiss.).43 Shem Tov concludes
his extensive quotation from Maimonides by exclaiming that if, in the
case of crops, the Torah is very strict and makes it obligatory to know
the different forms of plants and trees and their fruits because of the
prohibition of Kil"ayim (mixing together of different species), how much
more so should this be the case for remedies when human life is at stake.44
Shem Tov then gives an example of how administering the wrong drug
can have fatal consequences by relating an incident that happened around
the year  in Marseille, whereby two Christian doctors gave a patient
a purgative of half a drachm of white hellebore, which led to the patient

nigrum and var.), for we often prescribe black nightshade juice among the ingredients
to be taken for diseases of the internal organs. One of its varieties that has black seeds
and that is soporific is [sometimes taken] by mistake when [the seeds] are [still] green
before they turn black. Upon drinking, it immediately causes severe dryness, hiccups and
vomiting of blood. Its treatment: hasten to let him vomit by means of the general emetics
which have been described before. Then let him vomit for the last time by means of water
and honey. Then let him drink a large quantity of water and honey. When he has digested
something of it, he should take another drink of water and honey. He should do so for
a day and a night. And then he should feed himself as usual [. . .].” Instead of “dryness”
Shem Tov has “suffocation”, which is similar to the variant reading in MS P (Paris, BN,
héb. ):  and Moses ibn Tibbon’s Hebrew translation: äøëñà (angina).
42 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. ; Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sefer Zera#im, Hilkhot
Kil"ayim III, .
43 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraphs []–[], see Muntner, op. cit.,

p. ; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. –; Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Sefer Zera#im,
Hilkhot Kil"ayim III, –.
44 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., p. .


introduction 

dying of suffocation.45 He adds that if it is a Jewish doctor that applies


the wrong treatment, it may not just be the life of the patient that is
endangered, but the lives of the whole Jewish community, too.46 Jewish
doctors needed to excercise great care in their work, having to think twice
before treating a Christian patient, a fact borne out by the Sefer ha-Yosher,
a medical treatise composed at the end of the Middle Ages.47
To minimise the risk of confusing medicinal herbs and drugs due
to ignorance or a lack of proper terminology in the vernacular of the
time and to provide both Jewish doctors and patients with the proper
medico-botanical terminology, Shem Tov compiled “a list of roots and
herbs in the language of the Bible and of the Sages, of blessed memory,
according to the interpretation most commentators agreed upon, in the
vernacular language and in Arabic, alphabetically arranged.”48 This list,
which actually consists of two separate lists of synonyms, is part of book
twenty-nine of his translation of Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f. Shem Tov only modified
the first two chapters of the five chapters originally contained in the
Arabic text of book twenty-nine for his intended purpose, since, as the
author states, the Jews would neither need nor benefit from a translation
of the first two chapters, which deal with foreign or differing names for
plants in Greek, Syriac and Persian.49 In the introduction to the first list,
which is the one edited in the present volume, the author specifies the
scope of this particular list by explaining that it not only covers roots and
herbs, but also instruments, bodily parts and other items.50 With regards

45 Cf. Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit.,
pp. –; Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. –; Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and
Medieval Society, p. .
46 Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, op. cit., p. ;

Feliu / Arrizabalaga, op. cit., pp. –; translation Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and Me-
dieval Society, pp. –; but see as well Crémieux, Les Juifs de Marseille, p.  who
states that complaints were never filed against the Jewish community of Marseille as a
whole following individual misdemeanours due both to the protection the Jews enjoyed
based on the “Statuts de Marseille” and to the spirit of tolerance predominant in the city.
47 Cf. Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and Medieval Society, p. ; M. Güdemann, Ge-

schichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der Juden in Italien während des Mittelalters,
Vienna , repr. Amsterdam  (Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur
der abendländischen Juden während des Mittelalters und der neueren Zeit II), p. .
48 Introduction to Sefer ha-Shimmush, paragraph [], see Muntner, “R. Shem Tov

Ben Isaac of Tortosa”, p. : ïåùìá ïéáùòäå ïéø÷òä úåîù íéøùòå äòùú øîàîá ãåò íëì áåúëàå
ïåùìáå íéæòåì ïåùìáå íäéìò åîéëñäå íéùøôîä áåø íäá åùøôù äî éôë 짧æ íéîëç ïåùìáå àø÷î
.᧧àä éô ìò éøâä; Feliu-Arrizabalaga, ibid., p. , .
49 MS Paris, BN héb. , fol. a: íéøòùä éðù ú÷úòäá úìòåú àìå êøåö åðì ïéàù éúåàøáå

ñøôå úéîøàå ïåé ïåùìá íéîñäå íéáùòì ùéù úåðåùäå úåøæä úåîùá íéðåùàøä.
50 MS Paris, BN héb. , ibid.: íúìåæå íéìëå ïéøáéàå ïéáùòå ïéø÷éò.
 introduction

to the second list (see vol. two, forthcoming) he remarks: “I have also
composed an explanation of the drugs and herbs in the vernacular and
Arabic so that someone who goes on a distant journey will know their
names in both languages. And I have arranged them alphabetically.”51

. How Shem Tov’s Synonym Lists Were Compiled

.. Sources for Hebrew and Arabic


Shem Tov consulted the work of both Sa#adya ben Yosef al-Fayyūmı̄, bet-
ter known as Sa#adya Ga"on52 (–), and Abū l-Walı̄d ibn Merwān,
i.e. Jonah ibn Janāh. (died after ), as sources for the proper Bibli-
cal Hebrew synonyms for Arabic terms.53 Research has shown that Ibn
Janāh. in turn relied heavily upon Sa#adya’s biblical translations and com-
mentaries for identifying botanical terms included in the Bible.54 Shem
Tov remarks that he chose these two authors in particular because he
agreed with how they identified the relevant Hebrew and Arabic termi-
nology. Sa#adya Ga"on’s Arabic translations and / or commentaries to the
Torah, Isaiah, Psalms, Proverbs, and Job often provided Shem Tov with
the Hebrew equivalent required for a specific Arabic term.55 The entry

51 MS Paris, BN héb. , ibid.: éøâä ïåùìáå æòì ïåùìá íéáùòäå íéîñä øåàá éúáúë ãåòå

úéá óìà êøã ìò ãçàå ãçà ìë éúøãñå ®úåðåùìä éúùá íúåîù ãåãð ÷éçøîä úòã ïòîì. Note that
the alphabetisation is only to one letter, as was still usual in Shem Tov’s time.
52 For Sa#adya Ga"on, philosopher and exegete, poet and polemicist, legist and com-

munal leader, see H. Malter, Saadia Gaon. His life and works, Philadelphia . For a
fundamental study of the language comparisons in his linguistic works and for his Bible
translations, which served as a source for subsequent scholars, see A. Maman, Compara-
tive Semitic Philology in the Middle Ages. From Sa#adiah to Ibn Barūn (tenth–twelfth C.),
abbr. MCS, esp. pp. –. The diffusion of Sa#adya’s works in Provence was otherwise
ascertained from the Sefer Doreš rešumot, which quotes from Sa#adya’s long commentary
on Genesis in Hebrew (cf. Y.T. Langermann, “A Citation from Saadia’s King Commen-
tary to Genesis in Hebrew Translation”, Aleph. Historical Studies in Science & Judaism 
(), pp. –).
53 For Jonah ibn Janāh, the undisputed master of Sephardic linguistics who lived in
.
the first half of the eleventh century, see the article by D. Tenne in E.J. :–, s.v.
ibn Janāh,
. Jonah. For the language comparisons in his works see MCS –.
54 Cf. LF : and E.J. :.
55 Sa#adya also allegedly composed a translation of the Five Scrolls and of Ezra. Of the

edition of the Five Scrolls with Sa#adya’s translation by Kafih. (Jerusalem , abbr. SH),
only Esther is considered to be authentic. In our edition of Shem Tov’s glossary, we have
included the edition by Kafih, . leaving the question of its authenticity open. For Sa#adya’s
commentaries on and / or translations of the Bible see RT – and M. Polliack, The
Karaite Tradition of Arabic Bible Translation. A Linguistic and Exegetical Study of Karaite
introduction 

Alef  provides an example of this, where the Arabic synonym §âñåò


(#WSĞ, to be read as #awsağ) is given for the Hebrew lemma ãèà (" TD). .
Whereas modern literature identifies the Biblical Hebrew term either as
the European boxthorn, Lycium europaeum, or the buckthorn (such as
Rhamnus lycioides or Rhamnus palaestinus), Arabic #awsağ56 is known
to have designated different kinds of lycium which were often confused.
Although we are unable to establish the intended meaning,57 the identi-
fication of both terms can be traced back to Sa#adya on Gen :, which
reads ãèàä ïøâ–ãò åàáéå (When they came to Goren ha-Atad58). The place
name literally means ‘boxthorn’s threshing floor’ and is translated into
Arabic as §âñåòìà øãðà éìà åà§â (S ) by Sa#adya.
With regard to Jonah Ibn Janāh, . Shem Tov certainly used the Kitāb al-
us. ūl, a dictionary of Biblical Hebrew,59 as can be demonstrated by the
entry He : Hebrew íéðáä (HBNYM) as well as Arabic ñåðáà ("BNWS
= abanūs) mean ‘ebony’. The fact that the Hebrew and Arabic words
are considered synonyms goes back to Ibn Janāh, . who explicitly refers
to Rav Hai Gaon: ïåàâ ééàä áø 
  íéðáäå (HBNYM is al-
abanūs according to the translation of Rav Hai Gaon; IJ ). We see
here that although Shem Tov consulted Ibn Janāh. for this Biblical term,
the ultimate source of the synonym is Hai Gaon.
In addition to the Kitāb al-us. ūl, Shem Tov consulted Ibn Janāh’s
. Kitāb
at-Talkhı̄s. , a book on simple drugs, measures and weights which pro-
vides synonyms for the drugs in Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew, Greek, Berber,
Spanish, and Latin, among others.60 Unfortunately we could not consult
this text as we, conform to the general opinion, considered the work
to be lost.61 Thus we could only consult secondary sources, namely, a

Translations of the Pentateuch from the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries C.E., Leiden / New
York / Cologne , pp. –.
56 Unlike Hebrew, we transcribe Arabic terms with their vowels, as there is a standard

vocalisation for Arabic botanical terminology.


57 The Romance synonym refers to another plant of the Rhamnaceae family.
58 The English translation is that of the Jewish Publication Society (Tanakh. A New

Translation of the Holy Scriptures according to the Traditional Hebrew Text. Philadel-
phia / New York / Jerusalem ).
59 Ed. A. Neubauer (= IJ).
60 See Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, p. ; Tenne (in E.J. :); AS –.
61 However, Fabian Käs has identified a unique copy in Istanbul, MS Aya Sofya ,

fols. v–v. See Fabian Käs, Die Mineralien in der arabischen Pharmakognosie. Eine
Konkordanz zur mineralischen Materia medica der klassischen arabischen Heilmit-
telkunde nebst überlieferungsgeschichtlichen Studien (Akademie der Wissenschaften
und der Literatur. Mainz. Veröffentlichungen der Orientalischen Kommission). Band ,
 vols, Wiesbaden , vol. , p. .
 introduction

number of quotations from the Kitāb at-Talkhı̄s. made by subsequent


authors, such as al-Idrı̄sı̄ (d. ), who was active at the court of King
Roger II of Sicily and compiled the Kitāb al-jāmi# li-sifāt aštāt an-nabāt
wa-durūb
. anwā# al-mufradāt (Compendium of the Properties of Diverse
Plants and Various Kinds of Simple Drugs).62
This work has survived as an incomplete manuscript in Istanbul (Fatih
Library, no. ) and as a complete manuscript in Teheran (Kitābkhāna-
i Majlis-i Sanā, ). These manuscripts actually represent two dif-
ferent versions of the original text, with the Istanbul manuscript pre-
serving the synonyms for the names of plants and drugs, while the
Teheran manuscript omits them.63 An example of a quotation from
Ibn Janāh’s
. Kitāb at-Talkhı̄s. by al-Idrı̄sı̄ is the entry Alef : here, two
Arabic synonyms are given for Hebrew âåîìà ("LMWG), namely ïà§âøî
(MRĞ"N) and ãñá (BSD). The word "LMWG as a biblical term indi-
cates a precious wood unable to be clearly identified. In rabbinic lit-
erature it is identified, amongst other things, as ‘coral’. Marjān is the
Arabic equivalent for "LMWG as ‘coral’, whereas bussad is the Persian
term and is often used as a synonym, although, strictly speaking, it
refers to the root of the coral as well as to the subsoil to which it is
stuck. The identification of marjān as bussad goes back to Ibn Janāh’s .
Kitāb at-Talkhı̄s. as quoted by al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :):  
 :  
 (Ibn Janāh. says that the marjān is the bussad).64 Another author
whose writings served to preserve material from Ibn Janāh’s . Kitāb at-
Talkhı̄s. is Se#adyah ibn Danān from Granada (fifteenth century), who
composed the Sefer ha-Shorashim, a dictionary of Biblical Hebrew which
draws heavily on Ibn Janāh’s . work, explicitly quoting him no less than
 times. In entry Het . , Arabic ÷øæà ("ZRQ) is used as a synonym
for the Hebrew lemma éìîùç (H . S̆MLY), with the additional explana-
tion íéîùä ïéòë 짧ø (i.e., like the sky). The Hebrew word is an adjectival
form derived from Biblical Hebrew ìîùç (H . S̆ML), which means ‘glitter-
ing substance, amber’. However, Arabic "azraq means ‘blue, sky-coloured’
(L ). The identification of both terms goes back to Ibn Janāh, . as can
be read in Se#adyah ibn Danān, Sefer ha-Shorashim (SID ): øàð :ìîùç
짧æ ãéìåìà éáàì à÷øæ (H . S̆ML is blue light according to Abū l-Walı̄d [ibn
Janāh]).
.

62 Facs. ed. in  vols by F. Sezgin, abbreviation SID.


63 SID VII–VIII.
64 Cf. AS .
introduction 

We only have Shem Tov’s general reference to “medieval commen-


tators” when it comes to the sources he consulted to identify Arabic
synonyms with Rabbinic Hebrew or Aramaic terminology. Identifying
these medieval commentators has proven to be especially problematic.
One prominent medieval commentator to whom Shem Tov probably
had recourse was Sa#adya Ga"on, who was not only an important Bible
commentator and translator but also a prominent linguist, who dealt
extensively with the explanation of difficult terms in the Mishnah within
the genre known as Alfās. al-Mishnah, several examples of which exist
in the Genizah. These writings consist, as Brody remarks, of “a series of
short glosses in Arabic on Hebrew words and expressions, according to
the order of the Mishnaic text.”65 Unfortunately, these lexical explana-
tions have only survived in incomplete form and are, moreover, still in
manuscript for the most part.66 An example of a derivation that possi-
bly goes back to Sa#adya’s Alfās. al-Mishnah is the entry Gimel :67 The
Hebrew lemma ïðôåâ (GWPNN) features in rabbinic literature and means
) ‘fennel’, Foeniculum vulgare MILL., and ) ‘the fruit of the sebesten-
tree’, Cordia Myxa L. The Arabic synonym ïàúñáñ (SBST"N) is sibistān or
sabistān, which designates the fruit of the sebesten-tree. The identifica-
tion of the two terms can be found in Sa#adya (SAM :).68
Another medieval commentator consulted by Shem Tov was Mai-
monides, whose commentary on the Mishnah contains a wealth of me-
dico-botanical synonym terminology.69 Maimonides relied in turn on
earlier sources, possibly Sa#adya’s explanatory lists and certainly the

65 R. Brody, The Geonim of Babylonia and the Shaping of Medieval Jewish Culture, New

Haven / London , pp. –. While Allony attributed these lexical explanations to
Sa#adya Ga"on, Abramson (“Millon ha-Mishnah le-Rav Sa#adya Ga"on”, in Leshonenu 
(), pp. –) and subsequently Maman (MCS , n. ) argued that they are not
Sa#adya’s at all. According to Brody (The Geonim of Babylonia, p. ), Allony’s identifica-
tion was correct, as confirmed by “further manuscript discoveries in the Genizah, along
with a comparison of citations in Se#adyah’s name and interpretations contained in his
other works”.
66 Three of the fragments were published by N. Allony (SAM). A large Geonic

fragment covering the commentary of nearly half the Mishnah is being prepared for
publication by the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud but has not been published
so far.
67 As virtually all identifications featured in Sa#adya’s Alfās al-Mishnah can also be
.
found in Maimonides’ Commentary on the Mishnah, we cannot be sure whether Shem
Tov consulted these lists directly or only indirectly via Maimonides.
68 See also Maimonides on mDemai .: ïàúñáñìà ìé÷å úáùìà äáùé ìå÷áìà ïî òåð :ïðôåâ

(i.e., GWPNN is a plant similar to aneth and according to others to sebesten) (MK :).
69 Abbr. MK. For this commentary see I.M. Ta-Shma, Ha-Sifrut ha-Parshanit la-

Talmud, nd rev. ed.,  vols, Jerusalem –, vol. , p.  ff.
 introduction

works of Ibn Janāh’s, . a fact which he states explicitly in the introduc-


tion to his Glossary of Drug Names.70 As we have seen above, Shem
Tov was familiar with Maimonides’ commentary, clearly had access to
it and therefore consulted it as necessary. There are a few cases where
it is beyond any doubt that Shem Tov derived his terminology directly
from that of Maimonides, as he occasionally includes direct quotations
from Maimonides’ commentary on the Mishnah, such as in the entry
Shin  for òåù (S̆W#) ‘smoothing, plastering’, which reads:ãéáìúìà åä òåù
àúéá úé òåùéå úéáä çèå íåâøúå ãáìîìà éùìà êì§ã ä§âå êìãé äðàì (S̆W#, i.e.,
"LTLBYD,71 because he rubs the surface of something [to be] mended
and Targum Onkelos has for úéáä çèå (i.e., the house shall be scraped72))
àúéá úé òåùéå. Shem Tov explains this by means of a direct quote from
Maimonides on the mentioned Mishnah (MK :).73
The medieval commentary and responsa literature composed by the
Geonim, i.e., the heads of the Jewish academies in Babylonia, proved
to be an important source for Shem Tov with regards to the remaining
terms. These commentaries and responsa contain a wealth of botanical
material and are a valuable source of information for technical scientific
terminology in Arabic and Hebrew.74 However, with a few exceptions,75
consulting this particular source is problematic, as some texts have been
edited without proper indices, others are still in manuscript and yet
others have to be considered as lost.76 An example of a quotation from
Geonic sources is the entry Dalet , in which Aramaic ïéöøã (DRS. YN,
‘cinnamon’) is explained by the Arabic synonym éðéöøàã (D’RS. YNY), to
be read as dār s. ı̄nı̄, ‘Chinese cinnamon’, Cinnamomum ceylanicum Nees.

70 Maimonides’ Glossary of Drug Names (translation by Rosner, abbreviation M), p. .


71 Arabic talbı̄d means ) ‘forming, pressing, felting, making one’s hair stick together’;
) ‘lining, covering, mending’ (WKAS :–).
72 Lev :.
73 Other examples are: Ayin ; Qof , ; Shin ; Tav .
74 For instance, the responsa composed by Sherira and Hai Gaon contain, as S.W.

Baron (A social and religious history of the Jews, nd rev. and enl. ed., vols –, and
Index, vols –, New York –, vol. , p. ) remarks, “so many attempts at
correct identification of names [of plants] and their relation to the previously known
species.”
75 A major exception is the Osar ha-Ge"onim, Thesaurus of the Gaonic Responsa and
.
Commentaries (LO), the momumental collection of Geonic responsa and commentaries
in the order of the Talmud tractates (to Baba Mes. ia), edited by B. Lewin.
76 An example of a text still largely in manuscript is the Kitāb al-Hāwı̄, a dictionary

of Biblical and Rabbinic Hebrew written in Judaeo-Arabic and composed by Hai Gaon,
of which substantial portions have survived in the Genizah; cf. R. Brody, The Geonim of
Babylonia and the Shaping of Medieval Jewish Culture, pp. –, and MCS –.
introduction 

The identification of these phytonyms goes back to a Geonic responsum


(cf. LO Teshuvot on Shab a, p. , where it is stated that ïéöøã (DRS. YN)
is a sharp and dry spice hailing from China that is called dār s. ı̄nı̄ in
Arabic).
In some cases, we were only able to retrieve the Geonic source indi-
rectly based on it having been quoted in the Arukh, a lexicon on the
Talmud and Midrashim composed by Nathan ben Jehiel . of Rome and
completed in . Most of the Arabic plant names quoted in the Arukh
are derived from Geonic sources, as Löw pointed out in his monumen-
tal Flora und Fauna der Juden.77 An example of such a quotation from
the Arukh is the entry for úåéðáãáã (DBDBNYWT) in Dalet , which
includes both the Arabic synonym àéñàø÷ (QR"SY", qarāsiyā ‘cherries’)
and another Arabic term, êåìîìà áç (HB . "LMLWK). The Hebrew term
features in rabbinic literature and means both ‘lumps of dripping grapes’
and ‘overripe grapes moistened by their own juice’. The term is also used
in the Middle Ages to refer to the fruit cherry, Prunus cerasus. Thus,
we find both identifications, grapes and cherries, in the Arukh (KA :),
and also the Arabic equivalent êåìîìà áç (HB. "LMLWK), habb . al-mulūk
(‘berries of kings’), which was used in Spain and the Maghreb for both
the cherry and the sebesten-tree, Cordia myxa L. (DT :; M  and
).
Shem Tov consulted the work of one final author, Tanhum . ben Josef
ha-Yerushalmi, whose work also served to preserve material from earlier
sources now lost. This author was active in Jerusalem in the thirteenth
century and composed a dictionary of difficult terms occuring in Mai-
monides’ Mishneh Torah entitled Kitāb al-murshid.78 Tanhum . consulted
a variety of sources in his lexicographical explanations of these terms,
including a range of different Geonic authors, including both Sa#adya and
Sherira/Hai, whilst taking Nathan’s Arukh, Ibn Janāh’s . works and Mai-
monides’ commentary on the Mishnah as his main sources. An exam-
ple of a quotation preserved only by Tanhum . is Gimel , where ÷åäéâ
(GYHWQ) is explained using Arabic éèîú (TMTY). . Hebrew GYHWQ
usually meant ‘belching’, but Rashi provides a second explanation,

77 LF :: “Die arabischen Pflanzennamen des Aruch stammen mittelbar oder

unmittelbar aus gaonäischen Quellen”; see as well idem, entry “Plants”, in Jewish Ency-
clopaedia, vol. , pp. –.
78 The Kitāb al-murshid was edited by B. Toledano, Tel Aviv – (letters Alef-

Kaf), by J. Dana, MA thesis, Jerusalem  (letter Tav), and by H. Shy, Diss., Jerusalem
 (letters Lamed-Tav). For a study of this dictionary and excerpts from it, see TB. An
anonymous summary of this work can be found in Qis. s. ur al-Kafi, MS Berlin .
 introduction

namely ‘to raise and stretch one’s body upwards’ (cf. BM , n. ).
Arabic tamat. t. ā (M") does, in fact, mean ‘he stretched himself ’. The
identification of GYHWQ as tamat. t. ā can be found in Tanhum. ben Josef
ha-Yerushalmi (TB ), who remarks that ÷äéô (PYHQ), ‘to yawn’, is
an abbreviation of íé÷ä åéô (PYW HQYM, ‘to stretch one’s mouth’), in
the same way that ÷äéâ (GYHQ, ‘to belch’, properly ‘to stretch oneself ’
(= Arab. tamat. t. ā)) is an abbreviation of íé÷ä åúéåâ (GWYTW HQYM, ‘to
stretch one’s body’).

.. Sources for Romance and Latin


Some of the sources mentioned above may also have served for find-
ing Romance and Latin synonyms. In many cases however, the Romance
and Latin words in question refer to fairly common names for plants,
minerals and animals; we should also keep in mind that Shem Tov was
born in Catalonia and thus a native speaker of Catalan. We may sup-
pose that once Shem Tov had established an Arabic equivalent to a
Hebrew or Aramaic term, he was usually able to translate the term into
Catalan and its sister language Occitan without any problem. Similari-
ties to other authors may therefore be coincidental: on a few occasions,
namely when the synonym is identical in Italian or Latin and Occi-
tan / Catalan, we find matching material in the Arukh and Shem Tov’s
writings, such as for àáìî (MLB") (malva, ‘mallow’; He  and KA :,
:). In some cases, it seems that the Arukh itself uses Occitan or
Catalan forms, which then appear in a similar or even identical form
in Shem Tov’s glossary, for example: ১øèìéô (PYLTR",
. KA :) and
éøèìéô (PYLTRY, . He ), both corresponding to O. Occ. / O. Cat. pelitre
(Anacyclus Pyrethrum L.) as a synonym for Aramaic àôæøä (HRZP");
àâåèøè (TR. TWG",
. KA :) and äâåèøè (TR . TWGH,
. O. Occ. / O. Cat
tartuga, Samekh ), that is ‘tortoise’, are used as an explanation for
Hebrew úéðúìåñ (SWLTNYT), which is equated with Arabic silahfāh .
(‘tortoise’).79

79 In other cases, the correspondences are very vague or indirect. For example, the

Hebrew word in Resh , äìéâø (RGYLH), meaning ‘portulaca, purslane’, Portulaca oler-
acea L., is explained in the Arukh by means of the Latin synonym àì÷÷øåô (PWRQQL"),
corresponding to porcacla, one of the many Vulgar Latin derivations of portulaca that
can be found in medieval Latin medical texts (NPRA ,  quotes portacla, porca-
cla, and porclaca; also cf. Sin b with respect to the use of such forms in the Alphita
manuscripts). However, in this case, the Arukh might just have provided inspiration
for Shem Tov, since he used the corresponding Romance (O. Occ. or O. Cat.) variant
introduction 

The situation is different with some highly specific synonymies, which,


strikingly, cannot be found in the Arukh but rather in Moses ibn Tibbon’s
translations of Maimonides. Moses ben Samuel ibn Tibbon was active
between  and  in Naples, Marseille and later in Montpellier,
where he settled at some time between  and 80 and translated
Maimonides’ Fı̄ tadbı̄r as. -s. ih. ha
. in  under the title Al Hanhagat ha-
Beri"ut prior to Shem Tov’s own translation.81 Working at the same time
as Shem Tov, he also translated ar-Rāzı̄’s antidotarium Kitāb al-aqrābādı̄n
al-kabı̄r under the title Aqrabadin in , Maimonides’ Commentary
on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms in the same year or in the year , Ibn al-
Jazzār’s medical encyclopaedia Zād al-musāfir82 under the title S. edat ha-
derakhim in ,83 and Ibn Sı̄nā’s poetical summary of the Kitāb al-
Qānūn in ,84 entitled al-Urjūza fı̄ l-t. ibb.85 His translations of Mai-
monides’ treatises On Poisons86 and On Hemorrhoids are not dated.87 As
none of these works, with the exception of the antidotarium, is a pharma-
ceutical handbook that Shem Tov would have been able to consult easily
and as most of these translations were being written at the same time
when Shem Tov was translating the Kitāb at-tas. rı̄f, it seems unlikely that
Shem Tov was actually able to draw upon Moses ibn Tibbon’s transla-
tions. A final verdict with regard to this matter will only become possible

verdolaga. Similarly, the words åéôà ("PYW = Italian apio or Latin apium, KA :; for
the omission of Latin -M, see below, section .) and 姧èðéîéôøåà ("WRPYMYNTW . = Lat.
auripi(g)mentum, KA :) appear as éôà ("PY = O. Occ or O. Cat. api) and èðîéôøåà
("WRPYMNT. = O. Occ. or O. Cat. aurpi(g)men(t), O. Cat. orpiment) in Shem Tov’s syn-
onym list (Kaf  and Samekh ). For yet another case, see Pe .
80 For Moses ibn Tibbon and his translation activity, see J.T. Robinson and U. Melam-

med, entry “Ibn Tibbon (Tibbonids)”, in E.J.2:–, p. ; O. Fraisse, Moses


ibn Tibbons Kommentar zum Hohelied und sein poetologisch-philosophisches Programm.
Synoptische Edition, Übersetzung und Analyse. Berlin / New York  (Studia Judaica.
Forschungen zur Wissenschaft des Judentums. Hrsg. von E.L. Ehrlich und G. Stemberger.
Band XXV), pp. –; G. Bos, Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition: Moses Ben
Samuel Ibn Tibbon (forthcoming).
81 A critical edition of the Arabic text and Hebrew translations by G. Bos is forth-

coming.
82 For this encyclopaedia, see Ibn al-Jazzār, On Sexual Diseases (ed. Bos), pp. –.
83 Cf. Steinschneider, Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als

Dolmetscher, p. .
84 Cf. Ullmann, Die Medizin im Islam, p. .
85 Cf. Steinschneider, op. cit., p. .
86 See Steinschneider, op. cit., p. . Edition by G. Bos (abbr. BMP).
87 See Steinschneider, op. cit., p. . While Steinschneider rejected the ascription to

Moses ibn Tibbon, there is new evidence confirming his authorship; cf. the forthcoming
critical edition of the Arabic text and Hebrew translations (abbr. BMH).
 introduction

once these translations have been analysed with respect to their medico-
botanical terminology. Since Moses ibn Tibbon was born and worked in
Southern France, he mostly used Occitan for vernacular synonyms and
explanations. One of the passages where Shem Tov shares fairly techni-
cal vocabulary with Ibn Tibbon is Gimel , where we find the Arabic
term àòîàìà âåçñ (SHWG . "L’M#") corresponding to sahğ
. al-am#ā" mean-
ing ‘dysentery, attended by abrasion or excoriation of the colon’ (L ;
SN ). The Arabic term is accompanied by a Romance synonym spelt
ñèðåô (PWNTS), . which we identified as O. Cat. pons ‘dysentery’. In Mai-
monides’ On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR II, ), we find the expression
#$%& '() (i.e., and in some cases it causes abrasion), which is translated
as õðåô äùòú íéîòô àéä íàå by Moses ibn Tibbon, where abrasion corre-
sponds to õðåô (PWNS. ). Another case is entry Lamed : Hebrew äáéáì
(LBYBH) means ‘heart-shaped pastry’, but is equated with Arabic äéøèà
(" TRYH)
. and Romance ñèéãåðî (MNWDTS). . Arabic it. riya designated ‘a
certain food, like threads, made of flour, noodles’ and features in Mai-
monides’ On the Regimen of Health (BMR I, ) where it is translated by
Moses ibn Tibbon using the same Romance term õèãåðî (MNWDT. S. ).
This Romance term represents the plural of O. Occ. menudet, meaning
‘fairly fine, fairly small’, but could also mean ‘a kind of dough’ in certain
situations. With respect to plant names, many Occitan terms commonly
used in Shem Tov’s writings can be found in the S. edat ha-derakhim.88
Although these are again mostly common words familiar to any Occitan
speaker, the mutual occurrence of the more technical vocabulary men-
tioned above does not seem coincidental. Instead of indicating a direct
relationship between the two translators, however, it seems more likely
that Shem Tov and Ibn Tibbon shared some common sources. These may
have included existing synonym lists, such as several anonymous syn-
onym lists that we have already been able to identify as containing Old
Occitan terms.89 Although they are of a later date (fourteenth-fifteenth

88 This text is currently being edited and analysed in a project funded by the DFG run
by Gerrit Bos, Guido Mensching and Julia Zwink. The results obtained so far show that
the vast majority of the Arabic terminology that appears in the Zād al-musāfir was not
actually translated into Hebrew but rather into Romance and occasionally Latin, also see
section ..
89 These lists are discussed in HebMedSyn, in particular: MS Mich. Add , fols. v–

r and MS Parma Bibl. Palat. , the latter list contains both Occitan and Catalan
vocabulary. See A. Neubauer, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library
and in the College Libraries of Oxford, Oxford , nº ; I.B. De Rossi, Mss Codices
Hebraici Biblioth. I.B. de-Rossi accurate ab eodem descripti et illustrati,  vols, Parma, ,
introduction 

century), it seems probable that they are copies of earlier lists. The
relationship between these lists and the works of Shem Tov and Ibn
Tibbon cannot be properly determined before the lists in questions
receive full critical attention.
As far as Latin terminology is concerned, Shem Tov might have had
access to various Latin treatises and translations which were in circu-
lation at the time he was writing. However, it is not possible to deter-
mine which exact sources these might have been, because the Latin
terminology in question was that used by the Salernitan School and
elsewhere at the time. This kind of terminology was transmitted via
Latin synonym lists. The most famous of these, the Alphita, may already
have existed when Shem Tov was writing90 and actually existed in a
Hebrew version (although the known copy dates from the fourteenth
century).91 Although this might be coincidental, some of Shem Tov’s
Latin terms can be found in the Alphita, such as äèéîùìá (BLS̆MYTH, .
balsamita, Alef ), ùéìéùðå÷ ùåìå÷à ("QWLWS̆ QWNS̆YLYS̆, oculus con-
sulis, Alef ), ùåéøãéîàë (K"MYDRYWS̆, camedreos, Bet ), åîùéøâøåâ
(GWRGRYS̆MW, gargarismum, Gimel ), àéèùåàìá (BL"WS̆TY", . balaus-
tia, Nun ).
Since the Alphita only contains a small number of Arabisms, it was
not a valuable source of Latin-Arabic equivalences. A better candidate
for this purpose was the Latin translation of Ibn Sı̄nā’s Kitāb al-Qānūn
traditionally attributed to Gerard of Cremona (c. –). This trans-
lation contains an index consisting of a glossary of mostly Latinised
Arabic terms arranged alphabetically, thus providing Arabic-Latin cor-
respondences. Thus nux indica is, for example, identified as nargil (Sin
:; i.e., the Arabic nārğı̄l, ‘coconut’), while the same correspondence
can be found in entry Alef  (äàéãðéà æåð 짧áå ìé§âøàð: N"RĞYL, o.l. NWZ
"YNDY"H), where the Latin term was translated into O. Occ. as *nos

nº ; B. Richler, Hebrew Manuscripts in the Biblioteca Palatina in Parma. Catalogue.


Palaeographical and codicological descriptions: Malachi Beit-Arié, Jerusalem , nº
.
90 Cf. García González, op. cit., p. , who fixes the terminus post quem at the end of

the twelfth century.


91 Cf. HebMedSyn –. The Hebrew version of the Alphita can be found in a

fourteenth century manuscript (Parma Bibl. Palat. , fols. r–v; cf. De Rossi, op.
cit., nº , Richler, op. cit., nº ; both authors had not identified this list). It cannot
be said at the moment whether it is a copy of a version that might have been available
to Shem Tov. Strikingly, this version of the Alphita is also of Southern French origin and
includes many adaptations of the Latin terminology to O. Occ.
 introduction

(or notz) india.92 A fairly striking parallel between the index and the
Latin translation of the Kitāb al-Qānūn and Shem Tov’s glossaries can be
found in entry Ayin , which details the identification of Arabic §âøèéù
(S̆YTR
. Ğ) as a word spelt àéùáà÷ (Q"BS̆Y"). Although the Arabic term
is easy to interpret as šı̄t. arağ (‘peppergrass, cress’, Lepidium latifolium
L.), the supposed Latin correspondence is unclear; the identification of
both can, however, be found in the index as “Setaragi, i. capsia” (cf. Sin
b).93
As for Romance, it is difficult to show that any medical writings in
Occitan or Catalan served as sources for Shem Tov. The first author who
wrote medical works in Romance (Catalan) was Ramon Llull (–
),94 with another series of works from the same period, i.e., the last
quarter of the thirteenth century, being attributed to Arnau de Vilanova
(–). The famous Occitan encylopedic poem Breviari d’Amor by
Matfre Ermengau dates from the same period and contains, as has been
repeatedly pointed out by P. Ricketts,95 a great deal of medico-botanical
terminology. Old Occitan medical translations and writings are mostly
documented from the fourteenth century onwards. There are some ex-
ceptions, however, such as an Occitan translation of Roger of Parma’s
Surgery in verse form from around ,96 which has some vocabulary
in common with Shem Tov’s synonym lists, such as festula ‘fistula,
suppurating wound’ (vv. , , among others; cf. àìåèùéô—PYS̆TWL" .
in Gimel ), cranc ‘crab, cancer’ (v. , cf. ÷ðø÷—QRNQ in Sade . ),

92 Any simple and compound terms that cannot be found in the existing Romance or
Latin sources are marked with an asterisk both here and in the commentary itself.
93 See entries Gimel , Het , Mem , Pe , Qof , Resh  for further examples.
.
94 Cf. his Començaments de medicina (around ), see K.-H. Röntgen, “Geschichte

der technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Fachsprachen in der Romania: Iberische


Halbinsel”, in G. Ernst / M.D. Gleßgen / C. Schmitt / W. Schweickard (eds), Romanische
Sprachgeschichte. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Geschichte der romanischen Sprachen,
vol. II, Berlin / New York , pp. –; L. Cifuentes i Comamala, La ciència en
català a l’Edat Mitjana i el Renaixement, a. ed., revisada i ampliada, Barcelona ,
pp. , –.
95 P. Ricketts, “Plantes et recettes médicales dans le Breviari d’Amor de Matfre Ermen-

gaud de Béziers”, Mélanges pour Robert Lafont, Montpellier, , pp. –; idem, “Le
lexique des plantes médicinales en occitan médiéval”, M.S. Corradini Bozzi and B. Per-
iñán (eds), Atti del convegno ‘Il linguaggio scientifico e tecnico (medico, botanico, farmaceu-
tico e nautico) fra Medioevo e Rinascimento’, Pisa – novembre , Pisa , pp. –
.
96 First studied by A. Thomas, “La chirurgie de Roger de Parme en vers provençaux.

Notice sur un ms. de la Bibliothèque de Bologne”, Romania  (), pp. – and ;
A. Thomas, “La versification de la chirurgie provençale de Raimon d’Avignon”, Romania
 (), pp. –.
introduction 

enguent ‘ointment’ (v. , cf. èðâðéà—"YNGNT, . Resh ), and caus viva
‘calcium oxide which has not been in contact with water’ (v. ,
cf. àåéå ñìà÷—Q"LS WYW", Samekh , representing the variant calz
viva). These do, however, represent common terms likely to have been
familiar to Shem Tov or which may have been taken from other sources.97
With respect to Hebrew sources that contain Occitan words, Shem Tov
may have been familiar with the Hebrew translation of the Medieval
Latin medical poem commonly known as Macer Floridus.98 Some terms
used by Shem Tov in his synomyn lists do, in fact, appear there: Cf.
äàéöéøè(÷)éà ("Y(Q)TRY
. S. Y"H, MF )—(ä)àéñéøè÷éà ("YQTRYSY"H,
. Yod
) for Latin or Romance ictericia ‘icterus’; åðàèðåî ìñ (SL MWNT"NW,
.
MF )—íåðàèðåîìéù (ŠYLMWNT"NWM, . Kaf ) for Latin sil montanum
‘mountain cumin’; àâøãåô (PWDRG", MF )—àøâãåô (PWDGR", Pe )
for Romance podagra, ‘gout in the feet’.

.. Creation of New Terms


Some of the terms featured in the list compiled by Shem Tov cannot be
retrieved from either biblical or rabbinic literature, nor from the stan-
dard lexica or medical and botanical literature. In such cases, it seems
that Shem Tov resorted to semantic borrowing. An example of this is
âåç (HWG)
. in Het
. , which means ‘(to make a) circle’ in the Bible (e.g.
. b). The Arabic synonym øàåã
Job :) and rabbinic literature (bHag
(DW"R) is duwār, meaning ‘circle’, and, as a medical term, ‘vertigo, gid-
diness in the head’. This meaning also features in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms99 (XV, ) as () () (al-duwār wal-sadar, ‘vertigo and
dizziness’). Similar cases can be found, e.g. in Nun  and Shin , but
these are quite rare. More frequently, we find what appear to be gen-
uine loan-translations of compound terms. An example of such a botan-
ical term is øåôöä ïåùì (LS̆WN HS. PWR) in Lamed , literally meaning
‘sparrow’s tongue’. Arabic øåôöòìà ïàñì (LS"N "L‘S. PWR) is lisān al-#us. fūr,
with the same literal meaning, but which is used to designate the fruit

97 Such as Daude de Pradas’ treatise on falconry (cf. A.H. Schutz, The romance of

Daude de Pradas, called Dels Auzels Cassadors, Columbus Ohio ), but also from the
troubadour literature, in which many plant names appear.
98 Only a fragmentary copy of this translation from the beginning of the fifteenth

century still exists, but it seems that the original (full?) translation was made around .
Cf. MF .
99 See BMMa, BMMb.
 introduction

of the ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior L.100 This is the earliest record of this
Hebrew term, at least as far as we currently know. It subsequently features
in the Hebrew translations of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, )
by Zerahyah . ben Isaac ben She"altiel Hen . and Nathan ha-Me"ati, who use
the same Hebrew term øåôöä ïåùì (LS̆WN HS. PWR) for Arabic lisān al-
#us. fūr. Shem Tov did not just use the method of loan-translation in the
field of botany and pharmaceutics101 but also in that of pathology, such
as in the following case: ãöä úìòá (B#LT HS. D) in Bet  literally means
something like ‘possessor of the side’, which is similar to the literal mean-
ing of the Arabic term indicated by Shem Tov, áð§âìà úàã (D’T "LĞNB, dāt
al-ğanb) but which is also used to designate ‘costal pleurisy’. This medical ¯
meaning is confirmed by the Romance-Latin synonym plevesin non vera,
which designates the same disease. The Hebrew term neither features in
Ben Yehuda,102 nor in Even-Shoshan.103 Nathan ha-Me"ati uses this term
in his Hebrew translation of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (VI, ),
while his colleague Zerahyah . ben Isaac ben She"altiel Hen
. uses the term
ãöä éìåç (HWLY. HS. D, ‘illness of the side’).
The creation of a new special terminology is especially striking with
respect to different kinds of inflammations or tumors. Most of these
appear in combination with the Hebrew term çîö (S. MH), . which al-
ready features in rabbinic literature with the special meaning of ‘morbid
growth, swelling, ulcer’. We thus find úåòìöä ïéá çîö (S. MH . BYN
HS. L#WT) in Sade.  as an alternative term for the Arabic term dāt al-
ğanb (‘costal pleurisy’) just mentioned, in contrast to äùôøèá çîö (S. MH ¯
.
BTRP
. S̆H) in Sade
.  for Arabic šaws. a (the “real” pleurisy, as confirmed
by the Romance equivalent plevesin vera). Other examples are çåîä çîö
(S. MH . HMWH, . Sade
. ) for Arabic sirsām (‘phrenitis’); ïéòä ïáåìá çîö
(S. MH . BLWBN H#YN, Sade . ) for Arabic zurqa (‘glaucoma’); íãîãà çîö
(S. MH . "DMDM, Sade. ) for Arabic falġamūnı̄ (‘inflamed tumor’); çîö
÷åîòå ìåãâ (S. MH . GDWL W#MWQ, Sade . ) for Arabic mahba" (‘an ulcer
affecting the flesh, not the bones or tendons’); òáöàä ïøåôöá ˘ çîö (SMH
. .

100 In many cases, we find this type of correspondences in different languages, e.g.—

for the term in question here—lingua avis in Latin, which may itself have been a loan-
translation from Arabic. It cannot be definitively ascertained as to whether Arabic, Latin
or another language was the direct model for this kind of correspondence (often cross-
linguistically well established metaphors). Our considerations are thus to be viewed in
light of this reservation.
101 See Sade  for another case of a botanical term.
.
102 Millon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, abbr. BM.
103 Ha-Millon he-hadash, abbr. EM.
.
introduction 

BS. PRWN H" S. B#, Sade


. ) for Arabic dāhis
. (‘whitlow’); ïåùìä úçúî çîö
(S. MH . MT HT
. HL S̆WN, Sade
. ) for Arabic dafda#
. (‘ranula’), and finally:
øåòä ìëá íé÷ã íéçîö (S. MHYM . DQYM BKL H#WR, Sade . ) for Arabic
butūr (‘pimples; small pustules’).
¯The method of creating new terms, in particular by literal translation,
can sometimes also be observed with respect to the Romance terms,
some of which cannot be found either in existing Occitan or Catalan
documentation. An interesting example is ìéô ñðâéà éøéàô (P"YRY "YGNS
PYL, Alef , MS P), which, despite being somewhat corrupt in all three
manuscripts, can be identified without any doubt as the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
expression peire enans fil(h) / paire enans fill literally meaning ‘father
before son’. This phrase is an inverted translation of the Latin term fili-
us ante patrem, which is a kind of extended version of the plant name
antipater, the meaning of which is difficult to determine (see our com-
mentary to entry Alef  on this matter). Another example is äàéãðéà æåð
(NWZ "YNDY"H, nos india) for ‘coconut’ in Alef , which has been mod-
eled after Arabic ğawz hindı̄ or its Hebrew or Latin equivalent (éãåä æåâà,
"GWZ HWDY, nux indica). In particular, it seems that Shem Tov attempts
to apply the Latin or Arabic binary nomenclature in a systematic way
when it is necessary to distinguish between a wild and a domestic vari-
ant, such as in the use of the adjectives *monta ‘mountainous’, salva(t)je
‘wild’ and fer ‘wild’ in àèðåî âééìåô (PWLYYG MWNT", . *pol(i)eg monta) in
Yod , modelled after Arabic fūdanğ ğabalı̄ (possibly meaning ‘catnip’),
¯
ùé§âàåìù ùìéãø÷ (QRDYLS̆ SLW" ĞYS̆, cardel(h)s salvajes), ‘wild chicory’
in Ayin , literally ‘field endives’, according to the Arabic model hindabā"
barrı̄, é§âàáìù éåøàë (K"RWY S̆LB" ĞY, carvi salva(t)ge) in Ayin  for ‘bas-
tard cumin’, coined after Arabic karāwiyā ğabalı̄ (Ayin ),104 and àâåèéì
àøàô (LYTWG" . P"R", laytuga fera, ‘wild lettuce’) for Arabic hass barrı̄
(Het ˘
. ). Shem Tov uses the epithet *ortolan for the domestic variety,
which is not documented anywhere else in the language as an adjective:
ïàìåèøåà ïàøôù (S̆PR"N "WRTWL"N, . *safran ortolan ‘garden safflower’) in
Het
. .
The occurrence of these Hebrew and Romance terms in the list raises
the question of their originality. Are they the product of translation
activity undertaken by earlier translators, translators working during
the same period or medical authors whose works Shem Tov had access
to or was he the first one to coin these new terms in order to fill the

104 As well as the Hebrew íéøä ñáøé÷ (QYRBS HRYM).


 introduction

gaps in the Hebrew (and partially Occitan) technical lexicon? Answer-


ing this question involves establishing which Hebrew translators were
working before Shem Tov or at the same time to ascertain whether he
might have been able to consult their translations of medical works, and
pharmaceutical ones in particular, for their medical-pharmaceutical ter-
minology. The only major translator who meets this criterion is Moses
ben Samuel ibn Tibbon, who was already mentioned in section ., where
we also expressed reservations about a direct connection to Shem Tov’s
work. Two other major thirteenth century translators of medical works
from Arabic into Hebrew, namely Nathan ha-Me"ati105 and Zerahyah . ben
Isaac ben She"altiel Hen, 106 mentioned above, were both active in Rome
.
after Shem Tov, as Nathan worked between  and  and Zerahyah .
between  and . Therefore, the occurrence of a similar botani-
cal terminology in their translations of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(see above) can be ascribed to the influence of Shem Tov on their transla-
tion work, unless they drew on other, hitherto unknown sources. As we
already mentioned, the question of whether Shem Tov consulted other
synonym lists compiled by earlier authors cannot be answered defini-
tively, as most of these lists are undated and unpublished, with research
into such lists still in its infancy. Initial selective investigations into some
of the lists in question point to a negative answer to this question, at
least with regard to Hebrew. The same applies for Arabic compendia con-
taining alphabetical lists of plants with synonyms in different languages,
amongst them Hebrew, such as al-Idrı̄sı̄’s Kitāb al-jāmi# li-sifāt aštāt an-
nabāt. Research on this compendium showed that the novel Hebrew
terminology used by Shem Tov does not feature in this medical com-
pendium. The final sources that could have been consulted by Shem Tov
are original medical compositions in Hebrew with synonym terminology
compiled at an earlier date than his glossary. The only surviving exam-
ples of such compositions are the Sefer Asaph, also called Sefer Refu"ot,

105 For Nathan ha-Me"ati (of Cento), see H. Vogelstein and P. Rieger, Geschichte

der Juden in Rom,  vols, Berlin –, vol. , pp. –, M. Steinschneider,
Die hebräischen Übersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher, p. ;
G. Freudenthal, “Les sciences dans les communautés juives médiévales de Provence:
Leur appropriation, leur rôle”, in Revue des études juives  (), pp. –, pp. –
.
106 On Zerahyah see Vogelstein-Rieger, op. cit., vol. , pp. –, –; Stein-
.
schneider, loc. cit.; A. Ravitzky, Mishnato shel R. Zerahyah
. b. Isaac b. She"altiel Hen
. (Doct.
diss.), Jerusalem , pp. –; G. Bos, Aristotle’s De Anima. Translated into Hebrew by
Zerahyah
. ben Isaac ben She"altiel Hen.
. A Critical Edition with an Introduction & Index,
Leiden , pp. –; Freudenthal, op. cit., pp. –.
introduction 

a book known in Southern Italy in the tenth century which was reed-
ited (or possibly even rewritten) by the Southern Italian doctor Shabbetai
Donnolo107 and the Sefer ha-Yakar, also called Sefer Merkahot,
. which was
also written by Shabbetai Donnolo (–).108 However, after consult-
ing these works whilst editing Shem Tov’s first list, it became clear to us
that the terminology featured in them is very different from that used by
Shem Tov.
In summary, Shem Tov ben Isaac mainly employed two procedures to
create a Hebrew medical terminology. He consulted the works of Sa#adya
Ga"on, Jonah ibn Janāh". and the Geonim on the one hand in order to find
Hebrew-Aramaic equivalents to the Arabic terms in question, whilst, on
the other hand, he was compelled to employ new terminology created
via loan-translation or semantic borrowing due to gaps in the existing
Hebrew medical-botanical lexicon. As far as we know at the moment,
several of these terms are attested for the first time in Shem Tov’s list,
having been coined by him from Arabic and subsequently adopted by
other translators such as Nathan ha-Me"ati and Zerahyah . ben Isaac ben
109
She"altiel Hen.
.

107 Cf. Shatzmiller, Jews, Medicine and Medieval Society, p. . For a recent dis-
cussion of the academic work contained in this book, see E. Lieber, “Asaf ’s Book of
Medicines: A Hebrew Encyclopaedia of Greek and Jewish Medicine, possibly com-
piled in Byzantium according to an Indian model”, in J. Scarborough (ed.), Sympo-
sium on Byzantine Medicine, Cambridge Mass.,  (Dumbarton Oaks Papers, ),
pp. –. For the materia medica in the Sefer Asaph see especially L. Venetianer,
“Asaf Judaeus. Der aelteste medizinische Schriftsteller in hebraeischer Sprache,” abbr.
AV.
108 Cf. Shatzmiller, op. cit.; H.J. Zimmels, “Science”, in C. Roth (ed.), The Dark Ages. Jews

in Christian Europe –, New Brunswick  (The World History of the Jewish
People. Second Series: Medieval Period. Volume Two), chapter XII: Aspects of Jewish
Culture, pp. –. The Sefer ha-Mirkahot . was edited by S. Muntner, in R. Shabbetai
Donnolo. Kitvei ha-Refu"ah, Jerusalem , pp. –. For a new edition see L. Ferre,
“Donnolo’s Sefer ha-yaqar: New Edition with English Translation”, Šabbetay Donnolo.
¯
Scienza e cultura ebraica nell’Italia del secolo X. A cura di Giancarlo Lacerenza, Naples
 (Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, Series
Minor LXVI), pp. –.
109 Some of these terms are: øùá úåãåâà ("GWDWT BS̆R, ‘ganglions’, Alef ); ãöä úìòá

(B#LT HS. D, ‘pleurisy’, Bet ); ïúùä úôèä (HTPT


. HS̆TN, “dribbling of urine” = ‘strangury’,
He ); íéòîä úãòîä (HM#DT HM#YM, Dysenteria spuria, He ); ïéòä áðæ (ZNB H#YN,
‘the exterior angle of the eye’, Zayin ); âåç (HWG,
. ‘vertigo’, Het
. ); øôàä éìç (HLY .
H"PR, ‘ophthalmia’, Het
. ); áöòä úúéôì (LPYTT H#S. B, ‘strained nerves’, Lamed ); ÷øæî
(MZRQ, ‘syringe’, Mem ); íèåçä õ÷åò (#WQS. HHW . TM, . ‘end, extremity of the nose’ =
‘the wing of the nose’, Ayin ); ãåâøô (PRGWD, ‘curtain’ = ‘diaphragm’, Pe ); úåôôø
(RPPWT, ‘twitching, palpitation’, Resh ); ïúùä úôøù (S̆RPT HS̆TN, ‘dysuria’, Shin );
úåôéù (S̆YPWT, ‘dentifrice’, Shin ).
 introduction

. The Vernacular Element

.. Jewish-Romance Literature


It is commonly known that the use of Hebrew characters for non-
Hebrew purposes is not exceptional. There are many texts in Hebrew
characters from a range of Romance languages such as Spanish, Catalan,
Occitan, Italian and French, particularly texts from the Middle Ages.110
An important distinction has to be made between the Judeo-Spanish
that became commonplace in the diaspora following the expulsion of
the Jews from Spain and the medieval documentation of Romance
languages in Hebrew characters in Spain and in other Romance speaking
territories. Whereas Judeo-Spanish, which underwent a clear historical
development, can be classified as a special group of Spanish varieties or
even as a language of its own, the medieval manifestations of Romance
in Hebrew characters largely correspond to the Romance languages and
dialects as they were spoken by both Jews and Christians at that time. This
is in accordance with the fact that the idea of special Jewish-Romance
varieties originally posed by Blondheim111 cannot be maintained from
a modern point of view, as has been shown, for example, by Banitt,112
and, for Spanish in particular, by Minervini.113 As far as O. Occ. is
concerned, the same has been shown by Aslanov,114 who also notes

110 Cf. J. Kramer and S. Kowallik, Einführung in die hebräische Schrift, Hamburg,
, p. XIV; M. Sala, “Die romanischen Judensprachen”, in LRL , pp. –, see
p.  for a detailed discussion; H.V. Sephiha, “Problématique du judéo-espagnol”, in
Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris  (), pp. –; W. Busse, “Zur
Problematik des Judenspanischen”, in Neue Romania  (), pp. –. For Catalan,
see, e.g., the Cants de noces (J. Riera i Sans, Cants de noces dels jueus catalans, Barcelona
). For Old Spanish, see L. Minervini, Testi giudeospagnoli medievali (Castiglia e
Aragona),  vols, Naples . French texts in Hebrew characters are less common; cf. the
overviews in J. Zwink, “Etude lexicographique du traité anonyme Fevres: une compilation
médicale en ancien français, écrite en caractères hébraïques”, in Panace@ VII /  (),
pp. – and G. Bos / G. Mensching / J. Zwink, “A late medieval Hebrew-French
glossary of biblical animal names”, in Romance Philology  (), pp. –. Also
cf. BF.
111 D.S. Blondheim, Les parlers judéo-romans et la Vetus Latina. Etude sur les rapports

entre les traductions bibliques en langue romane des Juifs au Moyen Age et les anciennes
versions, Paris .
112 M. Banitt, “Une langue fantôme: le judéo-français”, in Revue de Linguistique Romane

 (), pp. –; also cf. Sala, op. cit., p. .


113 Op. cit.
114 ShK –.
introduction 

that we have to distinguish between the Shuadit or Judeo-Comtadine


(spoken until nearly the end of the twentieth century in the modern
French departement of Vaucluse), a real Judeo-Romance variety which
developed later, and such medieval texts.115
Examples of important O. Occ. texts transmitted in the Hebrew alpha-
bet include a fragment of the Esther Poem and a collection of prayers
(“Rituel”),116 with both texts written entirely in Hebrew characters.
Whereas the latter represents a rather literal word-by-word translation
from Hebrew, the Esther Poem reflects the O. Occ. language of the time
perfectly. Other poetic texts in which Hebrew and Occitan are combined
also exist, as well as short passages, single words and numerous glosses
in Hebrew texts.117 On the lexicographic side, important documents are
the S̆aršot ha-Kesef (ShK) by Joseph Caspi, a dictionary of Hebrew word
roots with their Occitan correspondences, and a similar, older work by
118 The reader is referred to Aslanov’s seminal edition of
David Kimhi. .
the S̆aršot ha-Kesef for more extensive documentation and discussion of
Hebrew-Occitan literature.
O. Occ. medical texts and terms in Hebrew characters have not tra-
ditionally received any research attention, to some extent because the
Romance language in such texts had not even been identified as Occi-
tan.119 Several synonym lists as well as medical prose texts that contain

115 “[. . . E]n Provence, avant que les Juifs ne soient reclus dans leurs carrières, la langue

parlée par les Juifs ne devait guère différer de celle qui était en usage chez les Gentils”
(S̆hK ).
116 A. Neubauer and P. Meyer, “Le roman provençal d’Esther par Crescas de Caylar,

médecin juif du XIV siècle”, in Romania  (), pp. –; S.M. Silberstein, The
Provençal Esther poem written in Hebrew Characters c.  by Crescas de Caylar, Critical
Edition, PhD Diss., Philadelphia ; M. Lazar, “La traduction hébraïco-provençale du
Rituel (Manuscrit inédit du XVe siècle)”, in Mélanges de langue et littérature du Moyen
Âge et de la Renaissance offerts à Jean Frappier,  vols, Geneva , vol. , pp. –
.
117 M. Lazar, “Épithalames bilingues hébraïco-romans dans deux manuscrits du XV

siècle”, in I. Cluzel and F. Pirot (eds), Mélanges de philologie romane dédiés à la mémoire de
Jean Butière,  vols, Liège , vol. , pp. –; M. Schwab, “Un acte de vente hébreu
du XIVe siècle”, in Revue des Études Juives  (), pp. –; idem, “Livre de Comptes
de Mardoché Joseph (manuscrit hébréo-provençal)”, in Notes et extraits des manuscrits
de la Bibliothèque Nationale et d’autres bibliothèques  (), pp. –; A. Thomas,
“Gloses provençales de source juive”, in Ann. du Midi  (), pp. –; G. Vajda,
“Quelques mots à propos du manuscrit hébreu  de la Bibliothèque Nationale de
Paris”, in Revue des Études Juives  (), pp. –.
118 D. Kimhi, Sefer ha-Shorashim, ed. J.H. Biesenthal and F. Lebrecht, Berlin , repr.
.
Jerusalem .
119 See Bos / Mensching, “Shem Tov Ben Isaac, Glossary of Botanical Terms, Nos. –”

and HebMedSyn; outside the field of medicine, ShK –.


 introduction

O. Occ. glosses have been identified within the context of various projects
by the authors of this edition.120 One example of the latter is the Hebrew
fragment of the Latin-versed Macer Floridus (MF), from which we were
able to isolate around  O. Occ. words. A great deal more material can be
found in Moses ibn Tibbon’s translation of Ibn al-Jazzār’s Zād al-musāfir
wa-qūt al-hādir
. (Provisions for the Traveller and the Nourishment for
the Sedentary), book VII, chapters –, where the translator mostly uses
Occitan rather than Hebrew for translating Arabic terms.121
In our text, as in other Hebrew texts with Romance elements, the
Romance languages are usually referred to as æòì (La#az). This word122
was already used in the Mishnah to designate “barbarous”, i.e., non-
Hebrew languages, and for Greek in particular. In the Middle Ages, the
term La#az also began to be used to refer to Romance languages. An early
documentation of this extended meaning to refer to a Romance language
can be found in Rashi, who used the term La#az to designate the French
dialect of the Southern Champagne.123

.. The Old Occitan Language and How It Is Reflected in the Text
In this and the following four subsections, we focus on the Romance
material found in the synonym list edited in this volume. We shall see
that the three manuscripts sometimes show different dialectal forms of
Occitan and, to a varying degree, some elements from Catalan. Since
the exact filiation of the three manuscripts (cf. section .) remains
rather obscure, we are unable to ascertain definitively which elements
stem originally from Shem Tov and which represent changes introduced
by later copyists. In addition, we do not even know which Romance
linguistic variety Shem Tov employed in his lists. Due to the relatively

120 See HebMedSyn.


121 There are some other publications of medical texts in Hebrew that contain Catalan
material. See GHAT, OLD and PJP, as well as L. Ferre / M. McVaugh (eds), The “Tabula
Antidotarii” of Armengaud Blaise and its Hebrew Translation, Philadelphia  (=
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. ,); L. Ferre, “La terminología
médica en las versiones hebreas de textos latinos”, in Miscelánea de estudios árabes y
hebraicos  (), pp. –; C. Caballero-Navas, The Book of Women’s Love and
Jewish Medical Literature on Women. Sefer Ahavat Nashim, London .
122 Cf. the occurrence of the root æòì in the Bible (Ps :), where it has the meaning

‘to talk in an unintellegible language’.


123 Cf. Bos / Mensching / Zwink, op. cit. For a detailed discussion of the history, mean-

ing and connotations of this term, cf. ShK – and M. Banitt, art. “La"az”, in E.J.
: ff. In our edition, we translate La#az as other language (abbr. o.l.)
introduction 

small proportion of words clearly identifiable as Catalan (cf. section .),


it seems probable that Shem Tov, who compiled the list in Southern
France, used Occitan and not his native language Catalan. Since the Sefer
ha-Shimmush was written during Shem Tov’s stay in Marseille, it may also
be conjectured that he used the Provençal dialect. This would conform
to a small number of Provençal characteristics that can be found in all
manuscripts (cf. section .). On the other hand, the time he previously
spent in Montpellier, which is in the Eastern Languedocian dialect
zone, could also explain some occasional Languedocian features in his
writings. Such considerations must, however, be treated as conjecture for
the time being; we are only able to analyse the evidence provided by the
three manuscripts in the following.
Among the linguistic varieties that had arisen from Vulgar Latin by the
end of the first millennium ad, those spoken in France have traditionally
been divided into two major groups: the so-called oïl-varieties in the
North and the oc-varieties in the South. This nomenclature, which has
its origin in the Middle Ages, stems from the particles meaning ‘yes’
in the respective varieties. In a simplified manner, it can be said that
the Northern varieties are representatives of the langue de oïl or French,
whereas the Southern varieties correspond to a different language, the
langue d’oc or Occitan. The latter has survived until today as a minority
language in Southern France, but was a prestigious and highly influential
literary language during the Middle Ages, especially via the poetry of the
troubadours. The need to differentiate between Old Occitan (c. –
) and Middle Occitan (c. –)124 is not generally accepted; we
shall follow the Dictionnaire de l’Occitan Médieval (DOM) by referring to
the Occitan language during the Middle Ages as Old Occitan. This issue is
not of relevance for Shem Tov himself, since his glossaries were compiled
in the thirteenth century. However, the manuscripts that we are editing
here stem from the fourteenth century (cf. .), and thus probably from
the beginning of the so-called Middle Occitan period.
Roughly speaking, the Occitan territory comprises the modern polit-
ical regions of Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-
Côte d’Azur, and parts of the regions of Auvergne, Rhône-Alpes and
Languedoc Roussillon.125 It seems that the Occitan linguistic territory

124 Cf. POc  and P. Bec, La langue occitane, Paris  (Que sais-je? nº ), p. .
125 Catalan is spoken in the historical Roussillon part. Outside the boundaries of
modern France, Occitan is spoken in the North-Western corner of Catalonia in Spain
and in some valleys in Piemont and Liguria, Italy.
 introduction

was roughly the same in the Middle Ages, maybe extending slightly
further to the North to reach the River Loire.126 Occitan has always
consisted of various dialects, whereas the literary language used in the
poetry of the troubadours in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries appears
fairly uniform.127 In other domains, such as the language used in legal
documents, Romance philology scholars have been able to distinguish
between different regionally determined writing traditions (scriptae).128
For our purposes, such issues are largely irrelevant for two reasons: firstly,
the question of scriptae or koiné formation has never been addressed
for medical texts,129 and, secondly, Hebrew-Romance writing traditions
developed separately from scriptae based on the Latin alphabet and thus
have to be studied within the Sephardic writing traditions. We shall
return to the issue of which dialects are reflected in our manuscripts
below. In the following, we briefly sketch some of the characteristics of
O. Occ., which are illustrated using examples from our text. This section
is intended to enable readers from outside the field of Romance philol-
ogy to follow our argumentation. The main purpose of this section is thus
to illustrate why the Romance vocabulary in our synonym list has to be
considered as Occitan.
Determining the status of Occitan as either a Gallo-Romance or an
Ibero-Romance language is both difficult and highly controversial. It
resembles Catalan more than French with respect to numerous fea-
tures, particularly in the Middle Ages. Some features, on the other
hand, may equally justify grouping Occitan together with French, such
as the two case inflection common to both Old French and O. Occ.,
which differentiated between a nominative or “rectus” and an oblique
case. These oblique forms began to be generalised over the course of

126 Cf. Bec, op. cit., p. ; G. Kremnitz, Das Okzitanische: Sprachgeschichte und Soziolo-
gie, Tübingen , p. ; POc .
127 The literary language has traditionally been considered as a koiné. Cf. M.-D. Gleß-

gen and M. Pfister, “Okzitanische Koine. La koinè occitane”, in LRL vol. ,, pp. –
.
128 Cf. the articles nos. – in LRL ,: M.-D. Gleßgen and M. Pfister, “Okzi-

tanische Scriptaformen I. Limousin, Périgord”, pp. –; A. Lodge, “Okzitanische


Scriptaformen II. Auvergne”, pp. –; M.-D. Gleßgen and J. Wüest, “Okzitanis-
che Scriptaformen III. Provence, Dauphinois”, pp. –; J. Wüest, “Okzitanische
Scriptaformen IV. Languedoc”, pp. –; J. Allières, “Okzitanische Scriptaformen V.
Gascogne, Béarn”, pp. –.
129 The language used in Occitan medical texts has been studied by M.S. Corradini

Bozzi (CB); it appears that they are written in individual dialects (partially reflecting those
of the copyists).
introduction 

time, and we can suppose that this case system was already instable
at the time when Shem Tov was working130 and had vanished alto-
gether by the fourteenth century when the copies of our manuscripts
were made. Since the old nominative singular forms are in many cases
homophonous with the oblique plural forms, they cannot be identified
in a text such as ours, where the words occur in isolation without any
syntactic context.131
There are several clear sound shift phenomena that separate Occitan
from French, or, more precisely, the oïl-varieties of Northern France,132
which can also be seen more or less clearly in Shem Tov’s synonym lists.
We shall only mention a few here:
) The voiceless stops of Latin in intervocalic position, which had
become voiced in Western Proto-Romance,133 vanished in French in the
case of -T- and -C- (VITA > vie, AMICA > amie), whereas -P- became
a fricative (RIPA > rive).134 The Western Proto-Romance voiced stops
are preserved in Occitan (as in Ibero-Romance) (RIPA > riba, VITA
> vida, AMICA > amiga). In our text, we find àãåø (RWD") for ‘gar-
den rue’ (Pe ), which could represent Occitan ruda (< lat. RUTA), but
not French rue with the loss of the intervocalic stop. Similarly, West-
ern Proto-Romance /g/ from Latin /k/ is preserved in øéâåð (NWGYR),
noguer, ‘walnut tree’ (Alef ) and àâåèéì (LYTWG"),
. laytuga, ‘lettuce’
(Het
. , ), in contrast to French noyer and laitue (< Latin LACTUCA,
Vulgar Latin *nucarium). ) In French, stressed Latin E and O became
diphthongised in open syllables, but remained intact in Occitan (note
that diphthongs are represented in our text, cf. section .). Therefore,
øåìô (PLWR, Sade.  and Pe ) or ìéî (MYL, Kaf , MSS O and V)
should be read as Occitan flor and mel and not as Old French miel and
flour. ) In French, as in almost all Romance languages, the Latin diph-
thong AU was monophthongised, usually to o, while in Occitan the diph-
thong remained au, as in Lat. AURUM > Occ. aur (in contrast to or in

130 POc –.


131 For some words in our text, a rectus reading may be more or less probable, for
example Q(")WLŠ, cauls, ‘cabbage’ (Kaf ). However, in all cases, these kinds of forms
can be read as the plural form. In most cases, the plural hypothesis can be confirmed by
the Arabic and Hebrew synonyms.
132 Cf. A.C. Di Girolamo / C. Lee, Avviamento alla filologia provenzale, Rome ,

p. .
133 All Romance varieties except for Central and Southern Italian and Romanian.
134 Only originally voiced intervocalic plosives disappeared in Occitan and Catalan

(e.g., SUDOREM > suor).


 introduction

French).135 Thus, in Gimel , we find øåàã (D’WR, MS P) and øáàã


(D’BR, MS O, V) with the meaning ‘of gold’, which most probably rep-
resents Occ. d’aur.136
Like French, Occitan belongs to the Western Romance language
group,137 which can be easily distinguished from the Eastern group (Cen-
tral and Southern Italian and Romanian) based on the voicing of stops
that is described in () above, which is absent from the latter (i.e., the
stops remain voiceless). This criterion as well as, to some extent at least,
the one mentioned in () also apply to other members of the West-
ern group. However, Occitan behaves differently from most other West-
ern Romance languages. For example, all varieties of the Iberian Penin-
sula with the exception of Catalan, which will be discussed below, have
retained the vowel that developed from the Latin ending -um, usually
/o/. Thus, from Latin APIUM, FRISCUM, OLEUM, and PINUM we
obtain Spanish apio, fresco, olio and pino, which contrast with Occi-
tan api, fresc, oli and pin. The latter are represented exactly in our syn-
onym lists as éôà ("PY, Kaf ), ÷ùéøô (PRYS̆Q, Tet ), éìåà ("WLY,
Shin , , ) and ïéô (PYN, Alef ). This feature is shared by Cata-
lan, as are most of the other characteristics mentioned above for Occ-
itan. In fact, many of the Romance elements in our synonym lists can
be interpreted either as Occitan or as Catalan, and in some cases, it is
only these two languages that would even come into consideration. For
example, the variant brufol for ‘buffalo’, clearly represented in Mem 
as ìåôåøá (BRWPWL), cannot be found in any other Romance language,
with Occitan and Catalan being the only two Romance languages that
demonstrate a parasitic r in this word, which is derived from Late Latin
bufalus.
The question of whether the Romance material in Shem Tov’s syn-
onym lists is Catalan rather than Occitan or whether it contains at least
some elements of Catalan is an important one, because, although Shem
Tov worked in the Occitan-speaking city of Marseille, he was born in

135 Catalan generally behaves like French in this respect, but note that the variant aur

existed alongside or in the case at issue.


136 At least word-initially, åà ("W) could represent either au or o, but the alterna-

tive spelling áà ("B) unequivocously represents au, e.g., in èðéîåôøáà ("BRPWMYNT, .


Samekh ) for O. Occ. aurpiment (MS V) alongside èð(é)îéôøåà ("WRPYM(Y)NT) . in the
other manuscripts. See . for further discussion.
137 The Western Romance territory extends roughly to the North and the West of a

line connecting the Italian cities of La Spezia and Rimini up to the Portuguese Atlantic
coast.
introduction 

Tortosa, meaning his native language was Catalan. The problem is that
these two languages share many more properties than those just men-
tioned and were even more similar in the Middle Ages than they are
today. It is often relatively easy to differentiate between the two languages
in texts written in Latin characters, as they each employ different spelling
conventions. Thus, the last syllable of the word for chestnut contains a
palatal n ([ɲ]) in both languages but was typically spelled castanha in
Occitan and castanya in Catalan.138 However, the Hebrew spelling fol-
lows the pronunciation instead, so that forms such as àéðèù÷ (QS̆TNY") .
or àééðàèù÷ (QS̆T"NYY",
. Ayin ) are unable to provide any help when
it comes to distinguishing between the two languages. There are, how-
ever, some differences that do indicate that the language of our text is,
for the most part at least, Occitan and not Catalan:139 ) The [dz] sound,
which is derived from (Vulgar) Latin intervocalic [k], was lost in Catalan
but preserved in Occitan,140 such as in O. Occ. cozen(t) versus O. Cat.
coent for ‘cooking’. Taking into account the fact that the sound repre-
sented by the letter z in Occitan is often represented by Dalet (see sec-
tion . below), the variant èðéãå÷ (QWDYNT) . in Bet  cannot be inter-
preted as Catalan but rather exclusively as Occitan. ) Similarly, Latin
intervocalic -d- was lost in Catalan in most cases, but was often pre-
served in Occitan, hence coda versus coa ‘tail’.141 Our manuscripts uni-
formly show the Occitan form, àãå÷ (QWD") (Zayin ). ) Conversely,
for the Latin LEGUMEN, the -g- was lost in Occitan (lium) but pre-
served in Catalan (llegum); the former is reflected in the plural forms
(e.g. ùðîåéì LYWMNS̆) in our text (Zayin ). ) As we have seen above,
diphthongs derived from stressed Latin E and O are absent from Occi-
tan, with diphthongs developing in other cases however, primarily when

138 Note, however, that there were many different spelling variants for the sound [ɲ] in
both languages.
139 Some distinguishing properties are only apparent because they are the result of later

developments. Thus, e.g., the shift of word final /ts/ to the semivowel [w] is not reflected
in texts from before the fifteenth century, although the sound shift is supposed to have
happened earlier (cf. our commentary to entry Alef ). Thus, ñåð (NWS) or æåð (NWZ) in
Alef  and  reflects O. Occ. notz or nos, ‘nut’ but also an early O. Cat. form, in contrast
to the modern nou.
140 Cf. MollGram , POc .
141 Cf. MollGram –, POc . When it is not lost, it was usually transformed to

[z]. For the word in question, coa is documented both for Occ. and Cat., whereas Occ.
also had the forms coda and coza (RL :a; FEW –:b). Since, as stated above,
intervocalic Dalet often represents [z] (also cf. .), the form àãå÷ could also represent
coza, which would still be exclusively Occitan.
 introduction

these vowels were open and followed by a Yod.142 Thus, from Latin BIS-
COCTUM, where the nexus [kt] changed into [jt] in Proto-Western
Romance, we get bescueit in Occitan. In Catalan, this vowel was reduced
to i,143 so that the corresponding result is bescuit. Our text shows the
Occitan variant, èééå÷ù(é)á (B(Y)S̆QWYYT, . Kaf ); note that the diph-
thong is represented by YY.144 ) Another example where O. Occ. demon-
strates a diphthong where O. Cat. has a monophthong instead is pro-
vided by words whose suffixes stem from Latin -ARIUS, which appears
as -ier in O. Occ. and -er in Cat.,145 such as fornier vs. forner ‘baker’,
where the diphthong is clearly visible in all three manuscripts (øééðøåô,
PWRNYYR, Pe ).146 ) One particular characteristic of Occitan is the
so-called “n-mobile”, a “single N in Latin that became final through loss
of the last syllable”.147 This n was lost in many Occitan dialects as it was in
Catalan;148 in writing, it was sometimes included and sometimes omit-
ted in O. Occ., at least in Latin script based writing traditions.149 In our
synonym list, the n-mobile is always almost spelt out, such as in ïåâ(à)øã
(DR(")GWN, dragon, ‘dragon’, Dalet ), which thus represents O. Occ.
dragon ‘dragon’ and not O. Cat. drago. We shall return to the n-mobile
in section ..
Apart from such uniform results of sound shift phenomena, the two
languages can sometimes be distinguished due to differences in their
respective vocabularies. Thus, for example, the verb esterilhar ‘to stretch’
(øàéìéøèùà, " S̆TRYLY"R
. in Gimel ) does not seem to exist in any other
Romance language apart from Occitan and is thus absent from Cata-
lan too. A similar case is àðåðà ("NWN") in Dalet , which represents

142 POc –.


143 Cf. MollGram , for the general monophthongation rule in Catalan.
144 Also see the feminine participle form àèééå÷ (QWYYT") ‘cooked’ in Dalet , repre-
.
senting Occitan cueita but not Catalan cuita.
145 Cf. MollGram , POc –.
146 In other cases, we find diverging forms in the different manuscripts. E.g., in Bet ,

the spelling of the somewhat corrupt form øééâééãà ("DYYGYYR) reflects the ending -ier
of O. Occ., aiguier ‘drain for water’, whereas MS P has øéâéà ("YGYR). In the latter case, we
are, of course, unable to tell whether the Catalan variant aiguer is meant or whether the
diphthong was just not represented.
147 POc . This is different from the Latin NT, which produced a stable n, also cf. POc

.
148 According to A. Griera i Gaja, Gramàtica històrica del català antic, Barcelona ,

p. , and MollGram , the -n appears sporadically in Catalan texts written no later than
the thirteenth century.
149 Cf. POc loc. cit.
introduction 

O. Occ. an(n)on(n)a, ‘wheat, cereal’, a word which does not seem to have
existed in O. Cat., as is the case with malviscle ‘marshmallow’ (éì÷ùéåìî,
MLWYS̆QLY, Het . ). Sometimes, irregular sound shift phenomena or
different Vulgar Latin traditions led to different results in both languages.
Some examples are:
– O. Occ aisens or eisens for ‘absinth’ vs. O. Cat. donzell, see ñðùéà
("YS̆NS) / õðéù(é)éà ("Y(Y)S̆YNS. ) in Alef . The Catalan variant ìéæðåã
(DWNZYL) can be found in a MS from the Iberian Peninsula.150
– The form nerta for ‘myrtle’ is exclusively Occitan, whereas murta
is both Occitan and Catalan. All three manuscripts contain nerta
(àèøéð, NYRT" . / äèøéð, NYRTH . in Alef ).
– O. Occ. limas(s)a vs. O. Cat. llimac (‘snail’, ‘slug’), see àñàîì (LM’S") /
àöîéì (LYMS. ") in Het . .
– O. Occ. sorba for ‘fruit of the service tree’. Catalan has forms with e
instead of o, serba / serva. The variant with o can be seen particularly
well in the plural form ù(à)áøåù (S̆WRB(")S̆, Ayin ).
– O. Occ. romeze / ronse, éæîåø (RWMZY) in Qof , vs. O. Cat. ro-
meguera, ‘blackberry’, which appears in Hebrew transcription as
äøéâîåø (RWMGYRH) in a synonym list of Catalan origin (GHAT).
– O. Occ. ili ‘iris’; O. Cat. has forms with l- or ll-, such as lliri. Our text
contains the Occ. variant: éìéà ("YLY) (Shin ).
– O. Occ. gip, óé§â (ĞYP) in Gimel , ‘gypsum’. O. Cat. had forms
ending in -s, such as gibs, giss, among others.
– à(é)éð(à)ì(é)ô (P(Y)L(")NY(Y)") in Alef  seems to be O. Occ. pe-
lonha or a non-documented O. Occ. form *pelanha (cf. Mod. Occ.
pelagno), whereas only pelaina is documented for Catalan.
Examples of this type are clearly more frequent than counterexamples,
i.e., typically Catalan forms, of which there seem to be very few. We
will discuss this matter further in section . once the issue of dialectal
variation within Occitan has been addressed.

.. Dialectal Variation


Occitan is divided into several dialects, the exact characteristics of which
we are unable to discuss in any great detail here. Determining the dialect
or dialects of the three manuscripts in an exact manner is equally not our

150 Cf. HebMedSyn .


 introduction

primary concern here. Such a task is not an easy one anyway, since not
all the features necessary for determining the provenance of an O. Occ.
text are reflected in the Hebrew graphic system. We shall, nevertheless,
attempt to address at least some aspects of this issue.
A major distinction is usually made between Northern and Southern
varieties. One characteristic property of the former is that velar plosives
before [a] became palatalised, see examples such as chastel, brancha, plaja
compared to castel, branca, plaga in the South.151 Since our manuscripts
contain no trace of this palatalisation, we can restrict our discussion
to the Southern varieties, namely Languedocian, which covers the area
between the rivers Garonne and Rhône, and Provençal, which comprises
the ancient county of Provence, the county of Venaissin and the cities
of Avignon, Marseille, and Nice.152 We can narrow down the territory
further based on the occurrence of the n-mobile (cf. .), which regu-
larly appears spelt out in our text, cf. ïåøá (BRWN, brun, ‘brown, dark’,
Gimel , Tet. ), ïåìè (TLWN,
. talon, ‘heel’, Qof ), ïéô (PYN, pin, ‘pine-
tree’, Alef ), ïåâ(à)øã (DR(")GWN, dragon, ‘dragon’, Dalet ), ïàô (P"N,
pan, ‘bread’, Lamed ), ï(à)ìåèøåà ïàøôù (S̆PR"N "WRTWL(")N, . *safran
ortolan, ‘garden safflower’, in Het ). 153 This feature, which is common
.
to all three manuscripts, indicates that they stem from a zone where the
final n had not disappeared. Such a feature is typical of the zone east of
the Rhône and around Nîmes,154 which leads us to exclude the Langue-
docian territory and restrict the language primarily to the Provençal
dialect, excluding the Western part of the Rhodanien subdialect. It is
worth noting that another list of Hebrew-Romance glosses, the S̆aršot
ha-Kesef by Joseph Caspi (ShK, see .), which was identified as being
essentially Rhodanien by its editor Cyril Aslanov, consequently omits the
n-mobile.155 The Provençal dialect zone east of the Rhône to where the
Romance variety used in our synonym list can be localised also corre-
sponds to the main region in which the word nerta for ‘myrtle’ (cf. .)
is found. According to Von Wartburg, this form actually originated in

151 According to Di Girolamo / Lee, op. cit., pp. –.


152 Ibidem.
153 There is only one striking exception, namely àèðåî âééìåô (PWLYYG MWNT",
.
*pol(i)eg monta) in Yod .
154 Cf. R. Sampson, Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford / New York , p. ;

K. Kutscha, Das sogenannte n-mobile im Alt- und Neuprovenzalischen, Halle (Saale) 
(= Romanistische Arbeiten ).
155 ShK, p. . The editor remarks that the situation is similar in the case of the Esther

poem (cf. Neubauer and Meyer, op. cit.; Silberstein, op. cit.)
introduction 

Marseille and spread in a mostly Northern direction along the Rhône


and towards the East.156 Although all this would seem to tie in with
the fact that Shem Tov wrote the synonym lists in Marseille and was
therefore likely to have used the local linguistic variety in doing so, the
picture is not actually as uniform as it might seem at first glance. For
example, the word àìøåâå÷ QWGWRL", cogorla, for ‘pumpkin’ used in
Dalet  is an Eastern Languedocian157 word. The -it- resulting from Latin
-CT- mentioned in . is also typically found in the Languedoc variety,158
whereas in Provençal it is palatalised to form [tʃ] (usually spelled ch). Our
synonym list contains the -it- forms, aside from a few exceptions in one
of the manuscripts.159
In addition to the features already discussed, which are common
to all three manuscripts, we also find differences that are specific to
each individual manuscript, which can most likely be put down to the
different linguistic varieties used by the copyists. It thus appears that V
and P contain some more typically Languedocian elements. Thus, èøéùàì
(L" S̆YRT,
. for ‘lizard’), which is used in manuscript V in Kaf , has
to be interpreted as lazert, a variant type (including forms without -t)
that can be classified as Western Provençal and Eastern Languedocian,
encompassing the Montpellier variety, whereas manuscript P shows the
variant èøéáãì (LDBYRT). . If our interpretation is correct, this variant
represents an incorrect spelling of lauzert, which has been documented
in an Old Languedocian text from the fifteenth century; judging from its
modern distribution, it seems to be an essentially Western Languedocian
and Gascon form.160 However, some other forms in this manuscript

156 Cf. W. v. Wartburg, Von Sprache und Mensch. Gesammelte Aufsätze. Bern ,
pp. –; FEW –:b; G. Mensching and G. Bos, “Une liste de synonymes médico-
botaniques en caractères hébraïques avec des éléments occitans et catalans”, A. Rieger
(ed.), Actes du neuvième Congrès International de l’AIEO, Aix-la-Chapelle, – août
, Aachen, in press.
157 And Northern Occitan, Auvergnat in particular, but for the reasons already men-

tioned we do not consider this here.


158 Cf. M.R. Harris, The Occitan Translations of John XII and XIII–XVII from a Four-

teenth-Century Franciscan Codex, Philadelphia , pp. –.


159 E.g., àèééå÷ (QWYYT", cueita, ‘cooked’) in Dalet , àâåè(é)éì (LY(Y)TWG", leituga,
. .
‘lettuce’), in Het
. , èééå÷ù(é)á (B(Y)S̆QWYYT, . bescueit, ‘biscuit’) in Kaf , (ù)àè(é)éàô
(P"Y(Y)T"(
. S̆), faita(s)) in Mem . The situation is rather more complicated, since the -it-
forms also existed in the koiné, although the koiné was not a point of reference for the
Jewish authors and scribes.
160 Another possibility is that èøéáãì (LDBYRT) represents the modern Gascon variant
.
ladert.
 introduction

which might be interpreted as Gascon161 could also be Catalan: see for


example the variants èáø÷ùà (" S̆QRBT), . escaravat ‘beetle’ (Het. ) and
ùâùéøô (PRYS̆GS̆), pressex, ‘peeches’ in Pe .
MS O is the only manuscript whose origin we know about (cf. ..):
it was copied in Trets (Provence), which is located on the border of the
modern departments of Var and Bouches du Rhône between Mount
Sainte-Victoire and the Monts Auréliens. This localisation can, in fact,
be confirmed by some specific dialectal features of the manuscript: the
variant èøéáðéàì (L"YNBYRT; . for ‘lizard’, Kaf ) is clearly identifiable
as laïmbert, documented in a text from Provence from the fifteenth
century (FEW :a); in modern times, it can still be found in a territory
South of the Loire River, while similar forms can be found all over the
Provençal dialect area.162 We sometimes find typical palatalised results
of Latin -CT- in the same manuscript, which would also indicate a
Provençal provenance for this manuscript: âééàøèðå÷ (QWNTR"YYG,. Nun
), representing contrach rather than the Languedocian style èéé(à)øèðå÷
(QWNTR(")YY
. T,
. contrait) in the other two manuscripts; the same pala-
talisation phenomenon can be observed in âéáàø÷ùà (" S̆QR"BYG, Het . ),
probably to be read escaravaig (pronounced [eskaraβatʃ]), ‘beetle’.

.. Catalan, French and Latin


In spite of the clear Occitan character of the Romance material in Shem
Tov’s synonym lists, some Catalan elements can still be found. In Ayin ,
we find éæìù (S̆LZY), which corresponds to O. Cat. salze, ‘willow’ (< Lat.
SALICEM). O. Occ. shows the Galloromance shift from l to u after back
vowels and thus has forms such as sauz(e). The same phenomenon can
also be found in ãìà÷éð(à)ô (P(")NYQ"LD, Ayin , MSS P and O), repre-
senting Catalan panicalt for Eryngium campestre L.; note, however, that
MS V contains the Occitan form panicaut spelt èáà÷éðàô (P"NYQ"BT). .
Another example is ùâåøåá (BWRWGS̆) for ‘warts’ in Yod , manuscript
P, which seems to be the plural of the Catalan variant borruga very fre-
quent in the Pyrenees, whereas the other MSS have ù(à)âøá (BRG(")S̆),

161 ALF maps  and .


162 Cf. MTerMed and M. Pfister, “Review of Maria Sofia Corradini / Blanca Periñán
(edd.), Giornate di Studio di Lessicografia Romanza. Il linguaggio scientifico e tecnico
(medico, botanico, farmaceutico e nautico) fra Medioevo e Rinascimento, Pisa, ”, in
ZrP  (), pp. –.
introduction 

allowing an Occitan reading berrugas; two possible further Catalan


variants in the same manuscript (escaravat and pressex) have already
been discussed in section ..
Latin word initial L changed to a palatal [ʎ] in Catalan, but remained
[l] in Occitan (see also section . below). There are only two cases in
which the Catalan forms are clearly shown, both of which are exclusive to
MS O. One is éøàåèééì (LYYTW"RY),
. reflecting O. Cat. lletuari, ‘electuary’
in Nun , MS O, while the other is ùéãðéì (LYNDYS̆) for ‘plates of
metal’ in Pe , which also shows the Catalan plural ending -es, thus
corresponding to O. Cat. llandes. A final clear example found in all three
manuscripts is Catalan anpréssecs, ‘peaches’, ùâùéøôðà ("NPRYS̆GS̆, Alef
), which is clearly visible in MS P, with the other MSS showing corrupt
or undocumented variants.163
Finding a suitable interpretation for these elements is not easy. The
only cases for which all three manuscripts have Catalan forms are those
mentioned for Ayin  and Alef , salze and anpréssecs. It might be that
these represent Catalanisms introduced accidentally by Shem Tov from
his mother tongue into the glossary that he had conceived as essentially
Occitan. All other cases are restricted to manuscripts P and O. Are these
Catalan relicts from Shem Tov’s original manuscript that the copyist of
MS V substituted for the Occitan variants? Or were they introduced
by the copyists of MSS P and O from a shared ancestor manuscript of
both?164 Note that, since the evidence presented in section . suggests
that manuscript P was copied in the Western Languedocian zone, the
copyist might have come from a place adjacent to the Catalan speaking
territories, or from Catalonia itself. In MS O however, which quite clearly
belongs to the Provençal dialect area, the Catalan features can hardly be
explained by the mother tongue of the copyist. These questions cannot
ultimately be answered in any definitive manner. It also should be kept
in mind that both languages were in close contact with one another and
frequently show mutual influences, particularly in scientific texts.165
Unlike many O. Occ. medical texts, the manuscripts exhibit extremely
few influences from French, or possibly none at all. Most of the elements
which could possibly be interpreted as French are found in MS V. In

163 Some other cases of possible Catalan words or variants, such as those mentioned in

Lamed  and Ayin , are less clear.


164 See section . for evidence against a common ancestor manuscript of both P and

O (excluding V).
165 For the field of medicine, cf. CB.
 introduction

Bet , øéáééà ("YYBYR) resembles Old or Middle French aiver, ‘big vase
for serving water at table’ rather than the Occitan forms of the other
two manuscripts. In Qof , ïàâéìá (BLYG"N), resembling Middle French
bélingène, ‘egg-plant’, is an addition of MS V; the other MSS show no
Romance synonyms in this entry. Finally, in Mem , both MSS V and P
contain an unusual form ùåéø(é)ô (P(Y)RYWS̆), which resembles O. Fr.
parevis for ‘paradise’; MS O has a variant that can be clearly read as
O. Occ. or O. Cat. paradis.
A considerable part of the non-Hebrew and non-Arabic synonyms are
Latin instead of Romance, although these elements are rarely labeled as
ïéèì (LTYN),
. being instead usually classified as æòì, La#az in the same
way as the Romance words (cf. .). This is probably due to the fact
that the O. Occ. medico-botanical language itself had adopted a great
number of Latin terms in their original form, such as camedreos (mostly
designating different types of germander), or blacta bizancia (‘operculum
of diverse shells’),166 which can be found in O. Occ. medico-botanical
texts. These often appear in the genitive case, such as feniculi, xilobalsami,
or papaveris,167 a fact that can be explained by the high frequency of
the genitivus quantitatis in Latin recipe literature.168 We can assume that
these and other words were already in established use in O. Occ. medical
contexts at the time Shem Tov was writing; see section . for some more
specific vocabulary and its possible sources. As the main characteristics
of Latin medico-botanical terms in Hebrew texts have already been
studied by Lola Ferre,169 we shall not go into any great detail on this issue.
We therefore only mention some of the details relevant to understanding
the text. Firstly, as we already pointed out on another occasion,170 the
ending -um is often represented in abbreviated form as å- (-W). Some
examples are: åîùìáåôø÷ (QRPWBLS̆MW, carpobalsamum, ‘fruit of the
balsam tree’, Gimel ), åîùéøâøåâ (GWRGRYS̆MW, gargarismum, ‘gargling’,

166 See ùåéøãéîàë (K"MYDRYWS̆, Bet ), éèðàæá éè÷àìáà ("BL"QTY. BZ"NTY, . Sade
. ).
167 From f(o)eniculum ‘fennel’, xylobalsamum ‘wood of the balsam tree’, and papaver
‘poppy’. Cf. éìå÷éðô (PNYQWLY, Zayin ), éîùìá åìéù (S̆YLW BLS̆MY, Ayin ), ùéøéåàôàô
(P"P"WYRYS̆, Pe , MS V).
168 Note that, in compound terms with such genitive forms, there is not always agree-

ment between the two forms. See, e.g. íåëéðåãñî éðéìù åøèéô (PYTRW . S̆LYNY MSD-
WNYKWM, petroselini macedonicum) in Kaf  and éðèðåî íåéìåô (PWLYWM MWNTNY, .
polium montani) in Samekh .
169 See, among others, L. Ferre, “La terminología médica en las versiones hebreas de

textos latinos”.
170 MF –.
introduction 

Gimel ), åîåîðñ (SNMWMW, cinnamumum, ‘cinnamon’, Dalet  and


Sade
. ). A second property worthy of mention is the fact that a hiatus is
sometimes marked by using the letter Alef between the two vowels, e.g.
in íåàéøéè÷ìà ("LQTYRY"WM)
. for elacterium ‘juice from the squirting
cucumber’ in Samekh .

.. Spelling
In the following, we provide an outline of the spelling system used for
Romance and Latin in the synonym lists of the Sefer ha-Shimmush. It
is largely identical to the one reconstructed by Neubauer and Meyer171
for the Esther Poem and the one described in great detail by Aslanov
for the S̆aršot ha-Kesef (ShK),172 to which the reader is referred for more
information.
The original text in the three manuscripts was unvocalised. All vocal-
isations which do occasionally appear and are represented in the critical
apparatus are later additions. Romance and Latin vowels are frequently
presented by means of matres lectionis, where Yod represents i and e, Waw
stands for o and u, and Alef for a. In the final position, the vowel a can be
represented either by Alef or by He or by combining both. The marking
of vowels is far from uniform across the three manuscripts, which can be
seen in examples such as lana carpenada ‘plucked wool’, represented in
Sade
.  as äèàðéôø÷ àðàì (L’N" QRPYN" TH, . MS P), äãàðéôø÷ àðàì (L’N"
QRPYN"DH, MS O) and äàãàðéôøà÷ àðàì (L’N" Q"RPYN"D’H, MS V).
As is the case here, MS V often shows the tendency to maximally spell
out the vowels. As for Yod, which usually represents i or e, some of the
spellings which deviate from this norm might be explained by the fact
that the result of Latin Ū was most probably pronounced [y] in O. Occ.
as it is today (note that this is not the case for Catalan).173 Thus, the
word for ‘plum’ was probably pronounced ['pryna] in O. Occ., usually
spelt pruna in Latin characters. MSS P and V show the spelling àðéøô
(PRYN") in Alef , but ùðåøô (PRWNS̆, pl.) in Alef . Like Latin, the
Hebrew alphabet also has no grapheme for the sound [y], which might

171 Op. cit., pp. –.


172 ShK –.
173 Cf. POc : “The change of /u/ to [y] must have begun after the eigth century,

when Occitan and Catalan started to become distinct, since this change did not occur in
Catalan. Some scholars hold that it was completed by the tenth or eleventh century, while
others claim that it was not completed until the thirteenth.”
 introduction

therefore have led to the author or two of the copyists feeling that Yod
would be a better representation of this sound.174 Another case is àéôéì
(LYPY", MS P) vs. àééôåì (LWPYY", MSS O and V) for lupia, ‘epidermal
cist’ (Alef ).

Diphthongs and triphthongs are often represented, for example:175


– [aw] as åà ("W) or áà ("B) or á (B): àéèùåàìá (BL"WS̆TY", . Nun ,
MS P), àéèùáìá (BLBS̆TY", . MS V), balaustia ‘blossom of the wild
pomegranate tree’; àéìé÷á÷ (QBQYLY", cauquilha, ‘shell’, Nun ,
MS O); èðéîåôøáà ("BRPWMYNT, . Samekh , aurpiment, MS V);
– [je] as éé (YY): øééâåð (NWGYYR), nogier, ‘walnut tree’ (Alef , MSS
O and V); øééðøåô (PWRNYYR), fornier, ‘baker’ (Pe );
– [wei] as ééå (WYY): èééå÷ù(é)á (B(Y)S̆QWYYT, . bescueit, ‘biscuit’, Kaf
).
All of the Hebrew consonants are regularly used for transcribing Ro-
mance, except for the letters Het,
. Ayin, Kaf and Tav. The first two are
completely absent because the Romance languages in question as well
as Latin do not contain the equivalent sounds. The sounds [k] and [t]
appear as Qof and Tet . with a very high level of consistency, while a
tendency to use Kaf in some Latin words can also be oberved. Pe is
used for [p] and [f], cf. ïéô (PYN, pin, ‘pine-tree’, Alef ) versus ÷åô
(PWQ, foc, ‘fire’, Alef , MS O). The letter Gimel represents both [g]
and the palatal affricate [ʤ]; a diacritic (rafe) is often used in the latter
case,176 which we represent as §â and transcribe as Ğ. Thus, O. Occ. gip,
pronounced [ʤip], is spelt óé§â, (ĞYP, Gimel ). The same representation
is used for words for which this sound is written using j in Latin script,
see äðàøåâî (MĞWR"NH), probably O. Occ. majorana in Shin . This
grapheme can also represent a voiceless fricative [tʃ]. As already observed
by Neubauer / Meyer (p. ) and Aslanov (S̆hK ), this sound appears
as âéé- (-YYG) in word final position, as in âééàøèðå÷ (QWNTR"YYG,
. Nun
), contrach. Apart from its usage to denote a plosive, the letter Bet can
also be used to represent the Latin or Occitan v, usually pronounced

174 Cf. ShK , for similar cases. As mentioned in POc , the same alternation

between u and i can be found in O. Occ. words in Latin script, such as onchira and onchura
‘seasoning’ and cominal and comunal ‘common’.
175 See Neubauer / Meyer, op. cit., p. , and S̆hK ,  for other diphthongs and

examples from other texts.


176 Cf. Neubauer / Meyer, op. cit., p. ; ShK –.
introduction 

as a bilabial fricative [β] in Occitan, e.g. àðéáåá àâðì (LNG" BWBYN",


lenga / linga bovina, ‘bugloss’, Lamed ). Alternatively, the fricative sound
could also be spelled with Waw, cf. àåéå (WYW", viva), the feminine form
of the adjective ‘living’, in Gimel , MS P, alongside the plural form ùàáéå
(WYB’S̆), in MS O.
In Occitan and Catalan, the phoneme /s/ is usually unvoiced in word
initial and final positions as well as in contact with most consonants.
/s/ usually appears as Shin in such environments, as can be seen in
many of the examples already introduced, such as ù(à)áøåù (S̆WRB(")S̆,
sorbas Ayin ); ùìå(à)÷ (Q(")WLS̆, cauls, Kaf , MSS P, O); àééðàèùà÷
(Q’S̆T"NYY",
. castanha / castanya, Ayin , MS V); øàéìéøèùà (" S̆TRYLY"R,
.
esterilhar, Gimel , MS P). /s/ is sometimes written using Sade . in word
final position in manuscripts O and V, but usually only following Mem,
Nun, Lamed, or Tav: cf. õìà ("LS. , alhs / alls, ‘garlic’, plural, Bet , MS O);
õìéã÷ (QDYLS. , cadel(l)s, ‘little dogs’, Gimel , MSS O and V);177 õîåìå÷
(QWLWMS. , coloms, ‘pidgeons’, MS O in Dalet ); õðåãå÷ (QWDWNS. ,
codons, ‘quinces’, Het
. , MSS V and O); õèéìá (BLYT. S. , blets, ‘blites’, Yod
, MSS O, V);178 õèéìåá (BWLYT. S. , bolets, ‘mushrooms’, Kaf , MS O; Pe
, MSS O and V); õèéãåðî (MNWDYT. S. , menudets, ‘kind of pastry, pl.’,
Lamed , MS O). MS P often has Samekh for the latter cases, i.e. after
179
. see ñèéìåá (BWLYTS,
final Tet, . bolets, Kaf ).
The Occitan and Catalan -s- is voiced when intervocalic and can, as
such, occasionally be found as -z- and—in Hebrew spelling—as Zayin,
cf. àø÷æéôèùà (" S̆TPYZQR",
. O. Occ. estafizagra for ‘lice-bane’, Sade
. ). The
same letter can also represent the affricates [dz] or [ts], cf. éæìñ (SLZY
for sal(t)ze ‘willow’ in Ayin ), ìéæøá (BRZYL for brazil or brezil(h),
‘brazil wood’, in Alef ) or æåð (NWZ for notz, ‘nut’, in Alef , MS P, and
Alef , MS V). It therefore usually represents spellings with z in Latin
script, independently of its position in the word.180 Intervocalic [z] and
[dz] are frequently represented by Dalet, however:181 O. Occ. cozent (lit.:

177 See He  and Lamed  for further examples: budel(l)s, armol(h)s.


178 MS P has BLYDZ without final devoicing instead of BLYT. S. .
179 For other examples, see the spellings of brotz (Lamed ) and menudets (Lamed ).

Note that, in these cases, Latin based Romance script allowed the spelling -(t)z alongside
-ts.
180 Also cf. éèðàæá éè÷àìáà ("BL"QTY BZ"NTY, Sade ) ‘a drug prepared from the
. . .
opercula of gastropods’, called in Latin blatta Bisancia, but found as blacta bizancia in
O. Occ. texts.
181 This was already observed by Neubauer / Meyer, op. cit., p. . See S̆hK  for a

more extensive discussion.


 introduction

‘cooking’) is spelt èðéãå÷ (QWDYNT, . Bet ); O. Occ. mesel / mezel ‘lep-
rous’: ìéãéî (MYDYL, Gimel ); O. Occ. / O. Cat. brasas, pl., ‘living
embers of coal’: ùàãàøá (BR"D’S̆, Gimel , MS O). The letter Samekh
almost regulary represents the sound that originated from Latin C before
e and i and was then simplified from [ts] to [s] during the thirteenth
century; these words were therefore also spelt with s(s) as well as c or
ç in Latin characters: äáéñ / àáéñ (SYBH / SYB") for ceba or seba (Bet ,);
(à)ñéå (WYS(")) for veça or ves(s)a, ‘Vicia sativa’ (Kaf ); ù(à)ø(éé)øéñ
(SYR(YY)R(")S̆) for cire(i)ras ‘cherries’ (Dalet , MSS P and O).182 Samekh
also represents Latin C before e and i: åîåîðñ (SNMWMW) for cinna-
mumum (Dalet ); éñåøë (KRWSY) for croci ‘saffron’, nominative plu-
ral or genitive singular (Kaf , MS P), íåøôéñ (SYPRWM) for cyperum,
‘root of a type of rush’ (Samekh ). Note that MSS O and V sometimes
have Sade:
. see the variants ùàøééøö (S. RYYR’S̆, Dalet , MS V) and éöåø÷
(QRWS. Y, Kaf , MSS O and V) for the words cireiras and croci men-
tioned above; also cf. àöîéì (LYMS. ", MS V), alongside àñàîì (LM’S", MSS
P, O) for limas(s)a, ‘slug’ (Het. ).
Romance intervocalic -d- is sometimes written using Tet. . Some exam-
ples are äèé÷éì (LYQYTH) . for liquida ‘liquid (fem. adj.)’ ( Het
. ); àèéîø÷
(QRMYT"), . caramida, ‘magnetic stone’ (Alef ); äèàðéôø÷ (QRPYN" TH), .
carpenada, ‘picked into pieces’ (Sade . ), MS P.
As the result of their historical development, both Occitan and Cata-
lan show final devoicing of voiced obstruents after the loss of final vow-
els. The original Western Romance voiced obstruent still shows up in
the feminine form, see, for example, O. Occ. word pairs such as lop / loba
‘wolf ’ or lonc / longa ‘long’. Our manuscripts often do reflect final devoic-
ing (e.g. óåì (LWP) in Zayin  and ÷ðåì (LWNQ) in Pe , MSS V,
O), but not across the board: see examples such as âðåì (LWNG) in Pe
, MS P, and ãìà÷éð(à)ô (P(")NYQ"LD) for Cat. panicalt, Eryngium
campestre (Samekh , MSS P and O). MS V shows the O. Occ. vari-
ant panicaut for the latter case and represents the final consonant as Tet .

182 Other Romance examples are àéñ(à)÷à ("Q(")SY’, acacia, Alef , ), and the

variants belonging to Latin or Romance centonica in Bet . See also Het .  and Lamed
: àãéö÷ (QS. YD", cassida, ‘defluxion of the eyes’), Ayin : O. Occ. *lentilhassa or O. Cat
lentillassa, prob. ‘duck weed, water lentil’: äñàéìéèðéì (LYNTYLY"SH),
. MS P, similarly
with Samekh in O, whereas V has Shin. Note that the spelling with Samekh is also
visible in final position for the result of Latin C before e and i: see ñìà÷ (Q(")LS,
calz/calç, ‘chalk’) in Samekh  and also the representation of laz, latz or the O. Cat.
llaç, ‘loop’, in Ayin , as well as the variant ñåð (NWS for notz, ‘nut’), in Alef ,
MS V.
introduction 

(èáà÷éðàô—P"NYQ"BT). . Another example is the O. Occ. adjective rosat,


written as ã(à)ùåø (RWS̆(")D) in P and O and èàùåø (RWS̆" T) . in V (Kaf
, ).
As far as Latin based manuscripts are concerned, the most typical
spellings in modern times for palatal n and l, pronounced [ɲ] and [ʎ]
respectively, are ny and ll in Catalan and nh and lh in Occitan, although
many alternative spellings are documented in the Middle Ages,183 includ-
ing the simple spelling with l and n respectively. Like Latin, the Hebrew
alphabet also had no characters for these sounds, meaning we cannot
be sure whether [ɲ] and [ʎ] are always treated as distinct from their
non-palatal versions. In some cases, in fact, no special marking seems
to have been used, such as ùðåðéô (PYNWNS̆) for O. Occ. pinhons ‘pine-
cone kernels’ (Gimel , MS O), ïåìéîøéå (WYRMYLWN), vermelhon ‘a
type of (cosmetic) paint’ (Samekh , MS O); and ùèéðåá (BWNYT. S̆), bon-
hetas / bonyetas, ‘cake(s)’), Samekh , MS V. If, however, the Yod is not
interpreted as a vowel in these cases, it could be regarded as a device for
transcribing the palatal sounds. It thus seems the letter Yod is used most
frequently as a means of distinguishing between palatal and non-palatal
sounds for these letters. Thus, palatal n is represented as éð (NY) in ùàéðô
(PNY’S̆), pinhas / pinyas, ‘pine cones’ (Alef ) or àéðìéô (PYLNY"), O. Occ.
*pelanha ‘bark’, in Alef  (MS P). The last example shows ééð (NYY)
in MSS O and V, àééð(à)ìéô (PYL(")NYY"), also cf. àééðàâåô (PWG"NYY",
foganha / foganya, ‘kitchen, fireplace’, Bet , O).184 An example of palatal
n in word final position is ééðèùà (" S̆TNYY)
. for O. Occ estanh or O. Cat.
estany, ‘pond, lake’ (Lamed ), where MS O shows an isolated exam-
ple of the sequence éðé (YNY): éðéàèùà (" S̆T"YNY).
. Palatal l is represented
as éì (LY), e.g. in øàéìéøèùà (" S̆TRYLY"R),
. esterilhar, ‘to stretch’ (Gimel
) or äéìé÷å÷ (QWQYLYH, Nun , MS P) / àéìé÷á÷ (QBQYLY", MS O),
cauquilha, ‘shell’. Here, too, MSS O and V often use two Yods, ééì (LYY),
such as in ïåééìéîøéå (WYRMYLYYWN) for vermelhon in MS V, see above,
Samekh , MS V; also cf. àééìéèåá (BWTYLYY")
. for botelha ‘bottle’ (Sade
.
, MS V), and àééìàô (P"LYY") for palha / palla, ‘straw’ (Tav , MSS O,
V). Final [ʎ] is often spelled ìéé (YYL), as in ìééàèùéø÷ (QRYS̆T"YYL), .
representing O. Occ. crestalh or O. Cat. crestall, ‘crystal, glass’ (Shin ,

183 See Shin  and Bet  and  for examples.


184 When followed by e or i, the second Y in the spelling ééð (NYY) may also indicate
the vowel, as in ùèééðåá (BWNYYT. S̆, Samekh , MS P) and àèééðåá (BWNYYT", . ibidem,
MS V), representing O. Occ. bonheta(s), O. Cat. bonyeta(s). Note, that in this case, MS O
has only one Yod, making the interpretation more difficult: ùàèéðåá (BWNYT’ . S̆).
 introduction

MS O) or ìééåð(é)ô (P(Y)NWYYL), fenolh / fenoll, ‘fennel’), Shin , MS O,


although it should be noted that the spelling one might expect ééì (LYY)
can also be found: ééìåð(é)ô (P(Y)NWLYY, MSS P and V). A single Yod
only appears rarely, as is the case for ìéà ("YL) alh / all, ‘garlic’ (Bet , MS
P; as opposed to ìééà—"YYL in MSS O and V). The word for garlic shows
a particularly broad range of different spellings, such as ééìà ("LYY) in
Shin , MS P, éìéà ("YLY, ibidem, MS V), éìà ("LY, Bet , MS P), ìà ("L,
ibidem, MS O).185
Finally, it is worth mentioning that we often find an epenthetic vowel
(identical to the vowel of the stem) inserted between a sequence of a stop
and a liquid, such as ùàðåøåô (PWRWN’S̆) for prunas ‘plums’ (Alef , MS
O), ïåøåá (BWRWN) for brun ‘brown, dark’ (Gimel , MS V, Tet . , MS
O), øåìåô (PWLWR) for flor (Pe , MSS V, O).

. The Edition and the Commentary

.. Manuscripts
The following subsections provide a brief description of the three manu-
scripts that form the basis of our edition. A complete codicological and
palaeographic description of the manuscripts is, of course, beyond the
scope of our edition. We therefore simply mention the main information
contained in the relevant catalogues and additional descriptions before
adding some important observations of our own,186 without aiming for
completeness in the process.

... MS Paris, BN héb.  (P)


The manuscript is briefly mentioned in the catalogue by Zotenberg,187
which indicates the fourteenth century as the date of the copy. This
manuscript is composed of a large vellum (calfskin parchment) codex

185 Unless the variants with final (Y)Y represent the Latin genitive singular (alii).
186 We would like to thank Julia Zwink for her help with describing the manuscripts.
We have employed the palaeographical identification method for Hebrew manuscripts
developed by Malachi Beit-Arié as a point of reference and orientation for our observa-
tions. M. Beit-Arié, The Makings of the Medieval Hebrew Book. Studies in Palaeography
and Codicology, Jerusalem , pp. –.
187 H. Zotenberg, Catalogues des manuscrits hébreux et samaritains de la BN, Paris ,

p. .
introduction 

containing books  to 188 of the Sefer ha-Shimmush. Each page has


two columns normally consisting of  lines. The size of the letters varies,
meaning that  to  letters are written per line, which corresponds to
five to ten words. The text in question, i.e., the first synonym list which
we are editing here, can be found under the title “Book ” on fols a–
a (see the reproductions of some pages in the plates section at the end
of this volume).189 The text begins with the author explaining his reasons
forcompiling this kind of synonym list (cf. section .). This is followed by
the synonym list itself, which consists of different sections for each letter
of the Hebrew alphabet presented in alphabetical order. The list is written
as a continuous text, i.e., the terms are not presented separately according
to language in a table or columns, but they are written consecutively with
one word following another. The start of a new entry (i.e., a sequence
of Hebrew—Arabic—Romance / Latin synonyms) is marked by a single
point above the line.
There is an even margin on both the left and right hand side of the
text.190 We can observe two different techniques that were used to obtain
this margin, which are also sometimes combined: when there was not
enough space at the end of a line to write the next word in its entirety,
the copyist often filled the line by writing just the first few letters of the
word, which was then written again ab initio at the start of the next line,
with the first letters thus being repeated. This practice was common in
all regions where Hebrew manuscripts were produced.191 However, only
the first two letters of the next word were written in this way in MS P, in
contrast to other manuscripts. When this procedure was not sufficient for
maintaining the even margin, the scribe simply left an empty space before

188 The Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris also has book  and the beginning of book  (MS
héb. ) in its keeping, as well as books  to , which were separated from another
copy (on paper, MS héb. ).
189 The pagination appears on the recto of each folio in the upper left corner of the page.

It is written in Arabic numerals and was apparently added by a later hand, possibly when
the codex was bound, since the characteristics and the size of the pen used for writing
differ from the main Hebrew text.
190 Cf. M. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicology, Paris , p. . Hebrew scribes would make

use of different methods in order to achieve this aim and avoid leaving a ragged margin
at the end of the written line. The expanding of one of the letters of the last word in a
line was very common, but was only really feasible when writing in a square script (cf.
Beit-Arié, loc. cit.), which is not the case here, where we have a semi-cursive (cf. below).
Another possibility was the insertion of graphical fillers (mostly letters or parts of letters)
at the end of the line (cf. Beit-Arié, loc. cit.); this practice was not used either by the scribe
of the Paris MS.
191 Cf. Beit-Arié, Hebrew Codicology, p. .
 introduction

the last word or the anticipating letter(s) described above, a method also
popular among Hebrew copyists.
The extant folios of the Sefer ha-Shimmush in MS P were clearly
produced by one hand (except for the vocalisation; cf. below). The main
body of the text is written in a Sephardic semi-cursive script, with the
headings indicating the beginning of the next letter section written in red
ink in a larger book hand in bold with serifs. Striking similarities to other
Sephardic manuscripts dating from approximately the same time can be
seen concerning the script style of the main body of text.192 The letters
of the Paris MS, which are also decorated with serifs, are comparable
to the ones used in a manuscript from Villalón (from ), which is
reproduced in Yardeni’s book of Hebrew script.193 The script style used in
this manuscript is a Sephardic semi-cursive script, the so-called ‘rabbinic’
style or ‘Rashi script’.194 It has a rounded appearance due to the curved
strokes (especially in the case of Bet, Lamed, and Mem). Alef has a sort of
roof instead of the former diagonal stroke195 and is only distinguishable
from Het
. by the small, thin extra stroke on the top of the letter; its left
downstroke ends under the line. The left stroke of Gimel begins at the
bottom of the long right downstroke and becomes a horizontal line. It
has a long left downstroke that ends under the line. The top of the vertical
stroke of Lamed starts very high up, often protruding over the bottom of
the line above; the curved stroke resembles a concave, reclined bowl. The
medial stroke of Shin becomes a nearly horizontal line, beginning slightly
below the top of the left downstroke.

192 The letters used for the headings show some striking characteristic features: Gimel
resembles Nun; only a small part of the vertical right downstroke protrudes over the lower
cross to allow the two letters to be distinguished from one another. He and Het . are also
quite similar: the left downstroke of He comes very close to the upper cross, so that only a
tiny space separates the two lines, leading to a very close resemblance between the He and
the Het.
. Yod resembles a right angle inclined to its reverse. The top of medial Mem and Pe
appear very convex; the left stroke of medial Mem leans sharply backwards. Final Mem
resembles Samekh. The space between the upper cross of Qof and its left downstroke
is very small, meaning that they almost touch each other. All these characteristics can
also be found in two manuscripts from Toledo, dating from  and , which are
both reproduced and described by Yardeni (A. Yardeni, Book of Hebrew Script: History,
Palaeography, Script Style, Calligraphy, and Design, Jerusalem ), pp. –. These
manuscripts are classified by Yardeni as written in a typical Sephardic book hand of the
thirteenth century
193 Op. cit., p. .
194 Because “it served as the model for the letter-types in which Rashi’s commentary to

the Bible and Talmud was printed in ” (ibidem, p. ).


195 Ibidem, p. .
introduction 

The strong similarities between the semi-cursive Sephardic script style


of the text in the Paris MS and the style of the manuscript from Villalón
described by Yardeni196 suggest that the two manuscripts originate from
the same region and epoch, namely the medieval Sephardic area. The rel-
evant catalogue at the Bibliothèque Nationale dates the copy to the four-
teenth century. This corresponds perfectly to the characteristic features
of the square, semi-cursive script style of the letters, which Yardeni sees
as typical for that epoch (thirteenth—fifteenth century).197
Some of the entries for Hebrew, Arabic and Romance / Latin words
appear in partially vocalised form. It seems that the vocalisation was
either added at a later date by the same scribe or—more probably—by
another hand. This assertion is based on the fact that the vocalisations
appear only sporadically and that the pen used for making the punctu-
ation marks had a smaller diameter. It might well be that the punctu-
ation marks were made by a reader or corrector, who wanted to make
reading the manuscript easier by indicating the vowel quality of these
entries.198
In summary, we can state that the Paris manuscript was written by one
scribe in a medieval Sephardic script style and was thus produced in all
probability in Spain or Southern France. Based on the catalogue, we can
also confirm when MS P was actually created: the fourteenth century. The
punctuation, occasional notes in the margin and the pagination were all
added by other hands.

... MS Vatican Ebr.  (V)


Richler describes the manuscript as a parchment codex containing 
folios of . × . cm in dimension, which are written on both sides
within a type area of . × . cm. The folios are bound in quaternions.199
The manuscript contains two different paginations, both of which were

196 Op. cit., pp. –.


197 A specific feature of this manuscript is a ligature representing the nexus of Alef and
Lamed, which shows the long vertical downstroke of Lamed and the two right crosses of
Alef beginning at the bottom of the vertical line. The ligature appears only at the begin-
ning of a synonym and mainly in Arabic words, where it is used as the definite article. We
also find it in Hebrew words (e.g., entry Alef ), but never in Romance / Latin ones.
198 Some notes were made in the margin on fols b, a, a, a, b, and a,

which were penned by different later hands.


199 B. Richler, Hebrew Manuscripts in the Vatican Library. Palaeographical and codico-

logical descriptions by M. Beit-Arié, Vatican , p. .


 introduction

added by other hands at a later date in the upper left hand corner. The
paginations are written in (carbon) pencil, in contrast to the main text,
which is written in ink, and differ from each other in their character-
istic script style. They both indicate folios (not pages), with the upper
pagination always one number higher than the second pagination sys-
tem beneath it. Following Richler,200 we use the lower pagination as our
point of reference.
The synonym list appears on fols a–a. Following a richly dec-
orated panel containing the title and an indication that the section for
Alef begins here, the text then begins directly with the synonyms; the
explanatory introduction is missing. The terms are arranged in a kind of
table, i.e., every entry fills one horizontal line, with the Arabic, Hebrew
and Romance / Latin synonyms arranged in the vertical columns. Each
page nearly always contains  lines, except for the pages where a new
letter section begins. On these pages, the scribe painted an ornamented
panel with the relevant title, which is often additionally decorated with
figures of birds, animals and hybrid creatures.
The text margin is even on the right hand but not on the left hand side,
which is due to the method of representing the synonyms in columns:
the words in a particular language are organised in such a way that they
always start at the same point, one below the other. The copyist of the
Vatican MS therefore did not follow the ideal of a uniform left margin
(cf. above), deciding instead in favour of a clearer text arrangement.201
When the synonyms of one entry are too long or when there are several
variants, which is often the case for the Romance / Latin synonyms, the
text either continues into the left margin at the end of the line in a vertical,
upward way (if only a few words are concerned), or, in the case of a longer
passage, is continued on the line below.
The pages of the codex are ruled using barely visible pencil lines, which
mark the lines as well as the text margin on the right and the left hand
side. The horizontal ruled lines do not extend beyond the vertical mar-
gin lines, and the margin lines do not extend beyond the horizontal
lines, resulting in a kind of ruled rectangle on each page. This type of
medieval ruling schema has been categorised by Dukan202 as type C,

200 Loc. cit.


201 In some cases, the scribe expands the final letter, if one entry perfectly fits one line
(e.g., entry Gimel ).
202 M. Dukan, La réglure des manuscrits hébreux au Moyen-Age, Paris , p. .
introduction 

sub-category c).203 Dukan observes that this kind of pattern is charac-


teristic of manuscripts originating in the Sephardic region.204
The script style of the MS V is uniform and shows that the text was
produced by a single scribe. The titles indicating the beginning of a new
letter section are incorporated into the main text like in MS P (cf. above).
These titles are written, just like the ones in the Paris manuscript, in a
square book hand, which can be characterized, following Yardeni,205 as a
typical medieval Sephardic script style.206
Concerning the main body of text, the script style can also be clearly
characterised as a medieval Sephardic semi-cursive or “rabbinic” script
(cf. ..). Similarities to the script in the Paris MS and the example
manuscript presented in Yardeni207 are clearly visible and can be exempli-
fied by looking at the following letters: Alef resembles Het,. like in MS P,
i.e., the former diagonal stroke has become horizontal and is bent down
at the right end; the small right stroke is perched like a thin flag on top
of it. Gimel has the same form as in MS P, i.e., the former diagonal left
base stroke has become horizontal and lies on the baseline. Medial Mem
shows no base stroke; its right downstroke is curved only slightly to the
left. Final Pe has a striking additional vertical stroke on the left side of the
top. There is a certain amount of space left between the roof and the left
downstroke of Taw; the left downstroke itself is very long and bent to the
left at the end.
Summarising the results of the analysis of the ruling schema and the
characteristics of the script styles, we can state that the features of MS V
correspond to the typical features of Sephardic manuscripts from the
Middle Ages in the same way as those in MS P do (cf. ..). The dating
established by Richler (fourteenth century)208 can also be confirmed by
the observations we have made here.
Notes in the margin can be found on fols a, a, a, a, a,
b, and a. Since they show the same characteristics with respect to

203 Type C-c) has “rectrices courtes, verticals courtes”, cf. ibidem.
204 Of some  manuscripts which demonstrate this ruling schema,  were written
in the Sephardic region (cf. Dukan, op. cit., p. ).
205 Op. cit., p.  ff.
206 The following letters support this observation: the left leg of Gimel is long and nearly

horizontal; it starts shortly above the bottom of the vertical downstroke. There is a striking
resemblance to the one in MS P (cf. above). Lamed has a kind of “flag” at the top, whose
“mast” (Yardeni, op. cit., p. ), i.e., the vertical stroke, curves to the left. The base-stroke
of Sade
. is short and drifts in a downwards slant to the left.
207 Op. cit., p. .
208 Cf. Richler, loc. cit.
 introduction

the script style and the thickness of the writing pen as the main body of
the text, it is probable that they were added by the same scribe, probably
while revising the text.
The Vatican manuscript lacks several entries featured in the Paris
manuscript, but also contains some additional ones (cf. .). In a few
cases, these relate to explanatory terms probably added by the copyist.

... MS Oxford, Hunt Donat  (O)


The Oxford manuscript is mentioned in Neubauer’s Catalogue and in
Beit-Arié’s and May’s Supplement.209 It is a watermarked paper manu-
script copied in the year  in a Sephardic cursive script by Asher ben
Abraham ha-Kohen in the city of Trets (Provence). The colophon is erro-
neous concerning the date of compilation, omitting the notation for ,
which means the Jewish date  should be read as [] =  (and
not ). This mistake was noted and corrected in the Addenda and Cor-
rigenda to Neubauer’s catalogue.210 As is generally known, watermarks
are attested only since  (Bologna) and, in addition, the colophon
says that the copy was completed on Thursday the th of Shevat; this
date actually fell on a Thursday in  (cf. loc. cit.).
The folios of the manuscript, which contains books seven to twenty-
nine of the Sefer ha-Shimmush, have been numbered twice, by folio on the
upper left-hand corner and by page in the middle of the upper margin.
Book twenty-nine features on fol. v to fol. r of the manuscript,
which corresponds to pages  to . Following Neubauer, we also
refer to the pagination by folios.
The type area is arranged in two columns each containing  or 
lines. The synonym list entries start at the top of fol. r. The beginning
of a new letter is indicated by a kind of a centered title, which, in contrast
to the MSS P and V, is neither highlighted by means of another typeface
nor by the use of ornaments. The script is probably the same as the one
used for the main text and is only slightly bigger. On fols r, r, v,
r, r, r, v, r, and v, the title is repeated by means of a
heading line on the top of a column.

209 Op. cit. and M. Beit-Arié / R.A. May, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in

the Bodleian Library: Supplement of Addenda and Corrigenda to Vol.  (A. Neubauer’s
Catalogue), Oxford .
210 Cf. Beit-Arié / May, op. cit., p. .
introduction 

The terms are presented in a similar way to MS V, i.e., in a sort of


table. Here too, one line is filled by one entry, and the Arabic, Hebrew
and Romance / Latin synonyms are organised one below the other respec-
tively. As a result, the ideal of an even left text margin was not fol-
lowed, just like in MS V. The copyist used different methods for very long
entries, which were mostly due to several variants of a synonym existing.
Firstly, he tried to scale down the size of the letters (e.g., fol. r, col-
umn b, line ). Secondly and most frequently, the alternative synonyms
are interlined in a smaller character size directly under the main syn-
onym, often introduced by åà, ‘or’ (e.g., entry Bet ). Thirdly, in the case
of a very long entry or several alternative Romance or Latin synonyms,
the Romance / Latin part of one entry is continued in an interline in a
smaller character size.
The text is written by a single hand in a medieval Sephardic cursive
script. It bears many resemblances to the Sephardic cursives from the
twelfth to fifteenth century presented and described by Yardeni (e.g.,
the manuscript from Qala#at Aiyub dating from ).211 The script
shows extreme cursive forms with conjoint and merged letter strokes.
The appearance of the characters, which are written with a thin calamus,
is very “regular and rhythmical”,212 and might show the influence of
Arabic calligraphy (cf. loc. cit.). Some striking characteristic lineaments
of the letters, which can also be observed in the Qala#at Aiyub manuscript
mentioned above, are presented in what follows.
The three strokes of Alef have been merged into a continuously cam-
bered single stroke, which somewhat resembles the shape of a right curly
brace. It also consists of one single curled stroke, which is the result of
the merger of the three strokes, which look like a sickle open to the
left side. The right downstroke of Het . becomes shorter and inflected
to the left; it is joined to the horizontal “roof ” by a single curved line.
The basic stroke of Tet . has risen and merged with the right stroke to
form a sort of horseshoe open at the top and is, so to speak, added to
the left vertical stroke. Lamed consists of two strokes: a long vertical
stroke which meets a slightly curved stroke sloping from top right to
down left in the centre. The former “horn” of medial Mem is pressed
down to the right, so to speak, but is still recognisable as a loop in con-
trast to the Qala#at Aiyub manuscript, where this part of the letter has
been nearly reduced to a single stroke. Final Mem has become a circle.

211 Op. cit., pp. –.


212 Op. cit., p. .
 introduction

The “roof ”, the right downstroke, and the basic stroke of Samekh have
been merged into one loop, joined to the left downstroke, which pro-
trudes from the letter like a pillar; the whole letter is reminiscent of a
Latin P. Medial Pe is a long curved downstroke with a short vertical left
stroke. The right arm of Sade
. is not made to slope down to the left, but
rather joins the top of the left arm in the form of a concave line. The form
of Shin resembles the ones in MSS P and V: the middle stroke joins the
left vertical downstroke at the top; the right dowstroke forms an oblique
base.
The similarities between the script of MS O and the exemplary scripts
in Yardeni unambiguously point to the MS being a clear example of a typ-
ical medieval Sephardic cursive. However, in contrast to the calligraphic
character described by Yardeni213 for the Qala#at Aiyub manuscript, the
script in MS O has rather the appearance of a vademecum, intended for
everyday use. This impression is augmented by its lack of ornament, the
headlines and the table-like representation, which also gives it a scien-
tific character. Hence, the cursive script used in the text was not used for
calligraphic purposes but rather for practical reasons due to the fact that
it can be written quickly.

.. Notes on the Manuscript Filiation


and Choice of Base Manuscript
In this section, we shall make some observations on the possible manu-
script filiation. These observations cannot be regarded as definitive and
will have to be reconsidered on the evidence of the second synonym lists
(forthcoming), and, ultimately, on the critical edition of the Sefer ha-
Shimmush itself.
To begin with, it can be observed that MS P represents the most
complete version of the list: all the entries contained in MSS V and O
can also be found in P, with the exception of two entries unique to MS
O.214 In addition, both MS O and MS V lack around twenty to twenty-five
entries each:
First of all, there is a series of entries present in P but omitted both in
O and V: Bet  (âîøäá—BHRMG, last entry of Bet), He  (ïå÷øãä—
HDRQWN, penultimate entry of He), Het .  (äôéôç—HPYPH),
. Het
.

213 Op. cit., p. .


214 One entry (ùåù—S̆WS̆, ‘liquorice’) is added after Shin , and another one after Shin
 (ïéôæù—S̆ZPYN).
introduction 

 (ïéãøú úåôéìç—HLYPWT
. TRDYN), Lamed  (íééîé ïéðåòì—L#WNYN
YMYYM), Sade .  ( úçôö —S. PHT)
. and Resh  (íéøä ïåîø—RMWN
HRYM, last entry of Resh), Shin  (øæùî ùù—S̆S̆ MS̆ZR), Shin 
(àøáù—S̆BR"). All of these are repetitions of entries already included in
the respective alphabetic sections,215 usually in slightly modified form.
We can sometimes reconstruct the reasons for these repetitions. For
example, the Romance synonym was left out in entry Lamed , leading to
the whole entry being repeated in complete form as Lamed . In Resh ,
the Arabic term is misspelt. It seems the copyist noticed this and therefore
rewrote the entry correctly, thus forming Resh . It therefore seems that
these entries are either additions to MS P or a corresponding thread of
filiation.
MS V lacks  entries that are present in P and O.216 Most of these
seem to be accidental omissions of entries which we may suppose to
have belonged to the original version compiled by Shem Tov, since
they contain vocabulary that can be retrieved in the sources mentioned
in section ., such as the Arukh or Maimonides.217 One exception is
the entry Bet  (éîåúã éøá—BRY DTUMY, ‘cloves of garlic’), which
represents the plural of Bet . Note that it is unusual that an entry is
repeated for the plural forms within the text as a whole. Another case is
Yod  (ééøäð øæòåé—YW#ZR NHRYY), in which the Hebrew lemma seems
to designate water mint, although the Romance term is not equivalent to
this meaning; note also that there is no Arabic equivalent included in
this entry. The preceding entry, Yod  (øæòåé—YW#ZR ‘kind of mint’),
partially repeats Yod . Similarly, Alef  (ééãåä æåâà—"GWZ HWDYY,
last entry of Alef) is a repetition of Alef . It may well be that these
entries do not originally stem from Shem Tov and thus may be additions
originally made to an ancestor manuscript of P and O. An alternative
hypothesis is that they could have belonged to a common ancestor of all
three manuscripts and were omitted either accidentally or consciously by
the copyist of MS V, as they show some incongruities compared with the
rest of the text.218

215 Bet , He , Het


. , Het. , Lamed , Sade. , Resh , Shin , Shin .
216 Alef , , ; Bet , ; Gimel ; Het
. ; Yod , ; Kaf , ; Ayin ; Qof ,
, ; Shin ; Tav .
217 Qof : the Arabic synonym is that of , which means that entries Qof ,  and

the beginning of Qof  were omitted by error. These entries therefore cannot be additions
of P and O and must have belonged to an ancestor manuscript of all three copies.
218 Note that in Yod  it is said that there are six varieties of mint. However, only two of

them are mentioned. It is thus probable that the original entry was much longer, naming
 introduction

MS O lacks  entries that are present in P and V.219 Here too, some
seem to be accidental omissions of substantial entries, i.e., entries that are
based on standard sources. In three cases, however, the last entry of an
alphabetical section is missing, namely in Ayin  (ìãò—#DL), Resh 
(íéòåò çåø—RWH 220
. ‘W#YM), and Tet .  (éøè—TRY).
. In the latter case,
the entry is repeated from Tet
. , where, however, the Romance synonym
÷ùéøô (PRYS̆Q, fresc) is missing both in V and in P. One explanation for
this might be that the copyist of MS O had already added the Romance
synonym to Tet .  and thus saw no need to copy Tet . . Another
hypothesis would, of course, be that V and P had a common ancestor
which corrected the incomplete entry Tet .  by adding the complete entry
at the end of the manuscript. As for the other two, Ayin  and Resh ,
it should be noted that these are regular entries that can be retrieved in
relevant sources, and the fact that both are at the end of an alphabetic
section is rather difficult to explain as accidental. This is supported by
the observation that the last four entries in the Shin section (, íéùøù—
S̆RS̆YM; , àøáù—S̆BR’; , àëîåèöàä éìåôù—S̆PWLY H" S. TWMK"; . ,
øåçøçù—S̆HR . .HWR) are missing in O. With the exception of Shin ,
probably an addition of P (see above), the most reasonable explanation
is that these entries were present in a common ancestor of MSS V and P
but not in the version from which MS O was copied.221
The idea that MSS V and P belong to a common tradition different
from that of MS O is corroborated by some observations that concern
the internal structure of the entries and the lexical material itself:
– Gimel : éôèî øé§â (ĞYR MTPY,
. ‘non extinct’) is incomplete in MSS
P and V; the original entry is supposed to be éôèî øé§â úéøáë (KBRYT
ĞYR MTPY,
. ‘non extinct sulphur’), as in O.

other mint varieties. The copyist of a later version may have copied only part of Yod  by
mistake, becoming aware of his error when revising the manuscript and leading him to
add the missing parts later, thus giving rise to entries  and .
219 Bet , Zayin , Het , Tet , Lamed , Ayin , Qof , , Resh , Shin ,
. .
, Shin –.
220 As mentioned above, Resh , the last entry of Resh in our edition, was added in

MS P.
221 This might not hold for three other cases: Qof  (äéöøç éøè÷—QTRY HRSYH, the
. . .
penultimate entry of Qof) is a repetition of Qof . In Bet  (äìá—BLH) there is no
Romance synonym and the Arabic synonym is a homograph of the Hebrew one; it is
possible that MS O consciously skipped this entry because it seemed self-evident to the
copyist. Lamed  (éúåôì—LPWTY), the penultimate entry of Lamed, is a short entry
without Romance that could not be retrieved in the sources, and, in addition, resembles
the entry in Lamed  to some extent.
introduction 

– The Arabic translation of Hebrew øçéâ (GYHR) . in Gimel  cor-


responds to ahmar
. ‘red’ in MS O and (probably by error) asmar
‘brown’ in MSS P and V.
– In Het
. , MSS P and V add the (correct) variant úéîìç (HLMYT) .
to the lemma éîìç (HLMY).
.
– In Alef , P and V have íéøöî õøàá (B"RS. MS. RYM, ‘in the land of
Egypt’), but O has íéøöîä (HMS. RYM, ‘the Egyptians’).
– In Alef , the Romance synonym in P and V is pentafilon, whereas
it is agnus castus in O.
– In Gimel , íäøáà ïìéà éðéòøâ (GR#YNY "YLN "BRHM) ‘the kernels
of the fruits of the chaste tree or Abraham’s tree’, all manuscripts
display the Romance-Latin synonym grana de agnus castus. It seems
that this entry is an elaboration on Alef , where the plant name
íäøáà ïìéà ("YLN "BRHM) is first introduced. Here, however, only
MS O shows the Latin agnus castus, whereas P and V have forms
corresponding to the Latin pentaphyllon. It can be supposed that
agnus castus was the original synonym in Alef , which was
changed in the tradition of P and V without adapting the entry
Gimel  correspondingly.
– P and V sometimes show deviant Romance forms. Thus, in entry Pe
, MS O has ùééìá (BLYYS̆), identified as O. Occ. or O. Cat. balays
for ‘a kind of ruby’, but MSS P and V show ùìá (BLS̆), which seems
to be an error. Another example is Tet . , where MS O shows the
plural of the O. Occ. plant name gieissa, spelled as ùàùééàâ (G"YYS̆" S̆),
whereas P and V have strange, undocumented forms beginning
with Lamed. In the same entry, O has the expected Arabic equiv-
alent, ïàáìâìà ("LĞLB"N), corresponding to al-ğulubbān, whereas P
and V skip some letters (ïàáìà—"LB"N). For similar cases, see Dalet
 and Shin .
Although in some of these cases MS O has the more correct and probably
original forms, there are also many cases in which O is more corrupt than
P and V;222 it also lacks a certain number of entries in addition. The same

222 E.g., wrong Arabic word or spelling form: in Alef , , , Het , , Mem ;
.
deviant or defective Hebrew form: Het
. , Kaf . The lemma of Mem  is missing, so
that Mem  and  were contracted to form one entry, Qof  and  show a similar
contraction; Samekh  is mutilated (i.e. it only consists of the Hebrew lemma), Samekh
 idem; Samekh , Ayin : the Arabic synonym is defective. Resh : the Hebrew
Lemma is mising; Shin : the Arabic synonym is missing.
 introduction

is also true of MS V, as we have seen. MS V has also some deficiencies223


and many additions, which were added at the end of some entries, usually
after the Romance or Latin synonym.224 We therefore decided that our
edition should be based on MS P.225

.. Norms Used in the Edition and


Organisation of the Commentary
The edition and the commentary are presented in integrated form, i.e.
each entry is edited and subsequently commented upon. Each entry
begins with an entry number added by us followed by its edition. We
usually follow manuscript P and list all divergences contained in the
other two manuscripts in the critical apparatus.226 We only changed
words or phrases from P based on either conjecture or material from
MSS O and V on a few occasions and in very clear cases of error or
corruption, which are then mentioned in the critical apparatus. In some
cases, manuscript P has vowelised forms, where the vowel signs were,
however, added by a later hand. In this case, we copied the respective
strings without vowels and reproduced the vowelised form in the critical
apparatus. We use standard conventions for the critical apparatus; see
the list of general abbreviations at the beginning of this volume for the
abbreviations used. After editing each line, it is translated into English;
both the lemmas as well as the synonyms are transliterated here by means
of the transliteration system presented in section . that has been in use
throughout this introduction.
We then proceed to the commentary, which is dedicated to the expla-
nation of the Hebrew and / or Aramaic, Arabic and Romance and / or

223 E.g.: The Romance synonym of Het .  (mosclars ‘fish hooks’) is erroneously added
to the preceding entry. Yod : the Arabic synonym is missing. In Kaf , Mem  and Pe
 the Hebrew Lemma is missing. The lemma of Shin  is missing and, since entry Shin
 is missing, too, the entry was contracted with Shin .
224 Cf., e.g., Alef , , Bet , , , , Gimel , , Dalet . These additional

explanations sometimes concern additional Biblical or Rabbinic Hebrew synonyms,


references to the Bible, or additional references to relevant sources. It thus seems that
MS V was copied by an expert, who usually tried to add well founded information.
225 Despite the fact that MS P also contains many deficiencies: e.g.: In Mem , the

Arabic synonym is missing; in Samekh , the Romance synonym (sene) was erroneously
added to the following entry; in Qof  the Romance synonym is missing.
226 In order to prevent the pages from becoming too complicated, occasional footnotes

to the commentary that offer additional information or introduce literature not previ-
ously quoted follow the same numbering as the critical apparatus.
introduction 

Latin words and phrases, which are mostly medico-botanical terms.


These were retrieved in the relevant dictionaries and additional sources,
such as rabbinic literature as well as medico-botanical texts of the lan-
guages involved; see section  of this introduction for the main sources
used.
As for Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic, our aim is not only to document
the lexical material but also to see where a correspondence between
a Hebrew / Aramaic and Arabic term is established elsewhere in the
literature (cf. . above). For the Romance and Latin terms, apart from
establishing their meaning, one of the main goals of the commentary
is to identify the language (cf. ..–.) they belong to. We have also
considered their identification with Hebrew and Arabic terms as far as
such could be found.
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Wüest, J., “Okzitanische Scriptaformen IV. Languedoc”, in LRL ,, pp. –
.
Yardeni, A., Book of Hebrew Script: History, Palaeography, Script Style, Calligra-
phy, and Design, Jerusalem .
Zifroni, A. (ed.), Sefer Hovot
. ha-Levavot, Jerusalem .
Zimmels, H.J., “Science”, in Roth, C. (ed.), The Dark Ages. Jews in Christian
Europe –, New Brunswick  (The World History of the Jewish
People. Second Series: Medieval Period. Volume Two), chapter XII: Aspects
of Jewish Culture: –.
Zotenberg, H., Catalogues des manuscrits hébreux et samaritains de la BN, Paris
.
Zwink, J., “Etude lexicographique du traité anonyme Fevres: une compilation
médicale en ancien français, écrite en caractères hébraïques”, in Panace@
VII /  (), pp. –.
EDITION OF SEFER HA-SHIMMUSH,
BOOK 29, SYNONYM LIST 1
ALEF1

. 5äðàìáéã 4àîøôùéà åà 3àøáðà 짧áå øáðò 䧧á íéìäà åà 2úåìäà


"HLWT or "HLYM, Arab. #NBR, o.l. "NBR" or "YS̆PRM" DYBL"NH

Hebrew "HLWT or "HLYM means “aloe wood”, Aloexyllon Agallochum


and Aquilaria Agallocha, both from India, and features in the Bible, e.g.
Ps : (KB ; CD :; KA :; BM  f.; AEY :; FE  ff.;
FO ; KT :; LF : ff.).
Arabic #anbar can mean: ) “ambergris”,6 ) “saffron”,7 ) “wars”8 and
) al-hağar
. al-#anbarı̄: “Ambrastein” (ambergris stone) (RS, no.  and
p.  f.).
For the identification of "HLYM as #anbar, cf. Sa#adya on Prov :
(SM ): ïåîð÷å íéìäà øåî éáëùî éúôð (I have sprinkled my bed with myrrh,
aloes, and cinnamon): áéè ãåòå øáðòå êñîá éò§â§ö úø§ëá ã÷å; Ibn Janāh.
(IJ ): * +,-
- (this [term] is explained as ‘sandalwood’), and the
gloss in MS Rouen no. : ./ 0,) (according to others it is: #anbar);9
David b. Abraham al-Fāsı̄ (SF :).10

1 Entries – have been adapted from G. Bos and G. Mensching, “Shem Tov Ben
Isaac, Glossary of Botanical Terms, Nos. –”, in Jewish Quarterly Review XCII (),
pp. –.
2 úåìäà: àøãà O
3 àøáðà: àøáîà V
4 àîøôùéà: àîøéôùà O àîøôùà V
5 äðàìáéã: àðéìáã O, om. V
6 L  cites various origins for #anbar as ambergris as given in the earlier literature:

“It issues from a source in the sea: a fish, marine beast, or a vegetable in the bottom of the
sea”; cf. IBF . It is now generally considered to be a morbid secretion of the sperm
whale intestine, which is fragrant when heated.
7 L ibid.
8 The yellow powder obtained from Memecylon tinctorium Willd. or Flemingia

rhodocarpa Bak. (SP ).


9 For the glosses in MS Rouen, cf. the extensive discussion in A. Maman, Comparative

Semitic Philology in the Middle Ages. From Sa#adiah to Ibn Barūn (th–th C.).
Translated into English by David Lyons, Leiden , pp. –.
10 For David b. Abraham al-Fāsı̄ (th century) and his Kitāb Jāmi# al-Alfāz see
.
Maman, Comparative Semitic Philology in the Middle Ages, pp. –, abbr. MCS. As
Maman demonstrated, al-Fāsı̄ consulted the biblical translations and commentaries of his
predecessors, including B. Nahawendi, Daniel Qumisi, J. Qirqisani, Salmon b. Yeruhim, .
and Sa#adya (ibid., pp. –).
 shem tov, synonym list 

The Latin, O. Occ. or O. Cat. ambra/anbra (MLWB :; DuC :c;


FEW :; RL :b; DCVB :a; DECLC :b; RPA , ,
; AdV , ) means, just like the Arabic equivalent, ‘ambergris’.
In O. Cat., the form was rather ambre (DCVB loc. cit.; DECLC loc. cit.),
documented since the th c., which would also be a possible reading.
The term esperma de balena is documented for Cat. (DCVB :b;
DECLC :a). A corresponding O. Occ. term could not be found in the
dictionaries, but may well have existed, see the O. Occ. esperma ‘sperm’
(RL :a–b), and balena ‘whale’ (RL :a). It designates the waxy
substance obtained from the oil in the head of the sperm whale, known
as spermaceti. Nevertheless, as is the case here, it was used in the sense
of ‘ambergris’, like in the Alphita (see Sin :; CA ). Since ambergris
is found floating on the ocean or cast ashore, it was thought to be the
gum of a submarine tree (“gummi cuiusdam arboris sub mari nascentis”,
Alphita, loc. cit.). Also cf. O. Sp. anbra/alanbar (de balena) (Sin b;
DETEMA :b), and O. Fr. esperme de baleine (FEW :b).
For the identification of Lat./O. Cat. ambra as Arabic #anbar, cf. AdV
, .

. 12äèâéðåî 짧áå øúòö 11䧧á áåæà


"ZWB, Arab. S. #TR, o.l. MWNYGTH .

Biblical Hebrew "ZWB means “hyssop”, not Hyssopus officinalis L., which
does not grow in Palestine, but probably Origanum maru L., or Majorana
syriaca L. (KB ; CD :; KA : f.; BM ; AEY :; DAS :;
FH ; FM ; FO  ff.; FZ  ff.; KT :; LF : ff.).
Arabic s. a#tar means “origan”, Origanum (DT :; M ). The Arabic
s. a#tar features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (e.g. XX, ) and is
translated by N as: áåæà and by Z as: åðâéøåà/åðâøåà §÷ðä áåæàä/áåæà ("ZWB,
i.e. "WRGNW/"WRYGNW).
For the identification of "ZWB as .sa#tar see Sa#adya on Ex :: íúç÷ìå
áåæà úãåâà (Take a bunch of hyssop): øúòö ïî ä÷àá å§ã§ëå (S ; cf. RO );
IJ : áæà úãâà: 123 (4 (a bunch of hyssop); and SF :. However,
Sa#adya on Ps : has: áàæà (ST ); cf. Ibn Barūn (WB ): 56& (see as
well, ibid. n. , pp. –).
We could not identify the vernacular term MWNYGTH . in MS P, at
least with respect to Catalan or Occitan. For other Romance languages,

11 䧧á: ò§§á V passim


12 äèâéðåî: àèéâðåî O íåðâéøåà åà àèéâðåî V
alef 

we found the Italian monegheta with the meaning Centaurea cyanus L.


(PFlor ). This form is characterised as ancient by Penzig; cf. also
the modern forms moneghette (Lombardian, Valtellina) and muneghetta
(Ligurian, Genua) with the same meaning. Similar Italian dialect forms
(Lombardian, Como) are moneghett (PFlor ) and moneghett sal-
vadegh, meaning Convallaria majalis L. and Polygonatum anceps
Moench. (PFlor ) respectively. MSS O and V suggest the Catalan read-
ing mongeta (DCVB :–), which means various types of Phase-
olus and also Anagyris foetida and would thus totally diverge from the
meaning of the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms as is the case for the Italian
forms mentioned above. Since MS V adds the synonym "WRYGNWM, i.e.
the Latin origanum ‘oregano’ (Origanum heracleoticum Reichb. or Ori-
ganum vulgare L.), ‘marjoram’ (Origanum marjorana) (NPRA ), we
might also suppose that the vernacular term is a corrupt form of Lat. or
Romance majorana (see entry Shin ). This hypothesis is not very proba-
ble either though, because, firstly, all three manuscripts are fairly uniform
with respect to this word, and, secondly, we find the same word with the
same synonym in list  (entry Mem ).

. 14÷àîù 짧á 13÷àîåñ 䧧á âåà


"WG, Arab. SWM"Q, o.l. S̆M"Q

The Mishnaic term "WG means “sumac”, Rhus coriaria L. (JD ; LW :;
KA :, : f.; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ; FZ  f.;
KT :, :; LF : ff.).
Arabic summāq is derived from Aramaic summāqā “red” (SDA ;
LF :; LA  f.:) and also means “sumac”, Rhus coriaria L. and Var.,
or its berry, Anacardiaceae (L ; D :; DT :; M ; DAS :,
; LF : ff.; cf. as well Samekh no.  below). The term features in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ; XXII, ) and is transcribed
by N and Z as: ÷àîñ or ÷îåñ.
For the identification of both terms, cf. Alfāz. al-Mishnah (SAM
:),15 Arukh (KA :). In his commentary on mPeah ., Mai-
monides identifies âåà as: éîàùìà ÷àîåñìà (og = Syrian sumac) (MK :).

13 ÷àîåñ: é÷àîñ P ÷îåñ V


14 ÷àîù: ÷àîñ O ÷àîåñ V
15 While Allony attributed these lexical explanations to Sa"adya Ga"on, Abramson

(“Millon ha-Mishnah le-Rav Sa"adya Ga"on,” Leshonenu  (), pp. – and sub-
sequently Maman (MCS , n. ) argued that they are not Sa"adya’s at all. According to
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the term indicated as vernacular, the Alphita (Sin , n. )
uses M. Lat. sumac as a synonym to anagodam (maybe Ferula assa
foetida, see Sin b, or Rhus coriaria, see CA ). In O. Occ., sumac(h)
or simac, Rhus coriaria, is documented since the th c. (DAO :;
FEW :b; RL :b; PSW :b; CB , , ; RPA ); in
O. Cat. (sumac(h)) since the th c. (DECLC :b; AdV , , ).
For the identification of Lat. sumac/O. Cat. sumach as Arabic summāq,
cf. AdV , .

. 18àèðî 짧áå 17òðòð 䧧á 16àúéîà


"MYT", Arab. N#N#, o.l. MNT" .

Hebrew "MYT" means “ammi”, Ammi visnaga, and features in Rabbinic


literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ; KA :, :; AEY :; LA
 ff.:; LF : ff.).
Arabic na#na# means “peppermint” (DT :; M ; DAS : f.; cf.
as well Dalet no. ).
For the identification of both terms, cf. R. Hananel19 on bShab a:
äúéîà: òðòð; cf. Rashi (ibid.): ,äéðéð :äúéîà éàî ùøôî äéî÷ì :äúéîàá ïëå
১èðéî (in a similar way concerning "MYTH; later on (see bShab a),
the text explains what "MYTH is, namely ninya, minta). Since the proper
Semitic form is àúénà or àúénç, it is easy to understand how this form
was taken to be an assimilated form of àúðéîà and then assumed to be
identical to àúðéî; i.e., mint (cf. LA  ff.:).20
MNT". is Latin or Romance menta ‘mint’ (O. Occ. or O. Cat; see, among
others, NPRA ; FEW :a–b; DECLC :a).
For the identification of Lat./O. Cat. menta as Arabic na#na#, cf. AdV
, .

Brody (The Geonim of Babylonia and the Shaping of Medieval Jewish Culture, New Haven
, p. ), Allony’s identification was correct, as confirmed by “further manuscript
discoveries in the Genizah, along with a comparison of citations in Se"adyah’s name and
interpretations contained in his other works.”
16 àúéîà: äúéîà VO
17 òðòð: øúòö O (cf. entry )
18 àèðî: àèðéî VO
19 For R. Hananel (–/) and his commentary on the Talmud see I.M. Ta-

Shma. Ha-Sifrut ha-Parshanit la-Talmud.  vols. nd rev. ed. Jerusalem –, vol. ,
pp. –.
20 See as well I. Loew, “Mélanges de Lexicographie Rabbinique,” Revue des Études Juives

 (): –, no.  (pp. –).


alef 

. 21äèøéð 짧áå ñà 䧧á àñà


"S", Arab. "S, o.l. NYRTH
.

Aramaic "S" means “myrtle”, Myrtus communis L., and features in Rab-
binic literature, e.g. in bBB b (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :,
:; KT :, ; LF : ff.). Its Hebrew equivalent is ñãä (KB ;
JD ; LW :; KA :; AEY :; FO ; FM ; IJS :;
KT :, ; LF ibid.).
Arabic ās, which is possibly a loan translation from the Aramaic
(FF ), also means “myrtle” (DT :; M ).
Sa#adya on Is : translates ñãä with ās: ñãäå äèù æøà øáãîá ïúà
ïîù õòå (I will plant cedars in the wilderness, acacias and myrtles and
oleasters): ïäãìà ãåòå ñàìàå èðñìàå æøàìà ïî äéøáìà éô úáðàå (S ); see
as well IJ , SF :. The Arabic ās also features in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N and Z as: ñãä. For
the identification of ñãä as rayhān,
. see as well Ayin no. .
NYRTH . is O. Occ. nerta for ‘myrtle’ (FEW –:b–b). This form
with n- seems exclusively Occitan, the Cat. forms being murta or murtra
(DCVB :a; DECLC :a). For the use of nerta and murta in other
Hebrew-Romance synonym lists, see HebMedSyn .

. 24äèéîùìá 짧áå 23øáðñéñ 䧧á 22ñåøéà


"YRWS, Arab. SYSNBR, o.l. BLS̆MYTH .

Hebrew "YRWS is the Mishnaic term for “iris”, Iris pallida L. (JD ;
LW :; KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; FM ; FZ  ff.;
LF : f.).
Arabic sisanbar is a corruption of sawsan barrı̄ (“wild lily”; cf. DT :;
LF :). For their identification, cf. Maimonides on mKil .: :ñåøéà
÷øåìà õéøòìà òðòðìà åäå øáðñéñìà (iris is sisanbar which is the kind of
mint which has broad leaves) (MK :; cf. LF :). For Arabic sawsan,
cf. Shin no.  below.
It seems that SYSNBR has been misinterpreted as a Romance form
of Lat. sisymbrium25 for a type of mint, probably Menta silvestris or

21 äèøéð: àèøéð VO
22 äèéîùìá 짧áå øáðñéñ 䧧á ñåøéà: om. V
23 øáðñéñ: øàáðñéñ O
24 äèéîùìá: àèéîùìá O
25 For the Latin word (< Greek σισμβριον); see Sin , n. ; , n. ; :; .
 shem tov, synonym list 

Menta aquatica, cf. NPRA ; CA  (e.g. O. Occ. sisanbra, O. Cat.
sisimbri, M. Fr. sisimbre, see CB ; DECLC :a; FEW :b). This
confusion is due to the fact that the second term indicated as vernacular,
BLS̆MYTH,. i.e. Lat. balsamita,26 also designated a type of mint—it is
used as a synonym for xisimbrium (NPRA ; Sin :; CA ).
This confusion is not an isolated case, since the Arukh (KA :) also
explains "RWS as SYSYMBR##W (It. sisimbro). According to the Arukh,
sisimbrio is a corruption of sawsan barrı̄ in correspondence with our
hypothesis.

. äàéãðéà æåð 29짧áå 28ìé§âøàð 䧧á 27ééãåä æåâà


"GWZ HWDYY, Arab. N"RĞYL, o.l. NWZ "YNDY"H

Hebrew "GWZ HWDYY means “coconut”, Cocus nucifera L. (BM , s.v.
åãåä æåâà; LF : f.).
Arabic ğawz hindı̄ or the more common nārğı̄l also means “coconut”
(cf. M  and LF : f.). Arabic ğawz hindı̄ features, e.g., in the Hebrew
translation of Ibn Sı̄nā’s K. al-Qānūn by Zerahyah. Hen,
. where it is
translated as: åãåä æåâà.30
The vernacular term corresponds to O. Occ. *nos (or notz) india
‘Indian nut’; for nos/notz, see RL :a; CB ; cf. also entry Alef
; cf. the M. Lat. nux indica (Sin , n. ), O. Sp. nuez indica o
nuez de India (Sin :; :; :; a). In the dictionaries we
consulted, the adjective indi is only documented with the meaning
‘violet’ (as a derivation of the noun indi for ‘indigo’, see RL :b and
DECLC :b), but it is attested in other compound expressions like
mirabolans indis with the meaning ‘Indian’ (cf. entry He  in our edition).
For the identification of this term and the Arabic synonym commented
upon above, see the entry “Nuez indica e nuez de Yndia, nara(n)gil” in
Sin :, probably taken from the index to the Latin translation of Ibn
Sı̄nā’s K. al-Qānūn. The corresponding Cat. term is nou d’India ‘coconut’
(DECLC :a), documented since .

26 Sisymbrium (and its variant sinsybrium) is used as a synonym for balsamita in the

Alphita (Sin :; CA ). In the Alphita, this term is also used for other types of
mint (prob. Menta sylvestris and Menta rotundifolia). According to CA , “Balsamita
hortulana = sisimbrium = Chrysanthemum Balsamita”.
27 ééãåä: éãðä V
28 ìé§âøàð: ìâøð O ìéâøð V
29 äàéãðéà æåð 짧áå: om. OP
30 MS Oxford, Opp. Add. fol.  (cat. Neubauer ), fol. a.
alef 

. âåô 32àøéô 짧áå ãðæ 31ø§âç 䧧á óòø ïáà


"BN R#P, Arab. H . ĞR ZND, o.l. PYR" PWG

Hebrew R#P, plur. R#PYM, means ) “flint” and ) “glazed tile”, and
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in yBer VII, b, where it is
stated that the Lord made him (Adam) find two flints which he struck
against each other to produce fire (JD ; LW : f.; KA :;
BM ; KT :, ).
Arabic hağar
. az-zand (= *az-zinād?) is, according to D :, s.v. hağar
.
az-zinād (?): ‘pierre à briquet, silex’ (“flint”) (cf. al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :):
“hağar
. an-nār: . . . wa-huwa hağar
. az-zinād”) (cf. MS O). The term zand
actually means “A piece of stick, or wood, for producing fire” (L ).
Maimonides on mMen . (MK :) explains the term íéôòø as: ãîàø÷
(cf. L  s.v. 7
: “A kind of stones, which have holes and upon which
a fire is lighted and kept up until they are thoroughly burnt [ . . . ]; baked
bricks”).
The vernacular term according to MS P and MS O, i.e. PYR" PWG or
PYYR" PWQ respectively, could be read as O. Occ. *peira fug for ‘flint
stone’ (cf. O. Occ. peira ‘stone’, FEW :b and foc/fug ‘fire’, FEW :a).
Cf. the modern dialect forms quoted in FEW :b and TrFel :c,
e.g., peirafuec in a dialect of the Alpes in the Dauphiné, and in DFO
:b, peiro-fioc. For O. Occ., the FEW documents the form peyrafuga
“silex dont on peut tirer des étincelles avec un morceau d’acier” (i.e., silex
which serves for producing sparks with a piece of steel, documented in
the th c.), commenting that the word seems to have been misspelt
(FEW :a, n. ). MS V only includes the first element, *peira. We can
exclude a Cat. variant here, which would be pedra de foc (DECLC :b;
DCVB :b).

31 ãðæ ø§âç: øàðìà øâç O øáà øâç V


32 âåô àøéô: ÷åô àøééô O àøééô V ùà ïáà ùã÷ ïåùì add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. êåúá íéàöîð íéøâøâ íäå 34ùãåðéî 33ùàéðô 짧áå ùéø÷ íö÷ 䧧á ïéìáåøèöà
36íéøåçù 35ïéìáåøèöàä

" S. TRWBLYN,
. Arab. QS. M QRYS̆, o.l. PNY" S̆ MYNWDS̆, these are the black
seeds inside the pine cones

Hebrew " S. TRWBYL/"S


. TRWBYL,
. plur. " S. TRWBLYN/"S
. TRWBLYN,
. from
Greek στρ βιλος (KG :; LS ) means “pine cone” and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mAZ . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
FM ; FT ; LF : ff.,  f.).
Arabic qadm. qurays̆ means “the seeds in the cones of Pinus picea”
(DT :; FrA ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mAZ . (MK :):
ùéø÷ í§ö÷ éîñé é§ãìà øéâöìà øáåðöìà :ïéìáåøèöà (pine cone, namely, the
seed of the pine which is also called qadm . qurays̆) (cf. LF : f.).
PNY" S̆ MYNWDS̆ is the plural of O. Occ. *pinha menuda/O. Cat.
*pinya menuda. O. Occ. pinha / O. Cat. pinya is a pine cone (RL :a–
b; DAO :; CB ; DECLC :b); menut (fem.: menuda) means
‘small’ (RL :a; DECLC :a), so *pinhas menudas should be inter-
preted here as ‘small pine fruits’, i.e. the seeds, as opposed to the big ones,
namely the pine cones. For the usual names of the pine seeds, see Gimel
. The variant used in MS V, PYYRS̆ (peiras, see entry Alef ), with the
meaning ‘seeds’ could not be found in our Occ. and Cat. sources, but note
that pierre in Mod. Fr. is also used to refer to a small hard object similar
to the seeds of cherries and the like (cf. FEW :b) and M. Fr. pierrette
as seed or stone which can be found in certain fruits (cf. FEW loc. cit.).
Also cf. entry Alef .

. èé÷ðìá 짧áå 38§âàãéôñà 䧧á 37àðãéôñà


"SPYDN", Arab. "SPYD" Ğ, o.l. BLNQYT.

Aramaic "SPYDN", read "SPYDK", is “white lead” and features as àëøéôñà


or àëãéôñéà in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit b,39 where it forms one of

33 ùàéðô: ùøééô V
34 ùãåðéî: ùàãåðî O ùãåðî V úå÷ã íéðáà ùã÷ ïåùì add. V
35 ïéìáåøèöàä: ïéìáåøèöà V
36 íéøåçù:, om. O ïéøåçùä V
37 èé÷ðìá 짧áå §âàãéôñà 䧧á àðãéôñà: om. V
38 §âàãéôñà: àâãéôñà O
39 See Meyer S. Feldblum, Dikdukei Soferim. Tractate Gittin. Annotated variant
alef 

the ingredients for a compound remedy for anal worms (JD ; LW :;
SDA ; KA :, :; GS ; Low XXXVII; PB ).
Arabic isfidāğ also means “white lead” (L ; D :; GS ,  f.).
For the identification of "SPYDK" as isfidāğ, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit
b, p. . R. Hananel
. explains the term as: = ÷åàæ =) ÷åæà àåäå éç óñë
éáøò ïåùìá ()86, cf. LO Liqqut. ei Perush R. Hananel
. on bGit b, p. ;
see as well Arukh (KA :). The th century physician, alchemist and
Kabbalist Hayyim
. Vital calls this mineral: ïáìä úéøôâ (fol. a, no. )40
or éèé÷ðìá (BLNQYTY) 41
. (fol. a, no. ).
O. Occ. blan(c)quet (RPA , , ; CB , , , ) is
‘céruse’, i.e. white lead; O. Cat. idem (DECLC :a; AdV ).
For the identification of Romance blanquet as the Arabic isfidāğ, see
AdV .

. éãðéà 짧áå 43ìéð 䧧á 42ñéèñà


"STYS,
. Arab. NYL, o.l."YNDY

Hebrew "STYS,
. from Greek σατις (LS ; KG :) means “woad”, Isatis
tinctoria L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :; DAS :; FH ; FM ;
FZ  f.; KT :, ; LF : ff.).
Arabic nı̄l means Indigo tinctoria L.; cf. DT :: “The translators
did not find an equivalent for ı̄sāt. ı̄s. And so it happened that the early
Arab writers confused the σατις of Dioscurides, glastum of Plinius, Isatis
tinctoria L., woad, Cruciferae, with the νδικ ν of Dioscurides, indicum
of Plinius, Arabic nı̄l, Indigo tinctoria L., Indigo, Indigoferae”, see as well
DT :; M , ; DAS :, ,  f.; IJS :.
For the identification of "STYS . as nı̄l, cf. Alfāz. al-Mishnah (SAM
:); Arukh (KA :); Maimonides on mKil . translates ñèñà as:
âìéðìà (an-nı̄lağ) (MK :),44 a variant for ìéðìà (an-nı̄l); NZ fol. a
reads: å÷éãðéà æòìáå ìéð éáøòá ãåîìú ïåùì ñéèñà ("STYS, . Talmudic, in
Arabic nı̄l and in o.l. indigo).

readings culled from MSS and Genizah fragments and Talmudic commentaries from 
ce to  ce, New York .
40 Cf. Gerrit Bos, “Hayyim Vital’s ‘Practical Kabbalah and Alchemy’: a th century
.
Book of Secrets,” Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy, vol.  (): –, p. .
41 Ibid. p. .
42 ñéèñà: äéèñà V
43 ìéð: ìééð VO
44 See as well his commentaries on mShebi . (MK :); and mShab . (MK :).
 shem tov, synonym list 

The Romance form "YNDY is the usual O. Occ. or O. Cat. term indi for
‘indigo’ (RL :b–a; DECLC :b–b).

. 47éøáðéâ 짧áå 46ìäáà 䧧á 45àúàøáéà


"YBR"T"; Arab. "BHL, o.l. GYNBRY

Aramaic "YBR"T" or BRT" means “juniper”, Juniperus drupacea Labill.,


Juniperus Excelsa L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBB b
(éúøá :ùåøá) (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :; FEB  ff.;
FM ; FO  f.; LF : ff.); the Hebrew equivalent is ùåøá. See as well
Bet no. .
Arabic abhal means “savin”, Juniperus sabina L. (L ; D :;
DT :; M ).
For the identification of abhal as "YBR"T", cf. HTG : àá àåä àúàøáà
ìäáàìà úééèáå ùåøáä ïî ("BR"T" comes from HBRWS̆ and is in Arabic al-
abhal); see as well ibid. . According to al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :), 09 is called
;
 and <)
 in Syriac.
O. Occ. and O. Cat. ginebre is Juniperus communis (PSW :b–
a; DECLC :b–b). The variant used in MS V, GYNYYBRY,
seems to represent a diphthongised form that could not be found in our
O. Occ. and O. Cat. sources. But note that DAO : gives a Mod. Occ.
(Languedocien) jhiniêbrë and that similar forms are frequent in other
Romance languages (e.g. O. Fr. geneivre, Fr. genièvre, cf. FEW :b;
Aragonese hinieblo, jiniebro, cf. DECLC :b).

. 49ïéô 짧áå 48äîèá 䧧á äìà


"LH, Arab. BTMH,
. o.l. PYN

Hebrew "LH means “terebinth”, Pistacia terebinthus L., and features in


the Bible (e.g. Gen :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. mShebi . (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :; AEY :; DAS :; FEB  ff.;
FM ; FO  ff.; FZ  f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic but. m(a) also refers to the “terebinth” (DT :; M ).

45 àúàøáéà: àúøáà V
46 ìäáà: ìúáà V
47 éøáðéâ: éøáéðéâ O éøáééðéâ V
48 äîèá: àîèá O àîèåá V
49 ïéô: àîèåá äìà §åâøúå add. V
alef 

For the identification of "LH as but. m(a), cf. Sa#adya on Gen : (S ):
íëù íò øùà äìàä úçú á÷òé íúåà ïåîèéå (and Jacob buried them under
the terebinth that was near Shechem): éúìà äîèáìà úçú áå÷òé àäðôãô
ñìáàð ãðò; see as well IJ , and SID  f.:. The Arabic term is a loan
translation from Aramaic, cf. Targum Onkelos (ibid.): úåçú á÷òé ïåäúé øîèå
íëù íòã àîèåá.50 (cf. FF ; MS. V).
O. Occ. pin / O. Cat. pi(n) is ‘pine tree’ (RL :a; DECLC :b).

. 52ìéøå÷ 짧áå ãñá åà 51ïà§âøî 䧧á âåîìà


"LMWG, Arab. MRĞ"N or BSD, o.l. QWRYL

Hebrew "LMWG, plur. "LMGYM, indicates “a precious wood not specified


any more closely [ . . . ] trad. sandal-wood” and features in the Bible (in the
plur. only), e.g. in Song :, and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bShab b
(KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; FEB  ff.;
FO ; LF : ff.). In Rabbinic literature, it is identified, amongst other
things, as “coral”. For instance, in bRH a it is stated: àúéñë :ïéâåîìà
("LMWGYN is KSYT", i.e., coral; cf. LW :: “eig. was vom Meere
bedeckt ist: ) Koralle” (actually something which is covered by the sea:
) coral); see as well FZ ; LF :; SB :).
Marğān is the Arabic equivalent to "LMWG for the meaning coral (E.I.2
: f., s.v. mardjān (A. Dietrich)). Bussad is the Persian term and is
often used as a synonym although, strictly speaking, it is the root of the
coral as well as the subsoil to which it is attached; see Dietrich, ibid.;
VL :, s.v. bussad/busad, bissad/bisad; LF :; SP .
For the identification of "LMWG as marğān, cf. the Geonic commen-
tary on Tohorot (EG ), and Maimonides on mKel . (MK :)
(cf. LF :). NZ fol. a reads: éììàøå÷ æòìá ïàâøî éáøòá íéâåîìà
("LMWGYM, in Arabic marğān, o.l. QWR"LLY). For the identification
of marğān as bussad, cf. Ibn Janāh’s. K. at-Talkhı̄s. as quoted by al-Idrı̄sı̄
(IJS :; cf. AS ); see as well ShT , no. .
The vernacular form QWRYL/QWR"YYL seems to reflect the O. Occ.
cora(i)l(l/h) or O. Cat. corayl alongside corall ‘coral’ (RL :a; FEW –
:a–b; CB , ; DCVB :a; DECLCL :b). The Cat.

50 See A. Berliner, Targum Onkelos. Herausgegeben und erläutert.  vols. Berlin ,

vol. , p. .
51 ïà§âøî: ïàâøî VO
52 ìéøå÷: ìééàøå÷ VO
 shem tov, synonym list 

coral(l) could also designate various types of plants: Cotyledon orbicu-


lata, Crassula arborescens and Crassula coccinea (DCVB loc. cit.). As a
plant name, in O. Occ., only coral is documented, which designates the
oak tree and its wood (DAO :; RL :a; PSW :a), but does not
match the form in our text, although this meaning resembles that of the
Hebrew lemma.
The Cat. coral is identified as busad wa huwa #uruq al-marğan (AdV
).

. à÷éîåá 54ñåð 짧áå é÷ìà 53æåâ 䧧á àé÷î æåâà


"GWZ MQY", Arab. GWZ "LQY, o.l. NWS BWMYQ"

Hebrew "GWZ MQY" is “vomic nut”, Nux vomica, Strychnos nux vomica
(BM , s.v. àé÷ä æåâà; LF : f.), and was possibly coined by Shem
Tov after the Arabic ğawz al-qay". Subsequently, we find the term as
àé÷ä æåâà (cf. BM , but no source reference) and attributed to ha-R§§Z
(= Zerahyah
. Hen)
. in a marginal note to the term éèîåá éæåð (NWZY
BWMTY) . in Moses ibn Tibbon’s Hebrew translation of Maimonides’ On
the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR II, ).
Ğawz al-qay" is the Arabic equivalent (DT :; M ).
The Hebrew transcription NWS represents O. Occ. notz (see entry
Alef ), so most probably the whole expression represents an O. Occ.
*nos/notz vomica. This term was modelled after the Medieval Lat. term,
nux vomica ‘vomic nut’, according to the Alphita (see Sin :; CA ),
where it is identified as nux indica (Cocos nucifera L.). Cf. the O. Fr.
noiz vomice, M. and Mod. Fr. noix vomique (FEW :a–b), O. Sp.
nuez bomica (Sin loc. cit.). We might be tempted to exclude Catalan here,
which would be nou rather than notz or nos (DECLC :a), but note
that the development from word final /ts/ to the semivowel -u can only
be found in writing from the th c. onwards, although the sound shift
is supposed to have happened earlier (cf. BadGram  f.; MollGram
; TermMedOc ). For vòmic, vòmica ‘causing vomiting’, documented
since , cf. DECLC (:a).

53 é÷ìà æåâ: àé÷ìà ñåâ O é÷ìà æåâ V


54 à÷éîåá ñåð: à÷éîåå æåð V
alef 

. 56äìåéøåì 짧áå 55ïåéøæàî 䧧á õøàä éøà


"RY H"RS. , Arab. M"ZRYWN, o.l. LWRYWLH

Hebrew "RY H"RS. , lit., “lion of the earth”, designates Daphne mezereum
L. and Var. The Hebrew term is not attested in secondary literature (cf.
BM , n. ) and was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation
of the Arabic =(> %& which is, in turn, a loan translation (via Syriac?,
cf. LA  f.:) of the Greek χαμαιλων (LS ; DT :, esp. n. ; cf.
al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :): =( % ,
2 . . . ?(67).
Māzaryūn is the standard Arabic term for the same plant (cf. DT :;
M ). It features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(XXI, ) and is translated by N as: äìåàéøáì (LBRY"WLH) and by Z as:
àìåàéøåàì àåä ïåéøæàî (Māzaryūn, i.e. L"WRY"WL").
Laureola is Lat. or O. Occ. (see the quotations from N and Z above
and Sin :: “Anabula, i. mezerion, i. laureola”; RPA ; cf. also
Sin :, :, a; CA ). In NPRA , it is pointed out that
laureola/lauriola was used as “nom des plantes dont la feuille a plus ou
moins la forme de celle du Laurier” (i.e., name for plants whose leaves
more or less have the form of those of the laurel), e. g. Daphne oleïdes L.,
Daphne oleaefolia L., Daphne gnidium L., among others. For O. Cat., see
the quotation given in DCVB :a: “Píllules de riubàrber que segons
Rasis són de laureola” (i.e., Rhubarb pills that, according to ar-Rāzı̄, are
made of laureola, Cauliach Coll.).
For the identification of Lat. or Romance laureola as Arabic māzaryūn,
see AdV  and GHAT :. Cf. as well al-Idrı̄sı̄ (ibidem): . . . ?(67
?( @AB
-) (M"ZRYWN . . . and in French LWRYWLH).

. éøáøàã 60àéðìéô 짧áå íéæåâàä ïìéà óì÷ 59àéäå 58êàåñ 䧧á 57àîé÷éñôà
øéâåðéã
"PSYQYM", Arab. SW"K, and this is the bark of the walnut tree, o.l.
PYLNY" D"RBRY DYNWGYR

"PSYQYM", a corruption of either σκφινος or σκφινον “everything wo-


ven from palm leaves”, or σφκωμα (“cord”) (KG :) means a “(rope)

55 ïåéøæàî: ïåéøàæî O ïðéøñàî V


56 äìåéøåì: àìåàéøååì O äìÇàéWååì V
57 àîé÷éñôà: àîé÷éñéôà O
58 êàåñ: áàåñ O ÷àåñ V
59 íéæåâàä ïìéà óì÷ àéäå: om. OV
60 øéâåðéã éøáøàã àéðìéô: øééâåðã éøáìàã àééðàìô O øéâeðé§D éV"aYàA àéðìé!ô P éøáìàã àééðì"ô
øééâåðã V
 shem tov, synonym list 

twisted of palm leaves” or “cocoa nut fibres” (JD ; LW :; KA :,
:; LA :). The term features in bErub a: “R. Assi ruled: One
must measure only with a rope of "PSYQYM". What is "PSYQYM"?—
R. Abba replied: NRGYL". What is NRGYL"?—R. Jacob replied: A palm-
tree which has only one bast”.61
Arabic siwāk means “A tooth-stick; a piece of stick with which the teeth
are rubbed . . . [commonly] a piece of stick of the [kind of tree called]
arāk” (Salvadora Persica L.) (L ; D :; DT :, s.v. But. iryūn
(ποτρριον)).62
We do not know how "PSYQYM" and siwāk came to be identified; Löw
(LF :) remarks that he does not know the Aramaic name of Salvadora
persica, Arabic arāk.
O. Occ. *pelanha d’arbre/albre de nog(u)(i)er lit. means ‘bark of the wal-
nut tree’. See RL :b pelalha ‘pelure, écorcé’ (peel, bark); PSW :b
pelonha with the same meaning, and a Mod. Languedocian form pelagno
(TrFel :b) with the change from final -a to -o typical for Mod. Occ.
This form presupposes the existence of an O. Occ. *pelanha, which is
exactly what we find here. For nog(u)er ‘walnut tree’, see FEW :b, and,
for the variant with the diphthong (noguier), see CB , . In O. Occ.
and O. Cat., we find both arbre (MS O) and albre (MSS P and V) for ‘tree’
(DAO :; FEW :a; RL :b; DECLC :a–b; DCVB :b).
We can exclude Cat. here which would be *pelaina d’arbre de noguer. Cf.
for pelaina DCVB :a; DECLC :a; for noguer see DCVB :a;
DECLC :a. Also cf. the introduction.

68éøèôéèðà 67åà ìéô 66ñðâéà 65éøéàô 짧áå 64äøäæéäàî 䧧á 63ïáä íøè áà
.
ùéìéùðå÷ ùåìå÷à §éèìå
"B TRM
. HBN, Arab. M"HYZHRH, o.l. P"YRY "YGNS PYL or "NTYP
. TRY
.
and Latin "QWLWS̆ QWNS̆YLYS̆

"B TRM
. HBN: This term, lit. meaning “the father before the son”, is
neither attested in the current dictionaries nor in secondary literature.

61 All our quotations from the Talmud are derived from The Soncino Talmud.
62 See as well Gerrit Bos, “The miswak, an aspect of dental care in Islam,” Medical
History, ,, :–.
63 ïáä: ïá O
64 äøäæéäàî: àøäæéàî O äøäæäàî V
65 éøéàô: éøééàô O éøééô V
66 ìéô ñðâéà: ìéô õàéðéà O ìéôé÷ õððà V
67 ùéìéùðå÷ ùåìå÷à §éèìå éøèôéèðà åà: ùåìåùðå÷ ùåìå÷à åà éøèôéèðà ïéèì V, om. O
68 éøèôéèðà: éV"èôé!èðà P
alef 

It is possible that it was coined by Shem Tov after the Romance *peire
enans fil(h) or *paire enans fill mentioned below.
Māhı̄zahra is not Arabic but rather Persian; cf. VL : f.: “n.c.
cortex radicis plantae valde niger, iecori piscis similis et pisces necans”;
SC : “A poisonous yellow-flowering milk-grass which, thrown into
water, intoxicates the fish and brings them to the surface”. Its Arabic
equivalent is māhı̄zahrağ and refers to the seed of Anamirta cocculus
Wight et Arnott (Menispermaceae); cf. SP ; ID :; a synonym is C%
D' (fish poison). According to Löw (LF :), there are no Hebrew
or Aramaic equivalents.
The third synonym of the vernacular variants corresponds to Lat.
oculus consulis; cf. the entry in Sin :, based on the Alphita (cf.
CA , “Oculus Christi est herba, et oculus consulis est altera herba
similis illi”), where the meaning ‘Bachminze’ (i.e. Menta aquatica) is
given. The second synonym, "NTYP . TRY,
. according to MS P, could be
identified as a form belonging to the Lat. antipater (either the accusative
antipatre(m) or a form which is corrupt or was adapted to Romance,
such as *antipatre). M. Lat. antipater figures in MLWB :a with the
meaning ‘species plantae’. The identification of oculus consulis as antipater
is frequent, but the exact meaning is very difficult to determine. In
addition to the meanings given above, FAntNic  indicates Anthemis
tinctoria L., Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch. and Bellis perennis L. In other
texts quoted there, antipater is also documented as filius ante patrem,
cf. Matthaeus Silvaticus, quoted in FAntNic (ibid.): “Oculus consulis
est herba dicta filius ante patrem vel oculus Christi”. This quotation
is particularly interesting because it gives us an indication regarding
the interpretation of the first vernacular synonym, P"YYRY "YNY" S. PYL
according to MS O, which could not be retrieved elsewhere. Following
MTerMed, this expression has to be read as O. Occ. *peire enans fil(h)
or O. Cat. *paire enans fill, thus representing an inversion of the Lat.
term filius ante patrem; for peire/ pa(i)re ‘father’ cf. RL :b and
DECLC :b; for enan(s), enant ‘before, in front of ’ RL :a and
DECLC :a; for fil(h)(s)/ fill ‘son’ RL :a and DECLC :b. A
form which could be represented by "YGNS (MS P) was not found. In
CB , we find the term payre e filh, interpreted as “melliloto”, but it
is not clear if this term bears any relation to our term. MS V gives the
variant PYYRY "NNS. QYPYL, which is difficult to interpret; it might be
that the author wanted to emend the preposition enans by substituting it
with the conjunction enans que ‘before’ (RL :b–a; DECLC loc. cit.).
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 73õøàá ïéùåò åìù áùòä 72ïîå 71àãâéãàåìù 70àðéøô 짧áå èø÷ 69䧧á åçà
75àéñà÷à 짧áå 74àé÷÷àä íéøöî

" HW,
. Arab. QRT,. o.l. PRYN" S̆LW"DYGD", from its plant acacia is pre-
pared in the land of Egypt; o.l. "Q"SY"

" HW
. means “sedge, marsh plant” and features in the Bible, e.g. in Gen
: (KB  f.; CD : (“reed”); BM ; DAS :; FO ; LF
: f.).
Arabic qurt. means “Alexandrian trefoil”, Trifolium alexandrinum (M
; LF :; SP ).
The identification of " HW. as qurt. goes back to Sa#adya on Gen ::
åçàá äðéòøúå (and they (i.e. the seven cows) grazed in the reed grass): úòøå
èø÷ìà éô (S ). Ibn Janāh. remarks that the ahl at-tafsı̄r (commentators,
i.e., Sa#adya) identify " HW. with qurt. and that it is a plant similar to
lucerne (rat. ba; cf. ID :), with larger leaves (IJ ); cf. LF :.
Its Persian name is, as he says, (EF (s̆ibdir). According to Maimonides
(M ), it is the well-known plant in Egypt¯ that one gives to beasts of
burden in Egypt as fodder.
The vernacular term literally means ‘wild plum’ PRYN" (MSS P and
V) and the variant PWRN" (MS O) belong to O. Occ. and O. Cat. pruna
‘plum’ (PSW :a; RL :b; FEW :a–b; DECLC :b; cf.
entry Alef ). As for PRYN", it should be noted that Romance forms
with -e- or -i- can be sporadically found, e.g., Franco-Provençal prenà
(Grenoble), préne (Vernot), [prı̄me] (ALF, point ); Alsatian [prı̄n]
(ALF, points  and ) or Wallonian [prı̄n] (FEW loc. cit.); cf. also
the Catalan derivations prinons/prinoyer (DECLC :a–b). The form
PWRN" is a metathetic variant. Such forms of pruna are not unusual in
the Gallo-Romance area; cf. the Lyonnais form porna and similar forms
quoted in FEW (:a, e. g. perne, Amognes (Bourgogne), or peurne,
Verdun (Lorraine)).
S̆LWDYG" (MS V) might be a spontaneous Romanisation of the Lat.
adjective silvatica ‘wild’. The variant in MS P seems to be a blend between
this term and salva(t)ja in a spelling *salvadja, the hereditary form

69 䧧á: ò§§á V passim


70 àðéøô: àðøåô O
71 àãâéãàåìù: àâéãåìù V ä÷àéñáâ àðéôùà åà add. V
72 åìù áùòä ïîå: om. O
73 íéøöî õøàá: íéøöîä O
74 àé÷÷àä: àé÷÷à VO
75 àéñà÷à: àéñ÷à V
alef 

of Lat. SILVATICA(M) and the usual term for ‘wild’ (see for O. Occ.
salva(t)g(u)e, salva(t)je DAO :; RL :a; PSW :b and for
O. Cat. salvatge DECLC :b; DCVB :a; also cf. the entries Ayin 
and Qof ).
"Q"SY" represents the Lat. acacia (< Gr. κακα, NPRA ; DuC :a:
acacia ‘succus prunellarum agrestium’), which is not hereditary in any
Romance language (FEW :b), but existed almost everywhere as a
loan word, at least since the late Middle Ages: In O. Occ., we have acassia
‘acacia’ (DAO :; RL :a) and acacia, acassia, acrassia, accatie,
ahacatia ‘suc de prunelles vertes’ (i.e., juice of unripe plums) (DAO :,
which corrects the meaning given in RL and DAO :). In O./M. Fr.
we find acacie (FEW :a), in late O. Sp. acacia/acassia/acasia/acasya
among others with the same meaning (th c.) (DETEMA :b–c).
According to Rolland (also quoted in DAO loc. cit.), the juice of the
cassia or oriental acacia (being rare and expensive) was replaced in the
Middle Ages by the juice of unripe plums for pharmaceutical use (cf.
RFlor :).
MS V adds a third synonym, *spina Aegyptiaca, which corresponds to
Lat. spina Aegyptia ‘mimosa (of the genus Acacia Willd.)’ (NPRA ).
The whole expression could not be found, but see (for the adjective
Aegyptiacus, -a, -um) ThLL (:) and MLWB (:, faba Aegyptiaca).
We might also suppose a Romance equivalent (an Occ. or Cat. form could
not be found, but see O. Sp. espina egipciaca attested in DETEMA :c).

. àèéîø÷ 짧áå ñèéðâîìà 77ø§âç 䧧á úáàåùä 76ïáà


"BN HS̆W"BT, Arab. H . ĞR "LMGNYTS,. o.l. QRMYT" .

"BN HS̆W"BT is the “loadstone”, magnetite or magnetic iron ore (Fe3O4)


(JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ). The Hebrew term features in Rabbinic
literature, a.o. in the context of the story of Jeroboam’s sin of the Golden
Calf. It is stated (bSanh b, bSot a) that Elisha hung a loadstone above
the Golden Calf, thus suspending it between heaven and earth. The term
then becomes common in medieval literature; cf. LFa  ff.
Arabic hağar
. al-maġnı̄t. is or al-maġnāt. is (from Greek μαγντις; cf.
LS ) refers to the same mineral (E.I.2 : ff., s.v. Maġnāt. ı̄s (E. Wie-
demann)). The Arabic term features as ñèéðâî in a Geonic Responsum to
bHag
. b (LO Teshuvot on Hag . b, p. ).

76 úáàåùä ïáà: úáàåù ïáà O


77 ø§âç: øâç VO
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the identification of hağar


. al-maġnı̄t. is or al-maġnāt. is as Hebrew
"BN HS̆W"BT, cf. ShM  f. and the Hebrew translations of Dalāla al-
hā"irı̄n
. (Guide of the Perplexed) : (following LFa ). For other
identifications of the Hebrew and the Arabic term, cf. LFa .
The vernacular term QRMYT" . must be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. caramida
for ‘magnetic stone’ (FEW –:a), taken from the Greek καλαμτα
(derived from κλαμος ‘pipe’); other Romance languages preserve the
intervocalic -l-: for example, O. Fr. calemite or calmite (FEW –:a).
According to the works that we consulted, the form caramita (which we
seem to have here, as indicated by the Hebrew T) . is documented only
once in O. Occ. (RL :a), where it was emended into caramida by
Levy because of the rhyme with falhida (PSW :a). Note that there
are other cases in our text in which the Romance intervocalic -d- is
transcribed using the Hebrew T. (cf. entry Het .  " S̆TWRQ LYQYTH, . in
Latin and Romance, the second word must be read as liquida; also cf. the
introduction).

. 79ùåâøàôñà 짧áå 78ïåéìä 䧧á ñåâøôñà


"SPRGWS, Arab. HLYWN, o.l. "SP"RGWS̆

"SPRGWS comes from Greek σπραγος (KG : f.; LS ). While
the Greek term can refer to the “asparagus” (Asparagus officinalis and
Asparagus acutifolius) itself, to the edible shoots thereof and to the edible
shoots of any plant, in Rabbinic literature, the term only refers to the
stalk or shoots of kale, Brassica oleracea, var. Acephala (KA : f., :,
; FM ; FZ  f., ; KT :; LF : ff.; LP : the correct
differentiation of asparagus as the tender roots of cabbage, not asparagus,
goes back to the Geonim).
Arabic hilyawn from Greek λειον (= σπραγος λειος “marsh-
asparagus”), means “asparagus”, Asparagus officinalis L., and Asparagus
acutifolius L. (DT :) and features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Med-
ical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is translated by N as: é§âøôùà/éâøôùà
(" S̆PRGY /" S̆PRĞY) and by Z as: âøàôùà/éâøàôñéà ("YSPRGY/" S̆P"RG); cf.
as well BMA .
Sa#adya allegedly called the asparagus “âàøôöà” (= Arab. G
H%; cf. D
:: “asparagus” in the dialect of the Maghreb; see as well DT : n. )
(HTG  f.). Rav Hai Gaon remarks that "SPRGWS is a sort of cabbage

78 ïåéìä: ïåðìä V
79 ùåâøàôñà: éâøôùà O ùåâøôùà V
alef 

and that it also refers to the wine in which it was prepared and which
was drunk every morning (LO Teshuvot on bPes b, p. ; cf as well
WG  f.). R. Samuel ben Me"ir adds that it was taken as a remedy every
morning on an empty stomach (cf. Rashbam on bPes b). Maimonides
on mNed . remarks that "SPRGWS means, in general, the water in
which vegetables are cooked, and, in this particular case, kale water
(MK :).
"SP"RGWS̆ (or the variant " S̆PRGWS̆ in the Vatican MS) represents
the Lat. asparagus (NPRA ) or Romance variants derived from it; as
a Romance word, it can be interpreted either as O. Sp. plural espar(r)agos
(DETEMA :a–b), or the O. Cat. plural axparagox documented in
Majorca in the early th c. (DCECH :a). The form " S̆PRGY in the
Oxford MS can be interpreted either as the Lat. plural or genitive singular
asparagi (that appears as esperagi in RPA ), the O. Occ. asperge
(documented since ), esperge, esparge (cf. DAO :; FEW :b)
or the O. Fr. esparge (FEW :a). Also cf. TermMedOc .

. 82àéñà÷à 짧áå 81àé÷à÷à 䧧á 80àé÷÷à


"QQY", Arab. "Q"QY", o.l. "Q"SY"

Aramaic "QQY" from Greek κακα (KG :; LS ), refers to the
“Arabic gum” won from the acacia tree (Acacia nilotica or Acacia senegal)
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit b as "QYQ" (variants:
"QWQY", "QQY"), where it is stated: “for anal worms one make a dressing
of acacia, aloe juice, white lead, silver dross, an amulet-full of phyllon
and the excrement of doves and apply it to the affected part” (cf. JD ;
LW :; SDA ; KA : f., :; FEB ; FO ; LF :). The
regular Hebrew term for the acacia tree is the Biblical äèù (see FEB  ff.;
FO ; LF :).
For the Arabic equivalent aqāqiyā (DT :; M ) to the Aramaic
"QQY", cf. the Geonic Responsum to the Talmudic passage quoted: àé÷÷à
÷àøò ìàá éîñé éãë ("QQY": thus it is called in Babylonia); see LO Teshuvot
on bGit b, p. . The Arabic equivalent for the Hebrew äèù is sant. (cf.
Sa#adya’s commentary on Isaiah : (DS )).
For the vernacular term see entry Alef .
For the identification of Lat./O. Cat. acacia as Arabic aqāqiyā, cf.
AdV , .

80
àé÷÷à: àé÷à÷à O
81 àé÷à÷à: àéñ÷à V
82 àéñà÷à: àéñ÷à V éìå÷à÷ áùò §åäå add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 84ïàåìà 짧áå øáö 䧧á 83àååìéà


"YLWW", Arab. S. BR, o.l. "LW"N

The Aramaic term "YLWW", also "LWW" is “aloe”, Aloe vulgaris (JD ;
LW :; SDA ; KA :, :; AEY :; LA :; LF : f.).
The term features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in the recipe for
anal worms in bGit b previously mentioned (cf. Alef no.  above).
Arabic s. abir refers to the inspissated juice of the leaves of different aloe
species, above all Aloe vera L., and Aloe Perryi Bak. (DT :; M ).
Aramaic "YLWW" is identified as Arabic s. abir in the Book of Medicines
attributed to Asaf: éåìà àåä øáöä (s. abir is "LWY) (AV :)85 and features
in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ), where it is translated by
N and Z as: ïéàåìà ("LW"YN); cf. as well BMA .
The form "LW"Y in the Oxford MS transcribes the M. Lat. aloe (< Gr.
λ η, LS b) meaning, among others, Aloe vera L., Aquilaria L. or its
juice (MLWB :; NPRA ). The Lat. word was also used in various
Romance languages: in O. Occ. and O. Cat. we find aloe(n) (CB ;
RL :b; FEW :b; RM , , ; RPA , , ; RMA ;
DECLC :a; AdV , , , ). The form with -n (represented
by the variants features in the MSS P and V) was taken from the Greek-
Latin accusative (cf. MLWB loc. cit.), which, according to FEW loc. cit.,
entered the Romance languages via Ecclesiastical Latin.
Also cf. entry Qof .

. ùéèàðâî 88ùéôàì 짧áå ãåäéìà 87øâç 䧧á 86éãåäéä ïáà


"BN HYHWDY, Arab. HGR . "LYHWD, o.l. L"PYS̆ MGN" TY . S̆

"BN HYHWDY designates the so called “Jews’ stone,” which is generally


assumed to refer to the calcified spines of the sea-urchin. It was calcified
spines of the Cidaris glandaria species in particular, found in Palestine
in the middle Cretaceous period, that were brought to Europe by the

83 àååìéà: àååìééà V
84 ïàåìà: éàåìà O ïéàåìà V äàåìà áùò §åäå add. V
85 Cf. A. Melzer, Asaph the Physician. The Man and his Book. A Historical-Philological
Study of the Medical Treatise, The Book of Drugs (Diss.) University of Wisconsin ,
p. , l.  (commentary, p.  a.l.). However, it is possible that the Arabic term is a
gloss (cf. E. Lieber, “Asaf ’s Book of Medicines,” Symposium on Byzantine Medicine, ed.
J. Scarborough (Dumbarton Oaks Papers )), Washington , p. .
86 éãåäéä: ãåäéìà V
87 øâç: om. P
88 ùéèàðâî ùéôàì: ùèéðâî ùéôì V
alef 

crusaders and called “Jews’ stones” or “melons from the Carmel”. They
were then pulverized and the powder was administered with milk, wine
or honeywater to those suffering from kidney stones, bleedings and
wounds.89 The Hebrew term features for the first time in medieval
literature (BM ). For instance, in Pseudo Ibn Ezra’s Sefer ha-Nisyonot it
is recommended in a recipe good for amnesia: “Said Dioscurides: if you
take the stone called lapis judaicus, which has streaks [on its surface], and
hang it on him, this will help him to regain his memory”.90
Arabic hağar
. al-yahūd or hağar
. yahūdı̄ has the same meaning (cf.
M ; IBF ; IJS :; StH ). The term features in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by Z as: éãåäéä ïáà.
L"PYS̆ MGN" TY. S̆ (and LPYS̆ MGNYT. S̆ according to MS V) is the Latin
term lapis magnetis ‘magnetic stone’; see, e.g., Sin , n. : “Lapis
manetis, i. lapis aymant” (cf. entry Alef ). This term corresponds to the
Gr. μαγντις (λ!ος) ‘Magnesian stone’ (LS b), instead of the Latin
(lapis) magnes (GH :).

. 91ùâùéøôðà 짧áå ùîùî 䧧á ùáà


"BS̆, Arab. MS̆MS̆, o.l. "NPRYS̆GS̆

"BS̆ is a Rabbinic term referring to ) “wild grapes”, a species of grape


of inferior quality (only featured in the plural "BS̆YN = biblical Hebrew
B"WS̆YM; cf. JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ; LF :) and ) “quince”,
Cydonia vulgaris ("BS̆ is HBW. S̆); cf. FZ  f.; LF :.
Arabic mis̆mis̆ (“apricot”, Prunus armeniaca; cf. DT :) is probably a
corruption of mays (cf. FL :: “species uvarum passarum”; L : “a
species of grape-vine . . . , a kind of raisins”; LA :).
Maimonides on mMaas . remarks that íéùáåà stands for íéùåàá and
that it is a kind of inferior grape (MK :). Sa#adya (cf. DS ) explains
the term íéùàá in Isaiah : as ïàåæ (= darnel, Lolium temulentum); in a
similar way IJ .
The vernacular reading of MS P corresponds to the Catalan form
anpréssecs ‘peaches’, which can be found in the works of Arnau de
Vilanova (cf. DECLC :ab). According to the editor of AdVCat. ,

89 See DW :; Yom-Tov Levinski, “Avanim tovot u-margaliot,” Yeda-#Am –


.
(), p. .
90 See Sefer Hanisyonot. The Book of Medical Experiences attributed to Abraham ibn

Ezra. Edited, translated and commented by J.O. Leibowitz and S. Marcus, Jerusalem ,
pp. –.
91 ùâùéøôðà: ùéâéùéøôðà O ùâùùéôùà V
 shem tov, synonym list 

this form has to be interpreted as antipersica, which he takes to be


a kind of peach (also cf. Old Gascon avantpèrsec meaning ‘a kind of
little precocious peach’, mentioned in DAO :). The Lat. antipersica
appears in the Alphita (Sin , n. ), where it is used as a synonym
for words refering to oranges. The lemma in the Alphita is cochima,
and, according to CA , cochinus is mentioned as a blend of peaches
and plums in the Aphorisms of the Salernitan author Urso. However,
we find it more probable that an- corresponds to the Arabic definite
article (with an assimilation: *al-préssec > ampréssec), which is typical
for the areas in which Arabic was originally spoken, while it is lacking
in the rest of the Occitan and Catalan territories (see TermMedOc
 f.). The usual Catalan word is préssec (st documentation: , see
DECLC loc. cit.; see ibidem for more variants), whereas, for O. Occ., we
find perseg(u)a, persegue, pres(s)ega, pres(s)egues, pressex, among others
(DAO :; RMM ; RM ; RMA ; CB ). For the variants
of the MSS O and V, provisional readings such as *anprésegues and
*aspesseges respectively, may be suggested.

. 94éøôùà 짧áå 93ùøçà 䧧á 92ïåùà


" S̆WN, Arab. " HR
. S̆, o.l. " S̆PRY

Hebrew or Aramaic " S̆WN from " S̆N means “hard” and is a variant of
" S̆YN (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :). The term features in a
botanical context in bShab a, where éðéùàã ïéáåøç (“hard carobs”) are
discussed.
Arabic ahras̆
. is the equivalent of Hebrew " S̆WN (L ).
The vernacular term " S̆PRY is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. adjective aspre,
derived from Lat. asper with the meaning ‘rough, hard’ (RL :b;
DECLC :a). Cf. also " S̆PRY as a gloss of Hebrew #az ‘strong’ in S̆hK .

. 95ìøå 䧧á ä÷ðà


"NQH, Arab. WRL

The meaning of the Biblical term "NQH, featured in Lev : in a list of
unclean reptiles, is uncertain; cf. KB : “unclean animal”: Sept. μυγαλ

92 ïåùà: ïeùà P ïåñà V


93 ùøçà: ùàøçà O
94 éøôùà: éV"t"ùà P
95 ìøå: áö (?)秧á add. O ìáà V
alef 

and Vulg. sorex “shrew”, Pesh. " āmaqtā “lizard”; Bodenheimer, Animal
and Man  f.: “gecko, Hemidactilus turcicus”.96 Cf. as well FA ;
FAB  f.; LFa .
Arabic waral is “varan”, Varanus niloticus (DT :; M ; StS ).
For the identification of "NQH as waral, cf. Sa#adya on Lev : (S )
and IJ . Ibn Janāh. adds: IJ KL M/ NO ) (it is something of the
nature of the lizard); cf. MS O: áö (“dabb-lizard”).
. See as well SF :.

. ï÷åúîä 99ïúùôä 98íäå 97èàî÷ 䧧á ïúùô éöéðà


"NYS. Y PS̆TN, Arab. QM" T;
. i.e., the flax that has been treated

Hebrew "NYS. Y PS̆TN are “bundles of flax”; cf. JD ; LW :; KA


: f., :; BM . The term features in Rabbinic literature, such as in
mBM ., where it is stated that if one finds bundles of flax they belong
to the finder and do not have to be announced publicly in order that the
owner may claim them.
The Arabic term qimāt. is the equivalent of the Hebrew term (L )
and features, amongst others, in documents from the Cairo Genizah; cf.
DRD : “(lit.: bandage) a variety of flax”.

. 101ùàéðô 짧áå 100øáåðö 䧧á íéðåìà


"LWNYM, Arab. S. NWBR, o.l. PNY"S

Hebrew "LWN, plur. "LWNYM, can refer to different kinds of big trees,
amongst them: oak (= "allon), or terebinth (= "elon or "elah); cf. KB  f.,
; AEY : f.; DAS :; FEB  ff.,  ff.; FM ,; FO  ff.,
 ff.; FZ  f.; LF : f. In Rabbinic literature, we also find the term
but. mim for "elonim to refer to terebinths (cf. Alef no. ; FO , n. ;
FZ ).
Arabic s. anawbar means “pine or pine cone” (DT :; M ). The
term features in medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides
On Asthma (IV, ; XII, ; cf. BMA  and ) and is translated by Samuel
Benveniste as: ùðéô/ùééðôä éøô (PRY HPNYYS̆/PYNS̆).

96 F.S. Bodenheimer, Animal and Man in Bible Lands, Leiden .


97 èàî÷: èî÷ V
98 íäå: àåä O àåäå V
99 ï÷åúîä ïúùôä: õôéð ÷ééãã 짧ø ï÷åúî ïúùô V
100 øáåðö: øáåðéö VO
101 ùàéðô: ùééàðéô O ùééðìô V ùðåéðéô V1
 shem tov, synonym list 

We are not certain how the Hebrew and Arabic terms came to be iden-
tified with one another. However, according to Kaleb Afendopolo (?-
)—a Karaite author who composed a list of  plant names as part
of a supplement to Elijah Bashyazi’s Adderet Eliyahu, and one of whose
sources was Maimonides—but. mim can be identical to bot. nim and this
term can also indicate pine cones (" z. t. rwblyn), which are called s. anawbar
by the physicians (cf. LF :, :, n. ; Alef no. ). Maimonides
remarks (M ) that habba
. hadrā"
. is the fruit of the terebinth (but. m)
and that in the vernacular of ˘al-Andalus it is called “bı̄na rushtiqa” i.e.,
pino rustico, which, in reality, designates the wild pine, Pinus silvestris
(cf. Rosner ad loc.). Cf. as well Shin no.  below.
The vernacular term PNY" S̆ (MS P) must be the O. Occ. pinhas or
O. Cat. pinyas (for the meaning and further references, cf. entry Alef ).
The variant in V seems to be corrupt and is emended in a marginal gloss
(V1) to PYNYWNS̆, i.e. O. Occ. or O. Cat. pinhons/ pinyons ‘pine seeds’, cf.
entry Gimel . In the variant in O, the Alef and Yod seem to be inverted
due to an error made by the copyist and may be interpreted as the Cat.
plural form pinyes.

. 103ïåìéôàèðô 짧á 102úñëð§âðô 䧧á íäøáà ïìéà


"YLN "BRHM, Arab. PNĞNKST, o.l. PNT"PYLWN.

Hebrew "YLN "BRHM means “chaste tree”, Vitex agnus castus (LF : f.:
íäøáà õò/òåðöä õòä). The Hebrew term "YLN "BRHM as featured in this
entry is the only Hebrew reference we could find and was possibly coined
by Shem Tov.
Arabic PNĞNKST from Persian al-fanğankus̆t (cf. panğ angus̆t VL
:) is the Arabic equivalent; cf. DT :; M . In colloquial speech,
the tree is called s̆ağarat Ibrāhı̄m, cf. Gimel no.  (DT :, esp. n. ).
The vernacular term PNT"PYLWN/PYN
. TH
. PYLWN in the Paris and
Vatican MSS is the Latin pentaphyllon (< Greek πεντφυλλον), mean-
ing Potentilla reptans L. or Delphinium staphisagria L., see NPRA ;
GH :. This word was also used in Romance medico-botanical ter-
minology, see the O. Occ. or O. Cat. pentafilon, interpreted as Potentilla
reptans in DAO :; also cf. CB , among others, and DCVB :a.
As to the meaning ‘chaste tree’ indicated by the Hebrew lemma, it can be

102 úñëð§âðô: úñëâðô O úñëðâðô V


103 ïåìéôàèðô: ùåèù÷ ùåð÷à O ïåìéô äèðéô V
alef 

noted that MLWB : gives a quotation from Albertus Magnus (ani-
mal. :), in which the respective terms are identified: “agnus, quod
alio nomine pentafylon sive quinque folia vocatur”. In fact, pentaphyl-
lon was substituted in MS O by "QNWS̆ QS̆TW . S̆, i.e. agnus castus, mean-
ing Vitex agnus castus according to NPRA  and MLWB loc. cit.; also cf.
CA . For the interpretation of the epithet castus, see ibid. and the follow-
ing passage from Albertus Magnus (veget. :): “Vocatur agnus castus
eo, quod folia et succus et flores eius efficacia sunt in inducenda castitate”.
Also cf. entry Gimel .

. 105ñðùéà 짧áå éøâä ïåùìá åîù ïëå 秧á 104ïéúðñôà


"PSNTYN, similarly in Arabic, o.l. "YS̆NS

"PSNTYN (from Greek ψν!ιον; cf. KG : and LS ) is the Ara-
maic Rabbinic term for “absinth”, Artemisia absinthium (JD ; LW
:; SDA ; KA :, : f.; KT :, ; LF :), and fea-
tures, e.g. in bAZ a, where it is stated in the name of R. Joshua b. Levi
that bitter wine, i.e. wine mixed with absinth (ïéúðñôà), is not prohibited
when left uncovered. The Biblical Hebrew term is äðòì (cf. KB ; LF
: ff.).
For the Arabic equivalent afsantı̄n, cf. DT :; M . The Arabic term
features, e.g. in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (IX, ; cf. BMMb )
where it is transcribed by N as: ïéúðñôà, and translated by Z as: åöðéùéà.
("YS̆YNS. W).
Biblical Hebrew äðòì is translated both by Sa#adya (Proverbs :; cf.
SM ) and Ibn Janāh. (IJ  f.) as #alqam, a term also used for ‘squirting
cucumber’ (Ecballium elaterium; cf. DT :) and bitter Cucurbitae in
general (cf. M ).
The vernacular term "YS̆NS (or "YS̆YNS. /"YYS̆YNS. in the Oxford and
Vatican MSS) must be read as O. Occ. aisens (DAO :; PSW :a) or
eisens (DAO loc. cit.; CB ) with the meaning ‘absinth’ (FEW :a).
Note that the usual Catalan word is donzell (DECLC :a–b). See
HebMedSyn (, , –).

104 éøâä ïåùìá åîù ïëå 秧á ïéúðñôà: åîù ïë 秧áå 䧧á ïéúðñôà O ïéúðñôà ò§§á ïéúðùôà V
105 ñðùéà: õðéùéà O õðéùééà V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 106äãàöìô 짧áå àñë 䧧á úøãà


"DRT, Arab. KS", o.l. PLS. "DH

Hebrew "DRT means ) “splendor”, ) “robe” (KB ; CD :: “majesty,


cloak”; DAS :, , ,  ff., ; KT :). In the latter sense,
it features, amongst others, in Gen : where Esau is described as
emerging red like a hairy mantle all over at his birth: øòù úøãàë åìë (as
a hairy mantle all over).
Arabic kisā" is the equivalent of Hebrew "DRT (WKAS : f.).
For the identification of "DRT as kisā" cf. Sa#adya on the biblical passage
mentioned (S ). See as well IJ .
The vernacular term must be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. peliseta/pellisseta
‘petite pelisse’ (i.e., little coat with a pelt lining, FEW :a), ‘verbrämter
Mantel’ (i.e., garnished coat, PSW :b; DCVB :a), a diminutive
form stemming from Lat. PELLICEUS ‘made of pelt’ (FEW loc. cit.).
For the confusion between -t- and -d- in our text, cf. the introduction
and also the entries Alef  and Het . . Another possibility would be
to interpret this word as the Cat. feminine form pellissada (masculine:
pellissat) (DECLC :b; DCVB :b), which is used in the context
of wool: “Llana pellissada: llana que fa pellissa (i.e., llana pellissada: felted
wool)” (DCVB loc. cit.).

. åðîî ïéùåòå áèéä åúåà ïéðçåèå 109åúåà 108íéùáéîù áùò àåä 107ïàðùà 䧧á âìùà
àîäåæä åðîî 110àéöåäì íéãéä åá ïéöçåøå ÷áà
" S̆LG, Arab. " S̆N"N, i.e. a plant which is dried, thoroughly pulverized and
turned into a powder with which the hands are washed to remove the
dirt from them

" S̆LG is a Hebrew Rabbinic term used to refer to the ashes of plants
containing alkali, which were very popular as a washing-powder (JD ;
LW :, ; KA : f., :; BM  f.; KT :, ). Foremost
amongst these plants was úéâìùàä úéçìîä, Russian thistle, Salsola kali
(FM ; LF :).

106 äãàöìô: àãàöéìô O


107 ïàðùà: ïðùà V
108 íéùáéîù: ïéùáééîù V
109 åúåà: om. V
110 åðîî àéöåäì: íäî øéáòäì V
alef 

Arabic us̆nān is the Arabic equivalent (cf. DT :, n. : “der Walker-


soda, dem Salzkraut, mit dem man sich die Hände wäscht”) (salt-wort
(kali) used for washing the hands).
Maimonides renders the Hebrew term " S̆LG with ïåáàñìà (as. -s. ābūn)
in his commentaries on mShab . and mNid .. In bShab a Samuel
remarks on the term " S̆LG: “I asked all seafarers and they told me that it
is called shunana; it is found in the cavity wherein the pearl lies and it is
scraped out with an iron nail.”111 The Aramaic äðàðåù featured in this text
has the same root as the Arabic us̆nān and the Persian us̆nān or is̆nān
(VL :: “herba quaedam qua vestes et supellectilem et manus quoque
post coenam lavant, ar. P dicta”; SC : “The herb alkali, and the ashes
which are made from it, with which they wash clothes and the hands after
eating”).
For the explanation of the term " S̆LG, cf. the Geonic Commentary on
Tohorot (EG f): áùò  . . .  úééèá åîù áùò àåäå . . . §ô àéìåîé÷ ïàðùåà
àîäåæä úà àéöåî àåäå íäéãé úà åá ïéöçåøå åúåà ïéðçåèå åúåà ïéùáéîå àåä.

. 114ìéæøá 짧áå 113ñ÷àá 䧧á 112òøëùà


" S̆KR#, Arab. B"QS, o.l. BRZYL

Aramaic " S̆KR# means “box”, Buxus sempervirens (JD ; LW : f.;
KA : f., :; BM ; AEY :; FEB  ff.; FM ; KT :).
The term features as ïéòåøëùà in the Targum on Is : as a translation
for Hebrew øåùàú. And in mYom . it is stated that the two lots for the
Day of Atonement may be prepared from box-wood.
Arabic baqs from Greek πξος (LS ) is the Arabic equivalent
(DT :, n. ; ID :). See as well Bet .
The identification of " S̆KR# as baqs features in the Arukh (KA :),
Ibn Janāh. (IJ ) and in Maimonides’ commentary on the Mishnah
mentioned (cf. MK :), where he remarks that òøëùà is ñ÷áìà ãåò
(" S̆KR# is baqs wood); see as well EG  and LP .
The vernacular form BRZYL (MSS P and O) is the O. Occ. brazil
(DAO :; RMA ), brezil ‘bois de teinture’ (i.e., wood used for

111 See as well H. Kroner, Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Medizin des XII. Jahrhunderts an

der Hand zweier medizinischer Abhandlungen des Maimonides auf Grund von  unedierten
Handschriften dargestellt und kritisch beleuchtet, Oberdorf. Bopfingen , pp. –,
n. .
112 òøëùà: òUk"ùà P òåøëùà V
113 ñ÷àá: ñà÷á O
114 ìéæøá: ìéãðñ V
 shem tov, synonym list 

dyeing, FEW :a)/brezilh meaning ‘brazil wood’ (RL :a), or the


O. Cat. brasill, idem (documented since , cf. DECLC :a). The
word probably refers to the same wood as the one mentioned in MLWB,
brasilium or brasile (:), where as its meaning ‘wood of the tree
Caesalpina Sappan L. (brazil wood)’ is given.
Instead of brazil, MS V has another plant name, O. Occ./O. Cat.
sandil, sandel (FEW :b; RMA ; CB  among others; DECLC
:a; DCVB :a; AdV  among others) which means ‘sandal-
wood’ (plants of the genus Santalum) or ‘powder made of the san-
dalwood, which is used in medicine’.

. 115êéøô 䧧á áéáà


"BYB, Arab. PRYK

"BYB is a Biblical Hebrew term for “the ears (of corn) already ripe, but still
soft, to be eaten either crushed or roasted” (KB ; cf. as well CD :;
DAS :,  ff.; FH ).
Farı̄k is the Arabic equivalent (D :: “blé qui n’est pas encore mûr”
(corn which is not yet ripe)).
For the identification of "BYB as farı̄k, cf. Sa#adya’s translation of Ex
: (S ): áéáà äøåòùä éë äúëð äøåòùäå ïúùôäå (Now the flax and barley
were ruined, for the barley was in the ear): àáèò ã÷ øéòùìàå ïàúëìà ïà
àëéøô ïàë øéòùìà ïàì. Ibn Janāh. (IJ ), quoting the Hebrew term as
it features in Lev :: ùàá éåì÷ áéáà (new ears parched with fire), also
translates it with farı̄k and remarks in the name of Rav Hai Gaon that it
is the ripened ear.

. íðëåãá íééåìå íøîàë àðëåã 짧æ íéîëç äúåà 117åàø÷å 116ïëåã 䧧á àáèöà
" S. TB",
. Arab. DWKN; the Sages called it DWKN" as it is stated: “and the
Levites on their platform”

" S. TB"
. is a Rabbinic term meaning, according to JD : “a surrounding,
attachment, whence ) balcony, colonnade, portico, and ) something to
recline on; couch, seat”; cf. as well LW :; KA :, :; KT :.

115 êéøô: êéøá V


116 ïëåã: ïëåã P ïëåãå V
117 äúåà åàø÷å: åúåà íéàøå÷ O íðëåãá íéååìå íøîàë àðëåã 짧æ íéîëç äúåà åàø÷å : äðùî §åùìáå

àáèöàä ìò åà ïëåã V
alef 

Arabic dukkān from Aramaic DWKN" (FF ) means, according to


L : “A shop or kind of wide bench [ . . . ] generally built against a
wall [ . . . ]”. Aramaic DWKN" means “platform” (SDA ; cf. JD ;
LW : f.).
The Rabbinic quotation hails from bMeg a, where it is stated that
Priests at their Temple service, Levites on their platform, lay Israelites at
their station—all desist from their service in order to come and hear the
reading of the Megilla (Book of Esther).
For the identification of S. TB"
. as dukkān, cf. Arukh :: ìàòîùé ïåùì §éô
ïëåã àáèöéàä íù.

. 118äðàâà 䧧á ïâà


"GN, Arab. "G"NH

Hebrew "GN (aggān) is “a large and deep bowl” (KB ; CD :; SD ,
SDA , Aram. àðâà; KA :; BM  f.; BKH  and index; KT :).
Arabic iğğāna means “urn, amphora, washing-tub”, cf. L ; HaF .
For the identification of "GN as iğğāna, cf. Sa#adya (S ) on Ex ::
úðâàá íùéå íãä éöç äùî ç÷éå (Moses took one part of the blood and put
it in basins): ïé§âà§âà éô äìò§âå íãìà §õòá éñåî §ã§ëàô (S ). Ibn Janāh.
(IJ ) gives the same explanation for the term featuring in Song ::

'K BQ D R :øäñä ïâà êøøù (your navel is like a round goblet); see
as well IQR :; SF :; WB , , n. .

. 120àééôåì 짧áå òìñ 䧧á øùá 119úåãåâà


"GWDWT BS̆R; Arab. SL#, o.l. LWPYY"

The term ø×á úåãåâà (lit. bundles of flesh) could not be retrieved in the
secondary literature, but was possibly coined by Shem Tov for the Arabic
sil#atun, plur. sil#un which is, according to L : “A ganglion or an
excrescence of flesh”. The Modern Hebrew term for “ganglion” is á&öYç
(EM :).
The vernacular term LWPYY", according to the MSS V and O, must
be the M. Latin lupia ‘epidermal cyst’ (DuC :a) or the O. Cat. llu-
pia, ‘bump that is due to a painless tumor, mostly in the face or on the
head’, documented since the th c. (DCVB :a; DECLC :b, which

118 äðàâà: äðâà V


119 úåãåâà: úãåâà O
120 àééôåì: àéôéì P
 shem tov, synonym list 

mentions it as a learned word first documented in the th c.). For the
graphical representation in the Hebrew spelling of the word initial palatal
l-, see the introduction. The word is not documented for O. Occ., but the
FEW :a gives the Mod. Occ. variants lupia and lupi(e), so that we
might hypothesise that a form such as *lupia also existed in O. Occ. and
that this is the first documentation (for Occ. as well as for Cat.). Also cf.
M. Fr. loupie and M./Mod. Fr. loupe in the same meaning (FEW loc. cit.).
L(l)upia stems from *lopp- (probably Germanic for ‘lopping thing’), an
etymon of a word family that was not documented in the Gallo-Romance
area before the th c., and which appears first in French and later in Occ-
itan (cf. FEW :a). The spelling -YY" instead of -Y" seems to be cor-
rupt. The first -Y- in the variant of the MS P (LYPY") might either repre-
sent the sound [y] (see the introduction) or has to be regarded as an error.

. áåáðà 䧧á äð÷ ìù áåáà


"BWB S̆L QNH, Arab. "NBWB

"BWB S̆L QNH is a Rabbinic term for “reed-pipe” (JD ; LW :; KA : f.;
KT :). Thus, it is stated in mArakh . that the pipes used for the
Temple service had to be made of reed rather than bronze because of
their sweet sound. According to Maimonides in his commentary on the
Mishnah mentioned "BWB is the tube of the reed-pipe: éä äð÷ ìù áåáàå
øàîæîìà ñàø éô éúìà äøéâöìà äáö÷ìà (MK :).
Arabic unbūb is the equivalent of "BWB, cf. L  f.
For the identification, cf. Rav Hai Gaon, K. al-Hāwı̄
. (AK ): åä áåáà
áåáðàìà.

. 124äáö÷ äìå÷ 123ä÷øñ åà 122èåìâðà 짧áå 121úåøæðò 䧧á àøãà


"DR", Arab. #NZRWT, o.l. "NGLWT. or SRQH QWLH QS. BH

Aramaic "DR" is a plant of unknown identity (JD ; LW :; SD ;


SDA ; KA :, :; FEB , n. ; LA :, :). It is identified in
Rabbinic literature as ) øôåâ (bSanh b; printed editions read: "DR"):
“The wood from which Noah’s ark was constructed, perhaps cypress”
(CD :); ) ñåøú÷/ñåøã÷ (bRH a): the term is a transcription of

121 úåøæðò: èåøæðà O úåøçáò V


122 èåìâðà: èåìéâðà O èåéì§âðà P
123 äìå÷ ä÷øñ: àìå÷ à÷øéñ O
124 äáö÷: om. OV
alef 

κδρος (cedar) (cf. KG :); cf. SB : n. : “Whether àøãà, which
Rab needs for the explanation, is cedrus with the elision of /k/, seems
to be doubtful.” (cf. LW :); according to SDA , this hypothesis
should be rejected since the phonetic change k > " is unknown in Jewish
Babylonian Aramaic; and ) øäãú (yKet VII, d): “an unknown species
of tree from the Lebanon, or conifer” (KB ). In bGit b "dr" juice or
its leaves in beer are recommended for fever. In bBez. b "dr" is identified
as "dr and it is stated: “A field in which there is an adar can neither be
robbed nor forcibly purchased and its fruits are protected.” According to
the well-known commentator R. Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi) a.l. it is a
kind of vermicide.
Arabic #anzarūt, from Persian #anzarūt or #anğarūt (cf. VL :), is
“sarcocol”, a resinous gum derived from a Persian umbelliferous plant,
Astragalus sarcocolla Dym. (DT :; M ).
The vernacular term "NG(Y)LWT, . according to MSS O and V, cor-
responds to O. Occ./O. Cat. angelot (CB ; DECLC :b), derived
from the Arabic word featuring here, with the meaning ‘substance used
for producing make-up’ (PSW :b). Corradini quotes the passage:
“sarcecoll(am), que es dit a(n)gelot” (i.e., sarcecoll(am) which is called
a(n)gelot, CB ). The variant in P is corrupt with the Yod at the wrong
place.
The second vernacular term corresponds to Lat. or Romance sarco-
col(l)a in the variant sarcacolla (MSS P and V) or sercacolla (MS O),
documented, e.g., in O. Occ. as sarcaquolla (RPA ); also cf. O. Sp.
sarcacola in Sin : and the O. Cat. variant used in MS V, sercacol·la
(AdV ), a variant of sarcocol(l)a. For O. Occ. and O. Cat. sarcocolla, see
RMA  and DECLC :b respectively. For Latin, see LLMA b and
NPRA , where the meaning ‘agrimonia’ is given; GH : with the
meaning ‘Persian gum’. The Lat./Romance term was borrowed from Gr.
σαρκοκ λλα. The last word given in MS P, QS. BH, could not be identified.

. à÷àìá òáöðä øîöä àåäù 126åøîàå 125ïàå§âøà 䧧á ïîâøà


"RGMN, Arab. "RĞW"N, they say that this is wool dyed with L"Q"

"RGMN is “wool dyed with red purple” (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :; SD ; KA :; BM ; DAS :, ,  ff., ). It features

125 ïàå§âøà: ïàåâøà O ïàååâøà V


126 à÷àìá òáöðä øîöä àåäù åøîàå: à÷àìá òáöä øîö àåä åøîà O øîöä §åäù ১éå §âøú §åäå
òåáöä V
 shem tov, synonym list 

in the Bible, e.g. Ex :, and in Rabbinic literature, e.g. bSanh a and
mKel ..
The Arabic equivalent is urğuwān and means “redness or a certain red
dye” (L ).
For the identification of "RGMN as urğuwān, cf. Sa#adya on Ex ::
íéæòå ùùå éðù úòìåúå ïîâøàå úìëúå (blue, purple, and crimson yarns, fine
linen, goat’s hair): æòøîå øùòå æîø÷ âáöå ïàå§âøàå ïå§âðàîñàå (S ); see as
well IJ ; IQR :, s.v. ïåâøàáå; SF :.
L"Q" is a transcription of Lat. or Romance lac(c)a; cf. DuC :a ‘species
resinae’; LLMA b ‘gum, lacquer’; also cf. the following Alphita pas-
sage: “Lacca dicitur guma de qua urina humana fit carminium, orobo,
orobonis idem” (Sin , n. ). According to the sources used by CA ,
lacca is lacca globulata, ‘little balls made of laquer from the red brazil
wood or from Coccionelle (Cochineal)’. For O. Cat. lac(c)a, lacha and
O. Occ. laca meaning Cartenia lacca, see DECLC :a; DCVB :a;
FEW :a; DAO :a; RL :b; RPA . The DAO loc. cit. and the
FEW loc. cit. add the explanation: “Matière résineuse recoltée sur cer-
tains arbres, d’un rouge brun, qui sert [ . . . ] à fabriquer une teinture” (i.e.,
red brown resinous substance extracted from certain trees, which serves
for fabricating a dye).

. 127ìàâãî 짧á äöôöô 䧧á àúñôñà


"SPST", Arab. PS. PS. H, o.l. MDG"L

Aramaic "SPST" is “horse fodder” (JD ; LW :; SDA ; AEY
:), possibly from Persian aspast (cf. VL :; but cf. Akkadian
aspasta: “an edible garden plant”); it is identified in Rabbinic literature
(e.g. bSanh a; bJeb b; bAZ b) as “lucern”, Medicago sativa L.; cf.
LF :: The Talmudic passages, however, specifically refer to “lucern”
(see as well KA :, :; BM ).
Fis. fis. a or fas. fas. a is the Arabic equivalent, which is used for “dry lucern”
in particular (DT :; see as well ID :; M ).
For the identification as úçù (“low growth, corn in its earliest stage
used instead of grass”, cf. JD ) in MS V see Rashi on bAZ b: äìéúô
ïéèç ìù ÷øé úçù ìù êåøà äìò àúñôñàã; see as well LA :.
The vernacular form MDG"L/MDGL (MSS P and V) represents some
variant of Lat. MEDICA, whose name stems from the fact that it was a

127 ìàâãî: ìééàâãî O úçù §ðùî §ìáå ìâãî V


alef 

species of clover imported from Media (via Greece, where it has been
attested since  bc, cf. FEW –:a). As the Lat. word (NPRA ),
the Romance forms appear with the meaning Medicago sativa. According
to the FEW, non of the Romance languages inherited this word directly
from Latin, but rather via a Vulgar Latin variant MELICA that is docu-
mented for Medieval Latin (> Sp. mielga, Cat. melca or melga, It. melica,
among many others, see DCECH :b–a; DECLC :a–b). But in
the Gallo-Romance area, we find learned variants of the original form
MEDICA, introduced from the th century onwards, according to the
FEW (e.g. the M. Fr. medique). Interestingly, a form very similar to the
variants that appears in our text (medical) can be found in the northern
French department of Orne (FEW loc. cit.; cf. ALF , point ). The
FEW remarks that this form is to be explained by assuming that local
botanists changed the original word through popular etymology, in the
form of a contamination with MEDICALIS. A similar hypothesis may
be made for our forms. The Latin accusative form MEDICALEM could
have given rise to a popular form *metgal or a learned form *medegal in
O. Occ., just as the Latin MEDICARI, ‘to heal’, was turned into O. Occ.
metgar (FEW –:a) or medegar (RL :a). The variant used in MS
O might represent a diphthongised form, which remains unexplained
and could be an error.

. ïè÷ 䧧á 128úåñéáì÷à


"QLBYSWT, Arab. QTN .

The Hebrew term "QLBYSWT, variants QLYBWST" and QLYBWST,


means “coccyx” or “femur” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in
bShab a (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; Low LXXVII; PB ).
According to Katzenelson,129 it is the Os innominatum. Krauss (KG
:) derives the term from Greek κ λλοψ (cf. LS ). Löw remarks
in his notes to Krauss (a.l.) that this etymology is incorrect and refers
to Brüll (Forschungen, Ben Chan. , p. ) for a derivation from
κροβυστα, but states at the end of his note that the term remains
without explanation (“( . . . ) das Wort bleibt unerklärt.”) (cf. LS ).
Dalman130 explains the term as hailing from the Greek κωλπιον %στον
(cf. LS , ).

128 úåñéáì÷à: úåñéìá÷à O


129 I.L. Katzenelson, Ha-Talmudwe-Hokhmat ha-Refu"ah, Berlin , p. .
.
130 Cf. G. Dalman, Aramäisch-neuhebräisches Handwörterbuch, Göttingen , re-
print Hildesheim , p. .
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic qat. an means “loins” (DKT ; FAL :). The Arabic
equivalent for “coccyx” is #us. #us. (DKT ).
It is probable that Shem Tov’s incorrect entry can be traced back to a
confusion regarding the two terms in his translation of Bk. ; cf. MS
Paris, fol. a: úåéåë éúù åà äöòä ïî äìòîì úåñéáì÷àä ìò äìåãâ äéåëå;
cf. SpLA ,: ST,Q) UQ V2*2 - MK M/ ,Q) (and one or two big
cauterisations over the lumbar region above the coccyx).

. 132ùðøà 짧áå 131§âñåò 䧧á ãèà


" TD,
. Arab. #WSĞ, o.l. "RNS̆

The Biblical Hebrew term " TD . (cf. KB ; CD :), also featuring
in Rabbinic literature (e.g. bSot a; mShebi .) (cf. JD ; LW :),
is identified as ) “European buckthorn”, Lycium europaeum, and )
Rhamnus lycioides or Rhamnus palaestinus (AEY:; DAS :;
FEB  ff.; FM ; FO ; LF : ff.).
Arabic #awsağ is used for different kinds of lycium which were often
confused with one another, such as Lycium halimifolium Miller and Var.,
Lycium europaeum L. and Var., Lycium afrum L. and Var. (DT :;
M ; DAS :, ; ID :–).
For the identification of " TD
. as #awsağ, cf. Sa#adya on Gen :: åàáéå
ãèàä ïøâ­ãò (When they came to Goren ha-Atad): §âñåòìà øãðà éìà åà§âå
(S ), and Ibn Janāh. (IJ ). See as well SF :.
The vernacular term "RNS̆ must be the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat.
arn with the meaning ‘Christ’s thorn’ (RPA ), ‘thorny bush, Paliurus
australis’ (since , DECLC :a, plur. arns, :b). MS O suggests
arnas as a possible reading, which could not be confirmed as a plant name
in the sources we consulted.

. ãàðìàå 134§âìúìà 䧧á 133ùéáâìà


"LGBYS̆, Arab. "LTLĞ and "LN"D

"LGBYS̆ means “hail” and features as ùéáâìà éðáà in Ez :, ; :
(KB ; JD ; CD :; BM ; DAS : f.) in the sense of “hail-
stones”. bBer b explains ùéáâìà as follows: ìò åãøéå ùéà áâ ìò åãîòù íéðáà

131 §âñåò: âöåò O âñåò V


132 ùðøà: ùàðøà O
133 ùéáâìà: ùéãâìà O
134 §âìúìà: âìúìà VO
alef 

ùéà áâ (“stones which come to a standstill because of a man and fall down
because of a man”). Ibn Janāh. (IJ ) explains ùéáâìà éðáà as: 0,L W.
(large hailstones), and similarly David b. Abraham al-Fāsı̄ (SF :):
øàáëìà ãøáìà øà§âç.
Arabic talğ means “snow” or “cold applied to water” (L ) and Arabic
na"ad means¯ “aqua e terra emanans” (water emerging from the earth)
(FL :).

. íùåîä øáàä 138ìò 137÷áãúî øáã ìë 136àéäå ÷åöì 䧧á 135úéðìôñà
"SPLNYT, Arab. LS. WQ and this is anything which adheres to the limb it
is put onto

Hebrew "SPLNYT, from Greek σπληνον (KG :; LS ), features in


Rabbinic literature (e.g. bShab a, b) as “plaster, rag or compress”
(JD  f.; LW :; KA :, :; KT :; Low XXXVII; PB ).
Arabic las. ūq means “sticking, adhering, clinging, devoted, attached;
sticking plaster” (WKAS : f.; D :; FAQ  f.).
Maimonides explains "SPLNYT as marham (“salve”) in his commen-
tary to mShab . and mKel .. Rashi explains the term as äéèø (“plas-
ter, compress, bandage”) in his commentary to bShaba; see as well
EG .

. ïàîéãà 짧áå 139ñàîìà øâç 䧧á øéîù ïáà


"BN S̆MYR, Arab. HGR. "LM"S, o.l. "DYM"N

Hebrew "BN S̆MYR features in the Bible and in Rabbinic literature and is
identified as “diamond” (KB  f.; JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM  f.; LFa  ff.).
Arabic hağar
. al-mās also means “diamond” (L ; RS ; cf. as well
Resh no.  below).
For the identification of "BN S̆MYR as hağar
. al-mās, cf. Sa#adya (frag-
140 ñàî 짧æ äéãòñ §øî åùøéô äæ øéîù
ment from the Genizah, T-S. ):

135 úéðìôñà: úåéìôñà P úéðìôöà V


136 àéäå: àåäå VO
137 ÷áãúî: ÷áãúéù V
138 íùåîä øáàä ìò: åéìò íùåîä øáàä ìò O åéìò íùåé [ù]ë øáàä ìò V
139 ñàîìà: äîìà V
140 Published by S. Schechter, Saadyana. Geniza Fragments of Writings of R. Sa#adya

Gaon and others, Cambridge , p. .


 shem tov, synonym list 

(S̆MYR is explained by R. Sa#adya as mās) (= WG ); Ibn Janāh. (IJ ):


  øéîù ïøåôöá. Cf. as well SF :.
The vernacular term "DYM"N is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. adiman(t)
(DAO :; FEW :b; FEW :a; DECLC :b) with the O. Occ.
variant aziman, for ‘diamond’ or ‘hard metal’. Since the Hebrew letter
Dalet may represent the Romance sound /z/ or /dz/ (cf. the introduction
as well as the entries Bet  and Gimel ), both readings are possible.

. 142àðçìà ãå÷ðò 䧧á øôåëä 141ìåëùà


" S̆KWL HKWPR, Arab. ‘NQWD "LHN’ .

Hebrew " S̆KWL means “bunch or cluster” (JD ; LW :; KA :,
:; BM ) and Hebrew KWPR features in the Bible and Rabbinic
literature and refers to the “cyprus flower”, Lawsonia alba L., also called
“henna plant” (KB ; JD ; LW : f.; BM ; AEY :;
FEB  ff.; FM ; FO ; LA  f.:; LF : ff.). " S̆KWL HKWPR
features in the Bible (Song :) and refers to the “berry on the henna
bush” (KB ibid.).
Arabic #unqūd means “cluster, bunch of grapes; raceme” (HaF ;
L ) and al-hinnā"
. means “henna”, Lawsonia alba L. (DT :; M ;
DAS :; ID :).
For the identification of " S̆KWL HKWPR as ‘unqūd al-hinnā’
. , cf. Sa#ad-
ya on Song : (SH ): àðçìà ãå÷ðò and Ibn Janāh. (IJ –). See as
well SF :.

. ìéâøð 䧧á ééãåä 143æåâà


"GWZ HWDYY, Arab. NRGYL

For the Hebrew and Arabic term, cf. Alef no. .

. 146ñìîàìà 145õîçìà 䧧á ïéôåùä 144ïéðåôà


"PWNYN HS̆WPYN, Arab. "LHM . S. "L"MLS

The Hebrew term "PWNYN features in Rabbinic literature and is identi-


fied as “chick-peas”, Cicer arietinum L. (DAS :; FM ; LF : ff.).

141 ìåëùà: ìëùà V


142 àðçìà: om. V
143 ìéâøð 䧧á ééãåä æåâà: om. V
144 ïéðåôà: ïéðåôéà V
145 õîçìà: õîàçìà O õàîçìà V
146 ñìîàìà: õìîàìà V
alef 

The term "PWNYN HS̆WPYN means “smooth chick-peas” (JD :


“smooth beans (without incision)”; FH ) and features, for instance,
in mKil .. The Arabic term himma
. s. or himmi
. s. also means “chick-peas”,
Cicer arietinum L. (DT :; DAS :,  f., ,  s.v. hummu . s. ;
ID :). al-himma
. s
. or al- himmi
. s
. al-amla s. means “smooth chick-peas”
(L ).
The identification can be found in Maimonides’ commentary to the
Mishnah mentioned (MK :).

. 148øéáëìà õîçìà 䧧á 147ïéðåìîâ ïéðåôà


"PWNYN GMLWNYN, Arab. "LHM . S. "LKBYR

The Hebrew term "PWNYN GMLWNYN features in the Mishnah, for


instance, in mShebi . and mKil ., and means “large-sized chick-peas”
(FH , ; LF :).
Arabic al-himma
. s. or al-himmi
. s. al-kabı̄r also means “large-sized chick-
peas”.
The identification goes back to Maimonides’ commentary to mShebi
. (MK :).

. úåøéôä ïî øçàúîä 149àåä ìéôà


"PYL, i.e. the fruits which ripen late

"PYL means “late fruits” (KB ; JD ; LW :; BM ; DAS :;
FH ) and features in the Bible, for instance, Ex :, and in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. bMQ a.
The explanation of the term is similar to that given by Maimonides
(MK :) on mShebi .: úéòéáù ïî é÷á é§ãìà ø§ëåîìà àåä :ìéôàå
äé§öàîìà ("PYL, i.e. the fruits that remained from the past Shemittah
year).

147 ïéðåìîâ: ïéðÇìîâ P ïéðìîâ V


148 øéáëìà: íéìåãâ íéðåòøæ 짧ø add. V
149 úåøéôä ïî øçàúîä àåä: úåøéôäî øçàúîä àåä O ìùáì øçàúîä àåäå äðä úåìéôà §åùìî
úåøéôäî V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. ø÷á 152ïéò àåäå 151õà§âéà 䧧áå 짧á 150ùðåøô íéñâà


"GSYM, o.l. PRWNS̆, Arab. "YĞ" S. which is #YN BQR

Hebrew "GS, plur. "GSYM, features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. yKil I, a)
and is identified as “pear”, Pirus communis L. (JD ; LW :; KA : f.,
:; BM  f.; AEY :; FE  ff.; FM ; KT :; LF : ff.).
According to Fleischer (see LW :), the Hebrew term "GS means “plum”
in Semitic dialects other than Syriac. In Rabbinic literature, "GSYM is also
written as #WGSYM, which leads Löw to assume that the term is of a non-
Hebrew origin (LF :).
Arabic iğğās. is “plum”, Prunus domestica L. In Syria iğğās. means “pear”.
(DT :; M , ; ID :, :).
For the identification of "GSYM as iğğās. cf. Sa#adya (SAM :),
and Maimonides’ commentary to mKil . (MK :). In his Glossary of
Drug Names, Maimonides remarks that the inhabitants of Spain call iğğās.
by the name #uyūn al-baqar “eyes of cattle” (M ; cf. al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :):

K ,/ +,' 72) (common people call it “#uyūn al-baqar”)).


The vernacular term PRWNS̆ is the plural of Romance pruna or similar
for ‘plums’ (for the references, see entry Alef ). The synonym that
appears in the Oxford MS represents a variant with an epenthetic Waw
(*purunas); for this phenomenon, cf. the introduction.

150 ùðåøô: ùàðåøåô O


151 õà§âéà: õàâà VO
152 ø÷á ïéò: ø÷á ïéòìà O ø÷á ïàòìà V
BET

. 3éìôåø§â 짧áå 2ìôðø÷ 䧧á 1íùá


BS̆M, Arab. QRNPL, o.l. ĞRWPLY

Hebrew í×á features in the Bible in the sense of ) “balsam tree” (Bal-
samodendrium opobalsamum), ) “balsam oil”, and ) “perfume” (KB
; CD :; BM ). In Rabbinic literature, í×á or í×åá features in
the sense of “spice, perfume” (JD ; LW :,  f.; SD ; KA :,
:; LF :).
Arabic qaranful is “clove”, Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. or Caryophyl-
lus aromaticus L. The Arabic term is borrowed from Greek καρυ φυλλον
(LS ; DT :; ID :; LF : ff.).
Sa#adya on Is : (S ) translates í×á (BSM) as: I,I “fragrant sub-
stance, perfume” (L ); see as well Ibn Janāh. (IJ ). In his commen-
tary on mUqz ., Maimonides explains the Hebrew íéîùá éùàøå as all
kinds of fragrant plants, such as: qirfa (Cortex cinnamoni cassiae), qaran-
ful, and others (cf. MK :). The th century liturgical commentator
Abudarham identifies í×åá as qaranful in his commentary on a poem by
Ibn Gabirol: ìôðø÷ áøòá àø÷ðä íùåá (BWSM, which is called QRNPL in
Arabic) (cf. LF :).
In correspondance with the Arabic term, the vernacular term
ĞRWPLY (MS P)/GYRWPLY (MSS V and O) is the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
girofle (FEW :b; CB , among others; RMA ; RPA , among
others; RMM ; DECLC :b) for ‘clove’ (< Fr. girofle < VLat. GAR-
IOFULU < Gr. καρυ φυλλον, documented since  in Cat., with the
variants girofre and girofe DECLC loc. cit.).
For the identification of O. Cat. giroffle as Arabic qaranful, cf. AdV ;
GHAT :.

1 íùá: íùá P
2 ìôðø÷: ìôðåø÷ V
3 éìôåø§â: éìôåøéâVO
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 5ùðàìâ 짧áå 4èåìá 䧧á íéðèá


BTNYM,
. Arab. BLWT, . o.l. GL"NS̆

The Hebrew term BTNH, . plur. BTNYM,


. features in the Bible (Gen
:) and in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShebi .) and means “pista-
chio”, Pistacia vera L. (KB ; CD :; LW :; SD ; KA : f.,
:; AEY :; FE  ff.; FM ; FO  f.; FZ  f.; LA  ff.:;
LF : ff.).
Arabic ballūt. designates the “oak and its fruit, the acorn”, Quercus ilex
L. (DT :; M ; DAS :,  n. , ; :, , ; ID :). It
is derived from the Aramaic ballūt. ā “oak or acorn” (FF ; LF :;
SD ).
Sa#adya (S ) on Gen : translates the Hebrew BTNH . with Arabic
but. m “fruit of the terebinth tree” (L ; DT :; DAS : f.). In
his commentary on mShebi . (MK :), Maimonides identifies the
Hebrew term äðèåá (BWTNH) . as ÷úñôìà ïìéà (pistachio) and reads the
Hebrew äìà as " āllā “oak”, and not as "ēlā “terebinth”, and translates
the term accordingly as: èåìáìà. As to the identification of BTNYM . as
ballūt. , it is possible that this transposition of the trees is connected to the
transposition of their fruit as featured in our text.
According to Kaleb Afendopolo (?-), but. mim can be iden-
tical with bot. nim and this term can also indicate pine cones (" z. t. rwblyn)
which are called s. anawbar by the physicians (cf. LF :; :, n. ;
Glossary, no. ; cf. as well Alef no.  above).
The vernacular term is Lat. glans ‘acorn’ (LLMA a; ThLL –:)
or, more probably, the plural of O. Occ. glan(t) (DAO :; FEW :a;
RL :a; PSW :b; CB ) or O. Cat. glan (which is documented
since the end of the th c.; DECLC :a), also with the meaning
‘acorn’.

. äðéøî 7äáéñ åà 6äìé÷ùà ò§§ìáå øàôìà ìöá åà ìöðò åà ìé÷ùà 䧧á äãù ìöá
BS. L S̆DH, Arab. " S̆QYL or #NS. L or BS. L "LP"R, o.l. " S̆KYLH or SYBH
MRYNH

The term äã× ìöá, “lit. field onion” could not be retrieved in secondary
literature; it was possibly coined by Shem Tov for Arabic "is̆qı̄l.

4 èåìá: èåìàá V
5 ùðàìâ: õðàìâ VO
6 äìé÷ùà: àìèé÷ùà VO
7 äðéøî äáéñ: àðéøî àáéñ O äðéøàî àáéñ V
bet 

Arabic "is̆qı̄l or #uns. ul or bas. al al-fa"r is “squill”, Scilla maritima L.


or Urginea maritima Bach. (L ; DT :; DAS :, , ;
ID :; :). "Is̆qı̄l is the Arabic transcription of the Greek σκλλα
“squill” (LS ), and the Arabic name bas. al al-fa"r signifies “onion of
rat”, as the bulb of the squill was used as a rat poison (M ; DT :).
Arabic #uns. ul features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XVII, ; XXI,
, ) as 0*2 0 (“squill vinegar”) and is translated by N as: õîåç
àìèé÷ùà (HWM . S. " S̆QYTL"),
. and by Z as: àø÷ðä ìöáä õîåç /ìé÷ùéàä õîåç
ìé÷ùà.
The vernacular term " S̆QYLH (MS P) is the O. Occ. (e)squil(l)(a), for
‘scille officinale’ (Urginea maritima (L.) Baker/Scillla maritima L., see
DAO :; DAO Suppl. :; RL :a; RPA ). The O. Cat. equiva-
lent is esquila (DCVB :a, DECLC :), for which the DCVB indi-
cates the meaning ‘ceba’, i.e. onion, which does not appear to be exact,
as the quotation cited there (see below with respect to ceba marina)
shows. MSS V and O suggest a reading *esquitla; this seems to reflect
Catalan spelling conventions (cf. BadGram ), where -tl(l)- could
represent the palatal sound [ʎ] otherwise spelt ll in Catalan and lh
in Occitan, like in the homonymous word esquitlla (i.e., ‘bone frag-
ment’).
O. Cat. esquilla is identified as Arabic "is̆qı̄l in AdV . For an
identification between Arab. #uns. ul and the O. Cat. term " S̆QYTLL", . which
reflects the same form as in MSS V and O, cf. GHAT :.
The second vernacular term given in our text is the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
seba (ceba) marina with the meaning ‘sea onion, squill’ (RL loc. cit.; DAO
loc. cit.), which is identified as or at least related to the first term in the
following passages: (O. Occ.) “sqill so es ‘seba marina’ ” (i.e., squill that
is seba marina) (RPA ); “Et a confortar l’auzidor es l’esquila bona e
fina qu’om nomma ceba marina” (i.e., and for curing the ears, the squill,
which is called ceba marina, is good and fine, Brev. d’amor, fol. , quoted
in RL loc. cit.); (O. Cat.) “Prenetz l’esquila blanca, ço és ceba marina”
(i.e. take the white squill which is ceba marina, Medic. Part. , quoted
in DCVB loc.cit). According to NPRA (), the scilla alba (with white
membranes) is a subspecies of the Scilla maritima.
For the identification of O. Cat. seba/ceba marina as Arabic #uns. ul, cf.
AdV . Arabic "is̆qı̄l is identified as O. Cat. SYB" MRYN" in GHAT :.
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 11èðéãå÷ 10äáéñ 짧áå 9óéøç ìöá 䧧á 8éøôåë ìöá


BS. L KWPRY, Arab. BS. L HRYP,
. o.l. SYBH QWDYNT.

The Hebrew term BS. L KWPRY features in Rabbinic literature, for exam-
ple, in mTer ., mNed . or bNed b, a, where it is identified as
“wild onion”, “village onion”, as opposed to äðéãîä éðáî íéìöá “onions of
the city dwellers” (cf. JD ; LW : f.), and in yShebi II, a, where it
features as the translation of the Mishnaic íéñéøñä íéìöáä “onions which
don’t produce seeds” (cf. mShebi .; KA :, :). Löw (LF :)
does not identify the Hebrew term BS. L KWPRY as “wild or village onion”
but rather as Cypriot onions (cf. as well SD ) and refers to Pliny, who
described the Cypriot onions as very strong and pungent.
Arabic bas. al hirrı̄f
. means “a strong onion, burning and biting to the
tongue” (L ).
Maimonides on mTer . (MK :) qualifies city onions as large and
village onions as small.
The vernacular term SYBH/SYB" QWDYNT. seems to be a literal trans-
lation of the Arabic expression given in our text and is not documented
in this combination in our sources: the first element ceba/seba (see above,
entry Bet ) means ‘onion’ (FEW –:a; RL :a; CB ), the
second one is the O. Occ. present participle cozen(t) (for the forma-
tion of participles in O. Occ., cf. POc ) of the verb cozer (a variant
of the more usual coire, < Lat. COCERE) meaning—besides ‘to cook’—
‘être désagréable’ (to be disagreeable) (FEW –:a) and ‘causer une
douleur picante’ (to cause a stinging pain), see RL (:a), where a quo-
tation with a present participle is given: “El desiriers cozens e doloiros”
(i.e., the sharp and painful desire, B. de Ventadour: Bels Monruels).
The latter sense seems to be present in our case. For the Hebrew letter
Dalet representing the Romance sound /z/, cf. the introduction. Since
the Cat. variant is only documented with the typical loss of intervo-
calic voiced -s- (< -c-) (MollGram )—coent for ‘excessivament picant’
(excessively hot/ spicy, see DECLC :b)—we can exclude this lan-
guage here.

8 éøôåë: éøôë V
9 óéøç: à÷éøç V
10 äáéñ: àáéñ VO
11 èðéãå÷: ìëàðä ìöá àåäå add. V
bet 

. 13éøèéðìù 짧áå 12ïåøèð åà ÷øåá 䧧á úéøåá


BWRYT, Arab. BWRQ or NTRWN, . o.l. S̆LNYTRY
.

The Hebrew term BWRYT features in the Bible (Jer :; Mal :)
and in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mNid .; mShab .; bNid a; bShab
a) and means “alkaline salt extracted from soap-plants; lye, potash”,
Mesembrianthemum cristallinum (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :;
KA : f., :; BM ; DAS :; :; FO  ff.; FZ  f.;
LF : ff.; Low XXXIX; KT :).
Arabic bawraq or būraq means “borax” and is derived from the Persian
bawrah or burah (VL :). According to al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :), it is called
“nı̄t. rūn” in Greek. Maimonides states that bawraq is a type of natron,
Arabic nat. rūn (M ); see as well Goltz (GS  ff.), who remarks that the
nitrum of Dioscurides and Galen was identified as bawraq. For bawraq,
cf. as well A. Dietrich, in EI2 XII Suppl.  f.
Maimonides comments on the afore-mentioned Mishnaic references
that úéøåá (BWRYT) refers to Arabic ġāsūl “soap”, and Ibn Janāh. com-
ments on Jer :: åá íéñáëîù áùò àåäå ,ïàðùåà éáøòá :úéøá (i.e. in Arabic
us̆nān “kali or glasswort”, a plant used for washing; cf. DT :; M ).
Rashi on bKer a explains úéøåá (BWRYT) as 裏åáàñ “soap”.
The vernacular term S̆LNYTRY/ . S̆"LNYTRY
. is the O. Occ. or O. Cat.
word salnitre (DAO ; CB ; DECLC :a; DCVB :a) or the
Latin sal nitri (for sal, ‘salt’, see DuC :a; for nitrum, ‘natural soda’,
DuC :c; GH : gives sal nitrum with the meaning ‘sodium
carbonate’); for its use in O. Occ. texts, see RMA (). The meaning
is ‘natural soda’ (FEW :b), ‘potassium nitrate’ (DCVB loc. cit.). In
O. Cat., the word is documented since .
Lat. sal nitrum (nitri)/O. Cat. salnitre is identified as Arabic bawraq in
AdV , , and the GHAT : identifies the Romance (O. Cat.)
term as Arab. nat. rūn.

. äãù ìù íéðàú 15íäå 14æéî§â 䧧á äî÷ù úåðá


BNWT S̆QMH, Arab. ĞMYZ, that is ‘figs of the field’

The Hebrew term BNWT S̆QMH features in Rabbinic literature (e.g.


mDem . or bBer b) and is identified as the fruit of Ficus Syco-

12 ïåøèð: ïåøèéð O ïåøúð V


13 éøèéðìù: éøèéðìàù O
14 æéî§â: õéîâ O ïéîâ V
15 äãù ìù íéðàú íäå: íä äãù ìù àì äðâ ìù íéðàú íäå V
 shem tov, synonym list 

morus L. (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; FE ; FM ; FZ ;


LF : ff.).
Arabic ğummayz is “sycamore”, Ficus Sycomorus L. (DT :; DAS
:, , , ).
For the identification of BNWT S̆QMH as ğummayz, cf. Sa#adya (SAM
:); Maimonides on mDem .: éøá ïéú à§öéà åäå ,æéî§âìà = äî÷ù úåðá
(BNWT S̆QMH = ğummayz, it is also called “wild figs”) (MK :).

. 18íé÷úñôä ïìéà 17àéä 16äðèåá


BWTNH,
. that is "YLN HPSTQYM

Hebrew BWTNH,
. plur. BTNYM,
. means “pistachio”, Pistacia vera L. Mai-
monides on mShebi . (MK :) identifies the Hebrew term äðèåá as
÷úñôìà ïìéà (pistachio); cf. the explanations and references in Bet no. .

. ìåùá éöç úìùåáî 21짧ø 20úùøáîéð 䧧á 19àèéîàøè äöéá


BYS. H TR"MY
. T",
. Arab. NYMBRS̆T, i.e. half cooked

The Hebrew term features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bNed b, as


àèéîøåè äöéá and is explained there as referring to an egg boiled down
so many times that it is small enough to be swallowed and pass through
the body unchanged. If such an egg is consumed by a patient, it attracts
the sickening matter and can be used by a physician for diagnosis.
(cf. JD ; LW :; PB ). In yNed VI, c it features as äöéá
àèéîåøè and is explained as ïåèéôåø, i.e. &οφητ ν, “an egg that can be
supped up” (LS ). In mNed ., it features as àèéîøè äöéá and is
explained by Maimonides (MK :) as an egg cooked in hot water
which has not been allowed to coagulate, and is called “úùøáîð” by
physicians. According to Krauss (KG :; see as well LW :) àèéîåøè
is derived from τρομητ “trembling, moderately boiled” (LS ), while
Kohut (KA :) derives àèéîøè from τεραμ της “softness” (LS ; cf.
Low XL: “soft-boiled egg”).

16 äðèåá: àðèåá O
17 àéä: àåä O
18 íé÷úñôä: ïé÷úñôä V
19 àèéîàøè: àèéîøú O äèéîøè V
20 úùøáîéð: úùøáîéð íåèðñ O úöøîð äöéá V
21 ìåùá éöç úìùåáî 짧ø: äìåùá éöç úìùåáî 짧ø äöéá íéîëç ïåùìáå V
bet 

Arabic NYMBRS̆T or NYMRS̆T is derived from the Persian Y


 C,B
and means “ovum semicoctum”, half-cooked egg (VL :; D :;
EG ; IJ ; KZ ).22
For the identification of BYS. H TR"MY
. T"
. as NYMBRS̆T, cf. Maimoni-
des’ commentary on mNed . stated above (MK :).

. 23àéðåèðñ 짧áå çéù 䧧á âîøäá


BHRMG, Arab. S̆YH, . o.l. SNTWNY"
.

BHRMG is “Bactrian willow” (Salix Caprea L.?). The term is probably a


transcription of Arabic bahrāmiğ (for the different interpretations of this
plant name, cf. MS  ff.:); Persian bahrāmih (VL :).
Arabic s̆ı̄h. is a general name for all Artemisia species, possibly referring
to Artemisia maritima (wormwood) in particular, cf. DT :.
One Latin word for wormwood, already used by Pliny, is santon-
icum, that also appears as santonica herba in Latin and as centonica in
M. Lat. (NPRA ; DuC :a; FEW :a–b). From this word,
some learned and inherited forms still exist in Romance, although they
are essentially restricted to the Gallo-Romance territory (cf. FEW loc.
cit.). Consequently, we could not find any O. Cat. documentation (see
DECLC :b for a modern variant taken directly from Latin, maybe in
the th c.). But in O. Occ., we find forms like centonica and sentonica
for Artemisia absinthium (besides the more usual aisens, ausens, ensens)
and the like (DAO :–; see also entry Alef ). The form found
in our text matches the Old Gascon variant sentonia, which is quoted
in the DAO (:) with the meaning Santolina Chamaecyparissus. It
is unclear from where the authors of the DAO took this meaning, but
it seems likely that it was taken from the FEW :a. However, the
FEW remarks that both wormwood and Santolina belong to the family
of Anthemideae, so that the name santonica was also applied to the latter
already in the late Middle Ages. For the M. Latin centonica, the meaning
Artemisia abrotanum is confirmed by the Alphita tradition (see Sin b;
CA ).

22 Cf. H.G. Kircher, Ibn al-Quff, Die “Einfachen Heilmittel” aus dem “Handbuch der
Chirurgie” des Ibn al-Quff (Diss.), Bonn , no. : “Das beste Ei (d.i. das bekömm-
lichste) ist dasjenige, das man weichgekocht (nı̄mbirisht) verzehrt, und zwar bringt man
Wasser zum Sieden, gibt das Ei hinein, zählt bis dreihundert und nimmt es heraus—
dann ist es nı̄mbirisht” (i.e. the best [that is, most digestible] egg is one that is soft boiled
[nı̄mbirisht], which is done by bringing water to a boil, putting in the egg, counting to
three hundred, and taking it out again—then it is nı̄mbirisht).
23 àéðåèðñ: äàéðåèðñ V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 26ìéàã 25àðøã 짧áå íåú ïñ 䧧á àîåúã 24àøá


BR" DTWM", Arab. SN TWM, o.l. DRN" D"YL

Aramaic BR" DTWM", featuring in bShab b and bTaan a, means
“clove of garlic”, as Rashi on bTaan a explains: :íåùä ïá :àîåúã àøá
íåù ìù òìö (for “garlic”, Allium sativum L. see SDA ; DAS :;
LF : ff.).
Arabic sinn tūm is “clove of garlic” (L ). In Geonic sources we find
the explanation ¯ habb at-tūm (SDA ).
.
O. Occ. *darna d’alh¯ or¯ O. Cat. *derna d’all (‘clove of garlic’) was not
found in this combination in our sources. For the O. Occ. alh (var. all,
aill, ayll, aylh among others)/O. Cat. all (var. ayl, all), meaning Allium
sativum L., see DAO :; FEW :a; RL :a; DECLC :a;
DCVB :. Occ. darno ‘tranche d’orange, de noix etc’ (i.e., slice of
orange, of nut and others, see DAO :), ‘tranche de poisson’ (i.e.,
slice of fish, see FEW :a) is only documented for modern dialects.
Similarly, for Cat., derna ‘tros, bocí en què es parteixen fruits i altres coses’
(i.e., piece, morsel, in which fruits and other things are divided) is not
documented before  and is not very common (cf. DECLC :a;
DCVB :a). According to FEW loc. cit., the word was borrowed
from Breton, arguing that the basic meaning was ‘slice of fish’, and that
the word was not found in Gallo-Romance sources before the th c.
(Northern France) and even later in Southern France (th c.). Thus, we
are dealing here with a first documentation, so that the etymology of the
FEW has probably to be rejected. It seems to be more plausible to us,
that, as Coromines proposes, the word derives from a Gaulish etymon
*DARNOM (plur. DARNA). Thus, given the ancient documentation in
our text, it might turn out in future research that the word was borrowed
in the Occ./Cat. area and spread from there to the north, contrary to
the FEW argumentation. The ‘clove of garlic’ was normally called in
O. Occ. dolsa (d’aill), cabossa (d’alh), testa (d’ailh) (RL :a; DAO :),
in O. Cat. dent d’all (DCVB :b).
O. Cat. all is identified as Arabic tūm in AdV .
¯

24 àîåúã àøá: àîåúã àøéá O


25 àðøã: àðøàã O äðøã V
26 ìéàã: ìééàã VO íåù ìù òìö 짧ø add. V
bet 

. ùéìàã 28ùðøã 짧áå íåú ïàðñà 䧧á éîåúã 27éøá


BRY DTUMY, Arab. "SN"N TWM, o.l. DRNS̆ D"LYS̆

Aram. BRY DTUMY is a plural of the previous item, just like Arabic
asnān tūm. We could not retrieve the plural form in current literature.
¯
Likewise, the vernacular term is the same as in entry Bet  and
features here with both nouns in their plural form.

. ïàáéö 䧧á 29íéðéë éöéá


BYS. Y KYNYM, Arab. S. YB"N

Hebrew BYS. Y KYNYM means “nits” or a species of vermin called “lice-


nits” (JD ; LW :; KA :, :) and features in bShab b
and bAZ b.
Arabic s. i"bān or vulgarly pronounced s. ı̄bān is the equivalent of the
Hebrew term (L ).
For the identification of BYS. Y KYNYM as s. i"bān, cf. LO Perushim on
bShab b, p. : ïàáéö ìàòîùé ïåùìá.

. 31èøôåì 짧áå 30ãäô 䧧á ñìãøá


BRDLS, Arab. PHD, o.l. LWPRT.

Hebrew BRDLS, from Greek πρδαλις “leopard” (LS ; KG :;


LR ) means “cheetah”, Acinonyx jubatus (JD ; LW : f.; KA
:, :; EM ; BAL ; FAB  f.), and features in Rabbinic
literature, where it is identified as three different animals: polecat (cf.
Rashi on bPes b), hyena (cf. bBQ b) and panther (cf. bBQ b;
bBM a) (cf. LZ –).
Arabic fahd is “lynx” (L ; JAD : ff.) and also means “cheetah”
in Modern Arabic (W ; cf. as well BK ; KSZ :, :,  f.:,
 f.:; StS ).
Maimonides on mBQ . identifies BRDLS as òá§öìà, Arabic dab#, .
hyena (MK :; L ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. laupart or the O. Cat. leupart
(documented since Llull) for ‘leopard’ (FEW :a; DECLC :b).

27 ùéìàã ùðøã 짧áå íåú ïàðñà 䧧á éîåúã éøá: om. V


28 ùéìàã ùðøã: õìàã ùàðøàã O
29 íéðéë: íéðë V
30 ãäô: ãàäô V
31 èøôåì: äéç §åäå èøôååì V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 34øéâéà 짧áå 33áàæî åà 32äòåìá 䧧á áéá


BYB, Arab. BLW#H or MZ"B, o.l. "YGYR

The Hebrew term BYB features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mErub .;
mAZ .; bErub a; bBQ a, a; bAZ b) and means “conduit, pipe,
gutter or canal” (CD :; JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :;
BKH , , ; KT :, ).
Arabic ballū#a means a “sink-hole or perforation, into which water
descends” (L ) and Arabic mı̄zāb means a “water-spout, a pipe or
other channel that spouts forth water” (L ).
For the identification of BYB as ballū#a, cf. Ibn Janāh. (IJ  f.):
/LQ ZA [  áéá) (áéá is a hollow place like ballū#a), and Mai-
monides on mErubv . (MK :): àîìà àäéô áöðé äòåìàá :áéá (a canal
which the water runs through).
The vernacular term represents the O. Occ. aiguier ‘drain for dirty
water’ (FEW –:a)/Cat. aiguer ‘trough with water that the potter
needs to moisten his hands’, ‘kind of tin tankard that serves to scoop
water’ (DCVB :a), derived from the Lat. AQUARIUS. Note that the
Occ. ending -ier35 (with the diphthong [je]) is well represented in MS
O by -YYR, whereas the beginning of the variant in MS O seems to be
corrupt or to reflect some non-documented dialectal variants (which
would be analogous to similar forms with initial id-/ed- documented for
Francoprovençal: ẽdiÃr, idye. rà ‘big vase for serving water at table’, FEW
loc. cit.). The variant in MS P, with a single Yod in the ending, might
suggest a Cat. reading, since the diphthong [je] tends to be represented by
-YY- in our MSS. The synonym of the Vatican MS possibly corresponds
to the O./M. Fr. aiver, eauvier with the meaning ‘big vase for serving water
at table’ (FEW loc. cit.). Lastly, it might be worth while mentioning that
the meaning of the Arabic word ballū#ah (see above) is closely matched by
one of the meanings of the O. Occ. feminine word aiguiera, namely ‘sink’
((FEW –:a) DCVB loc. cit., meaning II.)—a word that is attested
also in Cat. (aiguera) in the same meaning.

32 äòåìá: àâååìî V
33 áàæî: éáéàæî V
34 øéâéà: øééâééãà O øéáééà V áéá íéîëç ïåùìá add. V
35 The ending -ier was the regular result of the Latin suffix -ARIUS in Occ. (see
GHP  ff.).
bet 

. úãáòð 37éúìáä äù÷ä 36õøàä àéä ò÷ø÷ úìåúá


BTWLT QRQ#, i.e. hard soil never worked on

The term BTWLT QRQ" designates “virgin soil” and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bNid b (JD ; LW : f.; KA :; BM ), where
it is explained as: äãáòð àìù 槧ë (as long as it is not tilled). Next to úìåúá
ò÷ø÷ we find: äîãà úìåúá, for instance in Tos. Shebi ..38

. äîå÷ 40éøö÷ íéúá 짧ø éðéçâ 39éúá


BTY GHYNY,
. that is, low houses

Aramaic BTY GHYNY. means “houses with low ceilings” (JD , s.v. ïçâ;
LW :; SDA : “low rooms”; KA :, :) and features in bShab
a in the context that it is not forbidden to cover a lamp on Shabbat so
that the sparks do not set the beams of the house on fire, especially in
BTY GHYNY,
. that is, houses with low ceilings.

. àøééå ïåð 42ïéùáìô 짧áå 41áð§âìà úàã 䧧á ãöä úìòá
B#LT HS. D, Arab. D"T "LĞNB, o.l. PLBS̆YN NWN WYYR"

B#LT HS. D was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a Hebrew loan translation
of the Arabic dāt al-ğanb, and does not feature in the standard Hebrew
dictionaries. ¯
Arabic dāt al-ğanb means “pleurisy”, Pleuritis costalis (L ; IR ,
¯ “Rippenfellentzündung”; cf. as well Sade no.  below). The
; SN : .
term features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ),
where it is translated by N as: ãöä úìòá and by Z as: ãöä éìåç.
The vernacular term PLBS̆YN NWN WYYR" in the Vatican MS
(PLWYS̆YN NWN WYR" in the Oxford MS) must be interpreted as
*plevesin non vera. With the addition non vera, the author seems to sug-
gest that the illness treated here is not the ‘real’ pleuresy in contrast to
the one that figures in Sade
.  and Shin . This combination is not

36 äù÷ä õøàä: äù÷ õøà O


37 úãáòð éúìáä: §ìåòî äãåáò äðéàù V
38 See Tosefta Zera#im, ed. S. Lieberman, New York , p. , and his commentary
(Tosefta Ki-fsut. ah), p. .
39 äîå÷ éøö÷ íéúá 짧ø éðéçâ éúá: om. V
40 éøö÷: éìôù O
41 áð§âìà: áðâìà VO
42 àøééå ïåð ïéùáìô: àøéå ïåð ïéùéåìô O àøéååé ïéùøáìô P
 shem tov, synonym list 

documented in our sources, but see e.g. the analogous expression pleure-
sía no verdadera in the O. Sp. version of Bernard de Gordon’s Lilium
medicinae (LM II:): “La [pleuresía] no verdadera se produce en los
músculos o en la carne de las costillas en el exterior o en las costillas
falsas que están debajo del diafragma [ . . . ] o bien es de ventosidad”
(i.e., the false [pleurisy] arises in the muscles or in the external flesh
of the ribs or in the false ribs which are beneath the diaphragm [ . . . ],
in other words, it is a result of flatulences). The first element is the
O. Occ. plevesin (FEW :a, variants: plevezin, plevesim). The FEW
remarks, that the ending -in in O. Occ. is a result of the change of the
Greek ending -'τις (πλευρ'τις) in -inum in Late Lat. (FEW :b). The
variant of the Paris MS belongs to the Lat., O. Occ. or O. Cat. form
pleuresis ‘pleurisy’ (DuC :b; LLMA b; CB ; DCVB :a;
DECLC :a, documented in O. Cat. since the end of the th c.). The
following two elements in the MSS O and V must be read as Latin non
vera with the meaning ‘not real’. The variant of the Paris MS (PLBRS̆YN
YWWYR") might transcribe *pleuresin vera; for this term, cf. the entries
Sade
.  and Shin . We might assume, for *pleuresin, an adaptation of
pleuresis according to the O. Occ. model discussed above (plevesin). Less
probably, it might be that the Nun in PLBRS̆YN belonged to the following
word in the MS which P is based upon; in this case, the following Yod
might be corrupt for Waw and Waw for Nun, so that we get the reading
*pleurisie non vera, where pleurisie would, however, be O. Fr., (FEW loc.
cit.).

. àùò 䧧á ñåîìåá


BWLMWS, Arab. ‘S̆"

Aramaic BWLMWS, from Greek βολιμος = βουλιμα (LS ; KG


:; LR ), means “ravenous hunger, bulimy, esp. faintness from
fasting” (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :, :; Low XXXIX). It
features, e.g. in mYom . and bYom a.
Arabic ġas̆’ = ġas̆y means “syncope, fainting” (cf. L  f.; SN ).
Arabic ġas̆y features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (e.g. III, ; IV,
; VI, ; VII, , , –, ; cf. BMMa ,  and BMMb , , ,
 ff., ), where it translated as: óìòúä/óåìò/úåôìòúä both by N and Z. In
his commentary on mYom ., Maimonides explains ñåîìåá as a sort of
epilepsy (òøö) (MK :).
bet 

. àîéèùåô 짧á 43äìéáã 䧧á äòåá


BW#H, Arab. DBYLH, o.l. PWS̆TYM".

Aramaic BW#H means “swelling or abcess” (JD  s.v. àòåá; LW :;
SDA ; KA :, :; BM ) or “bulla or blister on the lung or
outside the body” (Low XXXIX) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
bSanh b, bHul
. b.
Arabic dubayla means an “abcess” (L ; SN ). It features in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, a) and is transcribed by both
N and Z as: äìéáã.
The vernacular term PWS̆TYM"
. is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. postema
with the meaning ‘abcess’ (CB , , , among others; RM ;
DECLC :a, documented in Catalan since the end of the th c.).

. ø§âç ïî 44íàøá 䧧á àììâã àîøåá


BWRM" DGLL", Arab. BR"M MN H . ĞR

Aramaic BWRM" DGLL" means “stone pot” (SDA ; KA :, ,
:) and features in the plural BWRMY DGLLY in bPes b.
Arabic burma, plur. birām, is “a cooking-pot of stone”, or “a cooking-
pot in a general sense, of copper, iron, etc.” (L ; cf. DRD : “earth-
enware pot”); and birām min hağar
. means “cooking pots of stone”. Cf. as
well Pe no.  below.
The identification of the two terms can be found in medieval Halakhic
literature. For instance, Zedekiah ben Abraham Anav (th century)
states in the Sefer Shibbolei ha-Leket: “his words (i.e. ha-Rif = Isaac Alfasi)
prove that éììâã éîøåá are stone vessels which are the same as our ïéñôìà,
and in Arabic ñôìà is called åîøåá (sic)”.45

. äìá 䧧á 46äìá


BLH, Arab. BLH

Hebrew BLH means “to be used up, to be worn out” and features in the
Bible, e.g. Deut : (KB ; CD :; BM ).

43 äìéáã: àìéáã åà àìéáåã V


44 ø§âç ïî íàøá: øâç ïî íàøá O øâç ïî íøá V
45 Zedekiah ben Abraham, Anav, Sefer Shibbolei ha-Leket ha-Shalem, ed. by S. Buber,
Wilna , p. .
46 äìá: àìá V
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic BLH is Arabic balā, read: baliya, which has the same meaning
as the Hebrew (cf. L  f.).
For the identification of the two terms, cf. Sa#adya on the biblical verse
mentioned: êìòðå íëéìòî íëéúîìù åìá àì øáãîá äðù íéòáøà íëúà êìåàå
êìâø ìòî äúìá àì (I led you through the wilderness forty years; the
clothes on your back did not wear out, nor did the sandals on your feet):
íëìà§âøà éìò íëìàòðå íëéìò ìáú íì íëáàé§ú øáìà éô §äðñ ïéòáøà íëúøéñå
(S ); IJ , n.  (gloss MS R). See as well IQR :; SF :;
WB .

. 48äàîç 䧧á 47äöéá


BYS. H, Arab. HM"H
.

Hebrew BYS. H means “waterlogged ground”, “marsh” (KB ; CD :;


BM ) and features in the Bible, e.g. Job :.
Arabic ham"a
. has a similar meaning (L : “black mud”).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janāh. (IJ ): äöá) \'] ^UHT- õåáá 7)
+L_7. Sa#adya on Job : (SJ ) translates äöá as: ìçå (mud, mire),
and David b. Abraham al-Fāsı̄ (SF :) as: æð (water oozing from the
ground).

. 50äéðàâåô 짧áå 49äëáèî 䧧á ã÷åîä úéá


BYT HMWQD, Arab. MTBKH, . o.l. PWG"NYH

The Hebrew term MWQD means “a fireplace” and BYT HMWQD gener-
ally “a room where fire is maintained and specifically the room in the tem-
ple in which a fire is continuously maintained, from where fire was taken
daily for the altar, and where the priests warmed themselves” and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (JD ; LW :; KA : f.;
DAS :,, ).
Arabic mat. baha means “a place of cooking or a place in which cooking
is performed” (L˘ ; cf. as well DAS :, , , , ).
The vernacular term PWG"NYH (according to the MS P) represents
the O. Occ. foganha/fuganha ‘kitchen’ (PSW :a–b) or the O. Cat.
foganya ‘fireplace’ (DCVB :a; DECLC :a). The latter is, according

47 äàîç 䧧á äöéá: om. O


48 äàîç: äàîñ V
49 äëáèî: àëáèî O ä÷èáåî V
50 äéðàâåô: àééðàâåô O äàéðâéô V
bet 

to DECLC loc. cit., a typical variant of the dialects of the Balears and the
Empordà. Other documented forms of this word are O. Occ. fogaynha
(FEW :a; RL :a) and the more common O. Cat. variant fogaina
(DECLC loc. cit.; DCVB loc. cit.). These forms do not seem to be
represented by the Hebrew spelling showing only one Alef that hardly can
stand for the diphthong -ai-. For the Romance term also cf. TermMedOc
 f.

. íéúáá 51íéìãâ 짧ø äéìäà 䧧á úåúééá


BYYTWT, Arab. "HLYH, that means being raised in houses

The Hebrew term BYYTWT means “domestic animals, i.e. those that
pass the night in the town” (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ;
DAS :; KT :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBez.
. or bBez. a.
Arabic ahliy means “a domestic beast that keeps to the dwelling of its
owner” (L  f.).

. íàîçìà 53§âøá 䧧á 52íéøáéá


BYBRYM, Arab. BRĞ "LHM"M.

Hebrew BYBR, plur. BYBRYM, from Greek βιβριον = Latin vivarium


(KG : f.), means an “enclosure in which live game, fish and also wild
beasts are kept” (JD ; LW :; SDA  f.; KA : f.; DAS :;
KT : f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBez. ..
Arabic burğ al-hamām
. means a “pigeon-turret” or a “lodging place
of pigeons” (L ; DAS : ff.). In his commentary on mShab .,
Maimonides explains the Hebrew term BYBR as “a place where birds and
animals are kept” (MK :).

. 55ùééåá 짧áå 54ñ÷á 䧧á ùåøá


BRWS̆, Arab. BQS, o.l. BWYYS̆

Hebrew BRWS̆ refers to “Juniper”, Juniperus drupacea Labill., Juniperus


Excelsa L., and features in the Bible (e.g. Is :) and in Rabbinic literature

51 íéìãâ: äìãâ V
52 íéøáéá: íéøáá V
53 §âøá: âàøá O âøá V
54 ñ÷á: ñ÷åá V
55 ùééåá: ùééÇá P [õ]à ïî §åäå add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

(e.g. bRH a) (KB; AEY :; DAS :, ; FEB  ff.; FM ;
FO  ff.; FZ  f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic baqs means the “box-tree”, Buxus sempervirens L. (see Alef
). Hebrew BRWS̆ is normally translated into Arabic as: §úåøá or é§úåøá
(cf. RO ; SE ; IJ : ùåøá, gloss MS Rouen (n. ): ;). +B 0,)
which is the Aramaic àúåøá (FA –); but cf. SF :: ïéáøù :íéùåøá
(BRWS̆YM is “cedar”; cf. DT :). The Hebrew equivalent to Arabic
baqs is øåùàú, and the Aramaic one is òøëùà; cf. Alef ; see as well Alef
.
The vernacular term BWYYS̆ (according to MS O) is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. boys for Buxus sempervirens (DECLC :b; RL :b; CB ).
In O. Cat. it is documented for the first time in the th c. (DECLC loc.
cit.).

. 56äðàöá÷ 짧áå áåúìà ÷åè 䧧á øàåöä úéá


BYT HS. W"R, Arab. TWQ
. "LTWB, o.l. QBS. "NH

BYT HS. W"R means “neck opening or jugulum” and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab a (LW :; KA :, :; BM ; KT :,
).
Arabic t. awq at-tawb means “neck opening of a garment” (DAS :,
). ¯¯
A Geonic Responsum (GGS , l. , and ) explains the term as:
ïàáåøë (= Persian juruban for “collar”).
The vernacular term in the Paris MS corresponds to the O. Occ./O. Cat.
capsana (Cat. variant: capçana), ‘collar’ (FEW –:b; DECLC :a–
b; DCVB :b). The forms in MSS P and O represent the variant cau-
sana, mentioned in PSW :a alongside capsana, where the meaning
‘halter; a ring that holds the hunting bird’ is given. For other meanings,
cf. DCVB loc. cit.

. 58ïà÷ì§ë 䧧á 57ééåìá


BLWYY, Arab. HLQ"N
˘
The Hebrew term BLWYY or BLWY features in the Bible (e.g. Jer :)
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKel .; bSukk b) in the plural only

56 äðàöá÷: àðàùá÷ O äðàöô÷ V ãâáä úôù 짧ø add. V


57 ééåìá: éåìá V
58 ïà÷ì§ë: ïà÷ìë VO
bet 

and means “rags of old clothes” (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :;
BM ; cf. Bet no. ).
Arabic hulqān/halaqāt, sing. halaq/halaqa, means “old and worn out
garments ˘or pieces˘ of cloth” (L ).
˘ ˘
For the identification, cf. IQR :: íéçìî éåìá (Jer :): úàéìàá
ïà÷ì§ëìà. Sa#adya on Is :: äô÷ð äøåâç úçúå äéäé ÷î íùá úçú äéäå (And
then—instead of perfume, there shall be rot; and instead of an apron, a
rope): úà÷ì§ëìà úàøàæàìà ìãáå ïúðìà áéèìà ìãá íäì øéöéô, has Arabic
halaqāt for Hebrew NQPH (S ; cf. RO ).
˘
. 60ïåèùéô 짧áå 59øäô 䧧á àðëåá
BWKN", Arab. PHR, o.l. PYS̆TWN .

Aramaic BWKN" or BWK"N", from Akk. bukānu (cf. “spiral trumpet,


horn”, LS ; KG :; SB :, from Greek βυκνη), features in
Rabbinic literature (e.g. bShab b or bBQ b) and means “pestle, rib”
(JD ; LW :; SD ; SDA ; KA : f.; KT :; LF :).
Arabic fihr means a “stone such as fills the hand or a stone of the size
of that with which one crushes walnuts and the like, or simply a stone”
(L ; cf. HaF : “stone-pestle”).
A Geonic Responsum (ATG ) explains the term àðàëåá as Arabic:
ïåàä ìà ãé (pestle of a mortar).
PYS̆TWN,
. the vernacular term according to the Paris and Oxford MSS
is documented in M. Fr. as piston, ‘pestle’ (FEW :a–b), but most
probably corresponds to a non-documented O. Cat./O. Occ. *pisto(n),
which is attested for Cat. only since  (pistó, see DECLC :a;
DCVB :b) and for Occ. in Mistral (pistou(n), see TrFel :b).
DECLC loc. cit. indicates that the Cat. word was borrowed via Fr. piston
from the It. pistone (the etymon is Lat. PISTARE ‘to pound’; cf. FEW
loc. cit.). The usual word to designate the ‘pestle’ in O. Occ. was pestel
(FEW :b; PSW :b), stemming from lat. PISTILLUM, which has
the same meaning (cf. FEW loc. cit.). The variant of the Vatican MS seems
to be corrupt without the -t-.

59 øäô: ãñôå O
60 ïåèùéô: ïåùéô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 63ùåéøãéîàë 짧áå 62ñåéøãàîëìà àåäå §õøàìà 61èåìá 䧧á õøà ìù íéðèá
BTNYM
. S̆L "RS. , Arab. BLWT. "L"RD, . this is "LKM"DRYWS, o.l.
K"MYDRYWS̆

The Hebrew term õøà ìù íéðèá (BTNYM . S̆L "RS. ) could not be retrieved in
Hebrew literature (for íéðèá; cf. Bet no.  above) and was possibly coined
by Shem Tov for Arabic ballūt. al-ard..
Arabic ballūt. al-ard. literally means “oak of the earth” from Greek
χαμαδρυς (LS ) via Syr. ballūt. ar#ā (cf. BLS ) and designates, just
like the Arabic transcription of χαμαδρυς, that is kamādaryūs or the
older form hāmādaryūs, three different plants: . Teucrium chamaedrys
˘ flavum L. and . Stachys officinalis L. and Var. (DT :;
L.; . Teucrium
M ).
The term featuring as vernacular, K"MYDRYWS̆ according to MS
P, must be the Lat. camedreos/camidrios/camidreos/camidreus meaning
Teucrium chamaedrys L., Teucrium lucidum L., Veronica Chamaedrys L.
and Stachys officinalis L., which is documented, among others, in the
Alphita (see Sin a–b, also for the derivation of camedreos from the
Greek word mentioned above; MLWB :; NPRA ; ThLL :;
CA ). This term appears in O. Occ. medical texts in the variant came-
dereos (RPA ; RMA ) and in a Hebrew text written in Southern
France as Q"MDRY"WS̆/QMDRY"WS̆ (PJP ). For O. Cat., it is docu-
mented in GHAT : where it is transcribed as QMDYRY"WS̆. The
common word used in Lat. was chamaedry(o)s, chamaedryis, transcribed
from the Greek (MLWB loc. cit.; NPRA loc. cit.; ThLL :, where a quo-
tation of Scribonius Largus, , is given: “χαμαδρυς quae herba similis
quercus folia habet”), but the Hebrew spelling of all three variants rather
suggests one of the forms mentioned above. With respect to the final part
of the word, the variants used in MSS V and O present an Alef that indi-
cates the hiatus.

. äéðåèðñ 짧á 64âîøäá


BHRMG, o.l. SNTWNYH.

Cf. Bet no. .

61 §õøàìà èåìá: õøà ìù èåìá VO


62 ñåéøãàîëìà: ñåàéøãîëìà O, om. V
63 ùåéøãéîàë: ùåàéøãî÷ O ùåàéøãîë V
64 äéðåèðñ 짧á âîøäá: om. OV
GIMEL

. 2øàéìéøèùà 짧áå éèîú 䧧á íé÷äåâ 1짧ø ÷åäéâ


GYHWQ, i.e belching, Arab. TMTY, . o.l. " S̆TRYLY"R
.

The Hebrew term GYHWQ means “belching” (LW :; KA :,


:; BM ) and features in bBer a. Rashi gives a second expla-
nation: äìòîì åôåâ èùôå íé÷äù øîåìë íé÷äåâ (íé÷äåâ that is to say that he
raises and stretches his body upwards) (cf. BM  n. ).
Arabic tamat. t. ā (M") means “he stretched himself ” (L ). In
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXIV, ), the Arabic M" )& I`_ (he
yawned or stretched himself) is translated by N as: ÷äâ åà ÷äô and by Z
as: ÷äô åà ÷äâ.
For the identification of GYHWQ as tamat. t. ā, cf. Tanhum
. Ben Joseph
Ha-Yerushalmi (BTJ ), s.v. ÷äéô: “gähnen (áåà§úú) ist gekürzt aus åéô
íé÷ä, ebenso wie ÷äéâ, rülpsen, eig. sich recken (àèîú), aus íé÷ä åúéåâ.”
Cf. as well ShM  f. A Geonic explanation of ÷åäéâ is: êåçéâ (laughing,
jesting) (LO Liqqut. ei Ge"onim on bBer b, p. ).
The vernacular term " S̆TRYLY"R
. (MSS P and O) is the O. Occ. esteril-
har, ‘to stretch (out), to loll’ (FEW :a; PSW :b). According to
FEW loc. cit., the word seems to be absent from Cat., as well as from the
other Romance languages.

. 5éðàè÷ìà ïî 4äøéâ åà 3øàñéô 䧧á ïéñéøâ


GRYSYN, Arab. PYS"R or another kind of cereal

Hebrew GRYS, plur. GRYSYN, is a Rabbinic term which lit. means “split,
broken” and which is used in particular in the sense of “pounded, broken
bean”, or “grain of pearl barley”, or “geris”, i.e. a certain measure (JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; FA ; KT :). Plur. GRYSYN is used in
particular in the sense of a “dish of pounded grains” (JD ), or “groats

1 íé÷äåâ 짧ø: om. OV


2 øàéìéøèùà: øééìéøèùà V
3 øàñéô: àñéô O øñéô V
4 äøéâ: àøéâ VO
5 éðàè÷ìà: éðè÷ìà V úîñ÷ 짧ø add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

or porridge made from marsh beans”, Vicia Faba L. (LF : ff., but cf.
DAS :).
Arabic faysār means, according to D :, s.v.(*,: “fèves cuites avec
du beurre et du lait” (beans cooked with butter and milk). Dalman
(DAS :) states that marsh beans (Vicia faba L.) that have been
pounded (mağrūs̆), cleaned from their pods and cooked with groats of
wheat, are called bı̄s. ār.
Maimonides on mPeah . explains the Hebrew term ïéñéøâ as: íñà
äøù÷ ïî §õôðå ïçè à§ãà ìåôìà (the term for beans once they have been
pounded and cleaned from their peels) (MK :).

. 7ïàúùáù 짧áå 6ïàúñáñ 䧧á ïðôåâ


GWPNN, Arab. SBST"N, o.l. S̆BS̆T"N

The Hebrew term GWPNN features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mDem


.) and means ) “fennel”, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (FM ) and
) “sebesten”, i.e. the fruit of the sebesten tree, Cordia Myxa L. (AEY
:; DAS :; FZ  f.; LF : f.; :).
Arabic sibistān or sabistān is the Arabic form of the Persian sag-pistān
(VL :) and means “sebesten”, i.e. the fruit of the sebesten tree, Cordia
Myxa L. (M ; ID :).
For the identification of the two terms, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :); see
as well Maimonides on mDem .: ìé÷å úáùìà äáùé ìå÷áìà ïî òåð :ïðôåâ
ïàúñáñìà (a plant similar to aneth and, according to others, to sebesten)
(MK :).
The vernacular form S̆BS̆T"N (MS P) represents M. Lat./Romance
sebesten/sebestin. For M. Lat. it is documented in the Alphita (see Sin
:; CA ) and in the Latin version of the index of Ibn Sı̄nā’s
Kitāb al-Qānūn (see Sin , n. ); also cf. AdOr  and Sin b.
For Romance it is documented, e.g., in Cat. (sebesten, Cordia Myxa L.,
although very late, , see DECLC :a) and in O./M. Fr. (sebestin),
M./Mod. Fr. sebesten (FEW :b), as well as in similar Spanish
(DCECH :a–b) and Old Francoprovençal forms (sebasten, see AdOr
). We could not find any documentation for O. Occ., but see the Mod.
Occ. form sebest(e) without final -n, attested in DFO :a.

6 ïàúñáñ: ïàúñáù O ïúäáù V


7 ïàúùáù: ïàúñáù O ïúèáù V
gimel 

. 8åîùìáåôø÷ 짧áå ïàñìá áç 䧧á óè÷ éöò éøâøâ


GRGRY #S. Y QTP,
. Arab. HB . BLS"N, o.l. QRPWBLS̆MW

Hebrew GRGRY #S. Y QTP . means the berries, i.e. fruits of the balsam tree,
Commiphora opobalsamum, and features, for instance, in mShebi .
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; AEY :; FM ; LF ::
“storax”, cf. as well Qof no.  and Ayin no.  below).
Arabic habb
. balasān means the fruit of the balm tree (balm of Gilead),
Commiphora opobalsamum (L ; DT :; ID :; LA :;
LF :; D :: “les droguistes entendent sous ce terme le fruit du
bachâm; mais probablement il s’agit de la liqueur qui decoule du bachâm”
[With this term the druggists mean the fruit of the bachâm but it is
probably the moisture which flows from the bachâm]) (cf. L ); cf.
MS ff.:; see as well Ayin no. , Qof no.  and Shin no.  below.
For the identification of QTP
. as balasān, cf. Maimonides’ commentary
on the Mishnah cited above (MK :): êù àìá ïàñìáìà äøâù :óè÷äå
(QTP
. is without doubt the balsam tree). Cf. as well LF :.
The vernacular form QRPWBLS̆MW (MSS V and O) may repre-
sent the Latin carpobalsamum, which designates the fruit of the bal-
sam tree, Commiphora opobalsamum Engl. (NPRA ; MLWB :b).
For the use of Waw for rendering the Latin ending -um, see the intro-
duction. The form might also correspond to the O. Sp. carpobalsamo
(DETEMA :a; DCECH :b), but we consider it more probable
that it represents the Latin word. The variant in MS P (Q"PRWBLS̆MW)
shows a (probably accidental) metathesis (capro- instead of carpo-). Car-
pobalsami is documented for O. Occ. in RPA .

. 14ùåèùà÷ 13ùåðàã 12äðàøâ 짧áå 11úñëð§âðôìà 10áç 䧧á íäøáà ïìéà 9éðéòøâ
GR#YNY "YLN "BRHM, Arab. HB . "LPNĞNKST, o.l. GR"NH D"NWS̆
Q" S̆TW
. S̆

The Hebrew term GR#YNY "YLN "BRHM means “the kernels of the fruit
of the chaste tree or Abraham’s tree”, Vitex agnus castus L. (cf. Alef no. 
above).

8 åîùìáåôø÷: åîùìáåøôà÷ P
9 ùåèùà÷ ùåðàã äðàøâ 짧áå úñëð§âðôìà áç 䧧á íäøáà ïìéà éðéòøâ : om. V
10 áç: om. O
11 úñëð§âðôìà: úñëðâðôìà O
12 äðàøâ: àðàøâ O
13 ùåðàã: ùåð÷àã O
14 ùåèùà÷: ùåèù÷ O
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic habb
. al-fanğankus̆t has the same meaning (cf. Alef no. 
above).
The vernacular term is a mixed Lat./Romance form (GR"NH D"NWS̆
Q" S̆TW
. S̆, according to MS P) and should be read grana d’anus castus,
with anus standing for agnus (see Sin : and : for this spelling).
The reduction of -gn- to -n- is frequent in Medieval Latin; the velar
sound appears, however, in MS O as a Qof. For agnus castus, see entry
Alef . The first element represents the plural of Lat. granum ‘kernel’
(DuC :b, no. ) or O. Occ./O. Cat. grana ‘grain, seed’ (RL :b;
DECLC :b).

. éãðéàéã 17äðàøâ 짧áå 16ìéðìà áç 䧧á 15ñéèñà éøâøâ


GRGRY "STYS,. Arab. HB. "LNYL, o.l. GR"NH DY"YNDY

For Hebrew GRGRY and Arabic habb, . cf. Gimel no.  above, and for
Hebrew "STYS
. and Arabic nı̄l, cf. Alef no.  above.
The vernacular term must be identified as O. Occ. *grana de indi/d’indi
for ‘kernels of indigo’. O. Occ. indi or endi means ‘indigo’ according to
RL :b; O. Cat. indi has the same meaning (documented since ,
cf. DECLC :b) also cf. entry Alef ; for grana, see entry Gimel .
The expression as a whole is not documented in our sources.

. 19úôâ åì ùéù øáã ìëî úôâ 18íä ïéðéòìâ


GL#YNYN, these are the GPT of everything which has GPT

The Hebrew term GL#YNYN means “kernels or stones” (BM ), while
GPT means “Trester, der Rückstand von zerrissenen Schalen und zer-
malmten Kernen” (residue of torn husks and crushed kernels) (cf. LW
:,  f.: “úôâ, gemeinarabisch aH”; KA :, :; KT :, :;
Bustānı̄, Muhı̄ . t. : ^b/ 2 T?4 cB aH, “ğift are the olive ker-
. t. al-muhı̄
nels after they have been squeezed”). The text seems to be corrupt, and
should possibly be read as: ïéðéòìâ åì ùéù øáã ìëî ïéðéòìâ íä úôâ (GPT are
the [crushed] kernels of everything which has kernels); cf. the Geonic

15 ñéèñà: ùéèñà O ñéèäà V


16 ìéðìà: ìééðìà O
17 éãðéàéã äðàøâ: éãðéàã àðàøâ O éãðàã àðøâ V
18 íä: àåä O
19 úôâ: úìñô 짧ø add. V
gimel 

Commentary on Tohorot (EG ): íéúéæ ìù ïéðéòìâ ïäù úôâä. See as well
Gimel no. .
Maimonides on mShab . (MK :) explains úôâ as: ïåúéæìà §äøàöò
àäðäã §âø§ëúñà éúìà (the residue of the olives once the oil has been
extracted).

. èåø 짧áå 20àù§â 䧧á ùòâ


G#S̆, Arab. ĞS̆", o.l. RWT.

The Hebrew term G#S̆ features in the Bible, for example in Ps : or
Job :, in the sense of “to rise and fall loudly, quake, shake”, and in
Rabbinic literature with the additional meaning “to belch, cough, sneeze”
(KB ; CD :; JD  f.; BM ).
Arabic ğas̆a"a means “to belch or to eructate” (L ; KZ ) and
features, for instance, in Maimonides’ On Asthma (V, ) and is trans-
lated by Samuel Benveniste as: ÷äâ and by Joshua Shatibi as: ÷äô (cf.
BMA ).
The vernacular form RWT. must be read as O. Occ or O. Cat. rot ‘belch,
sigh’ (RL :a; PSW :a; DECLC :a).

. 22äðçñ 䧧á 21ääâ


GHH, Arab. SHNH .

The Hebrew term GHH means “face or look” (BM ; CD :; KB :
“healing”) and features, e.g. in Prov :.
Arabic sahna
. means “aspect, appearance or external state or condition”
(L ; cf. as well IR : “countenance”).
For the identification see Sa#adya (SM ) on Prov :: áèéé çîù áì
íøâ ùáéú äàëð çåøå ääâ (a joyful heart makes for good health, despondency
dries up the bones): óô§âú äáéàëìà çåøìàå ,äðçñìà ãå§âé çøôìà áì÷ìà
í§èòìà; see as well IJ  who prefers the explanation of “countenance”
to that of “healing” (cf. ääâé; Hos :); and IQR :.

20 àù§â: àùâ VO
21 ääâ: àäâ V
22 äðçñ: àðçñ VO
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 25óé§â 짧áå 24ñá§â 䧧á 23ññáéâ


GYBSS, Arab. ĞBS, o.l. ĞYP

Hebrew ññáéâ = ñéñôâ, from Greek γψος “gypsum” (LS ; KG :;
LR ), means “plastering material, gypsum” and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :; KA :, :, s.v. ñôâ;
KT :, : s.v. ñåñôéâ).
Arabic ğibs means “gypsum” (L ; GS , ; cf. as well Het . no. ).
The Arukh (KA :) identifies Hebrew ñôâ as Arabic: ñáâìà, and
Maimonides on mKel . Hebrew ñéñáâ as Arabic: ñá§âìà (MK :).
The Geonic Commentary on Tohorot (EG ) explains the Hebrew term
as: âàãéôñéà (cf. as well KA :; for Arabic isfidāğ, cf. Alef no.  above).
The vernacular term ĞYP (MS P) is O. Occ. gip for ‘gypsum’ (PSW
:a); a Catalan reading is not possible here, since all documented
forms end with a sibilant (O. Cat. guix, var.: algeps, ges, gis. s. , gibs, DECLC
:b).

. 29áéå éøôìåù 짧áå 28éôèî 27øé§â 26䧧á éç úéøôâ


GPRYT HY, . Arab. ĞYR MTPY, . o.l. S̆WLPRY WYB

Hebrew GPRYT means “sulphur” and features in the Bible (e.g. Gen
:; Deut :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bKet b; bSot b)
(KB ; JD ; BM ). GPRYT HY . refers to “sulphur that has not
been in the fire” or “natural sulphur” and is not attested in secondary
literature, but seems to be coined after the Latin sulphur vivum (see
below). That is how the Hebrew term features in the Sefer Keritut by
Hillel Ben Samuel of Verona, i.e. the Hebrew translation of Bruno of
Longobardo’s Cyrurgia magna which Hillel completed in the year .30
Arabic ġayr mut. fa" should be emended into kibrı̄t ġayr mut. fa" (cf. MS
O) which is not attested in secondary literature either but is an equivalent
to Greek !ε'ον (πυρον, i.e. the kind of sulphur which was qualified as

23 ññáéâ: ññáé§â P ñéñáâ V


24 ñá§â: ïñáâ O ñáâ V
25 óé§â: óéâ VO
26 䧧á: úéøáë add. O
27 øé§â: øéâ VO
28 éôèî: äáåëî ïáà 짧ø add. V
29 áéå: áéá O øéå P
30 See Gerrit Bos: Medical Terminology in the Hebrew Tradition: Hillel Ben Samuel of

Verona, Sefer ha-Keritut (forthcoming: Journal of Semitic Studies).


gimel 

the best by Dioscurides (DW :; cf. DB :: “Schwefel . . . der noch
nicht im Feuer gewesen ist” [Sulfur . . . that has not yet been in the fire];
LS : “native sulphur”) and which was called by Pliny: “sulphur vivum”
(Natural History XXXV, ), cf. GS ). For Arabic kibrı̄t see E.I.2
: ff., s.v. al-kibrı̄t (M. Ullmann). Maimonides’ On Poisons (BMP )
calls this kind of sulphur: ( 7 B? d eE a?.[ (sulphur untouched
by fire). Moses Ibn Tibbon translates the term as: áø÷ àì øùà éøôìåùä
ùàì.
The vernacular expression S̆WLPRY WYB must be read as O. Occ.
or O. Cat. solfre viu or similar (for O. Occ. cf. DAO :, where the
meaning ‘natural sulphur’ is given). The O. Occ. solfre with the variants
sulpre, solpre (RL :a) and sofre (PSW :b), O. Cat. sofre, variants
solfre, súfre (first documentation in ; cf. DECLC :b–a) is
‘sulphur’. For O. Occ. viu, vieu ‘living’, cf. RL :a; PSW :b; for
O. Cat. viu with the same meaning, cf. DCVB :a; DECLC :b.
Our term, solfre viu, thus means ‘living sulphur’, as opposed to solfre mort,
literally ‘dead sulphur’ (PSW :a–b). The second word in the variant
in P is an error and represents either the adjective ver ‘true’, cf. entry
Samekh  for the same type of error, or ver(t) ‘green’. In both cases, this
would represent a mistake made by the copyist. Levy translates the term
that appears here as ‘natürlicher Schwefel’ (i.e. natural sulphur), leaving
the meaning of solfre mort with a question mark (PSW :a–b). Other
forms that appear in the PSW are sulpre/solpre vieu, solpre viau, sofre biu,
all from the th c. The term is also documented in RMM  as solpre
viu; Brunel reads its meaning as ‘soufre de Sicile’ (i.e., sulphur from Sicily)
(RMM ). For O. Cat., sofre viu is mentioned in DCVB :b. The
Romance term seems to be modelled upon the Latin sulphur vivum, cf.
the above quotation from Pliny and the following passage in the Alphita:
“Vzifur, nomen est minii. Vzifur fit secundum Avicennam de silphure
viuo et argento viuo per combustionem, et inde potest elici sulphur
vivum, et multum assimilatur sinopide, quia durius est” (Sin , n. ).

. åùàø øòù èøîðù 31éî àåä ïãøéâ


GYRDN is someone whose head hair has been pulled out

GRDN or GRDN" means ) “weaver”, ) “scabby, afflicted with an itch”


(JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA : f., :). The term features in

31 éî: çø÷ä V
 shem tov, synonym list 

the plur. in bKet b and is explained by Rashi as follows: èøîðù íãà §éô
åùàø úåøòù (i.e., someone whose head hair has been pulled out).
An even closer parallel to Shem Tov’s explanation features in the
Arukh (KA :): åùàø øòù èøîðù íãà ïãøéâ §éô.
See Gimel  below.

. 33ïåøá 짧áå 32øîçà 䧧á øçéâ


. Arab. " HMR,
GYHR, . o.l. BRWN

The Hebrew term GYHR . or GYHWR . means “red-spotted in the face”


(JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ) and features, for example,
in mBekh ..
Arabic ahmar
. means “red” (L ).
For the identification of GYHR . as ahmar,
. cf. Maimonides on the
Mishnah mentioned: øîçà:øçéâ (MK :).
The vernacular term BRWN (MSS P and O) is the O. Occ. brun
for ‘brun, sombre, bis, triste’ (brown, dark, drab, sad, RL :a; FEW
:b). As to the colour, cf. the definition of O. Fr. brun given in the
FEW: “qui est d’une couleur sombre, entre le roux et le noir” (i.e. of a
dark colour, between a fox-coloured red and black). The synonym used
in MS V (BWRWN) includes an epenthetic Waw (see the introduction).
This word cannot be Cat., where the -n was lost in the th c. (GriGram
; DECLC :a: bru, first documentation at the end of the th c.).

. 34åîùéøâøåâ 짧áå øéâàøâ 䧧á íéøåâøâ


GRGWRYM, Arab. GR"GYR, o.l. GWRGRYS̆MW

Hebrew øåâøâ, plur. íéøåâøâ, a noun derived from the verb øâøâì mean-
ing “to gargle” (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ), features in
medieval medical literature, e.g. in Nathan ha-Me"ati’s Hebrew transla-
tion of Ibn Sı̄nā’s K. al-Qānūn (cf. BM ).
Arabic ġaraġah, plur. ġarāġı̄r, has the same meaning as the Hebrew
term (L ; D :). Arabic ġarāġı̄r features in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (III, , ; cf. BMMa , ), where it is translated by N as:
íéøåòøò, while Z uses: åîæéøâøâ.

32 øîçà: øîñà VP
33 ïåøá: ïåøåá V
34 åîùéøâøåâ: ùéîàùéøâøâ O éîùéøâøâ V
gimel 

Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains øâøâ as follows: øâøâ


äø§âðçìà éäå úøâøâ ïî §ãå§ëàî (øâøâ [GRGR] derives from úøâøâ [GRGRT]
and that is the larynx) (MK :).
The vernacular form GWRGRYS̆MW (MS P) is the Lat. gargarismum
(ThLL –:; for the spelling with Waw as the second letter, see
below), which existed alongside gargarismus (‘liquoris ore hausti repetita
ad guttur revocatio’, DuC :b). For the non-representation of the final
-m in Lat. words, see the introduction. Also cf. the following quotation:
“Aplofeumatismus dicitur omne illud quod per os aut per nasum. [ . . . ]
trahit fleuma a capite, siue fit per gargarismum, siue per masticationem,
siue per fricationem [ . . . ]” (Alphita, see Sin :–; CA ). Reading
GWRGRYS̆MW as O. Sp. gargarismo for ‘gargling’ (DETEMA :a)
does not seem probable to us. The variant used in MS V (GRGRYS̆MY)
may either represent the genitive of the Lat. word or the O. Occ./O. Cat.
gargarisme (CB , ; DECLC :a), with the variant guargarisme
(O. Cat., DECLC loc. cit.). The variant of the Oxford MS seems to be
used in a plural form of the Romance term gargarismes—the Alef must
be an error. The Cat. variant quoted may have influenced the spelling of
the variant in MS P and might thus be responsable for the spelling with
GW-.

. øåàã 36ùãðì 짧áå áäã ïî çéàôö 䧧á 35úåìãåâ


GWDLWT, Arab. S. P"YH . MN DHB, o.l. LNDS̆ D"WR

The Hebrew term úåìãåâ (GWDLWT) could not be identified in the


context of the Arabic and Romance synonyms which both refer to “plates
of gold”. Note, however, that in Tet . no.  we find the Hebrew term ñè
áäæ ìù with the same meaning.
Arabic s. afā"ih. is the plural of s. afı̄ha,
. meaning “wide, or broad stone;
plank, or board” (L ; cf. Tet . no. ); Arabic s. afā"ih. min dahab means
“plates of gold” (cf. Tet no. ). ¯
.
The term indicated as vernacular should be read as landas d’aur ‘plates
of gold’. The first element is the Late Lat., O. Occ. landa or O. Cat.
l(l)anda, based on a syncopated form of Lat. LAMINA (FEW –:a;
PSW :b; DuC :c; DCVB :a; DECLC :a). The meaning
is ‘metallic blade’ (DCVB loc. cit.). As for landas d’aur, this term was
interpreted as exclusively Occitan in TermMedOc  because of the

35 úåìãåâ: úÇìAåâ P
36 øåàã ùãðì: øáàã ùàãðàì O øåàA ùcðì P øáàã äãðì V áäæ õéö 짧ø add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

preservation of the Latin diphthong AU- in aur ‘gold’ (Catalan: or). Note,
however, that the Occitan form aur (DAO :; RL a; FEW –
:b) existed as a loan word in Old Catalan, see DECLC :a;
DCVB :a. In fact, our term is documented as a diminutive in a Catalan
text from , as “landetes d’aur” (DECLC :a). The usual Cat. form
was llauna, an older term for (small) plates of any metal (DECLC loc.
cit.), but Corominas considers the variant llanda as a perfect synonym
for llauna, which is mostly used in Valencia and the Balearic islands. For
O. Occ., landa is scarcely documented and appears only in PSW :b–
a, where it was not yet fully understood. Levy speculates on the mean-
ing ‘iron ring’, and, in metaphorical use, ‘violence’. But Levy already noted
the following entry in DuC :c: landa “pro lamina vel banda”. Since the
Arabic term in our text means ‘plates of gold’, our term definitely repre-
sents the Occitan or Catalan translation of the Latin term lamina aurea,
see Alphita: “bracteos interpretatur lamina, unde bractea crisea, i. lamina
aurea” (Sin , n. ; CA ). The variant of the Vatican MS shows the
singular form.

. 37ïøåè 짧áå áìåì 䧧á ìâìâ


GLGL, Arab. LWLB, o.l. TWRN.

The Hebrew term GLGL has the primary meaning of “wheel” (KB ;
JD ; LW :–; SD ), but also features in Rabbinic literature
meaning “screw or winch” (cf. KT :).
Arabic lawlab means, besides other things, “screw, spiral, whorl”
(WKAS :; L  f.; D : f.; FrA ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya’s translation of Is :: àì éë ÷ãåé íçì
åð÷ãé àì åéùøôå åúìâò ìâìâ íîäå åðùåãé ùåãà çöðì (It is cereal that is crushed.
For even if he threshes it thoroughly, and the wheel of his sledge and his
horses overwhelm it, he does not crush it): ñéì àðàô ä÷ãé äðà éìòå øáìàå
ä÷ãú àìô äáëøîå äì§âòìà áìåì íéäé ìá äñåãé äéàâìà éìà (DS ; RO ;
DAS :).
The vernacular term TWRN
. should be read as O. Occ. or O. Cat. torn.
According to FEW :b–a, in Gallo-Romance, this noun designates
various tools which are characterised by turning around their own axis.
As examples, the FEW lists, among others, the main shaft of the water

37 ïøåè: ïøåè åì ùéù ìâìâä øåá §îåìë add. V


gimel 

well, in which the water is lifted with the help of a rope, the spinning
wheel, a bobbin, and the turner’s lathe. From there, still following FEW,
the designation was transferred to encompass tools and other items that
turn around their own axis. For Cat., see DECLC :a: torn ‘instrument
of the turner’ (< Lat. TORNUS < Gr. τρνος), first documented both as an
instrument and as a turning movement (th c.). For another occurence
of torn, see entry Mem .

. 41ñèðåô 짧áå 40àòîàìà 39âåçñ 䧧á 38øåöéòäå íéòîä úåãéøâ


GRYDWT HM#YM WH#YS. WR, Arab. SHWG . "L"M# ", o.l. PWNTS
.

Hebrew øåöéòäå íéòîä úåãéøâ (GRYDWT HM#YM WH#YS. WR) means


“intestinal abrasion and constipation”; íéòîä úåãéøâ is not attested in
secondary literature, only úåãéøâ features in EM  as a modern term;
for øåöéò cf. BM .
Arabic sahğ
. al-am#ā" (cf. MS O) means “dysentery, attended by abra-
sion or excoriation of the colon” (L ; SN ). Arabic  features
in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ), where it is
translated as: èéùôä (HPS̆YT) . by N and as: èðåô ãéìåä (HWLYD PWNT) .
by Z. In Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR II, ), we find
the expression  
(and in some cases it causes abrasion), which
is translated as: (PWNS. ) õðåô äùòú íéîòô àéä íàå by Moses ibn Tibbon,
and, in Maimonides’ On Asthma (XIII,; cf. BMA ),    
(and he suffered from severe dysentery) is translated as: õðåô åì åéäù ãò
(PWNS. ) íéîåöò by Samuel Benveniste.
The vernacular term, which also features in N, Z and Moses ibn
Tibbon, is the Cat. pons ‘dysentery’ (DECLC :a; DCVB :a),
stemming from Lat. PONDUS (FEW :b). The word is attested
in Cat. since  (cf. DECLC loc. cit.); we might thus have a first
documentation here. It seems to be absent from Occ., but note that it is
documented for It.: mal dei pondi/mal del pondo with the same meaning
(FEW :a; REW ).

38 øåöéòäå: emendation editor íåöéòäå MSS


39 âåçñ: âçñ VO
40 àòîàìà: àòîìà V
41 ñèðåô: õèðåô O õðåô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 43ìéãî 짧áå 42íàã§â 䧧á úåîãâ


GDMWT, Arab. ĞD"M, o.l. MDYL

The Hebrew term GDMWT means “leprosy” and is attested in medieval


medical literature translated from Arabic (BM ). As all the examples
adduced by Ben Yehuda were given subsequent to Shem Tov, it is possible
that the term was coined by him.
Arabic ğudām means “elephantiasis”, a type of leprosy (L ; SN ).
¯
The term features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (II,
; III, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by N as: úåîãâ or úééîãâ úòøö
and by Z as: úòøö, the common biblical term for “leprosy”.
The vernacular term MDYL is identical with O. Occ. mesel/mezel or
O. Cat. mesell for ‘leprous’ (CB , ; cf. ibid. for the noun mezeleria
for ‘leprosy’), derived from Lat. MISELLUS for ‘unfortunate, miserable’
(DECLC :b–b). The O. Cat. form is documented for the first time
in  (DECLC loc. cit.). For the transcription of the O. Occ. voiced s by
Hebrew Dalet, cf. the introduction. The variant of the Vatican MS with
the loss of the initial Mem seems to be corrupt.

. àìåèùéô 짧áå 45øåöàð 䧧á 44éðúâøâ


GRGTNY, Arab. N" S. WR, o.l. PYS̆TWL".

The Hebrew term GRGTNY or GRGWTNY, from Greek γργα!ος


(“wicker-basket, creel”; LS ; KG :; LR ) originally meant
“a wicker or net work in the wine or oil press” and has a secondary
meaning to designate “the scarry and lifeless surface of a healed up
wound, eschar” (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; PB , ; cf.
Low XLV: “keloidosis”).
Arabic nāsūr or nās. ūr means “fistula” (D :; SN ). The Arabic
term features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XV,
,) where it is transcribed as: øåöàð by N, and translated as: àìåèùéô
(PYS̆TWL")
. by Z.
The vernacular term PYS̆TWL" . must be read as Lat. (ThLL –:;
DuC :a), O. Occ./O. Cat. fistula (FEW :b; RPA ; DECLC
:b), or O. Occ. fistola/festola/festula (RL :b; CB ; RMA ,

42 íàã§â: íàãâ VO
43 ìéãî: ìéB"î PO ìéã V òøåöî 짧ø add. V
44 éðúâøâ: éðúåâøâ V
45 øåöàð: øöàð V
gimel 

, , ) with the meaning ‘fistular, suppurating wound’ (FEW
loc. cit.).

. 47áèøìà øîúìà 46äàåð 䧧á [áèåø ìù]äðéòøâ


GR#YNH [S̆L RWTB],
. Arab. NW"H "LTMR "LRTB .

Hebrew GR#YNH or GL#YNH S̆L RWTB .  means “the stones of fresh


dates” (for GR#YNH see Gimel no.  above) and has a parallel in the
Arabic nawāt at-tamr ar-rat. b (D : f.). The identification goes back to
Maimonides’ commentary on mUqz . (MK :); see as well FE .

. 49ïéîùîåùä åà 48íéúæä úìåñô àåä úôâ


GPT is the peat from olive peels or poppy seed

For the quotation cf. the Arukh (KA :): ïéîùîåù ìùå íéúæ ìù úìåñô úôâ
(following bShab b). See as well Gimel no. .

. 50ùééåâ 짧áå øäá 䧧á çåðâ


GNWH, . Arab. BHR, o.l. GWYYS̆

GNWH . is the verbal infinitive of the Hebrew verb GNH,


. which features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bRH b/a and bBQ a, and means )
“to sigh heavily under an attack of angina pectoris” and ) “to cough and
spit blood” (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ).
Arabic buhr designates “the state of being out of breath” (L ).
The vernacular term GWYYS̆ could not be identified. It is possible
that it is the plural of Romance derivations of Lat. GAUDIUM, as we
found O. Occ. and O. Cat. words that more or less match the form given
in the MSS, e.g., O. Occ. joia, gaug (FEW :b,b) and O. Cat. goig
(DECLC :b) with the meaning ‘pleasure’. However, this does not
seem not very probable to us, since its meaning differs completely from
the one indicated by the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, unless we dare
to interpret it as meaning ‘crow’.

46 äàåð: äàî V
47 áèøìà: äøîú éðéòøâ 짧ø add. V
48 íéúæä: íéúéæä O
49 ïéîùîåùä: úìåñô åì ùéù øáã ìë åà add. V
50 ùééåâ: úáùá áìç ÷ðåé çðåâ åîë add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. àåéå 53àùøá 짧áå 52éç 51øî§â 䧧á úåùçåì íéìçâ


GHLYM
. LWH. S̆WT, Arab. ĞMR HY, . o.l. BRS̆" WYW"

Hebrew GHLYM . LWH . S̆WT features in Rabbinic literature (bPes a;


bBer b) and means “burning, living or flickering coals” as opposed to
úåîîåò íéìçâ, which are “coals whose flames have died down and are no
longer flickering” (JD ; LW :; BM ; KT :).
Arabic ğamr hayy. means a “live or burning coal” (L ).
For the identification of Hebrew GHLYM . as Arabic ğamr, cf. Sa#adya
on Lev :: çáæîä ìòî ùà–éìçâ äúçîä–àìî ç÷ìå (and he shall take a
panful of glowing coals scooped from the altar): øî§âîìà àìî §ã§ëàé í§ú
çá§ãîìà ÷åô ïéî øàð øî§â (S ); see as well IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ):
(
 h,'; SF :.
The vernacular term BRS̆" WYW" (MS V) should be read as O. Occ./
O. Cat. brasa viva for ‘living embers of coal’ (RL :b; PSW :a;
DCVB :b, where the plural vives brases is mentioned). The first
element is Romance brasa (for O. Occ. see RL :a; for O. Cat. see
DECLC :a, where it is stated that brasa is a word of unknown origin
common to Western Romance languages). The variant of the Oxford MS
includes the Dalet that represents the sound /z/ (see the introduction).
The second element is the feminine of the adjective in the entry Gimel
.

. 56ùìéã÷ 짧áå 55áàìëìà àøâà 䧧á 54íéáìëä éøåâ


GWRY HKLBYM, Arab. "GR" "LKL"B, o.l. QDYLS̆

Hebrew GWRY HKLBYM means “whelps of dogs” (KB ; CD :;


JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :; BM ).
Arabic ağrā" al-kilāb has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification of GWRYM as ağrā", cf. Sa#adya on Lamentations
:: ïäéøåâ å÷éðéä ãù åöìç ïéðú íâ (Even jackals offer the breast and suckle
their young): íäàøâà ïò§öøé ïò ïî íäàéã§ú ïòì§ëé é§ãìà ãéáàøòìàë à§öéàå
(SH ); see as well IJ .

51 øî§â: øîâ VO
52 éç: om. O éìçâ íåâøú àåäå add. V
53 àåéå àùøá: ùàáéå ùàãàøá O àåéå àùU"á P
54 íéáìëä: íéáìë O
55 áàìëìà: áìë VO
56 ùìéã÷: õìéã÷ VO ù!ìécK P
gimel 

In conformity with the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, the vernacular


word is the plural of O. Occ. cadel ‘little dog’ (FEW ,:b, < Lat.
CATELLUS, ‘puppy’) or the O. Cat. equivalent cadell (DECLC :b),
documented since the th c.

. 58ñ÷ùø 짧áå òø÷à 䧧á 57ïãøâ


GRDN, Arab. "QR#, o.l. RS̆QS

GRDN or GRDN" means ) “weaver”, ) “scabby, afflicted with an itch”;


) “someone whose head hair has been pulled out” (cf. Gimel  above).
Arabic aqra# means “scabby or someone afflicted with scabs” (D :),
or “bald” (HaF ).
The vernacular word is the O. Occ. rascas ‘scabby’ (RL :b), ‘scabby
head’ (PSW :a), O. Cat. rascàs ‘scabby’ (DECLC :a, an older
variant is raschatz, th c.). See the quotation in PSW loc. cit.: “Le sucx
de fumeterra val a rascas guerir de son mal” (i.e., the juice of fumus terrae
is good for healing someone with a scabby head from his illness) (Brev.
d’am. ). The morphological basis of this word is O. Occ./O. Cat.
rasca ‘scab’ (RL :b), ‘scabies’ (DCVB :b; DECLC :b), which
is represented in the Vatican MS (RS̆QH); see the quotation from Tres.
Pobr.  given in DCVB loc. cit.; “Val lo ros del vi pólvora feyt e posat
sobre la rasca munda-la ab oli” (i.e., if one makes a powder of the tartar
of wine it is good, and if one puts it on the scab with oil it cleanses it).
The variant in the Oxford MS seems to be corrupt.

. 60ùìåéðô 짧áå 59øáåðöìà áç 䧧á íéðåìà éøâøâ


GRGRY "LWNYM, Arab. HB . "LS. NWBR, o.l. PNYWLS̆

For Hebrew GRGRY and Arabic habb, . cf. Gimel no.  and  above, for
Hebrew "LWNYM and Arabic s. anawbar, cf. Alef no.  above.
The vernacular term of the Paris and Vatican MSS, P(Y)NYWLS̆, is
the plural of O. Occ. pinhol for ‘kernel of the pine cone’ (PSW :b),
O. Cat. pinyol (idem, DECLC :a). The term featuring in the Oxford

57 ïãøâ: ïãøéâ VO
58 ñ÷ùø: õà÷ùéø O ä÷ùø V
59 øáåðöìà: øáåðéöìà O [øá]åðöìàV
60 ùìåéðô: ùðåðéô O ùðåéðéô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

MS, PYNWNS̆, must be read pinhons/ pinyons, with the same meaning as
pinhols, documented for O. Occ. in RPA  (more usual though without
n-mobile, pinhos, cf. RPA , CB , among others); for O. Cat. see
DECLC :a; DCVB :b, pinyó, plural pinyons. See also S̆hK ,
where PYNYWNS̆ is a gloss of Hebrew bot. nim for ‘pignons’.
For the identification of the Romance (O. Cat.) PYNĞWNS̆ as Arab.
. "LS. NWBR, see GHAT :. The identification of the same Arabic
HB
term as the corresponding Latin term can be found in the index of the
Latin translation of Ibn Sı̄nā’s K. al-Qānūn, see Sin : and notes 
and .

. à÷øåà 짧áå äå÷øú 䧧á äøâ


GRH, Arab. TRQWH, o.l. "WRQ"

The Hebrew term GRH is the general name for the part of the body which
extends from the neck to the chest (JD ; LW :; KA :, :;
BM ; EM ) and features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. in mYom .;
mTam .; bYom b).
Arabic tarquwa designates the collar-bone (L ; DKT , , :
“clavicule”: FAL :). The Arabic term features in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (VI, ,; VII,; XII, ; XV, ; cf. BMMb 
and ), and is transcribed by N as: äå÷øú and translated by Z with the
vernacular àìåéè÷/àìåè÷ (QTWL"/Q
. TYWL").
. In his commentary to the
Mishnaic passages mentioned, the Hebrew term is left untranslated by
Maimonides.
The vernacular term has to be read as orca, which is documented in
O. Occ. only with the meaning ‘jug’ (< lat. ORCA ‘barrel’, cf. FEW :a).
But, as the FEW states, on the basis of some modern variants of this word,
the meaning was extended to ‘shoulders’, because of the vaulted form
of a jug; cf. the northern Mod. Occ. variants of Coubon (Haute-Loire)
uortsa ‘shoulder’, Velay (Haute-Loire). ourcho, Limagne (Puy-de-Dôme)
ourchu ‘camel-backed’ (FEW :b–a). It seems that the Sefer ha-
Shimmush represents the first known documentation of this meaning for
O. Occ.
gimel 

. 62äãøåà 䧧á 61íéçð íéãéâ


GYDYM NHYM, . Arab. "WRDH

Hebrew GYDYM NHYM, . lit. “veins that are restful”, could not be re-
trieved in secondary literature. Most probably, it reflects Shem Tov’s
endeavor to create a novel Hebrew medical terminology, in this case
for the Arabic #urūq ġayr dāfiqa
. (vessels that do not pulsate), i.e. veins,
a term that was common in medieval medical literature, together with
awrida. The term ãéâ on its own, however, in the sense of “vessel, vein”
can also be found subsequently, such as in the translations of Zerahyah .
Hen
. for the Arabic #irq (vein) (cf. Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms,
e.g. III,  (BMMa )) and wi#ā (receptacle, vessel) (cf. Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms, e.g. VI,  (BMMb )). In addition to ãéâ, we find
÷øåò (cf. Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms, e.g. III, , where #irq is
translated as: ÷øåò by N) and ãéøå (cf. Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms,
e.g. VIII,  (BMMb ), where awrı̄da is translated as: íéãéøåå/íéãéøå by
N and Z).
Arabic warı̄d, plur. awrida, means “vein”, especially vena cava and vena
jugularis (DKT ; FAL :; cf. as well L ).

. 64ñìîà øéáë 䧧á ïéôåù 63ïéðåìîâ


GMLWNYN S̆WPYN, Arab. KBYR "MLS

For both terms, cf. Alef no.  and .

. 66ïéåì÷ 짧áå 65òìö 䧧á úçáâ


GBHT,
. Arab. S. L#, o.l. QLWYN

Hebrew úçáâ (GBHT) . means “baldness (of the forehead)” as opposed to


úçø÷ “baldness [of the pate]” (cf. KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :)
and features in the Bible (e.g. Lev :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g.
mNeg .).
Arabic s. ala# has the same meaning as GBHT . (L ).

61 íéçð: íéúìãá V
62 äãøåà: àãøåà O úãøåà V
63 ïéôåù ïéðåìîâ: íéôåù íéðìîâ V
64 ñìîà: ñàìîàìà O
65 òìö: òìöìà O
66 ïéåì÷: ïéåìà÷ O øåäè àåä çáâ åîë (= Lev :) add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the identification of GBHT. as s. ala#, cf. Sa#adya (S ) on Lev


:: íãîãà ïáì òâð úçáâá åà úçø÷á äéäé éëå (But if a white affection
streaked with red appears on the bald part in the front or at the back
of the head): øîçî õéáà àìá §§äçì§âìà åà §§äòìöìà éô ïàë ïàå; cf. as well
IJ ; SF :.
The vernacular term QLWYN might be a non-documented O. Occ.
word like *calvin derived from O. Occ. calv (FEW –:a; RL :a),
O. Cat. calb (DECLC :a; DCVB :b) ‘bald’. Suffixed variants of
calv/calb without visible changes in meaning or word class are quite usual
in the languages in question, see O. Occ. calvut ‘baldheaded’ (FEW loc.
cit., RL :b, PSW :a), O. Cat. calbut (DECLC :b; DCVB
loc. cit.), O. Occ. calvet (RL loc. cit.). But the suffix -in was used for
making adjectives from nouns (e.g., aur ‘gold’, aurin ‘golden’), which
meant “generally indicating resemblance” (cf. WfP ), so we might
suppose a derivation from a noun such as calba (‘baldhead’, Cat., DCVB
: b).

. íæé÷äì íòä åâäð 69øùà òåøæä éãéâ 68äùåìùî ïåúçúä 67ãéâä àåä ÷éìñàáä ãéâ
GYD HB"SLYQ is the inner vein of three veins of the arm, which people
used to bleed from

The Hebrew term B"SLYQ, meaning “basilic vein” (from Arabic i,L3; cf.
DKT , ; FAL :; KZ ) is not attested in secondary sources,
but features in Masie (MD ) as: ñéñáä ãéøå/òåøæä ãéøå/êìîä ãéøå.
B"SLYQ features in medieval Hebrew medical literature, for instance, in
the Hebrew translations of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XII, ,
, , ) by N as: ÷éìñàá/ä÷éìñàá, and by Z as: àø÷ðä ãéâ /÷éìñàá
÷éìéñàá àø÷ðä ãéâä/à÷éìéñàá.
Shem Tov’s explanation bears some similarity to that featuring in
Moses ibn Tibbon’s Hebrew translation of Maimonides’ On Hemorrhoids:
òåøæä ïî ïåúçúä ãéâä àéä ÷éìñàáä (cf. BMH II, ).

67 ãéâä: ãéâ V
68 äùåìùî: ùìùî O, om. V
69 íæé÷äì íòä åâäð øùà: ãáëä ãéâ àåäå V
gimel 

. 72ìâøä ÷øôá 71áå÷øòä ìò äàøðä ãéâä àåä 70ïôàöä ãéâ


GYD HS. "PN is the vein visible on [the hollow of] the knee in the knee
joint

GYD HS. "PN (from Arabic: -* 


2; cf. KZ ; cf. as well DKT 
index) means the “saphenous vein”. The term features in medieval He-
brew medical literature, for instance in the Hebrew translations of Mai-
monides’ Medical Aphorisms (XII, ), by N as: ïôàñ àø÷ðä ÷øåòä, and by
Z as: ïàôöä ãéâ. The term features in Masie (MD ) as: ïåôöä ãéøåä ìù.

70 ïôàöä: ïàôñä O ïéôàöä V


71 áå÷øòä: á÷òä V1
72 ìâøä: àéìéåå÷ä úçú add. V
DALET

. 3åîåîðñ 짧áå 2éðéöøàã 䧧á 1ïéöøã


DRS. YN, Arab. D"RS. YNY, o.l. SNMWMW

Aramaic DRS. YN means “cinnamon” (JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA


:, :) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a.
Arabic dār s. ı̄nı̄ means “Chinese cinnamon”, Cinnamomum ceylan-
icum Nees. (DT :; M ). The Arabic term is derived from Middle
Iranian *dār-čen, *dār i cēnı̄(k) (SDA ).
The Geonim identify the Hebrew term as Arabic dār s. ı̄nı̄ (cf. LO
Teshuvot on Shab a, p. ; BT :; FEB  f.; KA :; LF :;
cf. as well Sade
. no. ).
The vernacular term SNMWMW (MS P) is Latin cinnamumu(m),
‘cinnamon’ (for the missing -m and the Waw representing the Lat. ending
-um, see the introduction) or Cat. cinamomo with the same meaning
(DECLC :a), with the late first documentation () to be kept in
mind here, although the modern dialectal form sirimómo (Taüll, Boi) in
the Pyrenees would indicate that the forms ending on -o are old. For
O. Occ. and O. Cat., we were able to find cinamomi (see entry Sade . ),
which appears in the Vatican and Oxford MSS (an interpretation as the
Lat. genitive singular is also possible).
The second word in the Vatican MS, QNYLH, has to be read as
O. Occ. or O. Cat. canela (RL :a; CB , among others; RMA ;
DECLC :a; AdV ), canella (RL loc. cit.; CB , among others;
RMA ; RPA , among others; DECLC loc. cit.), O. Occ. canelha
(CB , ; RMM  f., , ), or O. Cat. canyela (DECLC loc.
cit.) with the meaning ‘cinnamon’.
Lat. cinamomum/O. Cat. canela is identified as Arabic dār s. ı̄nı̄ in
AdV , .

1 ïéöøã: ïéöøàã O
2 éðéöøàã: éðéöøã V
3 åîåîðñ: éîåîðéñ VO äìéð÷ add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 5ïåâøãéã 4éâðù 짧áå ïéåëàìà íã 䧧á ïéðúä íã


DM HTNYN, Arab. DM "L"KWYN, o.l. S̆NGY DYDRGWN

Hebrew DM HTNYN meaning “dragon’s blood”, is not mentioned in


secondary literature. The term features in medieval Hebrew medical
literature as a loan translation of Arabic dam at-tinnı̄n (see below), for
instance, in the anonymous Sefer Ahavat Nashim (ed. Caballero-Navas,
, , ) which was, according to the editor, written at an unknown
date but certainly not earlier than the second half of the th century,6
and in the anonymous Sefer Zikhron ha-Holiyim
. ha-Howim bi-Khlei ha-
Herayon (ed. Barkai, History, p. ), which was, according to the editor,
possibly written in the second half of the th century or at the beginning
of the th (Barkai, ibid., p.  f.).7
Arabic dam al-ahawayn, lit. “the blood of the two brothers”, is a
˘
red resin derived from diverse Liliacea; in the Orient, the Dracaena
Draco Willd. and, in the West, the dragon tree (Dracaena Draco L.). It
is also known by the name dam at-tinnı̄n or dam at-tu#bān “dragon’s
blood” (DT :; M ; LF : ff.). Arabic dam al-a ¯ hawayn
¯ features,
˘
for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), and was
translated both by N and Z as: ïéðú íã.
The vernacular forms S̆NGY/S̆(")NQ D(Y)DR(")GWN must be identi-
fied as the O. Occ. term sanc de drag(u)on (FEW :a; DAO :;
CB ; RMM , ); variants are sanch de drago (CB ) and sang
de draguo(n) (RMA ; RPA , ), with the meaning ‘résine d’un
rouge foncé, qui est fourni par différents végétaux exotiques, en par-
ticulier par le rotang (calamus draco), et qu’on emploie en médecine
comme astringent’ (i.e., ‘dark red resin, produced by different exotic
plants, in particular by the Calamus Draco and used in medicine as
astringent’, DAO loc. cit.). Also see the identical O. Cat. sanch/sang de
drago, documented in the th c. (DCVB :a). For the identifica-
tion of O. Cat. sanch de dragó as Arabic dam al-ahawayn, cf. AdV ,
. ˘

4 éâðù: ÷ðàù O ÷ðù V


5 ïåâøãéã: ïåâàøãã O ïåâøããV
6C. Caballero-Navas, The Book of Women’s Love and Jewish Medical Literature on
Women. Sefer Ahavat Nashim, London .
7 R. Barkai, A History of Jewish Gynaecological Texts in the Middle Ages, Leiden .
dalet 

. 10äìåâàøãî 짧áå 9çàôì åà 8çåøáé 䧧á íéàãåã


DWD"YM, Arab. YBRWH . or LP" H,
. o.l. MDR"GWLH

Hebrew DWD"YM features in the Bible (e.g. Gen :–; Song :)
and is identified as “mandrake”, Atropa mandragora or Mandragora offic-
inarum L. (KB ; CD :; AEY :; DAS :, ; FO  f.;
LF : ff.).
Arabic yabrūh. is derived from Aramaic àçåøáé (cf. FA  f.; SD )
and refers either to the “mandrake” plant; Mandragora officinarum L. and
Var. or to its anthropomorphic root, while Arabic luffāh. means either the
plant or its fruits (DT :; M ; DAS : ff.).
For the identification of Hebrew DWD"YM as Arabic luffāh, . cf. Sa#adya
on Song : (SH): íéðùé íâ íéùãç íéãâî ìë åðéçúô ìòå çéø åðúð íéàãåãä
êì éúðôö éãåã (the mandrakes yield their fragrance, at our doors are all
choice fruits; both freshly picked and long-stored have I kept, my beloved,
for you): ä§úéãçìà äëàåôìà òéîâ àðáàåáà éìòå äçéàøìàá çàô ã÷ çàôììàå
êì§ã êì úø§ë§ã ã÷ éãåãå àé ä÷éúòìàå; cf. IJ ; SF :. The identification
of luffāh. as yabrūh. features in Ibn Janāh’s
. K. at-Talkhı̄s. as quoted by al-
Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :; cf. AS ).
The vernacular term MDR"GWLH (MS P) or MDRYGWL" (MS V)
must be read as the O. Occ. mandragolha (PSW :b; FEW :b) or
the O. Cat. mandragola, Mandragora officinarum L. (DECLC :b),
having lost the -n- like in a French form documented in the th c.,
madregole (FEW :b). The synonym of the Oxford MS (MNDRY-
GYL") includes the -n-; the second Yod in this variant seems to be cor-
rupt for a Waw. Von Wartburg dates the O. Occ. form in the th c.
(FEW :b); the O. Cat. form is documented for the first time in the
th c. in a Ramon Llull text (DECLC :b). For the identification of
Arab yabrūh as O. Cat. MNDRGWLH, cf. GHAT ;. The O. Occ.
and O. Cat.˘forms with the ending -ora (CB , , ; DAO ,;
PSW :b; RL :b; RPA ) seem to be later (in the th c., see
DECLC :b and FEW :b). The form ending on -ora is identified
as Arabic luffāh. (see above), cf. AdV , .

8 çåøáé: íåâøú §åäå add. V


9 çàôì: çôàì V
10 äìåâàøãî: àìéâéøãðî O àìåâéøãî V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 12àìøåâå÷ 짧áå 11òø÷ 䧧á íéòåìã


DLW#YM, Arab. QR#, o.l. QWGWRL"

Hebrew DL#T, plur. DLW#YM, means “pumpkin”, Cucurbita pepo L.


(KA :–, :; BM ; AEY :; DAS : f.; LA :;
cf. FH ; FM  and LF : ff.: Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.) and features
in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKil ., mUqz .).
Arabic qar#, from Aramaic àø÷ (FF  f.; LA :), also means
“pumpkin”, Cucurbita pepo L., Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Lagenaria
vulgaris Ser. (DT :; M ; DAS : f.; LA :).
For the identification, cf. the Geonic Commentary on mUqz .: õ÷åò
ïðáø §ìá àø÷ úééèá äòø÷ §éôå úòìãì ùé õò ìù áðæ ïîë §ô úòìã (stalk of a
pumpkin: A pumpkin has a kind of wooden stalk; the meaning of the
Arabic qara# in Aramaic is àø÷) (EG ). The Hebrew term DL#T is also
common as a translation of the Arabic qar# in medieval medical literature
such as, for instance, in the Hebrew translations of Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms VII,  (cf. BMMb ) and IX,  (cf. BMMb ), by N
and Z.
The vernacular form QWGWRL" (MS V) represents the O. Occ. cogorla
(‘pumpkin’, FEW –:b), whereas the synonym used in the Paris MS,
QWGWRLS̆ (or QWGWRL" S̆ in the Oxford MS), is its plural, cogorlas.
The word is probably derived from Lat. *CUCURBULA (from CUCUR-
BITA, with the suffix -ULA instead of -ITA). According to the FEW,
forms derived from this etymon can be found in various parts of France,
corresponding to the linguistic variants of Lorraine, Franco-Provençal,
Auvernian, and Languedocian. DAO : documents cogorla in RM and
RPA with the supposed meaning being ‘pumpkin’ (RM ; RPA ; cf.
also RMA ); see also Corradini Bozzi: cogorlla, idem (CB ) and,
in addition, cogorla salvatge, ‘bryony’, in RPA (DAO :; RPA ).
These examples and the additional evidence in our text have led us to
revise Coromines’ opinion that cogorla is an uncertain and badly doc-
umented word (DECLC :b–a). With respect to Modern Occi-
tan, the surviving forms [ku'gurla], [ku'gurlo] and the like seem to be
restricted to parts of the modern departments of Hérault, Gard, Lozère,
Ardèche, H.-Loire, and Puy-De-D. (see ALF, map ).13 Also see DFO

11 òø÷: òàø÷ O
12 àìøåâå÷: ùàìøåâå÷
O ùìøåâå÷ P
13 In the departments of Loire, Rhône, Ain and Isère we find reduced forms like
['kurlo], ['kurla].
dalet 

(:a, courgourlo, classified as Languedocian). The form does not exist


in Catalan; it is missing in the DCVB. See also Coromines (DECLC loc.
cit.), who only quotes Occitan forms, including kugúrla (Aniane), the
toponym La Corgolière (in the Cevennes, at Valarauga, Gard), which fig-
ures as Cogorlieuyras in  and ; see ZA LXI.

. 16é÷éðñàøù 15ïåìî 짧áå 14òàìã 䧧á úéøöîå úéðåé úòìã


DL#T YWNYT WMS. RYT, Arab. DL"#, o.l. MLWN S̆R"SNYQY

Hebrew DL#T YWNYT WMS. RYT means “the Greek and Egyptian pump-
kin”. Both varieties feature in the Mishnah (mKil ., ., .) and, e.g. in
yKil I, a, where, according to Rabbi Nehemiah, the Egyptian pumpkin
is identical to the Aramaic variety (FM ; LF :).
Arabic dullā# is “watermelon”, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. (M ).
The identification of Hebrew DL#T YWNYT WMS. RYT as Arabic dullā#
[mis. rı̄] goes back to Maimonides’ commentary on mKil . and .: úòìã
éøöîìà òàìãìà :úéøöîä (MK :).
The vernacular term MLWN S̆R"SNYQY (MS P) must be read as *me-
lon sarracenici, an expression which is not documented in our sources.
The first element is O. Occ. melon (DAO :; RPA ) for ‘melon’. The
second element seems to belong to the Lat. adjective SARACENICUS,
‘saracenic’; it does not match any known O. Occ. or O. Cat. form (for
O. Occ. sarrazin, sarrazinal, sarrazines and sarrazinesc, see PSW :b;
for O. Cat. sarraï, -ina and sarraci, -ina, see DCVB :a).

. 18ùøééñéìô 짧áå ïéàøô 䧧á 17ïåé÷éèìîã


DMLTYQYWN,
. Arab. PR"YN, o.l. PLYSYYRS̆

The term DMLTYQYWN . is a corruption of Hebrew ïé÷éèîìã


(DLMTYQYN),
. plur. of é÷éèîìã (DLMTYQY),
. from Greek δαλματικ
or δαλματικ ν (LS ; KG :; LR ; cf. KA : f.). It features in
mKil . and is explained in the Jerusalem Talmud (ad locum) as: ïéìáå÷
(= ïéáìå÷ from Greek κολ βιον “tunic”; KG :; LN ; SMCB ).
Krauss (KT :) explains ïå÷éèîìã as “a kind of tunic, which appeared

14 òàìã: òìåã O òìã V


15 ïåìî: P1
16 é÷éðñàøù: é÷éðñøù O é÷éðéñøñ V éáøò 짧ø add. V
17 ïåé÷éèìîã: ïå÷éèìîã O ïå÷éèîåìã V
18 ùøééñéìô: ùàøééñéìô O ùàøéöìô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

at a later time instead of the stole”. Jastrow (JD ) explains the term as
a “long undergarment of Dalmatian wool” and Levy speaks of “wollene
Priestergewänder” (woollen cassocks) (LW :; cf. BLS : “vestis dia-
coni”); Sperber (SMCB, and esp. ) concludes that it is a garment
called after the country it hails from, i.e. Δαλματα; see as well KA :,
: f.; SB : f. See as well Het
. no. .
Arabic PR"YN is probably a plur. formed from fira", plur. of farwun,
which designates “a certain thing that is worn, a furred garment, a skin
or wool, a kind of garment, well known, lined with the skins of various
species of animals, worn for preservation from the cold” (L ).
Maimonides comments on the Mishnah mentioned: íéñãøáäå íéñøáä
÷åãáéù ãò ïäá ùáìé àì ïåðéôä úåìòðîå ïåé÷éèîìãäå (Bera cloaks and Brun-
disian cloaks and Dalmatian undergarments and felt shoes—one may not
wear them until they have been examined) that although the exact mean-
ing of all these terms has not been established, it is clear that we are deal-
ing with items of wool used to cover the legs and thighs (àîñàìà ä§ãä
ïéì§âøìà àäá ñáìé óåö ïî àäìë àäðà íåäôî éðòîìà ïëì ,àä÷÷çð àì àäìë
ïé÷àñìàå) (MK :).
The vernacular term must be a derivation of O. Occ. pelis(s)a, ‘furry
coat’ (FEW :b; RL :a), like pelisiera or *peliseira. O. Occ. pelisiera
is documented to mean ‘female dealer in skins’ in WfP ,  and
FEW :a. Note that, according to WfP , “a special meaning that
these words [i.e., O. Occ. words in -iera] take is that of an article
of clothing”, so that we could suppose here, in accordance with the
meanings of the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, a (non-documented)
meaning such as a ‘kind of furry garment’. Also cf. the O. Occ. derivations
pel(l)is(s)a(i)ria, ‘furrier’s trade’ (RL loc. cit.; PSW :b) and peliseta,
‘little coat with pelt lining’ (see entry Alef ).
Also cf. entry Het
. .

. 20àèðî 짧áå òðòð 䧧á 19äðãðã


DNDNH, Arab. N#N#, o.l. MNT" .

Hebrew DNDNH means “mint”, Ceterach officinarum Willd., and fea-


tures in Rabbinic literature, for instance in mShebi . (JD ; LW :;
KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; FM ).

19 äðãðã: äðAðA P
20 àèðî: àèðéî VO àèðî P
dalet 

Na#na# is the generic Arabic name for different species of mint, e.g.
Mentha piperita Smith., Mentha sativa L., Mentha aquatica L. (DT :;
M ; DAS :, ,  n. , ; cf. as well Alef no. ).
The identification of DNDNH as na#na# goes back to Maimonides’
commentary on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
The vernacular term MYNT" . is the Lat. or Romance menta for ‘mint’
(DAO :; RM ,  among others; RL :a; PSW :b;
CB , among others; DECLC :a–b; DETEMA :a–b). Cf. Alef
no. .
For the identification of O. Cat. menta as Arabic na#na#, cf. AdV ,
 and GHAT :.

. 22ùøøéñ 짧áå êåìîìà áç íäå 21àéñàø÷ 䧧á úåéðáãáã


DBDBNYWT, Arab. QR"SY" e.g. HB . "LMLWK, o.l. SYRRS̆

The Hebrew term DBDBNYWT features in Rabbinic literature, for in-


stance in mAZ . or bAZ b, and means “lumps of dripping grapes”
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; cf. LF :: “overripe grapes moistened
by their own juice”; cf. as well FE ). In the Middle Ages the term is also
used to designate the cherry fruit, Prunus cerasus; cf. the Arukh (KA :):
êåìîìà áç àåäå 駧ñàøéö §ô (see as well FE  ff.; LF :).
Arabic qarāsiyā, from Greek κερσια (LS ), designates the cherry
fruit, Prunus avium L. and Var. or Prunus mahaleb L. and Var. The name
habb
. al-mulūk (“berries of kings”) was used in Spain and the Maghrib
for both the cherry and the fruit of the sebesten tree (Cordia myxa
L.) (DT :; M , ; DAS :). Arabic qarāsiyā features e.g. in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is translated by
N as: úåéðãâãâ, and transcribed by Z as: àéñàø÷.
Maimonides on mAZ . (MK :) explains úåéðáãáã as: éúìà ãäùìà
ìñòìà äéô (honey combs). For the identification of DBDBNYWT as habb .
al-mulūk, cf. the mentioned quotation from the Arukh.
The vernacular word SYRRS̆ (MS P)/SRYYR" S̆ (MS O)/S. RYYR" S̆
(MS V) must be read as the plural of O. Occ. cireira (DAO :;
RL :b; PSW :b) or, for the variant of P, the Cat. cirera (DECLC
:b) used in the meaning ‘cherry’.
GHAT (:, :) identifies Arabic qarāsiyā and habb. al-mulūk
as O. Cat. SRYR"S.

21 àéñàø÷: àéñø÷ V
22 ùøøéñ: ùàøééøñ O ùàøééøö V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. àèééå÷ àðåðà 짧áå 24äñéøä 䧧á 23àñéã


DYS", Arab. HRYSH, o.l. "NWN" QWYYT" .

Aramaic DYS" or DYYS" means a “dish of pounded grain, grits” or:


“coarsely pounded wheat or barley eaten alone or mixed with honey”
(JD ; LW :; SDA ; KA :, :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, for instance, in bBez. b, b or bShab b.
Arabic harı̄sa means “grain or wheat, bruised, brayed or pounded”
or designates in particular “a kind of thick pottage, prepared of cooked
wheat and cooked flesh-meats much pounded together” (L ; RAP ,
,  f., , ) and features in different medical tractates of Mai-
monides such as On Hemorrhoids, cf. BMH II,  (cf. as well KZ ); On
the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR I, ) and Maimonides’ On Asthma (III,
; cf. BMA ).
The identification of DYS" as harı̄sa goes back to R. Hananel
. on bBer
b: àìá àãéøâ úåôéøä àñééã :úåðåæî éðéî àøåáã éâéìô àì ò§§ë àãéøâ àñééãá
àñéøä ìàòîùé §ùìáå ùáã áåøéò (about simple unpounded grain everybody
agrees that [one says]: “Who creates various kinds of food”: àñééã is
simple pounded grain, without honey and in Arabic harı̄sa) (LO Perush
R. Hananel
. on bBer b, p. ); see as well the Arukh (KA :).
The vernacular term "NWN" QWYYT" . must be identified as O. Occ.
*an(n)on(n)a cueita, literally meaning ‘cooked cereal, wheat’. The whole
expression is not documented in our sources; for an(n)on(n)a, cf. DAO
:, :; FEW :a; RL :b. The second element is *cueita,
the feminine form of the participle *cueit, which is documented, e.g.,
in biscueit (RL :b). Von Wartburg remarks that an(n)on(n)a is
especially attested for the South of France (FEW :b). The word does
not seem to exist in Cat.

. 27íåèðåøñåðùéà 짧áå óåöìà 26àôåæ 䧧á øîöä 25ïùã


DS̆N HS. MR, Arab. ZWP" "LS. WP, o.l. "YS̆NWSRWNTWM .

Hebrew DS̆N HS. MR “grease of wool” is possibly a loan translation of


Arabic dasam as. -s. ūf “grease of wool”, which designates, according to

23 àñéã: àñééã VO
24 äñéøä: àñéøä VO
25 øîöä ïùã: ùáã V
26 óåöìà àôåæ: áèø àôåæ O
27 íåèðåøñåðùéà: íåèðéøñåðùéà O íåðèåøñåéùðéà V
dalet 

Maimonides’ Glossary of Drug Names (M ), Arabic zūfā rat. b “grease


of wool”.
Arabic zūfā designates ) “hyssop”, Hyssopus officinalis L. and Var.,
Greek *σσωπον (LS ) and ) “grease of wool”, Greek οσυπος
(LS ). The confusion about this term hails from the fact that the
Arabs, and before them the Syrians, transcribed the two Greek words
in the same manner. In Arabic, the different meanings are generally dis-
tinguished, by the adjective reading zūfā rat. b (“moist zūfā”) for οσυπος
and zūfā yābis (“dry zūfā”) for *σσωπον (DT :–, :; LA :).
In our text, the Arabic term zūfā designates the grease of wool or lanoline
as is indicated by as. -s. ūf, which possibly has to be read as: as. -s. ūf ad-dahin
(the fatty wool); cf. Maimonides, Medical Aphorisms XXIII, : II
 -)4
j% Z*   Z*  (Lanoline is the fatty wool, not the filthy
wool). Cf. as well Sade
. no.  below.
The term indicated as vernacular seems to be a corruption of a medie-
val Latin term that appears in the Alphita, as ysopum cerotum or ysopus
cerotis (Sin , n. ), which is the dirt of the sheep wool extracted by
decoction (see Sin b and CA ). All variants of our text seem to
reflect a reading *cerontum in the second part of the term. Also cf. entry
Sade
. .

. 28ùáé§âðé§â 짧áå úàúì 䧧á éðãøã


DRDNY, Arab. LT"T, o.l. ĞYNĞYBS̆

DRDNY is probably Persian darı̄danı̄ meaning “fragments” derived from


the Persian verb darı̄dan (VL :).
Arabic litāt, plur. of lita, means “gums” (WKAS : ff.).
¯
The vernacular term ¯used in the Paris MS ĞYNĞYBS̆ (or GYNGYB" S̆
in the MSS O and V) must be interpreted as the plural of O. Occ.
gengiva ‘gums’ (FEW :b; RL :b), whereas, for O. Cat., only the
variants gen(n)iva, genyiva without -g- are documented (DECLC :b;
DCVB :a).

. àîøåô 짧á 29áìà÷ 䧧á ñåôã


DPWS, Arab. Q"LB, o.l. PWRM"

Hebrew DPWS, next to TPWS


. in Mishnaic Hebrew, from Greek τπος
(LS ; KG :; LR ) means “frame, mould” (JD ; LW :;

28 ùáé§âðé§â: ùàáéâðéâ VO ?êéøë äðî íéëá íéîëç ïåùìá add. V


29 áìà÷: áàì÷ O áì÷ V
 shem tov, synonym list 

KA :; BM ; BKH Index; KT :, :, ; see as well Mem
) and features, e.g. in mMen .. The term also features in medieval
medical literature as a translation of Arabic qālab, e.g. in the Hebrew
translation of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XV, ) by N, whereas
Z has ÷éú.
Arabic qālab means “a model according to which the like thereof is
made, or proportioned; a mould into which metals are poured” (L ;
see as well Mem no. ).
For the identification of DPWS as qālab, cf. Sa#adya, SAM :;
see as well Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above: áìà÷ìà åä :ñåôèå
(MK :).
The vernacular term PWRM" must be read as Latin or Romance forma,
which means, in general, ‘form, shape’ (FEW :b). In O. Occ. it could
also have the special meaning ‘cheese, loaf ’ (FEW :a; PSW :b)
and later (Mistral) ‘forme, modèle, moule de fromage’ (i.e., form, model,
cheese mould, PSW :a). Also see S̆hK, , PWRMH, gloss of the
Hebrew s. elem for ‘form, image’.

. 32ùîåìå÷éã 31àèîô 짧áå íàîçìà 30÷øã 䧧á íéðåéáã


DBYWNYM, Arab. DRQ "LHM"M, . o.l. PMT"
. DYQWLWMS̆

Hebrew DBYWNYM means “excrement” (JD ) or “pigeon droppings”


(KB ; KA : f., : f.; BM ) and features in  Kings : (K"ri)
and bMeg b.
Arabic darq al-hamām
. means “dung of pigeons” (L ).
For the¯identification of DBYWNYM as darq al-hamām,
. cf. IJ .
The vernacular term PMT" DYQWLWM ¯S̆ (MS P) must be interpreted
.
as O. Occ. femta de coloms for ‘pigeon droppings’. The first element is
femta (CB ), a feminine variant of fem, femp, (RL :a; PSW :b)
with the meaning ‘fiente, excrément’ (i.e., droppings, excrement; RL loc.
cit.), and the second element is the plural of colom for ‘pigeon’ (FEW –
:b). This term is documented in our sources, although not exactly
in the form that we have here (see the masculine variant fems de columps
(RMA ), and the feminine fenda dels colons (CB )).

30 íàîçìà ÷øã: íàîçìà ÷àøã O äîçìà ÷øøã V


31 àèîô: àèîéô VO
32 ùîåìå÷éã: õîåìå÷ã O ùîåìå÷ã V íéðåé úàåö 짧ø add. V
dalet 

. àùéø§â 34à÷ã 䧧á 33úåñéøâ äëéã


DYKH GRYSWT, Arab. DQ" ĞRYS̆"

Hebrew DYKH GRYSWT means “to pound pearl barley or grits” (JD ,
; LW :; KA :, :, :; cf. Gimel no. ). DYKH fea-
tures in the Bible, e.g. Ps : in the sense of “to crush” (KB )
and, in Rabbinic literature, it is only attested as the verbal substan-
tive: äëéã meaning “pounding”, derived from êåã (cf. JD ; LW :;
KA :).
The Arabic probably has to be read as: daqqa ğarı̄s̆an, i.e., “to pound
grits” (L , ); cf. as well D :: “piler grossièrement”. Cf. as well
DAS : and MT .

. 37ìé÷øá 짧áå 36§âéøäö 䧧á 35úåã


DWT, Arab. S. HRYĞ, o.l. BRQYL

Hebrew DWT or HDWT . means “a subterranean masoned store-room,


cistern, cellar” (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; KT ::
“Korngrube” (corn-pit)) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBB
. or mKel ..
Arabic s. ihrı̄ğ means “watering-trough or tank or cistern” (L ).
For the identification of HDWT
. as s. ihrı̄ğ, cf. the Geonic Commentary
on Tohorot (EG ), and Maimonides on mKel . (MK :).
The vernacular term BRQYL may be interpreted as the O. Occ. broc,
‘pot, small jug’ (RL :b) with the diminutive suffix -el; cf. the parallel
form brocat (‘big jug’, PSW :b) with the augmentative suffix -at. For
these suffixes, see GHP ; WfP –, –. Another form is
O. Occ. broquer, ‘pot, small jug’ (RL loc. cit.).

. 38ãåäãä 䧧á úôéëåã


DWKYPT, Arab. HDHWD

Hebrew DWKYPT designates the bird “hoopoe”, Upupa epops (KB ;
CD :; SD ; KA :; BM  f.; LZ  ff.), and features in the

33 úåñéøâ: úéùéøâ V
34 àùéø§â à÷ã: àùéøâ à÷àã O äùéøâ à÷ã V ?äñâ äùéúë 짧ø add. V
35 úåã: úåéã O
36 §âéøäö: âøäö VO
37 ìé÷øá: äðéôñ ïåùì add. V
38 ãåäãä: ãäãåä O
 shem tov, synonym list 

Bible (Lev :; Deut :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bHul
. a; bGit
b).
Arabic hudhud has the same meaning (L  f.; BK ; KSZ :;
StS ; see as well Venzlaff, Al-Hudhud).39
For the identification of DWKYPT as hudhud, cf. Sa#adya (S ) on
Deut :: óìèòäå úôéëåãäå äðéîì äôðàäå äãéñçäå (the stork, any variety
of heron, the hoopoe, and the bat): ãäãäìàå àäôàðöàá àâááìàå ø÷öìàå
ùàô§ëìàå; see as well IJ .

. 41ìàâéô 짧áå éãøåã 䧧á 40àéãøã


DRDY", Arab. DWRDY, o.l. PYG"L

Aramaic DWRD", plur. DRDY", means “sediment, lees, dregs” (JD ;
SDA ) or “yeast” (LW :; KA :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bAZ a or bTaan a.
Arabic durdı̄ has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification of DRDY" as durdı̄, cf. LO Perushim on bTaan
b, p. : ïéøå÷ éáøò ïåùìáå ïä ãçà ïìåë íéøîù ,[àéøãù] àéãù àéãøåã §éô
éãø(å)ã (DWRDY", S̆DY" [S̆DRY"], S̆MRYM they all mean the same and in
Arabic it is called D(W)RDY) (cf. as well SDA ).
PYG"L (MS P)/PGL"RH (MS O)/PYGL"RH (MS V) are O. Occ. words
related to the Latin FAEX (RL :b; FEW :–) or the derivation
FAECULA ‘tartar, yeast’. See the O. Occ. fec/fetz, ‘lie, sédiment, matière
fécale’ (i.e., sediment (of wine), faecal material), e.g. “fetz de vi”, ‘sediment
of wine’, and O. Cat. feu ‘solatge’ (DECLC :). FAECULA could
have produced an O. Occ (semi-learned) form *fegula/*fegola. In this
case the term used in the Paris MS would be corrupt and should be
read as PYGL",42 although it is strange for these MSS that /o/ or /u/
is not expressed. The variants used in the MSS O and V could not be
interpreted.

39 H. Venzlaff, Al-Hudhud. Eine Untersuchung zur kulturgeschichtlichen Bedeutung des

Wiedehopf im Islam, Frankfurt a. Main .


40 àéãøã: àééãøåã O àéãøåã V
41 ìàâéô: äøàìâô O äøàìâéô V äùáø 짧á íéøîù §åäå add. V
42 Note, however, that this word (originally belonging to medical language according

to the FEW) has usually not produced any hereditary forms. Another possibility would
be to hypothesize an O. Occ. *fegal from the adjective FAECALEM.
dalet 

. 44øéìèééã 짧áå 43øîåúä àåäå ìëð 䧧á ì÷ã


DQL, Arab. NKL i.e. the palm tree, o.l. DYYTLYR
.

Hebrew DQL means “palm tree”, Phoenix dactylifera L. and Var. (JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; DAS :; FM ; LF : f.), and
features, e.g. in mPeah ..
Arabic nahl or nahla also means “palm tree” (D :; DT :;
DAS :, , ˘ ). ˘
For the identification of DQL as nahl, cf. Maimonides’ commentary on
the Mishnah cited above (MK :).˘
The vernacular form DYYTLY(Y)R
. must be an O. Occ. *daitil(i)er
for ‘palm tree’, which is not documented in our sources. We only find
the O. Occ. name of the fruit, datil (DAO :; FEW :b; RL :a;
PSW :b; RM ; CB , ). In O. Cat., we find the name of the
fruit, dàtil, and the name of the tree derived from it by the suffix -er,
datiler, featured in Ramon Llull (th century, see DECLC :a). The
Romance words for the fruit are learned words from Lat. DACTYLUS
(FEW :b); by contrast, the form in our text shows the regular devel-
opment of Lat. -CT- to a diphthong with offglide Yod: DACTYLU(M) >
O. Occ.*daitil.

. 45éñéôø 짧áå ìåáã 䧧á ìåãìã


DLDWL, Arab. DBWL, o.l. RPYSY

In Rabbinic Hebrew, DLDWL originally means “the hanging-down of


a piece which is partly detached from the body, especially, the part
hanging down” (LW :; KA : f.), and then “a wart with a thin
neck” (JD ) or “a tumor of the skin, wart” (Low XLVI) and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNeg . or bHul
. a. It is derived from
the verb ìãìã which means “to reduce, weaken” or: “to loosen, detach”
(JD  f.), but cf. SDA ; s.v. ìãìã (): “to become degenerated,
diminished”.
Arabic dubūl indicates the disease called “wasting” or “marasmus”
(L  f.). ¯In Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (III, , ,; X, , ;
XIX, ; XXII, ; cf. BMMa , , ), it is rendered a.o. as: ÷åîö or
ïåôãùå ÷åîö by N and as: äëúä or éöéôùéø (RYS̆PYS. Y) by Z.

43 øîåúä: íéøîúä ïìéà V


44 øéìèééã: øééìèééã O øéì!èééA P
45 éñéôø: éñéôùø O éöéôùéø V
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the identification of DLDWL as dubūl, cf. the Geonic Commentary


on Tohorot (EG ): ìåìàú) ïéìåúìúäå §ã¯ §à §ô ïéìåãìãäå .úééèá ìåìàú úìáé
äèîì åìãìãðå øùá ìú ïéîë äùòðù ùåøéôå (úééèä. Epstein has emended the
text in such a way that ìåìàú is an explanation of úìáé, which conforms
with Ibn Janāh; . IJ  (see as well Krauss, KA :), and is contrary to
Kohut, KA :, n. .
The vernacular term could not be identified. It might be related to
the O. Occ. despezar (RL :b; PSW :b) ‘to tear to pieces, to
dismember’ (see the meaning of the Hebrew word; also cf. the O. Fr.
despeceiz ‘destroyed part, piece’, FEW :b) or to the Latin RECIDERE
or a Romance derivation thereof (e.g., O. Occ. rescis ‘torn into pieces’,
res(s)is / ressitz ‘weak, miserable’ (FEW :a)).

. 46àãç 䧧á äàã


D"H, Arab. HD"
.

Hebrew D"H, which features in the Bible (e.g. Lev :) and Rabbinic lit-
erature (e.g. bHul
. b), designates the bird “kite”, Milvus milvus (KB ;
CD :; JD ; BAL ; BH :; FAB –), which is, according
to Jewish law, prohibited as food.
Arabic hid"a
. has the same meaning (L  f.; BK , ; JAD : ff.;
KSZ :, :; StS ).
For the identification of D"H as hid"a,
. cf. Sa#adya (S ) on Lev ::
äðéîì äéàä úàå äàãä úàå (the kite, and different species of falcons): àãçìàå
àäôàðöàì àãöìàå; see as well Ibn Janāh. (IJ ).

46 àãç: àãåä O úãç V


HE

. 3àáìî 짧áå 2æéáë 䧧á 1éðøä


HRNY, Arab. KBYZ, o.l. MLB"

Aramaic HRN" or "RN", plur. HRNY or "RWNY/ "R"NY, refers to a plant of


uncertain identity. According to the Geonic tradition, it is identical with
the plant called àååìî\àáìî (malva) “mallow” (JD ; SDA : “malva
(leaves)”; KA :, :; LA  ff.:; LF :) and features, e.g. in
bShab b.
Arabic hubbayz, a variant of hubbāzā, is “malva or mallow”, Malva
silvestris L.˘ and Var. (L ; DT :;
˘ M ; DAS :, : f.: Malva
rotundifolia, Malva parviflora).
The vernacular term MLB" (MS P) is the Lat. or the Romance (most
probably O. Occ. or O. Cat.) malva (NPRA ; Sin :; DAO :;
RL :a; FEW :a; CB  among others; RMA , ; RPA ;
RM , , ; DECLC :a) with the meaning ‘mallow’. Vari-
ants like *malvia suggested by the Oxford and Vatican MSS could not
be found in our sources, but we suppose the influence of malvi, doc-
umented for O. Occ. for the meaning Althaea officinalis (DAO :),
which looks similar to the mallow (cf. its etymology MALVA + HIBIS-
CUS > *malva"biscu > late Lat. malaviscum > Romance malvi(s), see
FEW :a; DECLC loc. cit.). Also cf. Mod. Cat. malví (DECLC :b;
DCVB :b).
For the identification of Arabic hubbāzā as O. Cat. malva, cf. GHAT
˘
: and AdV , , for the identification as malví ibid.

. éøèéìô 짧áå àçø÷ 5ø÷àò 䧧á 4àôæøä


HRZP", Arab. #"QR QRH",. o.l. PLYTRY
.

Aramaic HRZP", also HRZYP", HRZYPW, featured in Rabbinic literature,


namely in bPes a, means “a bitter herb” (JD ; SDA ); according to

1 éðøä: éáøä øëãä V


2 æéáë: éæàáë O
3 àáìî: àéåìàî O àéåìî V
4 àôæøä: äñåàøä V
5 àçø÷ ø÷àò: àçø÷ øà÷ò O àçø÷ ø÷ò V
 shem tov, synonym list 

LW : it is a “poisonous herb, fatal for cattle” (cf. Rashi on bPes a).
Kohut (KA :) identifies the term as: “Saint John’s wort”, Hypericum
perforatum L.
Arabic ‘āqirqarhā
. is Anacyclus Pyrethrum L., “pyrethrum” (DT :;
M ; LF : f.). The Arabic name is derived from Aram. #qqār qarhā .
“naked root” (LA :). The term features in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ), where it is translated by both N and Z with the
vernacular éøèéìô (PLYTRY),
. the common Hebrew term in medieval
medical literature.
The Arukh (KA :) renders HRZP" as vernacular ১øèìéô
(PYLTR").
.
The vernacular form PLYTRY . must be the O. Occ. or O. Cat. pelitre
(FEW :a; PSW :a; DAO :; CB ; RM ; RMM ;
DECLC :b; DCVB :a) with the meaning ‘Bertram, Mutterkraut’
(pellitory, feverfew; PSW :a), Anacyclus pyrethrum (DAO :).
For the identification of Arab. #āqirqarhā
. as O. Cat. pelitre, cf. AdV ,
; also cf. GHAT :, where we find the corrupt Arab. form #Q"R
QRHH.
.

. 6éðåîãøåì 짧áå àìôã 䧧á éðôåãøä


HRDWPNY, Arab. DPL", o.l. LWRDMWNY

Hebrew HRDWPNY or HRDPNY, next to Aramaic HRDWP", from


Greek &οδοδφνη (LS ; KG :; LR ) means “oleander”, Ner-
ium Oleander L. (LW :; SDA ; KA :; :; DAS :;
FEB  ff.; FM ; FZ  f.; LA  f.:; LF : ff.) and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bPes a or mHul. ..
Arabic diflā has the same meaning (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. àúàøáâ àúëìä by Samuel ha-Nagid:7 óåãøéäå
§äìôãìà åúåà ïéøå÷ [ . . . ]éðôåãøä äðùî ïåùìá (HRDWPN in Mishnaic
language HRDWPNY [ . . . ] it is called ad-difla).8 Maimonides comments
on the Mishnah mentioned that it is a herb which kills an animal when it
eats from it, but that it is not harmful for human beings, just like chicken
dropping (MK :).

6 éðåîãøåì: éðåîDøåì V
7 On Samuel ha-Nagid (–), cf. I. Ta-Shma, Ha-Sifrut ha-Parshanit la-Talmud,

vol. , second rev. ed. Jerusalem , pp. –.


8 J. Mann, “A portion of the work àúàøáâ àúëìä by Samuel Ibn Nagdela of Granada”,

in: idem, Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature, vol. , Cincinnati , –
, p. .
he 

The vernacular term is corrupt, and actually contains two words.


The first three letters correspond to O. Occ. laur, O. Cat. llaur ‘laurel’
(DAO :; CB , among others; DECLC :b–b). It should
be recalled that some of the plant names for Nerium Oleander contain
an element meaning ‘laurel’ in several languages, e.g. Lat. laurorosa
(NPRA ), laurier-rose (FEW :b) in French and lauzier/laurier/
laurié-roso in Occ. (DAO :), in Italian lauro roseo or lauro indiano,
among others (PFlor ). The string beginning with Dalet is a variant
that belongs to the Greek δφνη, which often appears with a parasitic
m in Medieval Latin (e.g. in the Alphita, cf. Sin , notes –, and
). Also see the Hebrew version of the Alphita (HebMedSyn –),
where daphnococci ‘laurel berries’ is spelled DMNY QWQTY. .

. äãéèàô 10ä§âàãéìåô 짧áå 9ïàã§âðà 䧧á äéúéä


HYTYH, Arab. "NĞD"N, o.l. PWLYD" ĞH P" TYDH .

Hebrew HYTYH or more correctly HTYH, TYH or TY"H designates )


either the plant “crowfoot”, Ranunculus, or its root (JD ; BM ;
LF : ff.), or ) the root of Ferula asa foetida L. (FM ; LF : ff.;
cf. as well KA :, :).
Arabic anğudān or anğudān, from Persian anğudān (VL :,),
refers to Ferula asa foetida¯ (DT :) and, according to Maimonides’
Glossary of Drug Names, the “leaves of asafetida” (M  = IJS :; cf.
MS V and ID :). See as well Ayin .
For the identification of äéú as anğudān, cf. Maimonides on mUqz .
(MK :); see as well EG . ¯
The vernacular PWYYL" D" S̆" PYTYD" . (according to MS O) is the
O. Occ. fuelha d’asafetida (‘leaf of asafetida’). We could not find any
form corresponding to asafetida that could possibly be transcribed into
Hebrew with Gimel as is the case in MS P (so that this spelling is
most probably an error). For asafetida, cf. Het . no. . The first element
is O. Occ. fuelha (var. fuella, fueilla, foilla, fuoilla) ‘leaf ’ (DAO :–
; FEW :b) in MS O, whereas P and V reflect the form folh or
fuelh, O. Occ. for ‘leaf ’ (see for example RL :a; DAO :; FEW
ibid.). These two variants might also represent the masculine Catalan full
(DECLC :b; DCVB :b).

9 ïàã§âðà: ïàãâðà VO úéúìçìà àøâù ÷øå åà add. V


10 äãéèàô ä§âàãéìåô: àãéèéô àùàã àìééåô O éìåô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 11ñåðåéé 짧áå ñåðáà 䧧á íéðáä


HBNYM, Arab. "BNWS, o.l.YYWNWS

Hebrew HBNYM, featured in the Bible (Ez :), means “ebony”, Dios-
pyros mespiliformis (KB ; CD :; FEB  ff.; FO  f.; LF
: f.).
Arabic abanūs has the same meaning (DT :). The identification
. K. al-us. ūl: íéðáäå
goes back to Rav Hai Gaon as transmitted by Ibn Janāh,
ïåàâ ééàä áø 
  (HBNYM is al-abanūs according to the
translation by Rav Hai Gaon) (IJ ). See as well MCS :.
The vernacular YYWNWS must be the Lat. ebenus (Sin :; FEW
:a) that was also used in O. Cat. texts (ebenus, ebenuç, DECLC
:b; DCVB :b) for ‘ebony’. In O. Occ., we find the following
forms: avenuz (or similar variants), via Arabic transmission (FEW
:a; PSW :b; DAO :) and ebana, ebene, ebeni, forms directly
derived from Lat. (RL :b; DAO :). The spelling with YY- in MS
P and with G- in MSS O and V as well as the Yod in the last syllable
in these MSS remain unexplained. A similar variant appears as O. Cat.
GYBYNWS in GHAT :, where it is identified as Arab. abanūs.

. éðéøèñ éðàìåá 13àøéî 짧áå øôöà 12§âìéìä 䧧á íééîåëøë íé÷ìéìä


HLYLQYM KRKWMYYM, Arab. HLYLĞ " S. PR, o.l. MYR" BWL"NY
STRYNY
.

Hebrew HLYLQ/HLYLG KRKWMY, plur. HLYLQYM/HLYLGYM KRK-


WMYYM, means “yellow myrobalan”. Hebrew HLYLQ possibly derives
from Syriac halı̄lqā (cf. BLS ; LA :). As é÷ìéìä the term is
attested for the first time in the Geonic compendium Halakhot Gedolot
(ed. Hildesheimer,14 p. ; cf. as well LP ). Additionally we find the term
as íé÷ìéìç in the Book of Medicines attributed to Asaph (cf. LA :).
Arabic halı̄lağ as. far is Terminalia citrina Roxb., “Hara nut” (D :;
M ; ID :; SP ). Halı̄lağ is the Arabic form of the Persian
name halı̄la (VL :). It indicates several kinds of myrobolans, mostly
the fruits of Terminalia Chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), black chebulic

11 ñåðåéé: ñéðáâ VO
12 øôöà §âìéìä: øàôöà âéìéìä O øôöà âìéìä V
13 éðéøèñ éðàìåá àøéî: ùðéøèéñ ùðàìåáøéî O ùðéøèéñ ùðàìåá àøéî V
14 J. Hildesheimer (ed.), Halachoth Gedoloth nach dem Text der Handschrift Vaticana,
 vols. Berlin –.
he 

myrobalans (cf. below no. ). The yellow kind is sometimes separated
under the name of Terminalia citrina Roxb.. According to Meyerhof-
Sobhy (MS : f.), most modern botanists think it to be a stage in the
growth of the chebulic myrobolans. Arabic halı̄lağ as. far features in Mai-
monides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N as: éîåëøë
ùðìåáøéî (MYRBWLNS̆ KRKWMY) and by Z as: éðéøèéö éðìáåøéî (MYR-
WBLNY S. YTRYNY).
.
The vernacular form used in the Paris MS, MYR" BWL"NY STRYNY, .
must be identified as the Lat. plural mirabolani citrini, literally ‘yellow
myrobalans’ (Sin b; AdV :; in Hebrew transcription MYRB-
WLNY SYTRYNY,. see PJP ). For the first element mirabolanus or
myrobalanus (< Gr. μυροβλανος) cf. DuC :c; ThLL :. The
variants that appear in the Oxford and Vatican MSS represent mirabolans
citrins/ setrins, which is attested in O. Cat. (DCVB :a), but might also
be O. Occ. (for mirabolans, see CB ; cf. the attested form mirabolha
setrin in RMM ). For the identification of Lat. mirabolani citrini/
O. Cat. mirabolans citrins/sitrins as Arabic halı̄lağ as. far, see AdV , .

. ùìåáàë éðàìåá 17àøéî 짧áå éìåáàë 16§âìéìä 䧧á íééìåáë 15íé÷ìéìä


HLYLQYM KBWLYYM, Arab. HLYLĞ K"BWLY, o.l. MYR" BWL"NY
K"BWLS̆

Hebrew HLYLQ/HLYLG KBWLY, plur. HLYLQYM/ HLYLGYM KBW-


LYYM means “Chebulic myrobalan” and features in medieval medical
literature, for instance, in the Hebrew translation of Maimonides’ Medi-
cal Aphorisms (XXI, ). For Hebrew íé÷ìéìä, cf. He no.  above.
Arabic halı̄lağ kābulı̄ is Terminalia Chebula Retz. (D :; M ;
ID :; SP , cf. He no. ). The Arabic term features in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and is translated by N as: ùéìåáé÷ ùðìåáøéî
(MYRBWLNS̆ QYBWLYS̆) and by Z as: éìåáàë éðìáåøéî (MYRWBLNY
K"BWLY).
The vernacular term used in the Paris MS, MYR" BWL"NY K"BWLS̆, is
a mixed form: the Lat. plural mirabolani with the epithet in Romance (see
the O. Cat. plural quebol(l)s), whereas the synonym used in the Vatican
MS is completely Romance: MYRBWLNS̆ Q"BWLS̆ (mirabolans quebolls,
literally ‘Chebulic myrobalans’, DCVB :a). Cf. the Romance term in
Hebrew spelling, MYR"BWL"NS̆ KYBWLS̆, in PJP . In AdV , 

15 íééìåáë íé÷ìéìä: íééìåáé÷ íé÷ìéìä V, om. O


16 éìåáàë §âìéìä: éìåáë âìéìä V, om. O
17 ùìåáàë éðàìåá àøéî: ùìåáé÷ ùðìåáøéî V, om. O
 shem tov, synonym list 

the O. Cat. form mirabolans kébols is identified as Arab. halı̄lağ kābulı̄.


The corresponding Lat. term is mirabolani kebuli (Sin b). Also cf.
entry He .

. ùéãðéà éðàìåá 20àøéî 짧á éãðä 19§âìéìä 䧧á íééãåä 18íé÷ìéìä


HLYLQYM HWDYYM, Arab. HLYLĞ HNDY, o.l. MYR" BWL"NY
"YNDYS̆

The Hebrew term HLYLQYM HWDYYM means “Indian Myrobalans”.


Arabic halı̄lağ hindı̄ is Terminalia horrida Stend. (D :; ID :;
SP ). According to Meyerhof-Sobhy (MS :), one kind of myro-
balans is called “Indian” when their fruits reach the size of a grape. The
Arabic term features in Maimonides, Medical Aphorisms (.) and is
translated by N as: ùéãðéà ùðìåáøéî (MYRBWLNS̆ "YNDYS̆), whereas Z
has: ùéãðéà éðìáåøéî (MYRWBLNY "YNDYS̆).
The vernacular MYR"BWL"NY "YNDYS̆ (MS P) is a mixed form, com-
posed of the Lat. plural mirabolani and the O. Occ./O. Cat. plural indis
(‘Indian’). It corresponds to the Lat. mirabolani indi, literally ‘Indian
myrobalans’ (Sin b). The synonym in V is O. Occ. or O. Cat. *mirabo-
lans indis (cf. the documented mirabolans indi/ indichs in CB ; DCVB
:a). The form features in an O. Cat. text: “Mirabolans indis—[M]ira-
bolans indis són semblants [a] kébols” (i.e., Indian myrobalans—Indian
myrobalans are similar to Chebulic myrobalans, AdV ; for its iden-
tification as Arab. halı̄lağ hindı̄, cf. ibid. , ). For the O. Cat. term
in Hebrew spelling, also cf. GHAT :, MYRBW## "YNDYQS̆, and the
Romance expression in PJP , MYR"BWL"NS̆ "YNDYQS̆.

. 21ñàîáàø 짧á äìæð 䧧á äìæä


HZLH, Arab. NZLH, o.l. R"BM"S

Hebrew HZLH, from the root NZL “to flow”, traditionally means “drip-
ping, pouring out or shedding” (EM ; cf. as well BM ), but in
medieval medical literature it assumes the meaning “catarrh” through
semantic borrowing from the Arabic nazla; cf. MD .

18 íééãåä íé÷ìéìä: íééãðä íé÷ìéìä V, om. O


19 éãðä §âìéìä: éãðä âìéìä V, om. O
20 ùéãðéà éðàìåá àøéî: ùéãðéà ùðìåáøéî V, om. O
21 ñàîáàø: ñîáåø P ñîáø V
he 

Arabic nazla means “catarrh” (D :; cf. as well IR –, , ,
; KZ ; SN : nazalāt “catarrhus”). The Arabic term features, e.g.
in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (III, ; VI, ; VIII, ; IX, ; XIII,
; XVI, ; XIX, ; cf. BMMa  and BMMb , , ), and is translated
by N as: äìéæð, ìæð, íéìæð and by Z as: äìéæð\ìæð or àîåéø (RYWM").
The vernacular term used in the Oxford MS, R"BM"S, and also the Vat-
ican variant RBMS correspond to the O. Occ. raumás/ reumas/ reumatz
‘cold’ (the illness) (FEW :a; PSW :b; CB , among others).
The spelling used in the Paris MS with -WB- suggests the diphthong -ou-
instead of -au-. The phenomenon au > ou as mentioned by Corradini
Bozzi (CB ) can occasionally be found in one of the MSS examined
there, both in tonic and pretonic position; also cf. the Mod. Occ. variant
rooumás (FEW :b). In Cat., we only find the modern variant reumàs
documented for the Roussillon area (DECLC :b; DCVB :b).

. 24ïåìå÷ 짧áå 23§âðìå÷ 䧧á 22ïå÷øãä


HDRQWN, Arab. QWLNĞ, o.l. QWLWN

Hebrew HDRQWN or HDRWQN, from Greek +δερικ ν (LS ; KG


:: +δρωπικ ν; LN ; LR ), means “dropsy” (JD ; LW :,
; KA :, : f.; Low XLVII) and features in Rabbinic literature,
for instance, in bShab a.
Arabic qawlanğ or qūlinğ, from Greek κωλικ,ς (LS ) means
“colic” (L ; SN ). The regular Arabic parallel to the Hebrew
term ïå÷øãä is NKT% (cf. LO Teshuvot on bShab a, p. ; D :;
HTG , ; KZ ). A Hebrew parallel to Arabic QWLNĞ is QWLNĞ
(Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms VIII,  (BMMb ); translation N)
or QWLWN (ibid., translation Z). For the identification, cf. ShM :
§âðìå÷ìà ìé÷å à÷ñúñàìà äðà ìé÷ .ïå÷øãä éãéì àéáîù éðôî (because it brings
on HDRQWN (cf. bBer a). Some say it is dropsy, others say it is
colic).
The vernacular term QWLWN is Lat. or Romance colon with the
meaning ‘colon’ (ThLL :; MLWB : and, e.g., O. Occ. FEW –
:a; O. Cat. DECLC :a; DCVB :a). The Romance term is
a loan word of Medieval medical Lat. which in Fr., for example, went
through a semantic shift to arrive at the meaning ‘colic’ (FEW –:).

22 ïå÷øãä: ï÷åøãä V
23 §âðìå÷: ÷ðàìå÷ O âðìå÷ V
24 ïåìå÷: à÷éìå÷ åà add. O
 shem tov, synonym list 

The meaning of the Arabic and Hebrew terms suggests a similar semantic
shift in O. Occ./O. Cat.
A further confirmation of this shift is the second synonym given in
the Oxford MS, the M. Lat. c(h)olica, ‘(bilious) colic’ (MLWB :;
MLLM b). Colica also existed as a learned word in Romance lan-
guages, e.g., in O. Cat. documented since  (DECLC :a; DCVB
:b), but also in O. Occ. (see CB ). RL mentions it only as an adjec-
tive (colic, -a, ‘concerning colic’, e.g. in a quotation of Eluc. de las propr.,
fol. : “colica passio”, see RL :a).

. àòîàìà 25÷ìæ 䧧á íéòîä úãòîä


HM#DT HM#YM, Arab. ZLQ "L"M#"

Hebrew HM#DT HM#YM, which is not attested in secondary literature,


was possibly coined by Shem Tov as a Hebrew loan translation of the
Arabic zalaq al-am#ā" “Dysenteria spuria” (KZ ; SN ; cf. BM ).
The Arabic term features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ;
XXIII, , , , ), and is translated by N as: úãéòî/íéòîä úãòîä
íéòîä, and by Z as: íéòîä úãòîä åà úå÷ìç/íéòîä úãòîä. Moses ibn
Tibbon translates the Arabic as: íéòîä úøâä in Maimonides’ On the
Regimen on Health; cf. BMR IV, .

. ìåáìà øéè÷ú 䧧á ïúùä úôèä


HTPT
. HS̆TN, Arab. TQTYR
. "LBWL

Hebrew HTPT. HS̆TN, which is not attested in secondary literature, is


possibly a loan translation coined by Shem Tov after the Arab. taqt. ı̄r
al-bawl “dribbling of urine” (L ; cf. IR : “strangury”; SN :
“Harnverhaltung” (retention of urine)).

. 28ùìéãåá 짧áå 27äøàåã 䧧á äúðë 26øãä


HDR KNTH, Arab. DW"RH, o.l. BWDYLS̆

Hebrew HDR KNTH or Aramaic HDR" DKNT" (cf. MS V) means “Me-


senteron, the old term for embryonic mid gut” (JD ; SDA ;

25 ÷ìæ: ÷ìåæ O ÷ìç V


26 äúðë øãä: àúðë øãä O àúðëã àøãä V
27 äøàåã: àøàåã O àöîã V
28 ùìéãåá: õìéãåá V
he 

KA :; :; Low XLVII) and features in Rabbinic literature in bHul


.
b and a.
Arabic duwwāra or dawwāra is “a round part or portion, what winds,
or what has, or assumes, a coiled, or circular form, of the guts, or
intestines, of a sheep or goat” (L ; cf. FL :: “Pars ventris in ove
quae intestina comprehendit” (That part of the stomach of a sheep
which encompasses the intestines)). For the identification, cf. ShM :
äãòà÷ìà éà óèòìà äãòà÷ åìà÷ íäðàë äéåúìî äôèòðî àäðàì äðëä øãä
§õòá éìò àä§öòá äøàãúñà éðòî ïéî äøàåã úéîñ äéáøòìà éô êì§ãëå äôèòðîìà
(äðëä øãä because it is turned and twisted; [its construction is similar
to:] “the basis of the twist” which is the same as “the twisted basis”, and,
similarly, it is called duwwāra /dawwāra in Arabic with the meaning
“turning around each other”).
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. or O. Cat. budel(l)
derived from Lat. BOTELLUS with the meaning ‘intestine’ (FEW :a;
DECLC :b; RL :b). In O. Cat., we find the first documentation
in the Doctrina pueril by Ramon Llull (about ): “Per menjar e beure
complex hom los budels [ . . . ]” (i.e., by eating and drinking man fills
his intestines, DECLC :b). In the O. Occ. texts edited by Corradini
Bozzi, we find two different types of budels: budel cular for ‘rectum’
(CB  as a synonym of longahon) and budel gran or maior for ‘colon’
(CB ; CB ).

. 32àäáì÷ú åà 31äãòîìà 30òåäú 䧧á àëîåèöàä 29êåôä


HPWK H" S. TWMK",
. Arab. THW# "LM#DH "W TQLBH"

Hebrew HPWK H" S. TWMK"


. literally means “upsetting the stomach”. We
could not find any attestations for this term.
Arabic tahawwu# al-ma#ida aw taqallubhā means “to have an upset
stomach and to vomit” (L ; SN ). The Arabic tahawwu# features
in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ) and is translated by N as:
øà÷ìåáà àø÷ðä ùôð úåëôäúä and by Z as: éøåà æòìáå òåäú §òá §÷ðä äòåðúä.

29 àëîåèöàä êåôä: §åèñàä êåôä O §îåèöàä êåôä V


30 òåäú: òåñú O òåøú V
31 äãòîìà: àãòîìà VO
32 àäáì÷ú: àäáìå÷ú V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 35à÷ùî 짧áå 34ñåáàë 䧧á 33úñä


HST, Arab. K"BWS, o.l. MS̆Q"

Hebrew HST is probably a corruption of èñä (HST), . which is a non-


attested alternative form for the more common Hebrew èåéñ (SYWT) . or
Aramaic àèåéñ (SYWT"), . which means “fright, panic, nightmare” (JD ;
LW :; SDA : “fright”, “type of demon”; KA :, :; BM ).
The term features in Rabbinic literature, for instance, in bYom b in:
äéîìçá àèåéñ àæç (he saw something frightening in his dream; i.e. had a
nightmare). Note, however, how the physician Nathan b. Jo"el Falaquera
(late th century) uses the term àúñä instead of èåéñ in the Sefer Zori.
ha-Guf,36 MS Oxford, Bodleian, Hunt. Don.  (Uri ), cat. Neubauer
, fol. b: æòìá àî÷éøô àúñä ãåîìúä ïåùìá ñåáàë §÷ðäå (cf. BM ,
n. ). One wonders whether it was confused with the term äúñä, which
features in bYom b a few lines earlier than the term àèåéñ.
Arabic kābūs means “incubus or nightmare, what comes upon a man
in the night, preventing his moving while it lasts; forerunner of epilepsy”
(L ; WKAS :; SN ).
For the identification, cf. the quotation from the Sefer Zori
. ha-Guf.
The vernacular word corresponds to the Lat. or O. Occ. masca ‘witch’
(FEW –:a). The meaning ‘nightmare’, suggested by the Hebrew
and Arabic synonyms, can be found both in Lat. (masca, DuC :b;
ThLL :), and in Mod. Occ. dialects: máys̆o ‘nightmare’ (Pietraporzio,
Piemont), èstre caucà pèr il masco ‘to have a nightmare’ (FEW –:b),
mascos ‘nightmare’ (DFO :a), so it must have existed in O. Occ. too,
as our text confirms. Also cf. Southern Piedmontese más̆ke with the same
meaning (FEW loc. cit.).

. ïàéãä 䧧á 37äéæä


HZYH, Arab. HDY"N

Hebrew HZYH means “absurdity, folly, error” (EP ; KTP :: “Phan-
tasiegebilde, Torheit; Irrtum”; BM ).

33 úñä: úñä P
34 ñåáàë: õåáà÷ O
35 à÷ùî: à÷ùàî O ä÷ùî V
36 For Nathan Falaquera and his medical compendium, cf. G. Bos and R. Fontaine,
“Medico-philosophical controversies in Nathan b. Jo"el Falaquera Sefer Zori
. ha-Guf ”,
Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. XC, July–October :–.
37 äéæä: ñééåä V
he 

Arabic hadayān means “delirium, raving” (SN ; Dols, Majnūn


¯ The term features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical
;38 FrA ).
Aphorisms (XXIII,a), and is translated both by N and Z as: äéæä.
For the identification of HZYH as hadayān cf. Samuel ibn Tibbon
¯ .39
(ca. –), Perush ha-Millim ha-Zarot,

. êéîãá 41úññåáúîî øæâé àåäå 40áà§öë 䧧á úåññåáúä


HTBWSSWT, Arab. KD"B, . and it is derived from “wallowing in your
blood” (Ez :)

Hebrew HTBWSSWT is derived from BWS “to trample, to tread down”


and means “to be trodden down, to be trampled” (KB ; CD :). It
features in Ez :,  as íãá ññåáúä.
. from IJ means “to be coloured, to be dyed” (L ).
Arabic hidāb
˘
The Hebrew and Arabic terms are identified in SID :: úññåáúî
äá§ö§ëî :êéîãá.

. 43ò§öåîìà 42ìéèðú 䧧á íå÷îä úçôèä


HTP
. HT. HMQWM, Arab. TNTYL . "LMWD#
.

Hebrew HTP . HH . is a verbal noun meaning “moistening” (BM ;


EM ), and has, in a medical context, the special meaning of “applying
a fomentation”. HTP . HT
. HMQWM thus means “applying a fomentation
to a place [of the body]”.
Arabic tant. ı̄l means “to moisten” (D :), and in a medical context
“to apply a fomentation”. TNTYL. "L MWD# . means “to apply a fomenta-
tion to a place [of the body]”. TNTYL. features in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (XIII, ) in a medical sense and is translated by N as: ä÷éöé
and by Z as: úåìéèð.

38 M.W. Dols, Majnūn: The Madman in Medieval Islamic Society. Edited by D.E. Im-

misch, Oxford .


39 Samuel ibn Tibbon, Perush ha-Millim ha-Zarot in: Sefer Moreh Nevukhim le-Mosheh

Ben Maimon. Ed. Y. Ibn Shmuel. New revised edition, Jerusalem .
40 áà§öë: áàöë VO
41 úññåáúîî: úññåáúî ïéî O
42 ìéèðú: ìéèòú O
43 ò§öåîìà: òöåîìà O òàöåîìà V çéôèäì úðî ìò çôåèî øæâðå (= bYom a) add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 44çå§öð 䧧á äàæä


HZ"H, Arab. NDW . H .

Hebrew HZ"H hails from the root NZH, which features in the Bible (e.g.
Lev :) in the Qal in the sense of “to spatter” and in the Hif#il both
in the Bible (e.g. Num :) and in Rabbinic literature in the sense
of “to sprinkle” (KB ; JD  f.; LW :, Aram. éæð; BM  f.).
HZ"H, a verbal noun derived from HZH meaning “sprinkling”, features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mZeb . (JD ; LW :; KA :;
BM ).
The Arabic root nada. ha
. means “to sprinkle” and nadū. h. is “a kind of
perfume” or “any medicine injected into the mouth” (L  f.; HaF ).
Sa#adya (S ) translates the biblical HZH as it features in Num
:: åéãâá ñáëé äãðä éî äæîå (Further, he who sprinkled the water of
lustration shall wash his clothes) as: äáàéú ìñâé ç§öðìà àî ç§öàðå; see as
well IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ). The term HZ"H is left untranslated
by Maimonides in his commentary on the Mishnah passage mentioned.

. 46§âðìå÷ 䧧á 45ïå÷øãä


HDRQWN, Arab. QWLNĞ

For both terms, cf. He no.  above.

. 47ãáìú 䧧á úåãáìúä


HTLBDWT, Arab. TLBD

Hebrew HTLBDWT is a verbal noun derived from HTLBD, which means


“to be connected, stuck” (EM ) and is only attested for medieval
literature. It features, for instance, as ãáìúî in Samuel ibn Tibbon’s
Hebrew translation of Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed, III.,48 where
it is a translation of the Arabic à÷æàì.49 ãáìúî also features in medieval
philosophical literature in the sense of “porous” cf. KTP :. úåãáìúä
is not attested in the dictionaries.

44 çå§öð: çåöð O çáæð V


45 §âðìå÷ 䧧á ïå÷øãä: om. OV
46 §âðìå÷: âðìå÷ VO
47 ãáìú: ãéáìú O
48 Ed. Ibn Shmuel, p. .
49 Moshe ben Maimon, Dalālat al-hā"irı̄n. Arabic text established by S. Munk and
.
edited with variant readings by I. Joel, Jerusalem –, p. , l. .
he 

Arabic talabbud is the inf. of talabbada, meaning “to shrink back; to


crouch down; to be formed into a ball; to become compacted; to form
lumps; to stick, be stuck together; to be matted” (WKAS :).
WAW

. 2äãéñò 䧧á 1ä÷éúå


WTYQH, Arab. #SYDH

The Aramaic term WTYQ" (cf. MS O), featuring in Rabbinic literature in


bPes b, is the name of “a certain pastry, tart” (JD ; LW :, ;
SDA ; KA :, :) which can be cooked in oil and salt or in water
and salt (cf. bPes b; AH :b; KT :). In Geonic literature ä÷éúå
is identified as äúéúù; cf. LO :.
Arabic #as. ı̄da is “a sort of thick gruel, consisting of wheat-flour moist-
ened and stirred about with clarified butter, and cooked” (L ; DRD
; RAP , n. , , ). The term features in Maimonides’ On the
Regimen of Health, (cf. BMR I, ) and is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon
as: äãàðøô àø÷ðä äöéøë úìùåáî çî÷; cf. as well Maimonides’ On Asthma
(III, ; BMA ) and KZ , , .

. 5àìå÷ùð§â 짧áå 4øéîçìà ãøå 䧧á 3íéøåîçä éãøå


WRDY HHMWRYM,
. Arab. WRD "LHMYR,
. o.l. ĞNS̆QWL"

Hebrew WRDY HHMWRYM . literally meaning “roses of donkeys”, which


is not attested in secondary literature, is possibly a loan translation coined
by Shem Tov after Arabic ward al-hamı̄r.
.
Arabic ward al-hamı̄r
. “rose of donkeys” is the common name for
peony in the Maghreb, Paeonia corallina Retz. or Paeonia foemina Gar-
sault (DT :; M ; LF :; MS  ff.:). See as well Shin no. 
below.
The vernacular term ĞNS̆QWL" is difficult to interpret. It resembles
the M. Lat. genestula (cf. the Alphita entry in Sin : and CA ,
where it is interpreted as ‘broom’) or the Cat. ginestola, Genista tinctoria
(DCVB :b). This term is not documented for O. Occ., and, even for

1 ä÷éúå: à÷éúå VO
2 äãéñò: àãñò O àãéöò V
3 íéøåîçä: íéøåîç O
4 øéîçìà: øîçìà VO
5 àìå÷ùð§â: àìå÷ùðâ O àì÷ùðâ V
 shem tov, synonym list 

Cat., Coromines doubts that the form listed in DCVB ever existed, since
there are no other documentations of it (DECLC :b).

. 7ùìàðåâøåà 짧áå 6§âàãåà 䧧á øàåöä éãéøå


WRYDY HS. W"R, Arab. "WD" Ğ, o.l. "WRGWN"LS̆

The Hebrew term WRYDY HS. W"R designates “the large blood vessels,
jugular veins” leading from the head to the heart (JD  f.; KA :;
Low XLVII; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mHul . ..
Arabic awdāğ, plural of wadağ, designates “each of the external jugular
veins; a certain vein in the neck; two veins extending from the head to the
lungs” (L ). Awdāğ features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XV,
) and is translated by N as: íéìåãâ íé÷øåò and by Z as: íéãéøåå.
For the identification of WRYDYM (WRYDYN) as "awdāğ, cf. Mai-
monides on the Mishnah cited above: ïé§âãåìà :ïéãéøååä (MK :).
The vernacular term in MS V, WYN" S. "WRGNLYS. , must be interpreted
as a plural form belonging to the O. Occ. or O. Cat. vena organal (O. Occ.
also vena orguenal, cf. PSW :a, where the meaning ‘jugular vein’
is given; FEW :b: vena organal, vena orguenal ‘artère du cou’ (i.e.,
carotid (artery)), since the th century); for O. Cat. see DCVB :b
organal, where vena organal is interpreted as ‘principal vein of the neck’
with the addition jugular (with a question mark). The form with -W- in
MSS P and O could reflect the Latin spelling with a purely orthographic
-u-, such as in orguenal.

6 §âàãåà: âàãåà VO
7 ùìàðåâøåà: õéìðâøåà õàðéå V
ZAYIN

. íåøãðàéøå÷éã 1äðàøâ 짧áå øåáæëìà øæá 䧧á ãâ òøæ


ZR# GD, Arab. BZR "LKZBWR, o.l. GR"NH DYQWRY"NDRWM

The Hebrew term ZR# GD means “seed of coriander”, Coriandrum sati-


vum L. (KB ; JD ; CD :; KA :, :; DAS :, :;
FO  f.; LA  ff.:; LF : ff.) and features in the Bible, e.g. Ex
:, and Rabbinic literature, e.g. bYom a.
Arabic bizr al-kuzbur, or the more common form bizr al-kuzbura, has
the same meaning (L ; DT :; M ; DAS :).
The identification goes back to Sa#adya (S ) on Ex :: åàø÷éå
ùáãá úçéôöë åîòèå ïáì ãâ òøæë àåäå ïî åîù úà ìàøùé úéá (The house of
Israel named it manna; it was like coriander seed, white, and it tasted
like wafers in honey): äîòèå §õéáà äøáæëìà øæáë åäå ïî äîñà ìéàøñà éîñå
ìñòá óéàè÷ë.
The vernacular term GR"NH DYQWRY"NDRWM in MS P must be
read as grana de coriandrum, a combination of O. Occ. grana (‘seed’,
cf. Gimel no.  and ) and Lat. coriandrum with the meaning Corian-
drum sativum L. (GH :; NPRA ). The variant in MS V repre-
sents the O. Occ. coliandre (FEW –:a; CB , among others;
RPA , ; RM ), whereas the one in MS O is O. Occ./O. Cat.
coriandre (RL :b; PSW :a; CB ; RPA ; DCVB :b).
See also S̆hK , KWLY"NDRY, gloss of the Hebrew gad. O. Cat. corian-
dre (AdV ) is identified as Arab. kuzbura (AdV ). Also cf. GHAT
:, where we find Romance KLY"NDRY as a synonym for the Arab.
KZBWR.

. àðéð÷ àùåø ò§§ìá ñéúìà 2§äéçì 䧧á ùéúä ï÷æ


ZQN HTYS̆, Arab. LHYH . "LTYS, o.l. RWS̆" QNYN"

Hebrew ZQN HTYS̆ is possibly a loan translation of Arabic lihyat


. at-
tays (cf. below) (BM ; LF :). The Hebrew term features in
medieval medical literature, for instance, in the Hebrew translations

1 íåøãðàéøå÷éã äðàøâ: éøãðàéøå÷ã àðàøâ O éøãðàéìå÷ã àðøâ V


2 §äéçì: äéçì O éçì V
 shem tov, synonym list 

of Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ), by N, and in Judah ben


Solomon Natan’s Kelal Qaz. ar mi ha-Sammim ha-Nifradim (JNK :).
See Samekh .
Arabic lihyat
. at-tays is the literal translation of Greek τραγοπ-γων
“beard of a he-goat” (LS , ) and is identified as ) “goatsbeard”,
Tragopogon porrifolius L. or Tragopogon pratensis L., ) “hypocist”,
Cytinus hypocistis L., ) “rock-rose”, Cistus villosus L. and other varieties,
) “field horse-tail, toadpipe”, Equisetum arvense L., and ) “greater
plantain”, Plantago maior L. (WKAS : f.; DT :, :; M , ;
LA  f.:). See Samekh .
The term indicated as vernacular is the Latin rosa canina, meaning
‘dog rose; Rosa canina L.’, also called rosa silvestris (NPRA ). The term
was also common in Romance; for an example in O. Occ. medical texts,
see RMA (, , where the meaning ‘fleur de l’égantier’, i.e., blossom
of the dog rose, is given). The synonymy of ‘goatsbeard’ in the sense of
‘hypocist’ (see the entry barba hyrcina in the index of the Latin translation
of Ibn Sı̄nā’s K. al-Qānūn, cf. Sin :) and the wild rose rosa canina is
erroneous but can be traced back to the Alphita (s.v. rosa), where the fact
that the hypocist grows at its foot is held as a typical feature of the plant
(“ad pedem cuius nascitur [hypoquistidos]”, Sin , n. ).

. àøèðà 짧áå ãøåìà øæá 䧧á íéãøå òøæ


ZR# WRDYM, Arab. BZR "LWRD, o.l. "NTR" .

Hebrew WRD, plur. WRDYM, means “rose” and features in Rabbinic


literature (JD ; FM ; FO ; FZ  ff.; LF : ff.). ZR# WRDYM,
means “seed of roses”.
Arabic bizr al-ward has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification of WRD as ward, cf. Maimonides on mShebi .:
ãøåìà:ãøåä (MK :).
The vernacular term "NTR" . is the Late Latin ant(h)era (< Greek ν-
!ηρ ς, ‘flowering’, MLWB :, meaning ‘medicamentum quoddam
compositum’ and ‘bacilla, quae in interiore floris rosei parte inveniun-
tur’, also cf. ThLL :; GH :: ‘ein Arzneimittel aus Blüten’, i.e.,
a medicine made of blossoms) and which features in the Alphita with
the meaning ‘seed of roses’ (CA ; Sin :–). A well known pas-
sage is the following one from Guy de Chauliac’s Chirurgia magna (th
c.): “Anthera est illud citrinum quod est in medio rose” (Chauliac, ed.
McVaugh :), which was translated into Spanish and Catalan
as “Antera es aquella cosa cetrina que es en medio de la rosa” (see
zayin 

DETEMA :a and Sin b) /“Antera es aquella cosa groga qui es en
mitj de la rosa” (i.e., antera is this yellow thing in the middle of the rose,
Cauliach Coll; see in DCVB :b). The term anthera is documented
in Cat. in the year  (DCVB loc. cit.; cf. the quotation from Chauliac
above).

. 6ìá÷ã àãå÷ åà 5àðéìá÷ 4èðã åà 3äãéìåùðå÷ 짧áå ìéëìà áðã 䧧á ñåñä áðæ
ZNB HSWS, Arab. DNB "LKYL, o.l. QWNS̆WLYDH or DNT. QBLYN" or
QWD" DQBL

Hebrew ZNB HSWS literally means “horse-tail”; the Syriac version áðåã
àéñåñ (LA :) is the literal translation of Greek /ππουρις “horse-tail”,
Equisetum silvaticum or Equisetum maximum (LS ; BM ). The
Hebrew term features, for instance, in the Book of Medicines attributed to
Asaf (AV :; LF :). In addition to ZNB HSWS, we find ìéëìà áðæ
in OLD : and :.
Arabic danab al-hayl or its more common plural form adnāb al-hayl
is also the¯literal translation
˘ ¯ a variety
of Greek /ππουρις and designates ˘
of Equisetum (DT :; M ; LF:).
Our text mentions three vernacular plant names: The first,
QWNS̆WLYDH, is the Lat. or O. Occ. consolida with the meaning Sym-
phytum officinale, which is documented in O. Occ. in the th century
(FEW –:b; PSW :a; RMA ; RMM ; RPA , , ,
among others). But it seems that the forms co(n)solda (cf. MSS O and V)
and co(n)souda (with syncope) are more frequent in O. Occ. (CB ,
,,, among others; RM  among others; RPA  among oth-
ers).
The second term is an O. Occ. or O. Cat. *dent cavalina (in Cat.
also: cavallina), which is well represented in our text and follows the
model of the Lat. dens caballinus (see Alphita: Sin , n. ; CA ).
In O. Sp., we can find the vernacular translations diente de cauallo (Sin
: and :) or diente caualluno (Sin :), which, in the contexts
shown in the Sinonima, must designate the plant Hyoscyamus albus
L. (see Sin b). The ending of the adjective is due to the fact that,
in O. Occ., dent ‘tooth’ could be feminine (besides the etymological

3 äãéìåùðå÷: àãìåùå÷ O §ãìåùðå÷ V


4 èðã: èðéã O
5 àðéìá÷: äðéìá÷ V
6 ìá÷ã: ìàá÷ã O ìáà÷ã V à÷ðååøô åà add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

masculine; see RL :a–b), and, in Catalan, the feminine form appears


to be the standard case by the Middle Ages already (see DECLC :b).
The adjective caval(l)in, caval(l)ina is well attested for both languages
(RL :a; DCVB :a; :b; DECLC :b).
The third term, QWD" DQBL, must be read as O. Occ. *coda de
caval(h) with the literal meaning ‘horse-tail’. This combination is not
documented in our sources, but in an O. Occ. text we find cauda equina
menor with the meaning ‘horsetail’ (CB ) and, in Cat., the plant name
coa/cua de cavall exists (DECLC :a; DCVB :b, no. IV,, ‘name
of different species of plants of the genus equisetum of the equisetaceae
and especially Equisetum arvense L.’). The Romance term is a translation
of the Lat. cauda caballina or cauda (coda) caballi or cauda caballina,
Equisaetum pratense Ehr., E. silvaticum L., E. palustre L. (NPRA ;
FEW –:a). The forms that we find here are unequivocally Occitan:
coda or coza for ‘tail’ (RL :a; FEW –:b), derived from the Lat.
etymon CAUDA (FEW –:a) or, monophthongised in Vulgar Latin,
coda, while, in O. Cat., we can only find the form coa, the result of
Western Romance lenition with the loss of voiced intervocalic plosives
(DECLC :a).
The additional term in MS V is the O. Occ. or Cat. proenca with the
meaning ‘Planta apocinàcia de l’espècie Vinca media’ (i.e., apocynaceous
plant of the species Vinca media, DCVB :b; RMA ; RPA ).

. 8ñîáåø 짧áå 7íàëæ 䧧á íåëéæ


ZYKWM, Arab. ZK"M, o.l. RWBMS

Hebrew ZYKWM is a Hebraised form of the Arabic zukām not attested


elsewhere which means “a coryza, or catarrhus ad nares; a rheum”
(L ; cf. as well IR –, , , ; KZ  s.v. 'Q6; SN : CQ6
“coryza”).
The Arabic term features, e.g. in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(XIX,) and is transcribed by N as: íàëæ and äîëæ, and translated by
Z as: àøè÷ (QTR").
.
For the vernacular, cf. the entry He .

7 íàëæ: íàëåæ O
8 ñîáåø: ñàîáàø O ñàîáø V
zayin 

. 10ó§âø 䧧á 9äòåæ


ZW#H, Arab. RĞP

Hebrew ZW#H, which features in the Bible (e.g Is :) and Rabbinic
literature (e.g. mBer .), means “trembling, fear, tempest” (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ).
The Arabic verbal infinitive rağf means “commotion, agitation, con-
vulsion, tumult or disturbance” (L ).
Sa#adya on Is : translates the term as: òæòæú (DS ; cf. as well
SF :), and the anonymous compendium of Tanhum’s . al-Murshid al-
Kafi as: äìæìæ (AQ, fol. a); cf. SAM :: ìæàìæìà :úåòåæä.

. 11øéæàøæ 䧧á íéøéæøæ


ZRZYRYM, Arab. ZR"ZYR

Hebrew ZRZYR, plur. ZRZYRYM, designates the bird “starling”, Sturnus


vulgaris (JD ; LW :; KA : f.; :; BM ; LZ  f.), and
features in Rabbinic literature, for instance in bHul
. a.
The Arabic equivalent of “starling” is zurzūr, plur. zarāzı̄r (L  f.;
BK  f.; JAD : f.; StS  f.).
For Hebrew ZRZYRYM and Arabic zurzūr, cf. Nöldeke, Beiträge zur
semitischen Sprachwissenschaft, pp. –.12

. ïãàìà 15éìéäîî 14øéâöìà 13÷àîàìà àåä ïéòä áðæ


ZNB H#YN, i.e. "L"M"Q "LS. GYR MMHYLY "L"DN

Hebrew ZNB H#YN, which is not attested in secondary literature, was


possibly coined by Shem Tov as a loan translation of the Arabic S2 IBk,
meaning “the exterior angle of the eye” (DKT ).
Arabic øéâöìà ÷àîàìà is Ul* \, i.e. the outer angle of the eye
(FAL :; DKT , : “Le petit angle. Angle externe de l’œil”).
The Arabic term features as: S2 \7 in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms

9 äòåæ: äòååæ O
10 ó§âø: óâø VO
11 øéæàøæ: éøæàøæ O øéðàøæ V
12 Cf. Th. Nöldeke, Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft, Strassburg .
13 ÷àîàìà: ÷îàìà O ÷àîìà V
14 øéâöìà: øéâñìà V
15 éìéäîî: éìäîî O
 shem tov, synonym list 

(XV, ; XXIII, ), and is translated by N as: §÷ðä ïéòä úåö÷ /ïéòáù ÷àî
÷àî, and by Z as: ÷àî éáøòá àø÷ðä ïéòä äö÷/íéðéòä úååö÷.
The meaning of the last part of the entry ïãàìà éìéäîî is not clear.

. 17éìå÷éðô 짧áå §õéøò §âðàéæàø 16øæá 䧧á éñãøô øîåù òøæ


ZR# S̆WMR PRDSY, Arab. BZR R"ZY"NĞ #RYD, . o.l. PNYQWLY

Hebrew or Aramaic S̆WMR means “fennel”, Foeniculum vulgare, and


its varieties (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY :; DAS :; LA  ff.:; LF : ff.; cf. as well Shin
no.  below), and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in yKil I, a.
Hebrew ZR# S̆WMR PRDSY literally means “seeds of paradise fennel”
and is perhaps a loan translation coined by Shem Tov of Arabic basbās
al-ğanna “paradise fennel” (cf. below).
Arabic rāziyānağ, from Persian rāziyānah, which designates the fennel
or sweet anet and its species (VL :), means “fennel”, Foeniculum
vulgare L. and Var., and its varieties. The Arabic term rāziyānağ is
common in Egypt and the East, whereas, in the Maghreb, the Arabic
name basbās is used for fennel (DT :; M ; ID :; see as well Shin
no.  below). Basbās al-ğanna “paradise fennel” is one of the different
varieties of fennel. Arabic rāziyānağ #arı̄d. literally means “broad fennel”.
The vernacular term PNYQWLY must be read as the genitive singu-
lar of M. Lat. feniculum (Classical Lat. faeniculum, see ThLL –:;
NPRA ; FEW :a), which also appears in one O. Occ. text: feni-
culi (RPA ).
For the identification of Arabic rāziyānağ (despite the incorrect
spelling R"ZYNG) as Lat. PNYQWLY, cf. GHAT :; also cf. AdV .

. 20àéùôàè 짧áå 19àéñôàú 䧧á äãù 18ïâéô òøæ


ZR# PYGN S̆DH, Arab. T"PSY", o.l. T"P
. S̆Y"

Hebrew PYGN or its more common form PYGM (cf. MS O), from Greek
πγανον (LS ; KG :; LR ), designates the herb “rue”, Ruta
graveolens L. and chalepensis L. (JD ; LW :; KA :; :;

16 §õéøò §âðàéæàø øæá: õøò âðéæàø øàæá O õéøò âéðéãàøìà øæá V


17 éìå÷éðô: éìå÷éðàô O éìå÷éðô V
18 ïâéô: íâéô O
19 àéñôàú: àééñôàú O àéùôú V
20 àéùôàè: àéùôàú O àéùôú V
zayin 

BM ; AEY :; DAS :; FZ  f.; LA  ff.:; LF : ff.),
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mUqz .. äã× ïâéô is Syriac
pı̄ganā de bārā, i.e. “wild rue”, Peganum harmala L. or Haplophyllum
buxbaumii (Poir.) Don. (FEB  n. ; LA :; LF : f.). Hebrew
äã× ïâéô òøæ means “the seeds of wild rue”. See as well entry Pe .
Arabic tāfsiyā is a transcription of the Greek name !αψα (LS ) and
designates¯ the plant Thapsia garganica L., “false fennel, bastard turpeth”
(D :; DT :; M , ; ID :; LF : f.). According to
al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :), ar-Rāzı̄ held tāfsiyā to be the gum of wild rue
¯
(e. 5E m'3  ,-<); an identification that was refuted by Ibn al-
Bayt.ār (IBA : no. ; IBF :); cf. M , cf. as well Maimonides’
commentary on mUqz . above.
Hebrew íâéô is identified as Arabic áà§ãñ/áàãñ by Sa#adya, Alfāz. al-
Mishnah (SAM :; EG ) and Maimonides on the Mishnah
mentioned (MK :). Syriac pı̄ganā de t. ūrā (“mountain rue,” known
in the Middle Ages as “wild rue”; DT :) features as a synonym for
Syriac t. āpsiyā (= Gr. !αψα, Arab. tāfsiyā) in Bar Bahlul (BB ) (cf.
LA :; LF :). ¯
The vernacular term T"P . S̆Y" is the corresponding Latin word thapsia,
Thapsia garganica L. (NPRA ), or the corresponding Romance loan
word (FEW :a–b). In O. Occ. (th century), we find the form
tapsie (with the meaning ‘thapsie (ombellifère)’ according to RMA ):
“Pren razis tapsie [ . . . ]”, i.e., take the root of thapsia, but note that it is a
Latin genitive in this quotation. In O. Sp., the form tapsia is documented
for Thapsia garganica L. (Sin : and for the identification ;
DETEMA :c). In Cat., the first documentation of tapsia is indicated
as very late () in DECLC :a, but note the following quotation
from the th c. that can be found in DCVB :a: “La qual yo crech
esser tàpsia”, i.e., the one that I believe that it is thapsia, Cauliach Coll., vi,
a, . It can also be found in GHAT :, where O. Cat. and Lat. T"PS̆Y"
are identified as Arab. tāfsiyā.
¯
. 21äðàòìà 䧧á ïåúçúä ï÷æ
ZKN HTHTWN,
. Arab. "L#"NH

Hebrew ZKN HTHTWN . means “pubic hair” and features in Rabbinic


literature, e.g. in mSanh . (JD ; KA :; BM ; Low XLIX;
PB ).

21 äðàòìà: àðàòìà O àðòìà V


 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic al-#āna means “pubes, the hair that grows above the anterior
pudendum” (L ; FAL :, cf. as well KZ ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
äé÷ð ïåùì éä ï÷æá äðàòìà øòù ïò íäúéàðë (their allusion to the pubic hair as
a beard is a euphemism) (MK :).

. 24õøéå 짧áå 23ïå§âøæ 䧧á 22ïéãøæ


ZRDYN, Arab. ZRĞWN, o.l. WYRS.

Hebrew ZRDYN, plural of ZRD, featuring in the Bible (e.g. Deut :)
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShab .), has different meanings. In
the Bible, the term is identified as “whitethorn”, Crataegus monogyna
Willd. (KB ; cf. as well AEY :). In Rabbinic literature, the
term is identified as “soft sprouts”, “shoots, greens” and íéãøæ éáìåì with
“the young sprouts of the service tree”, Crataegus azarolus, “hawthorn”
(JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM  f.; BT :; FE , ,
; FM ; FZ  f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic zarğūn (cf. Hebr. ïåâøæ; Aram. àðåâøæ) means “grape-vine” or
“shoots of grape-vine”, Vitis vinifera L. (L  f.; ID :).
A Geonic Responsum (ATG ; BT :; LO Teshuvot on bShab
a, p. ) explains the term ïéãøæ as: øçà íù åì ùéå àã[øéæ éð÷ éîøà ïåùìá]
íåìà. íåìà is identified by Maimonides as the “roots of asafetida” (FM );
however, according to Kohut (KA :), it is the “leaves of orach” (cf.
FM ). Maimonides on mShab . explains ïéãøæ as “branches of
fruit trees which are pruned in the pruning season” (MK :; = AQ,
fol. b).
The vernacular term is vertz, the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. vert for
‘green’ (RL :b–a; DAO :; DCVB :a; DECLC :a),
which features in one quotation given in RL (loc. cit.) as the opposite
of madur for ‘ripe’ (PSW :a; DAO :; FEW :a; DCVB ibid.,
verd, meaning ). But here it appears to be used as a noun, as documented
for Cat., see DCVB :b: “La part verda dels vegetals; el fullatge,
l’herba” (i.e., the green part of the plants; the foliage, the herb; cf. also
DECLC :a), a meaning which corresponds quite exactly to one of
the Rabbinic readings of the Hebrew term (‘greens’); also cf. Fr. vert
‘herbs and green foliage’ documented since  (FEW :a). As an

22 ïéãøæ: ïéæøæ V
23 ïå§âøæ: ïåâøæVO
24 õøéå: õèøéå O õèéå V
zayin 

alternative this word can be interpreted as the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat.


vit (‘vine’, FEW :, DCVB :a) or the O. Occ. rectus form vi(t)z
(FEW loc. cit.), in particular for the variant in MS V.

. øåòî éåùò ÷ù úåîã àåäå 26ãåæî 䧧á 25ãååæ


ZWWD, Arab. MZWD it is like a bag made of skin

Aramaic ZWWD means ) “outfit for travelling, provision” and ) “bag,


bundle” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bQid a (JD ;
LW : f.; SDA ; KA :, :). Arabic mazwad means “a bag, or
other receptacle, for travelling provisions, or for dates, made of leather”
(L ).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bQid a, p. : ïéîéùîù ÷ù
ãååæî ìàòîùé §ìá ïéøå÷ øáã ìë åá (a bag in which you can put everything
is called mazwad in Arabic). Cf. as well EG  n. , and BTJ .

. íéáðò 29ìù äðåöéçä 28äôéì÷ä 27ïä íéâæ


ZGYM, that is, the external skin of grapes

Hebrew ZG, plur. ZGYM, means “the skin of grapes” (KB ; JD  f.;
KA :, :; BM  f.; LF :) and features in the Bible (e.g. Num
:) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShab .).
For the definition of ZG, cf. Maimonides on mNaz . (MK :): :âæå
éðàøáìà øù÷ìà (ZG is the external skin).

. 30§èàçììà àø÷ðä íå÷îä àåä ïéòä áðæ


ZNB H#YN, it is the place called "LLH"
. Z.

For ZNB H#YN, possibly a loan translation of Arabic S2 IBk, (“the
exterior angle of the eye”), cf. Zayin no.  above.
Arabic al-lahā
. z. means “the outer angle of the eye, next the part
between the eye and the ear” (L ; WKAS :).

25 ãååæ: ãåæ V
26 ãåæî: ãåæàî O
27 ïä: íä VO
28 äôéì÷ä: äôì÷ä VO
29 íéáðò ìù: íéáðòäî VO
30 §èàçììà: èçììà O èàçììà V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 32äìåéìô 짧áå 31øáú 䧧á øéôåà áäæ


ZHB "WPYR, Arab. TBR, o.l. PLYWLH

The Hebrew term ZHB "WPYR featuring in the Bible ( Chron :)
means “gold of Ophir” (KB ; CD :). In addition to ZHB "WPYR,
we find KTM "WPYR, as in Job :.
Arabic tibr means “native gold, in the form of dust or nuggets” (L ;
cf. as well GS : tibr “Rohgold, Seifengold” (native gold, alluvial gold)).
Ibn Janāh. (IJ ) explains tibr as “crude gold or silver”:  MHL ^E  
nL'/ 0  JH) IE 5
2 9 ' (cf. ShT , no. ).
For the identification, cf. Se#adyah ibn Danan, who translates íúë in
the expression øéôåà íúëá used in Job : as: øáúìà (SID :).
The vernacular term seems to belong to Lat. foliola (plural of the
diminutive foliolum for ‘little leaf ’, cf. ThLL –:). In Romance,
although the first documentation is very late (th century), we find
the Cat. fulliola, lit. ‘little leaf ’. In accordance with the Arabic term, it is
documented with the meaning ‘raw piece of stone, wood, metal, among
others’ (DCVB :a; DECLC :b). As for O. Occ., only the non-
diminutive variants folha and fuelha could be found for this meaning
(cf. FEW :a; PSW :a). In O. Cat. there is the rarely documented
word falla ‘leavage, foliage’ (DCVB :a–b) which may only show a
coincidental similarity to fulla ‘leaf ’. The variant with a that appears in
our text may thus be an as yet undocumented diminutive variant such as
Cat. *fallola or Occ. *falhola. MS V presents an extended version of this
term: aur de *fallola/*falhola, lit. ‘gold of little leaves’ (for aur, cf. Gimel
).

. íìéùìà àåäå 33ïéðåæ


ZWNYN, it is "LS̆YLM

Hebrew ZWNYN means “darnel or rye grass, a weed growing among


wheat”, Lolium perenne L. or Lolium temulentum L. It features in Rab-
binic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW : f.; KA :, :;
AEY :; DAS :, :; FH , , ; FM ; FO ;
FZ  f.; LA  f.:; LF : ff.).

31 øáú: øáúìà V
32 äìåéìô: àìåìàô O äìåé"ìô P àìåìàôã øáà V
33 íìéùìà àåäå ïéðåæ:om. O [ . . . ]äìà éë add. V
zayin 

Arabic as̆-s̆aylam means “darnel grass”, Lolium temulentum L. and


Var., that is often found in wheat. Its seeds cause dizziness when mixed
into bread (L ; DT :; M ; cf. as well Tav no. ).
The source of the identification of ZWNYN as as̆-s̆aylam could not be
retrieved. According to Löw (LA :; LF :), Simeon ben Zema . h.
Duran (–) remarks in his Magen abot that “Weizen artet in
íìéù aus” (Wheat degenerates into s̆aylam); cf. as well Efraim Hareuveni
in Tarbiz X, , pp. , . Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
(MK :) explains it as “a kind of wheat that is changed by the earth so
that its form and nature is corrupted”.

. äòøöä 37àéäå 36øåáðæ 35䧧á 34àøåáæ


ZBWR", Arab. ZNBWR, it is the hornet

Aramaic ZBWR" means “hornet” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.


in bGit a (CD :; JD ; SDA  f.; KA :, :). The biblical
equivalent is DBWRH, as in Is : (KB ; BAL  f.; FAB  f.).
Arabic zunbūr means “hornet or hornets; a large sort of wasp” (L ;
BK ; JAD : ff.; StS  s.v. zambūr; cf. as well Sade
. no.  below).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is :: äéäé ÷øùé àåää íåéá äéäå
øåùà õøàá øùà äøåáãìå íéøöî éøàé äö÷á øùà áåáæì (in that day, the LORD
will whistle to the flies at the ends of the water channels of Egypt and to
the bees in the land of Assyria): íå÷á äììà éãàðé ïà øöòìà êì§ã éô ïåëéå
øéáàðæìàá äéáù ìöåîìà ãìá éô íå÷å áàá§ãìàá äéáù øöî ïà§âì§ë éöà÷à éô
(DS ).

. 39ùðîåéì 짧áå áåáç 䧧á 38íéðåòøæ


ZR#WNYM, Arab. HBWB, . o.l. LYWMNS̆

Hebrew ZR#WNYM means “rows of plants in one bed, seeds; vegetables”


and features in the Bible (e.g. Dan :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKil
.) (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; KA :; FH  f.). Arabic
hubūb
. means “kernels, seeds” (L ).

34 àøåáæ: àøåáéæ V
35 äòøöä àéäå øåáðæ 䧧á: ùðîåéì 짧á áåáç 䧧á O (cf. entry )
36 øåáðæ: áåáç O (cf. entry ) øåááæ V
37 äòøöä àéäå: äòøöä àåäå om. O, V
38 ùðîåéì 짧áå áåáç 䧧á íéðåòøæ: om. O (cf. entry )
39 ùðîåéì: "ùðîåé!ì P ùîåàéì V
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Daniel : (SpS): øöìîä éäéå
íéðòøæ íäì ïúåðå íäéúùî ïééå íâáúô úà àùð (So the guard kept on removing
their food, and the wine they were supposed to drink, and gave them
legumes): íäéèòéå íäáøù øî§ëå íäîãàå íäæá§ë äñôðì §ã§ëàé ïàæ§ëìà ïàëå
àáåáç; see as well IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ).
The vernacular term LYWMNS̆ has to be read as an O. Occ. plural
form *liumens (with the meaning ‘vegetables’) related to O. Occ. leum,
lium (PSW :a–b), liom (DAO :) or liume (RL :a), derived
from Lat. LEGŪMEN (FEW :a–b). Etymologically, the form liume
should present a n-mobile, which is not documented, however. But the n-
mobile is typically lost in the plural, so that the form we find here remains
unexplained, unless we suppose a learned Latin influence. In the sources
we have consulted, we could only find plurals of the forms without a
final -e (see, for example, the plural lioms; CB ), another example of
which we find in MS V (LY"WMS̆). Note that this form is one of the clear
cases in which a Catalan reading is excluded, since the word retained the
intervocalic -g- in this language (llegum, see DCVB :a, where the
O. Cat. plural form llegumes is mentioned; cf. DECLC :b).

. óåì 짧áå áéã 䧧á áàæ


Z"B, Arab. DWB, o.l. LWP

Hebrew Z"B means “wolf ” and features in the Bible (e.g. Gen :) and
Rabbinic literature (e.g. bBekh a) (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :;
KA :; FAB  f.; LZ  f.).
Arabic di"b means “wolf, wild dog, dog of the desert” (L ; JAD
¯  f.:).
: ff.; KSZ
For the identification of Z"B as di"b, cf. Sa#adya on Gen :: áàæ ïéîéðá
¯
ììù ÷ìçé áøòìå ãò ìëàé ø÷áá óøèé (Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; in the
morning he consumes the foe, and in the evening he divides the spoil):
àáìñ ññ÷é éùòìàáå àáäð ìëàé äàãâìàá íøúôé áé§ãìàë ïéîéðá (S ); see as
well IJ ; IQR :; SF :.
The vernacular term LWP can be identified as O. Occ. lup or lop for
‘wolf ’ (RL :a; CB , among others). Levy and Brunel only give
the meaning ‘see bass’ (PSW :a; RM ). Lop is also documented
for O. Cat. (llop in Modern Cat., cf. DECLC : a; DCVB :b). For
the meaning ‘wolf ’ and several species of fish (Labrax lupus and Labrax
punctatus), see DCVB :a; DECLC :b.
HET
.

. 2ïàìåèøåà ïàøôù 짧á 1øåôöò 䧧á òéøç


HRY#,
. Arab. #S. PWR, o.l. S̆PR"N "WRTWL"N
.

Hebrew HRY#
. features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mKil .) and means
“safflower”, Carthamus tinctorius L. (JD : “bastard saffron”; LW :;
KA :, :; AEY :; DAS :; FH ; FM ; FZ  f.;
LF : ff.).
Arabic #us. fur designates the “safflower blossom” or “bastard saffron”,
Carthamus tinctorius L. (DT :; M ; DAS :, ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :), and Maimonides on
the Mishnah cited above: øôöòìà :òéøç (MK :). See as well BT :,
and Het
.  below.
The transcription of the vernacular term must be the O. Occ. *safran
ortolan (‘garden safflower’), a combination which is not documented in
any of our sources. In O. Occ., we find two forms that are Arabisms
and mean ‘safflower’: safran with a final -n and safra without a final -n
(RL :a). In Catalan, we only find the latter form (DECLC :b).
Ortola(n) is the O. Occ./O. Cat. word for ‘gardener’ derived from the late
Latin hortulanus (RL :a; FEW :b–a; DECLC :a–b). We
do not have any testimony for the adjectival use of the Romance term.
It seems to be an adaptation from Latin (cf. terms like Late Lat. allius
hortulanus ‘garden garlic’, see DECLC :a).

. 4äãéèàô àùà 짧áå ïë íâ úéúìç 3䧧á úéúìç


HLTYT,
. Arab. HLTYT
. as well, o.l. " S̆" P" TYDH
.

Hebrew HLTYT
. designates ) the plant Ferula asafoetida L., “asafedita
fennel”, ) its blossom, ) its leaves, ) its fruits, or ) its resin and features
in Rabbinic literature (e.g. mShab .) (JD ; LW :; KA : f.,

1 øåôöò: øeô"öò P
2 ïàìåèøåà: ïìåèøåà V
3 ïë íâ úéúìç 䧧á: åîù ïë ò§§á V
4 äãéèàô: àãéèéô O àãéèô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

:; FM ; FZ  f.; LF : ff.; Low LI; PB , ). See as well
Ayin .
Arabic hiltı̄t
. designates the gum resin of the plant Ferula asafoetida L.
(DT : n. : “Hiltı̄t
. is the milky sap (s. amġ) of Asafoetida (anğudān)
which has hardened in the open air into a gum resin with a dirty shade
of yellow.” M  and ; cf. as well He no. ).
For the identification, cf. the Geonic Commentary on Tohorot (EG
), and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above (MK :).
The vernacular term is a Romance learned word or Medieval Latin,
documented, for example, in O. Occ. and O. Cat. texts as as(s)afetida
(CB ; DECLC :b, first documentation in the th century). It is a
variant of the late Latin phytonym as(s)a foetida (DECLC :b), which
designates the plant Ferula asa foetida L. In O. Occ., other variants exist,
such as assafessada (CB ) or asafatidan (CB ).
For the identification of Arabic hiltı̄t
. as O. Cat. aseffètida cf. AdV ,
; also see GHAT :, where we find the Romance synonym " S̆"
PTYD"
. for Arab. HLTYT.
.

. 5èáø÷ùà 짧áå ñôðë 䧧á úéùåôç


HPW
. S̆YT, Arab. KNPS, o.l. " S̆QRBT.

Hebrew HPW . S̆YT, featured in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPar .,


means “scarabee, beetle” (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; FAB –
; LZ  f.).
Arabic hunfas means “black beetle, or a certain species thereof ” (L
 f.; BK ˘, ; JAD : ff.; StS ).
For the identification of HPW
. S̆YT as hunfas, cf. a Geonic Responsum
(HTG ; WG ): úééèá àñôðë àúùåôéç˘; cf. as well Maimonides on the
Mishnah cited above (MK :).
The vernacular word is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. escaravat (RL :b–
a; DECLC :a–a) which means ‘beetle’. The first documen-
tation in both languages is in the th century (DECLC :b and
FEW :b). The variants in the Oxford and Vatican manuscripts
(" S̆QR"BYG and " S̆QRBYYT) . must be the O. Occ. escaravaig (see DECLC
loc. cit.) or escaravait respectively, documented in PSW :b as the
oblique plural or nominative singular form escarava(i)tz.

5 èáø÷ùà: âéáàø÷ùà O èééáø÷ùà V


het
. 

. àðéáøå÷ 7àáéá 짧áå 6íìàòìà éç 䧧á íìåò éç


. #WLM, Arab. HY
HY . "L#"LM, o.l. BYB" QWRBYN"

Hebrew HY . #WLM or HY . H#WLM, which also features in Aramaic (cf.


LA  f.:; LF : f.), designates the plant Sempervivum tectorum
L., “houseleek” (BM ; AEY :). The oldest reference we could
find is in the Book of Medicines attributed to Asaf (AV :), where it
features in its Aramaic form as àîìòì àééç, which probably goes back to
the Greek εζ1ωον “houseleek” (LS ).
Arabic hayy
. al-#ālam probably designates the plant sempervivum,
Sempervivum arboreum L. or Sempervivum tectorum L. (DT :;
M ).
The Arabic term features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, )
and is translated by N as: íìåòä éç, and by Z as: íìåòì éç.
For the plant designated by the Arab. and Hebr. synonyms, we find
the Latin term semperviva (instead of sempervivum, NPRA ; also cf.
Sin :, : among others). The second element of this plant name
appears to be reflected by the first of the two words of our Romance term:
viva. The second word, QWRBYN", could not be identified (and there is
no documentation of viva in the context of a similar form in our sources),
unless it represents the Lat. adjective corvinus (or a Romance equivalent),
which can be found in plant names: e.g. pes corvinus, used in the Alphita
(cf. Sin , n. ; CA ), or the Italian vite corvina for ‘vine with a kind
of dark grape’ (FEW –:b).

. 8øàèéøô 짧áå êç 䧧á äôéôç


HPYPH,
. Arab. HK,
. o.l. PRYT"R
.

Hebrew HPYPH
. means “cleansing the head” and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab a (JD ; LW :; BM ; KT :;
Low LII; PB ; cf. SDA : Aram. àúôéôç: “shampoo”).
Arabic hakk
. signifies the act of “scratching, rubbing, fretting” (L ).
Cf. as well Het
. no. .
For the identification, cf. AQ, fol. b: ãéìàá êçìà :óôåç. Cf. as well
ShM  f.

6 íìàòìà: íàìòìà O íìòìà V


7 àáéá: àáéå O àåéå V
8 øàèéøô: øàèéX"ô P øåéèééøô V
 shem tov, synonym list 

The word indicated as vernacular is the O. Occ. and Cat. fretar ‘to
rub’, which is frequently found in texts from the th and th centuries,
(FEW :a; DECLC :a). The variant in the Vatican MS seems to
be corrupt.

. 10ïåìåôéøè 짧áå 9ä÷å÷ãðç 䧧á àðéáçøç


HR
. HBYN",
. Arab. HNDQWQH,
. o.l. TRYPWLWN
.

Hebrew HR . HBYN"
. is Eryngium Creticum L., “eryngium” and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPes . (KA :, :; AEY :;
DAS :; FH ; FM ; FZ  f.; LA  f.:; LF : f.; cf. as
well JD : “a hairlike creeper; creeper on palm-tree” and LW ::
“ein Kraut, dessen Blätter bitter sind” (a herb, whose leaves are bit-
ter)).
Arabic handaqūqā,
. from Syriac (cf. LA  ff.:), designates the vari-
eties of lotus such as Medicago sativa L., Melilotus officinalis L. and
Trigonella coerulea L. (L ; DT :; M ).
For the identification of HR. HBYN"
. as handaqūqā,
. cf. AH (bPes a,
p. a): ìà åùøôù ùéå ,àì÷éãã àúååöà ùé÷ì ïá ïåòîù éáø øîà àðéáçøç
é÷å÷ãðç ìà åùøôù ùéå (äðòöø÷ìà =) àðéòöå÷ (HR . HBYN",
. says R. Simeon
b. Lakish, is a creeper of the palm tree, and an explanation is "L QWS. #YN"
(= "LQRS. #NH) and another explanation is "L HNDQWQY).
. Subsequently
Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above (MK :) explains HR . HBYN"
.
as äðòöø÷ìà (al-qirs. a#na) “eryngium” (cf. LW :).
The vernacular term TRYPWLWN
. represents the Greek τρφυλλον
(for Lat. triphyllon, see NPRA , Fritilaria graeca L. and Trifolium L.).
The variant used in the Vatican MS represents the Latin trifolium, which
is documented, among others, for designating species of Melilotus, Med-
icago and Trigonella (NPRA ). In O. Occ., we find the semi learned
forms trefolh (DECLC :a), trefle (CB ) and the like, and in O. Cat.
trif(f)oli (AdV , ), none of which feature in our text.
For the identification of Arab. handaqūqā
. as Lat. trifolium cf. AdV ;
also see GHAT :, where we find the Lat. term TRYPWLLY
. MRYNY
(the genetive trifolii marini) as the synonym for Arab. HNDQWQH.
.

9 ä÷å÷ãðç: à÷å÷ãðç O à÷åáøáç V


10 ïåìåôéøè: íåéìåôéøè O
het
. 

. 11ùåãðåë 짧áå ñåãðåë 䧧á àðéðç


HNYN",
. Arab. KWNDWS, o.l. KWNDWS̆

Aramaic HNYN"
. should possibly be read as HNWN",
. which is Hebrew
ïåðç/ïåðçé
“hellebore”, Helleborus L., and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. bShab b: “But said R. Huna, there is a certain wood in the sea towns
called hanun, whereof a chip is brought and placed in her nostril (i.e. of
a ewe) to make her sneeze, so that the worms in her head should fall out”
(JD : “henna, alcanet”; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :;
FM ; LA :; LF :).
Arabic kundus means “sneezewort”, Achillea ptarmica L., and also
“soap wort, fuller’s herb”, Saponaria officinalis L. (WKAS :; DT :;
LF : f.). The Arabic term features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(XXI, ) and is transcribed by N and Z as: ñãðë. Al-Idrı̄sı̄ (IJS :)
mentions B (äðåáì) as a synonym for Q.
The vernacular term must be an Arabism, derived from the word just
discussed. It is a form without the Arabic definite article, contrary to the
common practice in Ibero-Romance varieties; thus, in O. Sp., we find the
forms alcudes and alcocundez, both with the Arabic definite article and
featuring as synonyms for the Lat. eleborus (cf. Sin : and  n. ; also
cf. Het
. ).

. 12íåøáéìà 짧áå ÷áøë 䧧á ÷áøç


HRBQ,
. Arab. KRBQ, o.l. "LYBRWM

Hebrew HRBQ,
. which also features in Syriac (s.v. hurbaknā
. or hurbekānā
.
LF : f.; LA :), is perhaps a loan translation of Arabic harbaq
˘
(cf. below). It designates the plant “hellebore” (cf. Payne Smith :). 13

Arabic harbaq, Greek 2λλβορος λευκ ς and 2λλβορος μλας (LS


˘
), designates the “hellebore”, Helleborus albus or Veratrum album L.
and Helleborus niger L. (DT :; M ). The Arabic term features in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ) and is translated by
N as: ÷áøë/ñåøáéìà ("LYBRWS/KRBQ) and by Z as: ñåøáéì (LYBRWS).
The vernacular term corresponds to the Latin word eleborum (NPRA
), possibly in a syncopated form.

11 ùåãðåë: ñåãðåë V
12 íåøáéìà: íåøáìà V
13 Cf. R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus,  vols. Oxford –.
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the identification of Arab. harbaq abyad. and harbaq aswad as Lat.
elleborus albus and elleborus niger˘ cf. AdV . ˘

. 15éì÷ùéåìî 짧áå éîèë 䧧á úéîìç 14åà éîìç


HLMY
. or HLMYT,
. Arab. KTMY,
. o.l. MLWYS̆QLY

The Hebrew term HLMYT . designates the plant “mallow” and features
in the Bible (e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic literature (mKil .) (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :, ; KA : f., :; DAS : f.; FM ;
FO  f.; FZ  f.; LF : ff.). Cf. as well He no. .
Arabic hit. mı̄ (hat. mı̄, hat. mı̄ya) means “marshmallow”, Althaea offici-
nalis (DT ˘:; M ˘ ; ˘DAS : f.).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on mKil .: ïéî òåð :úéîìç
äéîè§ëìà äðà ìé÷å ,äçøù íìòð íì ø§ö§ëìà (a kind of vegetable whose
identification I do not know, but it is said that it is äéîè§ëìà) (MK :).
The vernacular term must be read as O. Occ. malviscle (CB  and
; RMA ; DAO :) for Althaea officinalis L.

. äèé÷éì 18÷øåúùà 짧áå 17äìéàñ 16äòéî 䧧á úøâð äðáìç


HLBNH
. NGRT, Arab. MY#H S"YLH, o.l. " S̆TWRQ LYQYTH .

Hebrew HLBNH
. and Aramaic àúéðáìç (SD ; SDA ; LA :),
from Greek χαλβνη (LS ), means “galbanum”, Ferula galbaniflua,
a gum resin used as an ingredient of frankincense, which smells like
asafoetida (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :, ; KA :, :;
BM ; DAS :; FO  f.; LF : ff.). It features in the Bible (e.g.
Ex :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bKer a). HLBNH
. NGRT means
“liquid galbanum”.
Arabic may#a sā"ila designates “liquid storax”, Liquidamber orientalis
Mill. (DT :; M ; ID :; LF : ff.). The Arabic term 2,7 fea-
tures in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, , ) and is translated
by N as: ÷øåèùà/÷øåèöà (" S. TWRQ/"
. S̆TWRQ)
. and by Z as: äòéî/âøåèùéà
§âøåèùà àéä ("YS̆TWRG
. /MY#H, i.e. " S̆TWR
. Ğ).

14 úéîìç åà: om. O


15 éì÷ùéåìî: íåøáéìà (cf. entry ) éì÷ùéåìî V
16 äòéî: àòéî VO
17 äìéàñ: ?àñáâ O
18 äèé÷éì ÷øåúùà: àîàéîè O (cf. entry ) àèé÷ì ù÷øåèùéà V [. . .] add. O
het
. 

For the identification of HLBNH . as may#a, cf. Sa#adya on Ex :


(S  n. ), IJ : 2, 0,)  äðáìçå, and AQ, fol. a: åäðà ìé÷ :äðáìç
ïëîà åäå äòéàîìà ìé÷å ìèàá åäå ï§ãàììà ìé÷å áìçîìà (HLBNH: . According
to some, it is the plum tree of Mahaleb and, according to others, it is
ladanum (the resinous juice which exudes from Cistus laniferus L., and
other varieties), but this is incorrect; according to yet others, it is storax
and this is most likely). Cf. as well ShM : äìéàñìà äòéîìà ïî óðö äðáìç
êøèöà éîñéå (HLBNH:
. kind of liquid storax which is also called " S. TRK).
.
David b. Abraham al-Fāsı̄ (SF :) translates the term as: áìçî (plum
tree of Mahaleb); cf. MCS :.
The term " S̆TWRQ LYQYTH . is the O. Occ. estorac/estorex liquida,
O. Cat. storach(s) líquide or the Latin storax liquida, with a prothetic e-
in storax, typical for the medieval spelling of Latin words in Western
Romance territories (cf. estorax, estoracis in Sin : and  n. ). The
transcription " S̆TWRQ (i.e. with Qof) can refer both to the form estorac
and to estorax or estorex, because the Latin word final grapheme -x was
frequently transcribed using the Hebrew letter Qof. For the O. Occ.
estorac, see FEW :, whereas estorex is documented in CB ; for
O. Cat. storach(s) líquide cf. AdV , .
The identification of the Arabic and the Latin/Romance terms can be
found in the index to the Latin translation of Ibn Sı̄nā’s K. al-Qānūn,
see Sin :: “Almea seyla, i. estorax liquida.”; for further identification
of the Arabic and Latin terms as well as O. Cat. storach(s) líquide cf.
AdV , .

. äðáìçä ïî øçà ïéî ùéå 21äîàéîè 짧áå äñáàé 20äòéî 䧧á äùáé 19äðáìç
èéîàø÷ 22÷øåúùà åîùù
HLBNH
. YBS̆H, Arab. MY#H Y"BSH, o.l. TMY"MH
. and there is another
kind of HLBNH
. which is called " S̆TWRQ QR"MYT.

Hebrew HLBNH
. YBS̆H means “dry galbanum” (for references cf. no. 
above).
Arabic may#a yābisa designates “solid storax”, Styrax officinalis L. (cf.
Het
. no.  and ID :).

19 èéîàø÷ ÷øåúùà åîùù äðáìçä ïî øçà ïéî ùéå äîàéîè 짧áå äñáàé äòéî 䧧á äùáé äðáìç:

om. O
20 äòéî: àòéî V
21 äîàéîè: àîàéîè V
22 èéîàø÷ ÷øåúùà: èéîø÷ ÷øåèùà V
 shem tov, synonym list 

The vernacular term TMY"MH


. is the Latin t(h)imiama (taken from
Greek), which is documented as a learned medico-botanical term in most
of the Romance languages (cf. for O. Sp. Sin : and  n. ; for the
Gallo-Romance varieties see FEW :b). For O. Occ. see PSW :b–
a, t(h)imiana, ‘an incense composed of various ingredients’.
The Romance term of the other species of HLBNH . should be read
*estorac (estorax, estorex) caramit. For the variants of the form (e)storax,
cf. Het
. , and for caramit, cf. Alef  (QRMITH . for ‘magnetic stone’).
In O. Occ. recipes, storax caramita (RPA ) is documented, and Brunel
gives the meaning as “baume storax” (storax balm). In Medieval Latin, we
find, among others, the forms storac calamite and (storax) calamita (the
Alphita, cf. Sin  and CA ). According to CA, the name storax
calamita is derived from the fact that it was stored and imported in canes
(see the meaning of Lat. CALAMUS, FEW –:b–a).

. ìëðìà óòñ 䧧á ì÷ã ìù 23úåéøç


HRYWT
. S̆L DQL, Arab. S#P "LNKL

Hebrew HRYWT
. S̆L DQL means “dried branches or twigs of the palm
tree” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mSuk . and bShab a
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM  f.). In his commentary on
the Mishnah mentioned (MK :), Maimonides explains the term as:
íéøîú úåôë (palm branches).
Arabic sa#af an-nahl means “palm-branches” (L ).
˘
. 25ùðåãå÷ 짧áå 24ì§âøôñ 䧧á íéùåáç
HBW
. S̆YM, Arab. SPRĞL, o.l. QWDWNS̆

Hebrew HBW. S̆, plur. HBW


. S̆YM, designates the fruit “quince”, Cydo-
nia oblonga or Cydonia vulgaris, and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. in bKet b (JD ; LW : f., ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY :; DAS : n. , ; FE  ff.; FZ  ff.; LF : ff.; cf.
SDA , Aram. àùåáç: “apple”).
Arabic safarğal has the same meaning (DT :; M ; DAS :, ,
, ). For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bKet b, p. .

23 úåéøç: úáéøç V
24 ì§âøôñ: ìâøôñ VO
25 ùðåãå÷: õðåãå÷ VO
het
. 

The vernacular term QWDWNS̆ is the plural of O. Occ. codon (PSW


:b; FEW –:b) for ‘quince’ (cf. codons in RM ). The O. Occ.
codon or the palatalized variant codoin (CB ), codonh (CB ) or
codoing (RL –:) (for the diatopic variation see, for example, S̆hK )
is derived from the Vulgar Latin etymon COTŌNĒUM, which is based
on the Greek word κυδ-νιον. For O. Occ., our sources do not indicate
the date of the first documentation, but in O. Cat., the word is first doc-
umented in the work of Ramon Llull at the end of the th century.
In S̆ars̆ot ha-Kesef, we find the O. Occ. gloss QDWYYN (representing
the palatalised variant) for the Hebrew HB. S̆ (S̆hK ). For the identifi-
cation of Arab. safarğal as O. Cat. codonys, cf. AdV , ; also see
GHAT :, where we find the Romance synonym QWDWNYYS̆ for
Arab. SPRG"L.

. øåòùä çî÷î 28éåùò 27íåãéîà 짧áå øéòùìà àùð 䧧á 26øåòù áìç
HLB
. S̆#WR, Arab. NS̆" "LS̆#YR, o.l. "MYDWM, made of barley-flour

Hebrew øåò× áìç means “starch of barley” (for øåò×, cf. KB ; JD ;
BM , ; KA :).
Arabic nas̆ā" as̆-s̆a#ı̄r has the same meaning (L ; DAS : f.).
Arabic U2F features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, , )
and is translated by N and Z as: íéøåòù/äøåòù and NoB by N as: íåãéîà
("MYDWM) and by Z as: åãéîà ("MYDW) (XX, ).
The vernacular term "MYDWM is the Latin word for ‘wheat flour’
amidum (Sin b; MLWB :: “flos farinae (triticeae)”). Most of the
Latin manuscripts of the Alphita have the characteristic addition “inter-
pretatur sine mola fractum” (cf. Sin b). The variant in the Vatican
MS is the rare Medieval Lat. variant amido, -onis (MLWB loc. cit.), a
non documented O. Occ. form *amido (amidon with n is documented
in RPA ) or O. Cat. amidó (DCVB :a).

26 øåòù: øåòùä O
27 íåãéîà: åãéîà V
28 øåòùä çî÷î éåùò: íéøåòù çî÷î éåùò om. O, V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 31ùðåéðéøâ 짧áå áðòìà 30í§âò 䧧á íéáðò ìù íééîéðôä íéøâøâä 29íä íéðöøç
. S. NYM, that is the inner stones of grapes, Arab. #ĞM "L#NB, o.l.
HR
GRYNYWNS̆

Hebrew HR . S. NYM means “fruit stones” or especially “grape stones” and


features in the Bible (e.g. Num :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mNaz
.) (KB : “unripe grapes”; CD :: “sour grapes”; JD ; LW :;
SD ; KA : f., :; BM ; DAS : f.; FH ).
Arabic #ağam al-#inab means “grape stones” (L ; DAS :).
. S. NYM as #ağam, cf. Maimonides on mNaz
For the identification of HR
.: í§âòìà :ïéðöøç (MK :).
The Romance variants of the Oxford and Vatican MSS represent the
plural of the O. Occ. word granhon with the meaning ‘(olive) kernel’
(PSW :b). The form in the Paris MS might be interpreted as O. Occ.
or O. Cat. *grinhons or *grenhons, which is not documented in our
sources. In O. Sp., the word grañón existed, which, in one context of the
Libro de Alexandre, an O. Sp. text from ca. , is supposed to designate
‘grape seeds’ (DCECH :a–b).

. 33à÷àìåãøéá 짧áå à÷îçìà 32§äì÷á 䧧á úåâåìâìç


HLGLWNWT,
. Arab. BQLH "LHMQ",
. o.l. BYRDWL"Q"

Hebrew HLGLWNWT
. designates “purslane”, Portulaca oleracea L., and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in m Shebi . (JD ; LW :;
KA : f., :; BM ; FM ; LF : ff.).
Arabic baqla hamqā"
. designates the same plant (DT :; M ;
DAS :, :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
à÷îçìà äì÷áìà åäå ÷àñìà ìéåè ÷øåìà øéáë äì§âøìà ïéî òåð :úåâåìâìçäå (a
kind of purslane, with large leaves and a long stalk and it is al-baqla al-
hamqā)
. (MK :); see as well BTJ .
The vernacular variants BWRWTWLYG". (MS O) and BWRTWL"Y- .
YG" S̆ (MS V) correspond to the O. Occ. bortolaiga and its plural borto-
laigas, mentioned in DECLC :ab. The Catalan form of the same word

29 íéáðò ìù íééîéðôä íéøâøâä íä: om. OV


30 í§âò: íâò VO
31 ùðåéðéøâ: ùðåðàøâ O ùðåééðøâ V
32 à÷îçìà §äì÷á: à÷îçìà àì÷á O ä÷îçìà äì÷á V
33 à÷àìåãøéá: àâéìåèåøåá O ùàâééàìåèøåá V
het
. 

is verdolaga (first documentation: late th century; used, among others,


by Arnau de Vilanova, see Anal. Sa. Tarra. XXII, ,  quoted in DECLC
loc. cit.). The form verdolaga is also Spanish (see Sin  for O. Sp.) and
can be found in Occitan medico-botanical texts (cf. CB ). Accord-
ing to Coromines (DECLC, loc. cit.), the word is of Mozarabic origin,
with the forms bardilâqa and barduqâla being documented (the etymon
is the Latin PORTULACA). To explain the Catalan and the Spanish form,
Coromines hypothesises the existence of a Mozarabic *berdolaca, which
is surprisingly similar to the variant used in MS P, BYRDWL"Q".34
In GHAT : we find the identification of Romance (O. Cat.)
BWRDWL"GH as Arab. BQLH HM"QH. .

. 38íøâ 짧áå 37ìé§ú åà 36ìé§âð 䧧á 35áöç


H
. S. B, Arab. NĞYL or TYL, o.l. GRM
¯
Hebrew H . S. B means “Bermuda Grass”, Cynodon dactylon, and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; LA  ff.:;
LF : ff.; cf. as well FM  s.v. úéìáé; FZ  ff.: Uriginea maritima).
Arabic nağı̄l or tı̄l designates “Couch Grass”, Cynodon dactylon and
Agropyrum repens¯ (DT :; M ).
For the identification of H . S. B as tı̄l, cf. the Geonic commentary on
mKel .: áåöç ùãå÷ §ìáå ìééú úééèáå úéîøàᯠàìáé åîùù áùò §ô úéìáé (úéìáé
is a plant whose name is àìáé in Aramaic and tı̄l in Arabic and áåöç in
Hebrew) (EG  f.; cf. as well SDA , s.v. àìáé¯).
The vulgar term GRM is the O. Cat. (DECLC :b–a) or the
O. Occ. gram (DAO :; RL :b; PSW :b) for Triticum repens
(FEW :a); Levy gives the German translation ‘Quecke’, i.e. ‘couch
grass’ (PSW :b). Both are derived from the Latin etymon GRAMEN
(FEW :a; DECLC :b). This form is documented in O. Occ.

34 One should consider the possibility that the author or the copyist(s) of the Sefer
ha-Shimmush had some Arabic-Romance glossary of Spanish origin at hand, particu-
larly because Shem Tov, just like many of the Jewish physicians in Southern France, had
originally come from Spain. As an alternative, the form BYRDWL"Q" might be inter-
preted as a blend between the Catalan or Spanish verdolaga and the Latin PORTU-
LACA.
35 áöç: íöç V
36 ìé§âð: ìéâð VO
37 ìé§ú: ìéú VO
38 íøâ: íàøâ O
 shem tov, synonym list 

during the th and th centuries (FEW :a) and in O. Cat. for the
first time at the end of the th century.
For the identification of the Arab. and Romance terms cf. GHAT
:, where we find the Romance synonym GR"M for Arab. TYL.

. øèéøô ò§§ìáå êñ 䧧á 39äôéôç


HPYPH,
. Arab. SK, o.l. PRYTR
.

Hebrew HPYPH
. means “cleansing the head” (cf. Het
. no. ).
Arabic SK is possibly a corruption of #$% (sahğun)
. which means
“scratching, abrading the skin” (HaF ). #$% features in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ) and is translated by N as: èéùôä
and by Z as: èðÇô ãéìåä (HWLYD PWNT). .
For the vernacular term, cf. Het
. no. .

. øàåã 䧧á âåç


HWG,
. Arab. DW"R

Hebrew HWG . means “circle” or “to make a circle” (KB ; CD :;
LW :; BM ) and features in the Bible (e.g. Job :) and Rab-
binic literature (bHag
. b). The Hebrew term is possibly a semantic bor-
rowing of Arabic duwār meaning “circle”, and as a medical term “vertigo,
giddiness in the head” (L ; SN ). As a medical term, it features in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XV, ) in the combination () ()
and is translated by N as: àðéâèøåå àéîåèå÷ùà àø÷ðä åúëåáîå ùàøä áåáñ and
by Z as: äàéîåèå÷ùäå úåîéúñä.
It is possible that Shem Tov used the Hebrew term in the sense of
“vertigo” as a semantic borrowing from the Arabic.

. 40àãéèð÷åìå÷ 짧áå ìèðçìà íçù 䧧á úåòå÷ô áìç


HLB
. PQW#WT, Arab. S̆HM . "LHN
. TL,
. o.l. QWLWQNTYD"
.

Hebrew HLB
. PQW#WT, which literally means “fatty substance of bitter
apple” (for úåòå÷ô, sing. äòå÷ô, bitter apple, Citrullus colocynthis (L.)
Schrad., cf. KB ; JD ; LW :; KA :; :; DAS : f.,
:; FM ; FO  f.; FZ  f.; LF : ff.; PB ) and is not attested
in secondary literature, was possibly coined by Shem Tov based on the

39 øèéøô ò§§ìáå êñ 䧧á äôéôç: om. OV


40 àãéèð÷åìå÷: àãéèðå÷åìå÷ VO
het
. 

Arabic s̆ahm. al-han


. z. al which designates the “inner part of the colocynth,
exclusive of its seeds” (L ; DT :; M ; DAS : f.; :).
S̆ahm
. al-han. z. al features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(III, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by both N and Z as: àãéèðé÷åìå÷
(QWLWQYNTYD"). .
For the identification of PQW#WT as al-han . z. al, cf. LO Perushim on
Shab b, p. , IJ  f., RJ  and Maimonides on mShab . (MK :
n. ). For the identification of HLB . as s̆ahm,
. cf. SE .
The vulgar term QWLWQNTYD" . is the Late Latin coloquinthida (<
Lat. COLOCYNTHIS < Gr. κολοκυν!ς; DCECH :a), which was
also used in Romance (O. Occ. colloquintida, RL :b, or coloquintida,
RPA  and , or in O. Sp. coloquintida, Sin :, DETEMA :c–
a) for the plant Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Sin a–b). It is
not documented for Catalan; Coromines only gives the Catalan form
coloquinta (DECLC :a). There is a description of the virtues of this
plant in the O. Occ. Eluc. de las Propr. (fol. ): “Colloquintida es herba
mot amara” (Colloquintida is a very bitter herb, RL :b).
For the identification of the Arabic and Romance terms, also cf. GHAT
(:) where we find the Romance synonym QWLWQYNTYDH . for
Arab. S̆HM
. HN . TL.
.

. §õøàìà 42äîçù 䧧á àòøàã 41àáìç


HLB"
. D"R#", Arab. S̆HMH
. "L"RD
.

Aramaic HLB". D"R#", which literally means “grease of the earth” and is
not attested in secondary literature, was possibly coined by Shem Tov
after Arabic s̆ahma
. al-ard. (cf. below) to designate a certain animal or
plant. The reason why Shem Tov coined this term in Aramaic instead of
Hebrew was possibly in order to distinguish it from the Biblical Hebrew
õøàä áìç as featuring in Gen :: õøàä áìç úà åìëàå (and you shall live
off the fat of the land), which is translated by Onkelos as: àòøàã àáåè, by
Pseudo-Jonathan as: àòøàã àúéîåðîù, and by Sa#adyah as: àäéô àî ãå§âà
(S ).
Arabic s̆ahmat
. al-ard,
. literally “grease of the earth”, has different mean-
ings: ) “earthworm”, Lumbricus terrestris L. (DT :; M ), ) accord-
ing to Maimonides (M ), the Maghrebis apply the name s̆ahmat . al-ard.
to a small quadruped animal with streaked paws of gecko species (cf. as

41 àáìç: äáìç V
42 §õøàìà äîçù: õøàìà àîçù O õøàìà íçù V
 shem tov, synonym list 

well LFa ), ) according to ‘Abd ar-Razzāq, the term designates “mush-
rooms” (M ; cf. as well L ), and ) the term is applied to a plant
that has not been identified exactly (cf. M : “edible lichen” and D ::
“Garcinia Mangostana”).
For the identification of Hebrew HLB. and Arabic s̆ahm,
. cf. SE .

. íåãéîà 짧áå íèø÷ìà àùð 䧧á 43ïéîèøå÷ä áìç


HLB
. HQWRTMYN,
. Arab. NS̆" "LQRTM,
. o.l. "MYDWM

Hebrew QWRTMYN . either designates the plant “safflower”, Carthamus


tinctorius L. and Var., or its seeds and features in Rabbinic literature,
e.g. bPes b (JD ; LW :, ; SDA  f., Aram. àîèøå÷;
KA : f., :; LA  ff.:; LF : ff.; cf. as well Qof no. 
below). HLB
. HQWRTMYN . means “safflower starch”.
Arabic nas̆ā" al-qirt. im also means “safflower starch”. Arabic qirt. im,
from Aramaic àîèøå÷, also designates the seeds of the safflower plant,
Carthamus tinctorius L. and Var. (DT :; M ; cf. as well Qof no. 
below). The Arabic term features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(XVII, , ) and is translated by N as: íèø÷/íèø÷ áì and by Z as:
éìàèðàéøåà å÷ø÷/ìàèðàéøåà ÷øå÷ /ìàèðàéøåà ÷åø÷/íèø÷ (QRTM/QRWQ .
"WRY"NT"L/
. QWRQ "WRY"NT"L/QRQW . "WRY"NT"LY).
.
See as well Het
.  and  above.
For the vernacular, see entry Het. .

. 44äéáàìæ 䧧á äèéìç


HLY
. TH, . Arab. ZL"BYH

Hebrew HLY . TH
. means “a paste made of flour stirred in boiling water,
dumpling” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mHal
. . (JD ;
LW :; SD ; BM ; cf. as well DAS : and KT :: “pouring
hot water on flour”).
Arabic zalābiya means “fritters or puff pastry with honey or almond”
(D :; DAS :; RAP : “fritters”) and features in Maimonides’ On
Hemorrhoids (cf. BMH II, ) and On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR I,
) and is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: ñôìàá úôàð ÷öá (paste
baked in a pot) (EG  n. ; FrA ; KZ ). In Maimonides’ On Asthma
(III, ; cf. BMA ), the term is transcribed as: äéáàìæ by Joshua Shatibi

43 ïéîèøå÷ä: ïéîèøå÷ O íéîèøå÷ä V


44 äéáàìæ: äéáàìç V
het
. 

and translated as: ä÷éúîäå úåà÷ñåìâä by the anonymous translator. For


zalābiya, see as well Samekh .

. 47ùìåôùð 짧áå 46ääúùî 䧧á 45úåéùéîç


HMY
. S̆YWT, Arab. MS̆THH, o.l. NS̆PWLS̆

Hebrew HMY. S̆YWT means “medlar”, Mespilus Azarolus L., and is only
attested in medieval literature (AEY :; LA  f.:, :;
LF :). Thus, it features in the Alphabet of Ben Sira (ed. Eli Yassif, Sip-
purei Ben Sira bi-Yemei ha-Benayim, Jerusalem , p. ) as úåéðùîåç,
where it is explained as being Italian: éìåôñéð (nespole), i.e. medlars.
Caleb Ben Elijah Afendopolo identifies úåéùéîç (also written as: úåéùîç)
as íéùåáç (“quinces”), but also as mespila (following LA  f.:; cf.
LP ).
Arabic mus̆tahā designates the “medlar” tree, Mespilus germanica L.
and Var., and is perhaps derived from Latin mustaceus/mustus “must”
(GH :) (DT :; cf. M ,  and D : which give “sorb tree”
and “azarole tree” as additional meanings).
The vulgar term NS̆PWLS̆ could be identified as the plural of the
O. Occ. nespola for ‘medlar’ (PSW :a; RMM ). Also cf. the Italian
variant mentioned above with respect to the Alphabet of Ben Sira.

. 49ñé÷øð 짧áå 48ñ§âøð 䧧á úìöáç


HB
. S. LT, Arab. NRĞS, o.l. NRQYS

The biblical HB
. S. LT, featuring, e.g. in Is :, refers to the plant “aspho-
del”, “colchium”, “meadow saffron” or “narcissus” (KB ; CD :;
FO  f.; LA :; LF : ff.). In the Geonic period the term has the
meaning of “a young lily” (JD ; BM  f.; AEY :; LF :).
Cf. as well DAS : f., ,  n. .
Arabic narğis, from Persian nargi or nargis (VL : f.), designates
different species of narcissus, such as Narcissus poeticus L. and Var.,
Narcissus tazetta L. and Var. or Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. and Var.
(DT :; M ).

45 úåéùéîç: úåéùîç V
46 ääúùî: àäúùî O
47 ùìåôùð: ùàìåôùð O ùìåôùéð V
48 ñ§âøð: ñâøð O ñéâøð V
49 ñé÷øð: ñéëøð V
 shem tov, synonym list 

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is :: äáøò ìâúå äéöå øáãî íåùùé
úìöáçë çøôúå (the arid desert shall be glad, the wilderness shall rejoice
and shall blossom like a crocus): íäéãàåá áøèúå íäæéàôîå íå÷ìà éøàøá øñé
ñ§âøðìàë àäðàçéø òøôúå (DS ); see as well SF :.
The vulgar term NRQYS (or NRKYS in the Vatican MS respectively)
must be identified as a Romance word derived from the Latin narcissus
(Sin , n. ). There is no documentation of any O. Occ. or O. Cat.
*narquis or *narcis readings that the two Hebrew transcriptions suggest.
However, in Gascon, the word narcis for ‘narcissus’ is documented in the
th century (FEW :b). The form could also represent M. Fr. narciz
for ‘narcissus’ (FEW :a). In any case, the transcription of Romance c-
before front vowels as Qof or Kaf is unusual.

. åà ùãéìáéã 52ùèùéè 짧áå 51òàì§öàìà åà ÷ìñìà ñåø 䧧á ïéãøú 50úåôéìç
53ùèùå÷

HLYPWT
. TRDYN, Arab. RWS "LSLQ or "L" DL"#,
. o.l. TY
. S̆T. S̆ DYBLYDS̆ or
QWS̆T. S̆

Hebrew HLYPWT
. TRDYN means “shoots of beet”, Beta vulgaris Var., and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mUqz . (JD , ; LW :;
; KA :, :, ; FM ; LF : ff.).
Arabic ru" ūs as-silq or al-adlā#
. means “heads or ribs of beet” (L ;
DT :). In Maimonides’ On Asthma (IX, ; cf. BMA ), we find adlā# .
as-silq, which is translated as: ÷ìñä éèéáøù by Shabiti, and as: ïéãøúä úåòìö
by Samuel Benveniste and the anonymous translator. Cf. as well Tav no. 
below.
For the identification of HLYPWT
. TRDYN as adlā#. as-silq, cf. the
Geonic commentary on mUqz . (EG ).
The expression TY . S̆T. S̆ DYBLYDS̆ "W QWS̆T. S̆ must be read as O. Occ.
testas de bledas o costas. The O. Occ. and O. Cat. name bleda is identified
as the plant Beta vulgaris (DECLC :b). According to DECLC :b,
the form bleda comes from a form *BLETA, which is the result of Latin
BETA (transformed by confusion with BLITA, plural of BLITUM, i.e.
blite, a similar plant). Thus, the O. Cat. synonym blet which Raynouard
gives for O. Occ. bleda (RL :a) is not correct. The plant name bleda

50 úåôéìç: úÇôé!ì#ç P
51 òàì§öàìà: òìöìà VO
52 ùãéìáéã ùèùéè: ùàãéìáã ùàèùéè O õèéìåáã ùàèùéè V
53 ùèùå÷: ùàãéìáã ùàèùå÷ O, om. V
het
. 

is documented in many O. Occ. texts (for example, in CB  and ;


RM , RMA ; RMM ). The version used in the Vatican MS,
TY
. S̆T"
. S̆ DYBWLYT. S. (testas de boletz), must be the result of a reading
based on boletz (‘mushrooms’; see, for example, the singular form in
CB ) instead of bledas ‘beets’.
Our text mentions two parts of the plant: first, testas, which lit. means
‘heads’ (RL :b; PSW :a–b; DECLC :b), and, second, costas,
which means, among others, ‘ribs of leaves’ (PSW :b).

. 56ùéôðéà åà 55íåãéîà 짧áå 54àùð 䧧á äèç áìç


HLB
. H . Arab. NS̆", o.l. "MYDWM or "YNPYS̆
. TH,

Hebrew HLB. H. TH
. means “wheat starch; wheat fat” (KB ; CD :;
BM ) and features in the Bible, for instance, in Ps : (KB ;
CD :; BM ).
Arabic nas̆ā" means “starch” (cf. Het
. no. ).
HLB
. H. TH
. in Ps : is translated by Sa#adya as: äèðçìà áì (ST ).
For the identification, cf. ShM  f.
For the first vernacular term, cf. Het
. no. . We could not find any
explanation for the second vernacular term.
For the identification of Arab. nas̆ā as Lat., amidum, cf. AdV .

. 59àøàô 58àâåèéì 짧áå éøá ñë 䧧á íéìâ 57úøæç


HZRT
. GLYM, Arab. KS BRY, o.l. LYTWG". P"R"

Hebrew HZRT. GLYM means “hill or wild lettuce”, Lactuca saligna L.


or Lactuca scariola L., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil
. (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY :; DAS :,
:; FM ; FZ : Sonchus oleraceus; LF : ff.). Arabic hass barrı̄
designates “wild lettuce” (DT :; M ; DAS : f., :).˘
For the identification of HZRT
. as hass, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :). See
as well Maimonides on mKil ., where ˘ Hebrew íéìâ úøæç is translated
as: éìá§â ñë (hill lettuce) (MK :).

54 àùð: àèðçìà àùð V


55 íåãéîà: åãéîà V
56 ùéôðéà: ùéôðé!à P
57 íéìâ úøæç: ïéìâ úøæç V
58 àâåèéì: àâåèééì VO
59 àøàô: àøéô O, om. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

The transcription LYTWG". P"R" must be identified as a non-docu-


mented O. Occ. term *laytuga fera. Several O. Occ. forms for ‘lettuce’ are
documented: laytug(u)a (DAO :; CB , ; and also variants with
the spelling -ai-, -ey- for the diphthong), and lachug(u)a (CB , ).
The diphthong -ay- or -ey- is reflected in the -YY- spelling in MSS V and
O. The O. Occ. adjective fer, fera (< Lat. FERUS) has the meaning of ‘wild’
(RL :a; PSW :b).

. 61àâåèéì 짧áå 60ñë 䧧á àñç


HS",
. Arab. KS, o.l. LYTWG" .

Aramaic HS"
. designates “lettuce”, especially Lactuca sativa L., and fea-
tures in Rabbinic literature in bPes a (JD  f.; LW :; SD ;
SDA ; KA :, :; BM ; FZ  ff.; LA  f.:; LF :).
Arabic hass designates “garden lettuce”, Lactuca sativa L. (DT :;
DAS :˘ f.,  f., :). The Arabic term features, for instance, in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XX, ; XXI, ), and is translated by
N as: úøæç and by Z as: úåñç.
For the vernacular term laytuga or the like, cf. Het
. no. .

. 64íéîùä ïéòë 짧ø 63÷øæà 䧧á 62éìîùç


. S̆MLY, Arab. "ZRQ, i.e. like the sky
H

Hebrew H . S̆MLY is an adjectival form derived from biblical H


. S̆ML which
means “glittering substance, amber” (CD :; JD ) and features, e.g.
in Ez :. In Modern Hebrew the term means “electricity”.
Arabic azraq means “blue, sky-coloured” (L ). Cf. as well DRD :
“blue-eyed (byname as family name)”.
The identification of H . S̆MLY as azraq goes back to Ibn Janāh, . cf.
Se#adyah ibn Danān, Sefer ha-Shorashim (SID :): à÷øæ øàð :ìîùç
짧æ ãéìåìà éáàì (H . S̆ML is blue light according to Abū l-Walı̄d [Ibn
Janāh]).
.

60 ñë: ñ÷ V
61 àâåèéì: àâåèééì O äàâåééèàì V
62 éìîùç: ìîùç V
63 ÷øæà: §÷æà V
64 íéîùä: éøèùéìéù 짧á add. O
het
. 

. äéðôð÷ 65àðìà 짧áå ïñàø 䧧á íéöáìç åà õéáìç


HLBY
. . S. YM, Arab. R"SN, o.l. "LN" QNPNYH
S. or HLB

Hebrew HLB. S. or HLBY


. S. means “ornithogalum”, “bulb of ornithogalum”
or “orchid”, Orchis anatolicus, and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g.
in mShebi .. yShebi VII, bc explains the term as: áìç õð éöéá (eggs
of ornithogalum) to designate the roots or nodules of ornithogalum
(JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ; EG  f.; FM ; FZ  f.:
Euphorbia apios L.; LA :).
Arabic rāsan, originally a Persian word (VL :), designates “elecam-
pane”, Inula Helenium L. and Var. (DT :; M ). The term features as
@7o 0,AB4 ) %( in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ) and
is translated by N as: éðòðë ìéáâðæ àåäå ïñàø and by Z as: ìéáâðæä àåäå àìåùàä
éçøæîä.
In accordance with the Arab. term, the vernacular term used in
the Vatican MS, "NWL" QMPN", must be interpreted as the learned
Romance term enul(l)a campana (O. Occ. enulla campana, RMA ;
DAO art. :–) for Inula Hellenium L. (Sin ). The variants
used in the other two MSS, Paris and Oxford, show a metathesis of
-l- and -n- ("LN") which—following von Wartburg—was frequent in
Medieval Latin (th to th century): elena, elna (FEW :b). Von
Wartburg also states that the distribution of this plant name in southern
France could be a result of the medical activities of Montpellier (FEW
:b).
For the identification of the Arabic and Romance terms, cf. GHAT
:, where we find the Romance term "YNGWLH QMP"NH as a
synonym for Arab. RS"N "L#RWQ ("YNGWLH is evidently a misspelling
of "YNWLH).

. 68àñàîì 짧áå 67ïåæìç 䧧á 66ïåæìç


HLZWN,
. Arab. HLZWN,
. o.l. LM"S"

Hebrew HLZWN
. means ) “conchiferous animal, snail, oyster”, esp.
“purple-fish, purple-shell”; ) “beetle or locust”; ) “a snail-shaped piece
of chain, screw” and ) “an eye-disease”. The term features in Rabbinic

65 äéðôð÷ àðìà: àðéàôîà÷ àðìà O àðôî÷ àìåðà V


66 ïåæìç: ïÇæìç P
67 ïåæìç: ïÇæ"ìç P
68 àñàîì: àñàî!ì P àöîéì V
 shem tov, synonym list 

literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW : f.; KA : ff., :;
BM ; LZ  ff.).
Arabic halazūn
. means “snail, or a certain creeping thing” (L ;
JAD :; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :).
The vernacular LYM"S" is the O. Occ. lima(s)sa (RL :b; CB , )
for ‘slug’ (RL :b), derived from the Lat. LIMAX. This form is clearly
Occitan, because it is llimac in Catalan: “llimac o caragol sens crosta:
limax” (llimac or snail without crust: limax, DECLC :b).
For the identification of the Arabic and Romance terms cf. GHAT
:, where we find Arab. HLZWN
. for the Romance synonym LYMS".

. àðéøî 69äîåëùà 짧áå øçáìà ãáæ 䧧á íéä úàìç


HL"T
. HYM, Arab. ZBD "LBHR, . o.l. " S̆QWMH MRYN"

Hebrew HL"T
. HYM, literally meaning “filth of the sea”, is not attested in
secondary literature and seems to have been coined by Shem Tov as a
loan translation of the Arabic zabad al-bahr . (cf. below). Note, however,
that the term also features as a translation of the Latin “spuma maris” in
the Sefer Keritut by Hillel ben Samuel of Verona.70
Arabic zabad al-bahr. “sea foam” is the translation of Greek 3λκυ -
νιον “bastard-sponge” (LS ) and designates, according to Dioscurides
(:), “a mixture of sponges, algae and polypiers rejected by the sea”
(DT : n. ; M ).
The vernacular phrase " S̆KWMH MRYN" (or " S̆QWM" M"RYN" in the
Vatican and Oxford MSS respectively) must be read as O. Occ. or O. Cat.
*escuma marina. In our documents, we were unable to find this O. Occ.
or O. Cat. compound expression, which is the Romance equivalent of the
Latin spuma maris ‘sea foam, pumice’ (Sin a). The O. Occ. and O. Cat.
escuma (RL :a; DECLC :a) is an alteration of the Lat. SPŪMA
influenced by the Germanic SKŪMS for ‘foam’ (see DECLC :a),
which, in O. Cat., is documented for the first time in  and had
the connotation of ‘dirt’ (see DECLC :a). The adjective marin is
documented in the O. Occ. aiga marina for ‘sea water’ (RL :a) among
others.

69 àðéøî äîåëùà: àðéøàî àîå÷ùà VO


70 See Gerrit Bos: Medical terminology in the Hebrew tradition: Hillel Ben Samuel of
Verona, Sefer ha-Keritut (forthcoming: Journal of Semitic Studies).
het
. 

. 73äùëøëä 72àéäå øòáî 䧧á 71úìçåìç


HLW
. HLT,
. Arab. MB#R, i.e. the rectum

Hebrew HLW. HLT


. means “mesentery” and features in Rabbinic litera-
ture, e.g. in bHul
. a (JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ;
Low LI; MD : “rectum”; PB ).
Arabic mab#ar means “rectum, intestine or gut” (L ). The Arabic
term features in the Arabic translation of Galen’s Anatomicarum Admin-
istrationum, ed. Garofalo, vol. , .:
2 ) C,KT, for Greek: πευ-
!υσμνον (4ντερον). For the identification, cf. ShM : àì äðàì úìçåìç
òôãðà äéìà ìöå àîäîå éìà§ë ìàæé àìô àòîàìà é÷àá ì§úî àãáà éù äéô úá§úé
øáòî à§öéà éîñéå øòáìà äðî §âø§ëé éà øòáî éîñé êì§ãìå äú÷åì (HLW. HLT
.
because nothing ever remains in it, unlike the other intestines; for it is
constantly empty, and whatever reaches it is immediately expelled, and
therefore it is called mab#ar, that is to say the excrements are expelled
from it; it is also called ma#bar).

. ïåùìá íéàø÷ðå ìåùá éöç íéìùåáî íéöá éðåîìç §§åìë ïéèéîøèä íéöáä 74éðåîìç
úùøáîéð øã÷
HLMWNY
. HBS. YM HTRMY
. TYN,
. i.e. half-cooked egg yolks and in
Arabic it is called NYMBRS̆T

Hebrew HLMWN
. means “yolk of an egg” and features in Rabbinic
literature, for instance in bAZ a (JD ; LW :; KT :; KA :).
For Hebrew BS. YM TRMY. TYN
. and Arabic NYMBRS̆T, cf. Bet no. .

. 76ãìë 䧧á 75äãìåç


HWLDH,
. Arab. KLD

Hebrew HWLDH
. means “mole or weasel” and features in the Bible (e.g.
Lev :) and Rabbinic literature (e.g. mPes .) (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW : f.; SD ; KA : f., :; BAL , ; DAS :;
LZ  ff.).

71 úìçåìç: úìçìç O
72 àéäå: àéä O àåäå V
73 äùëøëä :àùëøëä VO
74 úùøáîéð . . . éðåîìç: ìåùá éöç íéìùåáî §åìë úùøáîð 䧧á ïéèéîøú íéöá éðåîìç O éðåîìç
úùøáîð øãë ïåùìá íéàø÷ðå ìåùá éöç íéìùåáî §îåìë ïéèéîøè ò§§á íéìâìåâî íéöá V
75 äãìåç: àãìåç O
76 ãìë: ãåìë V
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic huld means “mole” (L ; BK ; JAD : ff.; KSZ :,
˘ ).
:; StS
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev :: õøùá àîèä íëì äæå
åäðéîì áöäå øáëòäå ãìçä õøàä ìò õøùä (The following shall be unclean
for you among the things that swarm on the earth: the mole, the mouse,
and great lizards of every variety): áàãìà áéáãìà ïî ñ§âðìà íëì à§ãäå
àäôàðöàì áöìàå øàôìàå §äãìçìà §õøàìà éìò (S ); see as well IJ ,
gloss MS Rouen (n. ); SF :; WB ; Maimonides on mPes .
(MK :).

. ùøñéìôéã 80óé§â 짧áå ïéàøôìà 79ñá§â 78䧧á 77ïå÷éèîìãä úéñøç


HRSYT
. HDLMTYQWN,
. Arab. ĞBS "LPR"YN, o.l. ĞYP DYPLYSRS̆

Hebrew HRSYT
. means “potter’s clay, clay ground” (JD ; LW :;
KA :, :; BM ; BKH , ; KT :; :) and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mMaasrSheni ..
Arabic ğibs means “gypsum” (L ; cf. as well Gimel no. ).
Maimonides on mMaasrSheni . explains HRSYT . as êåáèîìà ïéèìà
(cooked clay) (MK :); see as well EG , , .
For Hebrew ïå÷éèîìãä and Arabic ïéàøô, cf. Dalet no. .
The combination HRSYT
. HDLMTYQWN
. and ĞBS "LPR"YN is un-
clear.
The Romance term suggests a reading such as *gip de peliseiras (‘fur
makers gypsum’), with the term maybe designating a kind of clay or
gypsum used in the production of clothing or fur. For the Romance gip
cf. Gimel , for a commentary on PLYSRS̆ see Dalet .

. 82íåéñàôì 짧áå 81§õàîç 䧧á äöîåç


HWM
. S. H, Arab. HM"
. D, . o.l. LP"SYWM

The Hebrew term HWM


. S. H is possibly a variant reading of HWM#H
. (cf.
JD ) which designates “sorrel”, Rumex L. (EM ; AEY :;
LA  f.:; LF : ff.). According to Kohut (KA :), the term

77 ïå÷éèîìãä: ïå÷éèåîåìãä V
78 䧧á: ïéèéîøè add. V (cf. entry )
79 ñá§â: ñáâ VO
80 ùøñéìôéã óé§â: øééöìôã óéâ O ùøéöìôã óéâ V
81 §õàîç: õàîç O õîç V
82 íåéñàôì: íåéñôàì V
het
. 

õîåç as it features in mDem . refers to the same plant; Löw (LF :)
remarks, following Hasade , , that the more correct reading is õéîç.
äòîåç features, for instance, in the Book of Medicines attributed to Asaf
(AV :).
Arabic hummā
. d. means “sorrel”, Rumex L. and Var. (DT :; M ;
DAS :, :; LF : ff.). The Arabic term features in medieval
medical literature such as, for instance, Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(XXI, ) and is transcribed by N as: äùåèéñà àåä õàîåç and translated by
Z as: õàîåç éáøòá §÷ðä éöìñä (cf. as well KZ ).
The form LP"SYWM (or L"PSYWM in the Oxford MS respectively)
can be identified as the Medieval Latin lapacium (cf. NPRA , s.v.
lapathum, cf. Sin b), which designates different species of Rumex L.
(Sin a; NPRA loc. cit.).
For the identification of Arab. hummā
. d. as Lat. lapacium acutum, cf.
AdV .

. 85äùå÷ùéå øåîåà 짧áå 84§âæì 83èìç 䧧á ÷åìç èìç


HL
. T. HLWQ,
. . T. LZĞ, o.l. "WMWR WYS̆QWS̆H
Arab. HL

Hebrew HL . T. HLWQ
. means “smooth humour” and is not attested in
secondary literature (BM ; EM ).
Arabic HL . T. LZĞ, i.e. hilt. laziğ means “viscous humour” (L ;
WKAS : ff.; FAL :, ˘ :). The Arabic term features in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ), where it is translated as:
ä÷áã äçéì by both N and Z.
The vernacular term "WMWR WYS̆QWS̆H reflects the Latin or Ro-
mance *(h)umor viscosa/vescosa. This syntagmatic term is not docu-
mented in our sources. For O. Occ., we find the form umor (DAO :)
for ‘humours of the human body’ (PSW :b). In O. Occ., the adjec-
tive vescos is documented in the description “vescosa, plena d’umors”
(vescosa, full of humours, RL :a). It seems that the Romance term
is a literal translation of the Arabic one mentioned above.

83 èìç: emendation editors èìã MSS


84 §âæì: âæì VO
85 äùå÷ùéå: àùå÷ùéå O ÷áã úéçåìçì øîåìë add. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 89äãàðéôø÷ 88àðàì 짧áå 87ùåôðî óåö 䧧á 86äìéîç


HMYLH,
. Arab. S. WP MNPWS̆, o.l. L"N" QRPYN"DH

Hebrew HMYLH
. means “a blanket of thick, coarse stuff ” (JD ;
LW :; KA :; BM ; KT :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, for instance in mNed ..
Arabic s. uf manfūs̆ means “wool separated, or plucked asunder or
loosened, so that it became spread, or sparse, or dispersed” (L  f.);
cf. as well Sade
. no.  below.
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned (MK :) explains
HMYLH
. as: äéà÷å (wiqāya, cf. D :: “les tissus de soie et or, dont
les juives s’enveloppent la tête et qu’elles nomment oukaia au Maroc et
en Algérie” (cloth woven of silk or gold, which the Jews wrap around
the head and which are called oukaia in Morocco and Algeria); cf. as
well R. Dozy, Dictionnaire détaillé des noms des vêtements chez les Arabes,
Amsterdam , p.  f.).
The vernacular term in the Vatican and Oxford MSS is an O. Occ.
compound expression *lana carpenada, literally ‘wool picked into pieces’.
For the O. Occ. verb carpenar ‘zerrupfen’ (i.e., to pick something into
pieces), see PSW :a. For the O. Occ. or O. Cat. lana for ‘wool’, see
RL .b; FEW :b; DECLC :a; DCVB :a. The term most
probably refers to the wool prepared using teasels for spinning (cf. the
meaning of O. Sp. carpinado in DETEMA :b).
Von Wartburg (FEW –:a) points out that the derivates from Lat.
CARPERE have, in Gallo-Romance, the meaning ‘to pick (wool/canvas)
into pieces’. Their meaning differs from carder (i.e., to card) and refers
to preparing this operation; cf. the definitions “éplucher la laine avec les
doigts avant de la carder” (to pick the wool with the fingers before carding
it), “carder avec la main” (to pick with the hand).

. êìîìà 90íúàë 䧧á êìîä íúåç


HWTM
. HMLK, Arab. K"TM "LMLK

Hebrew HWTM
. HMLK literally means “seal of the king”.

86 äìéîç: àìéîç O
87 ùåôðî: õåôðî V
88 àðàì: äðàì V
89 äãàðéôø÷: àãàðéôø÷ O äãðôø÷ V õôåðî øîö øîåìë add. V
90 íúàë: íúë V
het
. 

Arabic hātam al-malik has the same meaning (L ).


AQ, fol.˘ b explains the term íúåç as: íúà§ëìà íñà §éöéà íñà åäå õô
[ . . . ] (A stone of a ring, it is a noun, also the noun for “seal”); cf. as
well ShM  f. Certain medicines that were kept in the royal treasury
were sealed with a royal seal; cf. Maimonides’ On Asthma (XIII,, cf.
BMA ).

. ùãéìáéã ùèùå÷ 짧áå ÷ìñìà òàì§öà 䧧á ïéãøú 91úåôéìç


HLYPWT
. TRDYN, Arab. " DL"#
. "LSLQ, o.l. QWS̆T. S̆ DYBLYDS̆

For Hebrew HLYPWT


. TRDYN and Arabic " DL"#
. "LSLQ, cf. Het
. no. .
For the vernacular term, cf. Het
. no. .

. ùåøåô 짧áå ïéùéøë 94秧áå 93úàøë 䧧á 92øéöç


H
. S. YR, Arab. KR"T, Rabbin. KRYS̆YN, o.l. PWRWS̆

Hebrew H . S. YR means “leek”, Allium porrum L., and features in the Bible
(Num :) and Rabbinic literature (mKel .), whereas KRYS̆YN is the
more common term for “leek” in Rabbinic literature (KB ; CD :;
JD ; LW : f.; AEY :; DAS : f., , :; FO  f.;
FM ; FZ  f.,  ff.; LF : ff.).
Arabic kurrāt is the generic term for “leek” (DT :; M ; DAS
:, ,  ¯n. , :; cf. as well Kaf no. ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Num :: ìëàð øùà äâãä úà åðøëæ
íéîåùä úàå íéìöáä úàå øéöçä úàå íéçèáàä úàå íéàù÷ä úà íðç íéøöîá (we
remember the fish that we used to eat freely in Egypt, the cucumbers,
the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic): àðë é§ãìà êîñìà àðøë§ã
íå§úìàå ìöáìàå §úàøëìàå §êéèáìàå à§ú÷ìàå àðà§âî øöîá äìëàð (S ); Ibn
Janāh. on the same verse (IJ ); and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited
above (MK :). See as well WB  n. .
The vernacular PWRWS̆ must be read as the O. Cat. plural porros or
the Latin porrus (cf. NPRA , s.v. porrum), with the meaning ‘leeks’
or ‘leek’ respectively. In O. Occ., we only find the forms porr, poyre
(RL :a) and por (FEW :a), porre with the plural forms pors,
porrs, porres and pos (PSW :a–b). In O. Cat., the forms porre (first

91 ùãéìáéã ùèùå÷ 짧áå ÷ìñìà òàì§öà 䧧á ïéãøú úåôéìç: om. OV


92 øéöç: éöç O
93 úàøë: úøë O
94 秧áå: om. V
 shem tov, synonym list 

documentation in ) and porro (first documentation ) coexisted,


but the second form survived due to its correspondence with the rules
of Cat. morphology, with the plural porros (see DECLC :a) being
formed from it.
For the identification the Arabic term as O. Cat. porros, cf. AdV ,
.

. 95àãéö÷ 짧áå ãîø 䧧á øôàä éìç


HLY
. H"PR, Arab. RMD, o.l. QS. YD"

Hebrew HLY. H"PR, literally meaning “disease of the ashes”, is not attested
in secondary literature. The term was possibly coined by Shem Tov
as a loan translation of the Arabic ramad (lit. “ashes”), which, as a
medical term, means “ophthalmia” and is translated in medieval medical
literature by Z as: íééðéòä éìç or is transcribed by N: as ãîø (Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms: XIX, ; cf. BMMb ; cf. as well L ; IR , ,
; MH  Index; SN ).
The vernacular term QS. YD" is the O. Occ. cassida with the meaning of
‘defluxion of the eyes’ (PSW :b), derived from Vulgar Latin *caccita
for ‘sleep (in the eyes)’ (see FEW –:b).

. óéñàøù 䧧á íééöìç


HL
. S. YYM, Arab. S̆R"SYP

Hebrew HL . S. YYM means “loins” and features in the Bible (e.g. Is :)
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. bHag . b) (KB ; JD ; BM ;
Low LI; PB ).
Arabic s̆ursūf, plur. s̆arāsı̄f, means the “cartilage attached to each rib”
(L ; DKT , ; FAL :; IR ) and features in medieval
medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (e.g.
VI, ; cf. BMMb ), where p,%q )W 7 (i.e. the hypochondria) is
translated by Z as: íéöìçä úçúî (cf. as well KZ  and ).
Sa#adya translates åéöìç øåæà (The belts on their waists) in Is : as:
äéå÷ç øàæà (cf. DS ; RT ), Ibn Janāh. (IJ ) on Job : and : as:
C?6,], and AQ, fol. b translates åéöìç as: åäøöàå§ë.

95 àãéö÷: äãéö÷ V
het
. 

. 96ì§ëì§ëú 䧧á äìçìç


HL
. HLH,
. Arab. THLHL
˘ ˘
Hebrew HL . HLH
. means “shaking, trembling” (KB ), “shivers, chill”
(Low LI), “convulsion” (BM ) and features in the Bible, e.g. Is :.
Arabic tahalhul from the root tahalhala means “being shaken, dis-
˘ ).
jointed” (HaF ˘ ˘ ˘
Sa#adya on Is : translates HL
. HLH
. as ÷ì÷ (cf. DS ; RT ).

. 98ùøì÷ùåî 짧áå 97øéðàðö 䧧á íéçç


H
. HYM,
. Arab. S. N"NYR, o.l. MWS̆QLRS̆

Hebrew H . H,. plur. H . HYM,


. means “hook, thorn, awl, fastening, clasp,
chain; fibula” and features in the Bible (e.g. Is : (=  Kings :))
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. Ex. R. s. ) (KB ; CD :; JD ;
KA :, :; BM ).
Arabic s. innāra, plur. s. anānı̄r, means “iron hook” (D :).
For the identification, cf. Ibn Janāh. (IJ ) and Se#adya ibn Danān on
Is : (SID :); see as well SF :.
The vernacular term MWS̆QLRS̆ corresponds to the plural of O. Occ.
mosclar (RL :a; PSW :a; FEW –:a). Raynouard gives it
the meaning ‘nasse’, i.e. ‘fish trap’ (RL :a), which is corrected by
Levy to ‘Angelhaken’, i.e., ‘fish hook’, (PSW :a), as confirmed by the
Hebrew and Arabic synonyms in our text. Following von Wartburg, the
O. Occ. mosclar is documented in the Languedocian variety in the th
century with the meaning ‘fish hook’, derived from the Latin etymon
MUSCULARIS (from MUSCULA ‘little fly’), which went through a
semantic shift in O. Occ. (FEW –:b–a).

. 100àéð àöéà éçå àéð 䧧á 99ïééç


HYYN,
. Arab. NY" and HY . is as well NY"

Aramaic HYYN,
. plural of HY,
. means ) “living; alive; living creature;
healthy”; ) “in natural condition; raw; unmixed” (JD ), or: “living,
raw, unmixed, flowing” (SD F; SDA ).

96 ì§ëì§ëú: ìëìëú O ìéëìåâú V ùàìëùåî 짧áå add. V (cf. entry )


97 øéðàðö: øééðàö V
98 ùøì÷ùåî: ùøàì÷ùåî O, (cf. entry ) om. V
99 àéð àöéà éçå àéð 䧧á ïééç: àð àöéà éçå 䧧á ïééç O, om. V
100 àéð: emendation editors éàð P
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic nı̄" means “raw, untouched by fire” (L ). In a medical


context, the term is used in particular to indicate the raw, uncooked state
of bodily humours. Thus, it features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(XX, , ; XXI, ) and is transcribed by N as: àð and by Z as: àð or éð.

. 104éøéôéã 103ìéáåø 짧áå ãéãçìà 102àãö 䧧á 101ìæøáä úãåìç


HLWDT
. HBRZL, Arab. S. D" "LHDYD,
. o.l. RWBYL DYPYRY

Hebrew HLWDT. HBRZL means “iron rust” (for äãåìç, cf. JD ;
LW :; KA :, :; Low LI).
Arabic s. ada" al-hadı̄d
. also means “iron rust” (for s. ada", cf. L ).
The vernacular expression RWBYL DYPYRY has to be interpreted as
O. Occ. *rovilh de ferre or O. Cat. *rovell de ferre for ‘oxidation of iron’.
The combination of both words is not documented in our sources. The
O. Occ. rovilh (PSW :a–b) is documented with the meaning ‘iron
oxyde, tarnishing of silver’ (DAO :); the corresponding O. Cat. term
is rovell, and both terms are derived from Lat. ROBĪGO (DECLC :a–
b). The variant in the Oxford MS must be interpreted as a West-
ern Romance form showing the loss of the intervocalic labial occlusive,
such as O. Occ. roill (RL :a) or the Northern Catalan variety roell
(DCVB :b). The O. Occ. and O. Cat. form ferre for ‘iron’ is fre-
quently documented (RL :a; PSW :a; four entries in the index
of RMA ; DCVB :a).

. ãéîëú 䧧á 105ìåúç


HTWL,
. Arab. TKMYD

Hebrew HTWL
. means “bandage” and features in the Bible (Ez :) and
medieval literature (KB ; CD :; BM ; cf. as well Low LII s.v.
äìåúç “swaddling”).
Arabic takmı̄d means “to apply a hot compress” (L F). The Arabic
term features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (X, ) and is translated
by N as: äîç äçðä and by Z as: ãéîëú àø÷ðä äçéùî.

101 ìæøáä: ìæøá O


102 àãö: äãàö V
103 ìéáåø: ìéàåø O ìéáåø V
104 éøéôéã: éøéôã VO éVéôéE P
105 ìåúç: ìeú!ç P
het
. 

. 107ù÷ùéøá 짧áå 106ãäù 䧧á ùáã úåìç


HLWT
. DBS̆, Arab. S̆HD, o.l. BRYS̆QS̆

Hebrew HLWT. DBS̆ means “honey combs” and features in Rabbinic


literature, for instance, in mUqz . (JD ; LW :; BM ;
DAS :).
Arabic s̆ahd or s̆uhd means “honey or honey in its wax, i.e. its combs”
(L ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
ãäùìà òè÷ éä :ùáã úåìç (MK :).
The vernacular term BRYS̆QS̆ is the plural of O. Occ. and O. Cat. bresca
(DECLC :b; also cf. O. Occ. vrezqua in CB ) with the meaning
‘honeycomb’ (RL :b). The origin of the word is not clear, but it dates
back to the Pre-Roman period (DECLC loc. cit.). In S̆ars̆ot ha-Kesef,
we find the gloss BRYS̆Q", but here it glosses the Hebrew word s. uf for
‘honeycomb’ (S̆hK ). For O. Cat, it is documented for the first time in
a Ramon Llull text from about  (DECLC loc. cit.).

. ïåæìçä 109àåäå 108ïåæìç 䧧á èîåç


HWM
. T,
. Arab. HLZWN,
. i.e. HHLZWN
.

Hebrew HWM. T. means “lizard, chameleon” and features in the Bible


(Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, for instance, in bHag. a (KB  f.;
JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ; BAL  f.; BH :, :, ,
; LFa ; LZ ).
For Hebrew ïåæìç and Arabic halazūn,
. cf. Het
. no. .
The Hebrew term HWM . T. is translated by Sa#adya and Ibn Janāh. as
àáøçìà (S ; IJ ). However, as Rashi on Lev : translates HWM
. T.
as: 䧧öîéì, David Kimhi, 110
. Sefer ha-Shorashim, col. , remarks that
according to some it is a reptile called: “১ñîéì”, and S̆hK  has a gloss
lym’s (see the vernacular term in Het . no. ). There must have been a
tradition identifying HWM
. T. with HLZWN.
.

106 ãäù: ?ãäë O


107 ù÷ùéøá: ùà÷ùéøá VO
108 ïåæìç: àöîéì 짧áå add. V
109 ïåæìçä àåäå: om. V
110 Ed. Biesenthal-Lebrecht, Berlin .
 shem tov, synonym list 

. úåèùä éðéîî ïéî àåäå 114ñàåñå 113짧æ 112ïåàâ äéãòñ åðéáø åúåà ùøéô 111óúç
HTP
. is interpreted by R. Sa#adya Ga"on, of blessed memory, as WSW"S
and it is a kind of delusion

Hebrew HTP . means “robbery” (KB ; CD :; BM ; EM )


and features in the Bible (Prov :).
Arabic waswās means ) “speech, or talk, that is indistinct, or low and
confused”; ) “an evil idea, imagination, or thought, which occurs to
the mind”; ) “melancholia, in which is a doting in the imagination and
judgment, a sort of delirium” (L  f.; D :) and features in medieval
medical literature with the meaning delusion (cf. Dols, Majnun, pp. ,
, , –).115 Thus, it occurs in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms
(e.g. II, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by N as: ìåáìá and by Z as:
íåîòù àåä àñåñå. Cf. as well KZ .
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Prov :: áøàú óúçë àéä óà
óñåú íãàá íéãâåáå (She too lies in wait as if for prey, and destroys the
unfaithful among men): ïéøàãâ ñàðìà éô ãéæúå ïîëú ñàåñåìàë à§öéà éäå
(SM , cf. also n. ).

111 óúç: óúç P


112 ïåàâ: om. OV
113 짧æ: om. O
114 ñàåñå: ñåñå V
115 M.W. Dols, Majnun: The Madman in Medieval Islamic Society. Edited by D.E. Im-

misch, Oxford .


TET
.

. íåèàìé§âù 1ìåá 짧áå íåúëî ïéè 䧧á íåúç èéè


TY
. T. HTWM,
. Arab. TYN
. MKTWM, o.l. BWL S̆ĞYL" TWM
.

Hebrew TY . T. HTWM. is possibly a loan translation of Arabic t. ı̄n mahtūm,


literally “sealed earth” (cf. below and JD ). Instead of èéè meaning ˘
“loam” (cf. BM ), we find ïéè, cf. Maimonides, On Poisons (BMP ),
transl. Moses ibn Tibbon: ha-t. in he-hatum.
Arabic t. ı̄n mahtūm means “Terra˘sigillata or Lemnian earth” (L ;
IR ). ˘
Terra sigillata, i.e. “sealed earth or clay”, was called in this way because
the pastilles prepared from these kinds of earth or clay were marked
with a seal. Thus Pliny, Natural History XXXV,  refers to that from the
island of Lemnos under the name σφραγς (seal). It was actually the best
known of the different kinds of terra sigillata introduced into medicine
by the Greeks, and was, according to Renaud and Colin,2 hydrated iron
peroxide, which served as an antitoxin. According to Siggel, Das Buch
der Gifte des Ğābir ibn Hayyān,
. p. , it was a reddish earth from
the isle of Chios that was taken to Byzantium in sealed form; it was
possibly an Al-Mg silicate. Maimonides, Glossary of Drug Names, s.v. t. ı̄n
(M ) mentions three different kinds of terra sigillata, namely from
Lemnos, Buhayra . and Yemen. See as well E.I.2, vol. , p. , , s.v. t. ı̄n
(C.E. Bosworth): “Edible clay or earth. This was a diatomaceous earth or
kieselguhr, made up of the siliceous remains of minute organisms, and
was found in various parts of Persia in mediaeval Islamic times.”
The vernacular variants in the Oxford and Vatican MSS seem to be
Romance adaptations of the Latin term terra sigillata (e.g. an O. Occ. or
O. Cat. *terra sage(l)lada/sege(l)lada). The O. Occ. term terra segelada
is documented in CB () with the meaning ‘argillaceous soil’. For
O. Occ. and O. Cat. terra ‘earth, soil’, see DCVB (:a); DECLC
(:a) and DAO (:), where the following specific meaning is given:

1 íåèàìé§âù ìåá: àãàìéâù àøéè O äãàìéâù àøéè V


2 H.P.J. Renaud and G.S. Colin, Tuhfat al-ahbāb. Glossaire de la matière médicale
. .
Marocaine. Texte publieé pour la première fois avec traduction, notes critiques et index,
Paris , no. .
 shem tov, synonym list 

‘terre argileuse dont se servent les potiers pour faire leurs ouvrages’ (i.e.
argillaceous soil, which the potters used for their products). For the
O. Occ. verb sagellar, sagelar, segelar or sugelar ‘seal’, see FEW (:b);
RL (:a–b); PSW (:b). For O. Cat., see DCVB (:a); DECLC
(:b): segellar ‘marcar o cloure amb segell’ (i.e. to mark or close
with a seal) since , with the variant sigillar (). The Lat. term
is documented in an O. Occ. text with the meaning ‘terre sigillée’ (‘sealed
earth’) (RMA , ).
The Paris MS uses a synonym for terra in the sense of ‘clay’, namely
O. Occ. bol or bolh (from Lat. BŌLUS < Gr. β5λος, see DECLC :b)
for ‘bolus, medical clay’ (RL :b; FEW :b–b: for ‘Erdscholle’,
i.e. clod or soil; also see RMM  and RMM ). The word bol(h) was
normally used as part of the compound term bol armenic, see entry Tet . ,
which is the only context in which the corresponding Catalan word bol(l)
appears according to the dictionaries we consulted (as bo(l)l armini, cf.
DECLC :b, since ). The term we find here is a hybrid form bol
sigillatum, which is a combination of the O. Occ. or O. Cat. noun and the
same Lat. perfect passive participle that is used in terra sigillata, used here
in its neuter form, sigillatum (FEW :a). Neither this combination
nor any other compound expression that includes bol (except for bol
armenic) is documented in our sources.
For the identification of Arab. t. ı̄n mahtūm as Lat. bolus/terra sigillata
cf. AdV , ; ibid.  mentions for ˘ O. Cat. bol(i)um sagillatum.
GHAT : identifies the Arabic term as O. Cat. TYR" . S̆ĞYL"DH.

. 3íå÷ðéîøà ìåá 짧áå éðéîøà ïéè 䧧á éîøà èéè


. T. "RMY, Arab. TYN
TY . "RMYNY, o.l. BWL "RMYNQWM

Hebrew TY . T. "RMY (read: TY . T. "RMNY) seems to be a loan translation of


Arabic t. ı̄n armı̄nı̄ (cf. below) and features in medieval medical literature
(cf. BM : éðîøà èéè).
Arabic t. ı̄n armı̄nı̄ means “Armenian bole or earth” (L ; M ); cf.
Renaud-Colin, Tuhfat . al-ahbāb,
. ibid.
The Latin counterpart of the Arabic term is bolus armenicus, which
appears in the Alphita (see Sin : fn. ; CA , ). This term is
reflected in the vernacular expression in MSS P and O, which is, however,
a blend of the Romance word bol or bolh/boll (see entry Tet . ) and the

3 íå÷ðéîøà: íå÷éðîøà O ÷éðéîøà V


tet
. 

Lat. adjective in its neuter form, armenicum. The term bolarmenicum is


documented in an O. Fr. text (FEW :b, ‘bol d’Arménie, argile rouge
et visqueuse qu’on faisait venir d’Orient et qui entrait dans la composition
de certains médicaments’, i.e. Armenian bole, red and viscous clay, which
was imported from the Orient and which was used for the composition
of certain medicines). In the Vatican MS, we find the O. Occ. term bol
armenic (see RL :b; FEW :b). Coromines points out (with
respect to the corresponding Catalan term, see entry Tet . ) that this
substance was frequently searched for in mines and natural caves in the
region of Valencia (DECLC :b).
For the identification of Arab. t. ı̄n armı̄nı̄ as Lat. bolus armenicus
cf. AdV ; ibid.  mentions bolium armenicum and boliarmini for
O. Cat. In GHAT : we find BWL"RMYNY for O. Cat. and BWLWM
"RMYNYQWM for Lat., both identified as Arabic t. ı̄n armı̄nı̄.

. 7êðøæå ãéñî áëøåî øáã 6àåäå 5øåãìô 짧áå 4äøåð 䧧á ãéñëøè
TRKSYD,
. Arab. NWRH, o.l. PLDWR, which is something composed of
lime and arsenic

Hebrew TRKSYD
. means “binding cement” and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bBB b (JD ; LW :: “steiniger, felsiger Kalk”
(stony and rocky lime); KA :; :; KT :,  n. ). The
etymology of the term is unclear. According to Jastrow (ibid.), it is
a combination of two words, namely êWè and ãéñ, and, according to
Levy (ibid.) and Kohut (ibid.), of Greek τραχ (“rough, harsh”, LS )
and ãéñ. The Geonim explain TRKSYD. as a superior kind of plaster
and identify it as: âãéôñ (= G,H%, white lead, ceruse); cf. ATG  (=
BT : f.: ãéñä ïî äìòîì åúåà ïéçèå åðîî äìåòîå ãéñ ïéîî ãçà ïéî :ãéñëøè
âãéôñ éáøò ïåùìá åîùå (TRKSYD:
. It is a kind of plaster, but better than
it, and one smears it on top of the plaster and in Arabic it is called:
âãéôñ)). (cf. KT : n. , Lieberman, Tosefta ki-fshut. ah, p. , s.v.
ãéñ éëøè).8
Arabic nūra means “gelöschter Kalk; Haarentfernungsmittel” (slaked
lime; depilatory) (L ; GS  f., , ; Sig ; SP  ff.; cf. as well

4 äøåð: àøåð VO
5 øåãìô: øåãàìô VO
6 êðøæå ãéñî áëøåî øáã àåäå: ÷éðøæå ãéñî áëøåî øáã àåäå V, om. O
7 êðøæå: [ . . . ]ôøáà àåä êéðøæ V1
8 S. Lieberman, Tosefta ki-fshutah. A comprehensive commentary on the Tosefta.
.
Part VIII: Order Nashim, New York .
 shem tov, synonym list 

H. Grotzfeld, Das Bad im arabisch-islamischen Mittelalter, Wiesbaden


, p. ). Moses ibn Tibbon renders the Arabic nūra as ùãç ãéñ in
his translation of Maimonides’ On Poisons (BMP ).
The composition of arsenic and quicklime had been used as a depila-
tory since ancient times; for a recipe see, e. g., DETEMA :b s.v.
silotro, a depilatory medicine: “mientra entra en el baño sea vntado con
psillotro fecho de quatro partes de la cal e vna de arsenico cochas con el
vinagre e agua.” (i.e when he enters into the bath, he should be anointed
with psillotro made of four parts of lime and one of arsenic, boiled with
vinegar and water) Cauliac (th c.). Consequently, the vernacular term
is the O. Cat. pelador ‘instrument o matèria que s’aplicava a la pell de
persones o de bèsties per arrabassar-ne els pèls’ (i.e., an instrument or
substance that was applied to the skin of persons or animals to eracinate
the hairs) (DCVB :a). In contrast to the ample documentation for
Cat. (see DCVB loc. cit.), O. Occ. does not appear in our sources.

. çã÷ 䧧á éðè


TNY,
. Arab. QDH .

Hebrew TNY,
. bibl. TN",
. means “a certain dry measure” or “travelling box,
basket” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (KB ;
JD ; LW :: “ein grosses, metallenes Gefäss” (a big, metallic jar);
KA : f. s.v. ïè: “ein korbähnliches Gefäss” (a basket-like bin); BM 
s.v. àðè; KT :,  n. ).
Arabic qadah. means “a drinking-cup or bowl” (L ; DRD :
“tumbler”).
Maimonides on mKel . and mEduy . explains Hebrew éðè as a
solid container made of iron or copper used by the physicians to keep
their remedies in (MK :, :). Cf. as well BKH .

. 11àøåùðåô 짧áå 10âãì 䧧á 9ä÷éøè


TRYQH,
. Arab. LDG, o.l. PWNS̆WR"

Hebrew TRYQH
. is a verbal noun derived from TRQ,
. which means “sting,
bite” (BM , for TRQ,
. cf. JD ; LW :; KA :, :; BM ).
Arabic ladġ means “stinging or biting” (WKAS : f.).

9 ä÷éøè: à÷éøè O ÷éøè V


10 âãì: âãåì V
11 àøåùðåô: àøåéðéô O àøåééðåô V1
tet
. 

PWNS̆WR" represents O. Occ. ponchura ‘sting, bite’ (RL :a; FEW


:b, s.v. PUNCTŪRA), punchura ‘sting, stinging’ (PSW :b). See
the quotations in RL (“ponchuras del verinos serpens de yfern”, i.e. bites
of the poisonous serpent of the hell) and PSW (“la punchura [d’]una
mosca”, i.e. bite of a fly). The corresponding verb is ponchar/ punchar
‘to sting’—which also existed in O. Cat. as punxar (DECLC :b); a
derivation *punxura is possible—with the variant pinchar listed in the
PSW (:a). The variants used in the Oxford and Vatican MSS could
be corrupt forms of ponhedura, ponhidura ‘sting, bite’ (PSW :b;
FEW :b) or another non-attested form derived from O. Occ. pónher
or O. Cat. púnyer ‘to sting’ (DECLC :b), e.g. *ponhura, *punyura.

. àìéè 䧧á äçéè


TY
. HH,
. Arab. TYL"
.

Hebrew TY . HH. means “plastering” and features in Rabbinic literature


(e.g. in mNeg .) and medieval medical literature (JD ; LW :;
BM ). The term features in the Hebrew translation (from the Arabic)
of the Alexandrian Summaries of the Sixteen Books by Galen prepared
by Simson ben Solomon in the year  under the title ñåðéìàâ éöåá÷
(following BM ; cf. E. Lieber, Galen in Hebrew, pp. –).12
Arabic t. ilā" means “any fluid, semifluid, liniment, unguent, oil, var-
nish, plaster, or the like, with which a thing is daubed, smeared, rubbed
or done over, anointed, painted, varnished, plastered, coated, overspread,
or overlaid” (L ; cf. KZ ). The Arabic term features, e.g. in Mai-
monides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXII, ; XXIV, ), where it is translated
by N as: äéèø and by Z as: çùî, and in Maimonides’ On Asthma XI,  and
XII,  (cf. BMA  and ), where the plural ,LI& is translated as: úåéèø by
Joshua Shatibi and as: úåçéùî by both Samuel Benveniste and the anony-
mous translator.

. àðéðåè 짧áå ïåè 䧧á úéøè


TRYT,
. Arab. TWN,
. o.l. TWNYN"
.

Hebrew TRYT,
. from Greek !ρσσα (LS ; KG :; LR ; SD )
or Latin triton (GH :; cf. LW :; KG :; LR ), means

12 E. Lieber, “Galen in Hebrew”, Galen: Problems and Prospects. A Collection of Papers

submitted at the  Cambridge Conference. Edited by Vivian Nutton, London ,
pp. –.
 shem tov, synonym list 

“preserve, pickle” and esp. “salted or pickled fish” (JD ) and “a kind of
tuna” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNed ., and mAZ .
(LW :; SD , Aram. éøè: “type of fish, salted fish pieces sold in the
market”; KA :, :; LFa  f.; LZ  f.).
Arabic t. ūn or tūna means “tuna”; cf. G. Oman, L’ittionimia nei Paesi
Arabi del Mediterraneo, Firenze , no. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. tonina ‘salted tuna’ (PSW :b–
a) or O. Cat. tonyna ‘tuna’ (DECLC :b). Following Coromines,
the O. Cat. term originally designated just one variety of tuna (DECLC
loc. cit.).

. 13äéøè 䧧á íééøè


TRYYM,
. Arab. TRYH
.

Hebrew TRY,
. plur. TRYYM,
. means “fresh” and features in the Bible (e.g.
in Ju :, and  Sam :) and medieval literature (KB ; CD :;
BM ).
Arabic t. arı̄" has the same meaning (L ).
For the identification, cf. IJ ; SF :; WB . Sa#adya on Is : (S;
RT ) translates äéøè äëî (festering sores) as: §§äçé÷úñî §§äáø§ö.
For the Romance synonym which is added only here in MS O, see the
commentary on entry Tet . .

. 14ä§öàéø 䧧á ìåéè


TYWL,
. Arab. RY" DH
.

Hebrew TYWL
. means “walking, going errands” (JD ; LW :). It
is possible that Shem Tov employs the term in the non-attested sense of
“physical exercise” for Arabic riyāda.
.
Arabic riyāda. originally had the meaning of “training, disciplining
oneself through exercise, exercise” (D : f.). In medieval medical
literature, it is the common term for “physical exercise” and features, for
instance, in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (III, , ; cf. BMMa 
and ) where it is translated by N as: úåìîòúä and by Z as: çøåè.

13 äéøè: äééøè VO ÷ùéøô 짧á add. O


14 ä§öàéø: äöàéø VO
tet
. 

. 16ùéåùú 䧧á 15óåøéè


TYRWP,
. Arab. TS̆WYS̆

Hebrew TYRWP
. means “confusion, distraction, trouble” and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBer . (JD ; LW :; BM ; cf. as
well Low LIII and PB ).
Arabic tas̆wı̄s̆ means “confusion; indisposition” (D :). The term
features as Yo in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XV, ), where it is
translated by N as: ìáìáúä and by Z as: øòúñä.

. äçéôö 䧧á äìáè


TBLH,
. Arab. S. PYHH
.

Hebrew TBLH,
. from Greek τβλα, Latin tabula (LS ; GH : f.;
KG :), means “plank, board, tablet for writing, book of accounts,
list, will” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bPes a (JD ;
LW : f.; SD ; KA :, :; BKH  ff.; KT :, , , :,
, , , , :, , ). Maimonides, for instance, on mKel .,
explains Hebrew TBLH . as Arabic çåì (lawh)
. (MK :).
Arabic s. afı̄ha
. means “a wide or broad stone, plank, board, plate”
(L ); cf. Gimel .

. àøîúñà 䧧á äðéçè


T. HYNH,
. Arab. "STMR"

Hebrew T. HYNH
. means “grinding” and, figuratively, “sexual contact” and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bSot a (JD ; KA :, :;
BM ).
Arabic ist mar" means “podex or anus of a human being” (L ,  f.).

. 18úùøáîéð 䧧á 17àèéîøè


TRMY
. T",
. Arab. NYMBRS̆T

Cf. Bet no. .

15 óåøéè: óåøè V
16 ùéåùú: ùééåùú O ùéùú V
17 àèéîøè: äèéîøè O
18 úùøáîéð: úùøáîð V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. áäã 20§§äçéôö 䧧á áäæ ìù 19ñè


TS
. S̆L ZHB, Arab. S. PYHH. DHB

Hebrew TS . S̆L ZHB means “foil or plate made of gold” and features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :; KA :,
: f.). Arabic s. afı̄hat
. dahab means “plate made of gold” (cf. Gimel
no.  above). ¯
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned
above (MK :).

. úøôåò ïéòë àåäå 22ïåøá 짧áå øáâà 䧧á 21óåçè


T. HWP,
. Arab. "GBR, o.l. BRWN, it is like lead

Hebrew T. HWP
. means “dirty-white, grey” and features in Rabbinic lit-
. b, as a variant of S̆HWP: úåôåçè ïéðéî éðù åì åéä
erature, e.g. in bHul
úåðáìå (úåôåçù) (If he had two kinds [of wool], grey and white) (JD ;
LW :; BM ; KA :).
Arabic aġbar means “dust-colored” (L ).
The vernacular term featuring in the Paris and Vatican MSS is brun
(see the entry Gimel ). The variant given in the Oxford MS, BWRWN,
appears to be corrupt (for the epenthetic Waw see the introduction).

. 25ùéùéì 짧áå 24ïàáìâìà àåä 23çôåè


TWP
. . that is "LĞLB"N, o.l. LYS̆YS̆
H,

Hebrew TWP . H. designates the plant Lathyrus Cicera L. or Lathyrus


sativus L., “everlasting-pea” (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; AEY
:; DAS :, ; FH ; FM ; FZ  ff.; LA  f.:; LF
: ff.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mPeah ..
Arabic al-ğulubbān designates “vetch” (L ; D :; DT :, n. ;
M ; DAS :; cf. as well Shin no.  below).

19 áäæ ìù ñè: áäæ ìù ìñè P äæ ìù ñè V


20 áäã §§äçéôö: áäã äçéôö O áäã çéôè V
21 óåçè: óçè V
22 ïåøá: ïåøåá O
23 çôåè: çôè V
24 ïàáìâìà: ïàáìà VP
25 ùéùéì: ùàùééàâ O ùé!ùéì P ùùéì V
tet
. 

For the identification, cf. the Geonic commentary on Tohorot (EG


). Maimonides on mTevul . (MK :) explains the term as:
ïàîèø÷ (oats).
The vernacular term featuring in the Oxford MS is the plural of the
O. Occ. plant name gieissa, which exactly fits the meaning of the Hebrew
word. This plant name, which is of unclear etymology and seems to be
totally absent from Catalan, has an ample documentation for O. Occ.,
see DAO :: gieissa, Lathyrus sativus (), with the variants gieiza,
geysa, geyssa, geysha, geicha, geisso, jaissa, jaisse (plus the following forms
that are classified as M. Lat., see DAO :: gaicia, gueysha, ge(y)ssia,
jessa, jayssia, geissa, geyssa). It is worth mentioning that the French
variant (cf. gesse in Mod. French) appears in a Judeo-French gloss as
YYS̆S̆, YYS̆N, YYS̆YS̆ and YaYS̆eY (DBG ), transcribed by Blondheim
as jese (also cf. FEW :b, which indicates the meaning Lathyrus
sativus).
The Lamed at the beginning of the variants given in MSS P and V is
either an error or might be the definite article la; since we obviously have
the plural form here, we would have to suppose that the article became
agglutinated so as to form a word such as *lagieissa. As Brunel observes
in the recipes he edited, a plural noun often appears with a singular
article (RMA XI), e. g. la fuelhas (RMA  and ). This would represent
another, albeit not very probable hypothesis.

. åãéá äëîå íéàùã åá åìùáúéðù íéîá åà ïîùá åãé ìáåè ùåøéô 26ìéèðú 䧧á çôè
äëéñ êøã íå÷îä ìò
TP
. H,
. Arab. TNTYL,
. means to dip one’s hand in oil or water in which
herbs have been cooked and to hit the [affected] spot with it as an
anointment

Hebrew TP. H. means “to clap hands, to strike” or “to wet” (JD  f.;
SD ; KA :, :; BM  f.).
Arabic tant. ı̄l means “the application of fomentations” and features
in medieval medical literature, for instance in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (XIII, ) and is translated by N as: ä÷éöé and by Z as:
úåìéèð.

26 ìéèðú: ìéðâã V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 28÷ùéøô 짧áå àéøè 䧧á 27éøè


TRY,
. Arab. TRY",
. o.l. PRYS̆Q

For Hebrew TRY


. and Arabic t. arı̄" , cf. Tet
. no. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. adjective fresc for ‘fresh’
(DAO :; FEW :a; RL :b; PSW :a; DECLC :a;
DCVB :b, cf. Tet
. no. , add. MS O).

27 ÷ùéøô 짧áå àéøè 䧧á éøè: om. O àì §îåìë add. V


28 ÷ùéøô: ÷"ùéX"ô P
YOD

. øàîà 4éøîåâå÷ 짧áå øàîçìà 3àú÷ íéøåîçä éàåù÷ 2àéä øåîç 1ú÷åøé
YRWQT HMWR,
. i.e. donkey cucumbers, QT" "LHM"R,
. o.l. QWGWMRY
"M"R

Hebrew YRWQT HMWR . designates the plant Ecbalium elaterium Rich.,


“squirting cucumber” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mOhol
. (KA : f., :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :; FO  f.;
FM ; FZ  f.; LF : f.).
Arabic qittā" al-himār,
. lit. “donkey’s cucumber”, designates the same
¯¯
plant (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. the Geonic commentary on Tohorot which
explains YRWQT HMWR . as Hebrew íéøåîçä éàåù÷ and as Arabic qittā"
al-himār
. (EG ); see as well Maimonides on mOhol . (MK :). ¯For¯
Hebrew íéøåîçä éàåù÷ and Arabic qittā" al-himār, . cf. as well Qof no. 
below. ¯¯
The vernacular term in the Oxford and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ.
term cogombre amar (for the whole term see CB ; for the noun
cf. RL :b, FEW –:b; for the adjective cf. RL :b–b)
and seems to be a synonym for cocumbre aigre ‘cornichon vert’ (i.e.
green gherkin) (RMA ) and cogombre salva(t)g(g)e, literally for ‘wild
cucumber’ (CB , ; RMM ; RM ). The variant in the Paris MS
seems to be *cogomre amar, without epenthetic -b-; cf. the O. Sp. cogomro
(DETEMA :b). In Cat., we find the compound expression cogombre
amarg as a synonym for cogombre bord, cogombre boig and cogombre
silvestre, all of which designate a plant of the species Ecbalium elaterium
(cf. DCVB :a). The DCVB also lists the ancient Cat. variant amar
(:a–b), so that the term featuring here might also be interpreted
as Catalan. But Coromines argues that this form only coexisted with
amarg in the writings of Cerverí de Girona when he wrote in O. Occ.
(DECLC :a). However, see the form cogombra amar in an O. Cat.

1 øåîç ú÷åøé: øåîçä úå÷åøé V


2 íéøåîçä éàåù÷ àéä: íéøåîçä ïàåù÷ àåä V
3 øàîçìà àú÷: øîçìà àú÷ VO
4 øàîà éøîåâå÷: øàîà éøáîåâå÷ O øîà éøáîåâå÷ V
 shem tov, synonym list 

translation of Arnau de Villanova (AdV ) identified as Arab. qittā"


al-himār (ibid. , ). ¯¯
.

. 6æãéìá 짧áå äéðàîéìà 5§§äì÷á åà æåáøé 䧧á úåðâ ìù ïéæåáøé


YRBWZYN S̆L GNWT, Arab. YRBWZ or BQLH "LYM"NYH, o.l. BLYDZ

Hebrew YRBWZ, plur. YRBWZYN, designates the plant “blite”, Alber-


sia Blitum Kunth., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi
. as: ïéèåùä ïéæåáøé “wild blite” (cf. below) (JD ; LW :, ;
SD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; FM ; LA  f.:;
LF : ff.; cf. as well FZ  f.: Amaranthus). YRBWZYN S̆L GNWT,
which is not attested in secondary literature, possibly designates the cul-
tivated variety of blite.
Arabic yarbūz (derived from Persian (LA  f.:; BLS )) or
baqla yamāniya means “blite” and its varieties (DT :; M ). In
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XX, ) yarbūz is translated by N as:
õèéìá (BLYT . S. ) and by Z as: æåáøé §÷ðä ÷øéä.
For the identification of Hebrew YRBWZYN as Arabic yarbūz, cf.
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned above (MK :).
The vernacular term corresponds to the O. Occ. or O. Cat. plural blez
or blets (RMM ; DCVB :b–a) of the plant name blet for ‘ama-
ranth’ (FEW :b), which is ‘blite’, thus conforming with the Hebrew
lemma and the Arabic synonym. RMM (index ) indicates the mean-
ing ‘betteraves’ (beetroot), following the interpretation of PSW :b;
this wrong meaning is emended in DAO :, see below. The word
is derived from Lat. BLITUM (see DECLC :b and FEW :b;
DAO : gives the incorrect etymon BETA). For the general confusion
of BLITUM and BETA already apparent in Late Latin, see DECLC :b
and entry Het
.  of this edition. By contrast, in our synonym list, the
author seems to make a difference between these two plants; cf. Het . 
and Tav . In another O. Occ. text, the two plant names are also men-
tioned separately: “Ad ome que no pot anar a cambra, dona li manjar
bledas e blez e malvas e mortayrolh e cebas am carn grassa” (i.e. to some-
one who can’t go to the toilet, give him to eat bledas and blez and mallows
and broth and onions with fat meat) (RMM ). For the form with Dalet
and Zayin, see the introduction.

5 äéðàîéìà §§äì÷á: äéðîé àì÷á O äééðîéìà ì÷á V


6 æãéìá: õèéìá VO
yod 

For an identification of Arab. baqla yamāniya as O. Cat. BLYT. S̆ (blets,


wrongly interpreted by Magdalena Nom de Déu as bolets, i.e., mush-
rooms), cf. GHAT :.

. äãù ìù ïéæåáøé 8íä ïéèåù 7ïéæåáøé


YRBWZYN S̆WTYN, . it is wild blite

Hebrew YRBWZYN S̆WTYN . features in Rabbinic literature, for instance


in mShebi ., and designates the wild, uncultivated blite (cf. above).

. àää úåàá øëæð øáëå íéðáä àø÷îä 10ïåùìáå 9ñåðåáé 䧧á ñåðåéé
YYWNWS, Arab. YBWNWS, bibl. HBNYM, already mentioned under
the letter He

Aramaic ñåðåé, from Greek 4βενος (LS  f.; LN ), means “ebony
wood” (LW :; SDA ; KA : f.; LF :), and features in bShab
a and is explained by R. Hananel
. as ñåðáàé, i.e. Arabic ?.
The Arabic term is a variant of Arabic "BNWS, ābanūs or abanūs,
which also means “ebony” (L ; DT :), just like the biblical HBNYM
(for references and identification, cf. He no. ).

. åðîî 14ùé íéðéî äùù àåäå àèðåî 13âééìåô 짧áå éìáâ 12§âðãåô 䧧á äãù 11øæòåé
èðîì÷ åîù ïéîå éøèùàèðî åîùù
YW#ZR S̆DH, Arab. PWDNĞ GBLY, o.l. PWLYYG MWNT", . there are six
varieties, one of them is called MNT"
. S̆TRY
. and one is called QLMNT.

Hebrew YW#ZR designates the plant Adiantum capillum Veneris L.,


“Maidenhair” and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab .
(JD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; FM ; FZ  f.;
LF :). äã× øæòåé, which is not attested in secondary literature, possibly
designates its uncultivated variety.

7 ïéèåù ïéæåáøé: íéèåù ïéæåáøé O íéèåù íéæåáøé V


8 äãù ìù ïéæåáøé íä: äãù ìù æåáøé íä O äãù ìù íéæåáøé V
9 ñåðåáé: 짧áå ? äéðáà add. V
10 àää úåàá øëæð øáëå íéðáä àø÷îä ïåùìáå: àä úåàá øëæð íéðáä §îá O, om. V
11 øæòåé: øùéé V
12 éìáâ §âðãåô: ïéìáâ âðãåô O éìáâ âðãåô V
13 àèðåî âééìåô: äèðéî âéìåô V
14 èðîì÷ åîù ïéîå éøèùàèðî åîùù åðîî ùé: èðéîéì÷ åîùù ïéîå éøèùèðî åîùù ïéî O åîùù ïéî ùé
èðîì÷ åîùù ïéî ùéå éøèùèðî V
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic fūdanğ ğabalı̄ means “mountain mint”, possibly Nepeta cataria


¯ :; M ).
L. and Var. (DT
For the identification of Hebrew YW#ZR as Arabic fūdanğ, cf. Sa#adya,
(SAM :);15 Maimonides on mShab . (MK :)). ¯
The first vernacular synonym in MSS P and O seems to be an O. Occ.
compound term, such as *pol(i)eg monta(n), which is not documented
in our sources (in all MSS of the Sefer ha-Shimmush, it is spelt without
the n-mobile). For Lat., the term pulegium montanum is documented
as PWLYGY"WM MWNT"NUM . (PJP ). Since pol(i)eg means a kind
of mint (cf. Yod ), the meaning of polieg montan should be ‘wild
or mountain mint’, in correspondence with the Arabic term. It has
to be noted that the Romance forms stemming from PULEGIUM are
frequently confused with forms stemming from POLIUM (see Sin b).
Thus the complex term appears to be a loan translation or adaptation
of the Late Lat. plant name polium montanum (NPRA , also see the
genitive singular poli montani in RPA ), used in contrast to polium
marinum (see Sin a; also cf. polium maris in NPRA ). According
to NPRA, the meaning of polium monatum is Teucrium Creticum L.
Another possible meaning is Teucrium polium L. (Sin loc. cit.).
A particular point of interest here is the adjective *monta(n): No
derivations from the Lat. MONTANUS (a derivate of MŌNS) seem to
have existed before the late th century.16 The only exception seems to be
silmonta(n),17 but -monta(n) is not used as an independent adjective here.
In O. Occ., there is only the adjective montanhenc.18 In O. Cat., the only
known derivations from munt/mont (< Lat. MONTE[M]) are: munter
‘salvatge’, muntès ‘de muntanya, salvatge’ and muntesí ‘muntanyenc’ (see
DECLC :a–b). Thus, what we find here seems to be the first known
documentation of a Romance form derived from the Lat. MONTANUS
(by means of a morpho-phonetic adaptation to the O. Occ. paradigm).
We find the same phenomenon for the adjective *ortolan (< Lat. HOR-
TULANUS) in Het . , which is not documented either in O. Occ. It might

15 See as well J. Ratzaby, “Nosafot le-Alfāz. al-Mishnah”, Leshonenu  (), pp. –
, see especially pp. –.
16 The Sp. adjective montano was documented for the first time in , see FEW –

:b; for other documentations from the th century, see DETEMA :a and (for
the term siler montano) a.
17 Here we have one word and not a compound term. See the variant given in the

Oxford MS of entry Kaf  and the spelling of the Late Lat. silmontanum as one word in
the other MSS.
18 Derived from O. Occ. montanha < Lat. *MONTANEA: “Menta es herba [. . .]

salvagge e montanhenca” (RL :a).


yod 

well be that these forms did not really exist in O. Occ, but are rather adap-
tations made by our author. Note that these adjectives do not occur in an
isolated fashion, but as elements of compound terms, imitating the Lat.
terminology.
The variant in MS V seems to be a misspelling of the term in MSS
P and O or corresponds to a hypothetical O. Occ. compound expression
*polieg menta which is not attested in our sources; for the second element,
menta, see the commentary on Alef .
The second vernacular word given here is MNT" . S̆TRY,
. O. Cat. or
O. Occ. mentastre (first doc. in Cat.: th c., Alcoatí, according to
DECLC :, for O. Occ. see RL :, where the meaning ‘menthe
sauvage’ (wild mint) is given; also cf. PSW :; CB ; RMA ;
RPA ; RMM ; RM , , ). Furthermore, the literature on
Lat. mentastrum and its Romance equivalents refers to several kinds of
mint (NPRA ; DCVB :b and :b–a), one of them being
Calaminta. For the identification of O. Cat. mentastre, Latin mentastrum
and Arabic fūdanğ cf. AdV , ; see also GHAT :. It should be
noted that it features in Medieval Hebrew translations of medical texts
for Arabic fūdanğ; cf. Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXI, ).
The third vernacular element is QLMNT, . O. Occ. calament “herbe à
chat” (cat mint), mentioned in RL :b, together with the following
quotation from Eluc. de las propr. (fol. ): “Calament es herba semblant
a menta” (i.e., calament is a herb which is similar to mint), and another
quotation from the O. Occ. translation of Abulcasis; for further docu-
mentation, see also FEW –:b; CB , ; RPA . For Cat., the
DECLC : only mentions calamenta ‘nepta’, i.e. Nepeta cataria (first
doc. ), the DCVB also mentions the masculine plural form cala-
ments (:b), without any indication of where this form was found.

. 19úáùúé 䧧á ç÷ìúé


YTLQH, . Arab. YTS̆BT

Hebrew YTLQH, . Hitpa#el imperfect from LQH, . features in the Bible (Ex
:) as úç÷ìúî (ùà) (“to flash intermittently”) (KB ), and in Rabbinic
literature where it means “he or it is enclosed or squeezed in” (JD ).
Arabic yatas̆abbat means “he or it clings, catches, cleaves or adheres”
(L ). The term¯ is also used in a medical context, for instance, in

19 úáùúé: úáúùé O
 shem tov, synonym list 

Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXV, ), where it is stated: aI kr-


J2 a_o )& s()> t
Au) L2 (If the illness becomes prolonged and the
inflammations become hard or adhere to an organ). N translates the term
as: êáúñä and Z as: êáúùä.

. ÷ùàá 䧧á óåùðé


YNS̆WP, Arab. B" S̆Q

Hebrew YNS̆WP designates a certain unclean bird, possibly the “long


eared owl, Asio otus”, and features in the Bible, e.g. in Lev : (KB ;
CD :: “screech owl”; BM ; BH :, , , ; FA ;
FAB  f.; LZ ).
Arabic bās̆aq or bās̆iq means “musket, or sparrow-hawk; falco nisus”
(L ; StS ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev :: úàå êìùä úàå ñåëä úàå
óåùðéä (the little owl, the cormorant, and the great owl): §âîæìàå ñåáìàå
÷ùàáìàå (S ).

. 23èðîéô 짧áå 22äéåàôàìàá 21ìåîòî øîë 䧧á 20ïéìîðéé


YYNMLYN, Arab. KMR M#MWL B"L"P"WYH, o.l. PYMNT.

Hebrew YYNMLYN, from Greek ον μηλον (LS ; KG :; LR ),
means “wine mixed with honey” (JD  s.v. ïéìéîåðéà; LW :; KA :;
Low LIV; PB ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab ..
Arabic hamr ma#mūl bi-l-afāwı̄h means “wine made with spices”
(L ). ˘
Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains YYNMLYN as: øî§ë
ìôìôå ìñòå (wine and honey and pepper) (MK :).
Accordingly, the vernacular term is the O. Occ. or O. Cat. pi(g)men(t)
(CB ; RL :a–b; PSW :a; RM ; DCVB :a) for ‘sorte de
boisson composée de miel et d’épices’ (i.e., a type of beverage composed of
honey and spices) (RL :a), ‘Getränk aus gewürztem Wein u. Honig’
(i.e., a beverage of spiced wine and honey) (PSW :a): “Pigment est
dit quar si fa d’especias” (i.e., pigment is called like this because it is made
of spices) (Eluc. de las propr., fol. , see RL a–b). Also see (for the

20 ïéìîðéé: ïéìîåðéé V
21 ìåîòî: éìåîòî V
22 äéåàôàìàá: äéåàôìàá O äéåàôà V
23 èðîéô: èðéîéô V
yod 

Lat. pigmentum) the O. Sp. definition: “Pigmentum, i. vino confaçionado


[cum speciebus] (i. vino pimente)”, Sin :.

. 25áàøùìà íòè éôëé 䧧á 24ïééä íòè âéôé


YPYG T#M
. HYYN, Arab. YKPY T#M . "LS̆R"B

Hebrew YPYG T#M . HYYN means “he or it counteracts the taste (i.e.
effect) of the wine” (for YPYG, Hif#il imperfect from PWG, cf. JD  f.;
BM  f.) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bErub b and
bSanh b, where it is stated that “A mile’s walk or a little sleep removes
the effects of wine” (ïééä úà ïéâéôî àåäù ìë äðéùå ìéî êøã).
Arabic yahfı̄ t. a#m as̆-s̆arāb means “he or it conceals the taste of the
wine” (L ).˘

. 29ùâåøåá 28짧áå 27ìéìàåú 䧧á 26úåìáé


YBLWT, Arab. TW"LYL, o.l. BWRWGS̆

Hebrew YBLT, plur. YBLWT, means “wart” (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :; KA : f., :; BM ; Low LIV; PB , ) and
features in the Bible (Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mErub
..
Arabic tu"lūl, plur. ta" ālı̄l, means “a certain excrescence on the person
of a man” ¯ (L ; IR ¯ ; MH f.: “wart, fleshy excrescence, Gr.
σκρρος”).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Lev :: úìáé: ìåìà§ú (S ),
IJ ; and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above: éô ìåìà§ú :úìåáéå
ïàñðàìà íñ§â (YBLWT: an excrescence on the human body) (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Oxford and Vatican MSS is the plural of
O. Occ. or O. Cat. be(r)ruga or ve(r)ruga (RMM ; DECLC :b;
RL :b; DCVB :a–b; CB , , ) for ‘wart’ (< Lat.
VERRŪCA; see FEW :b). The variant given in the Paris MS seems
to correspond to the Cat. diatopic variant borruga, which is very frequent
in the Pyrenees (DECLC and DCVB loc. cit.).

24 ïééä: ïéé V
25 áàøùìà: áøùìà VO
26 úåìáé: úÇìáé P âéìáé éìáé V
27 ìéìàåú: ìéì àåä V
28 짧á: om. V
29 ùâåøåá: ùàâøá O ùâåøá V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 30§õî§öîúé 䧧á òîâé


YGM#, Arab. YTMDM . D.

Hebrew YGM# means “he swallows or quaffs” and features in the Bible
(e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (KB  and
CD : f. s.v. àîâ; JD ; LW :; KA :; BM ).
Arabic §õî§öîúé, from v'J7, means “he rinsed his mouth with water”
(L ).
For the identification, cf. Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
ïåëùé ïà =åèìôìå õîåçá òîâì åì øåñà ,íééëéðçä ïåéôøá äìåçä :åéðùá ùùåç
äéîøéå ì§ëìàá §õî§öîúé ïà äì æå§âé àìô ,ä§úì à§ëøúñà (Someone suffering
from weak gums is not allowed to quaff with vinegar and to spit it out)
(MK :).

. 31ç§âðé 䧧á ìéëùé


YS̆KYL, Arab. YNĞH .

Hebrew ìéë×é, from the root ìë×, features in the Bible (e.g. in  Sam
:) and means ) “he understands, comprehends”, ) “he has insight”,
) “he makes wise, insightful” and ) “he achieves success” (KB  f.;
BM  ff.). In Rabbinic literature, ìéë×é means ) “he is wise, under-
stands; he considers, deliberates” and ) “he looks towards, faces; he is
directed” (JD ; LW :).
Arabic yanğahu. means “he succeeds; he attains or accomplishes”
(L ).
For the identification, cf. IJ  f.: àåä éë .wAB ìåàù éãáò ìëî ãåã ìëù
.wA7 ãàî ìéëùî (David was more successful than all the soldiers of Saul
(cf.  Sam :); because he was very successful (cf.  Sam :)).

. øåôé 䧧á 32ñåñúé


YTSWS, Arab. YPWR

Hebrew YTSWS, from the root TSS, features in Rabbinic literature (e.g. in
bAZ b) and means ) “it bubbles, boils, ferments”, ) “it spurts” and )
“it causes spurting or sparkling” (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :,
:; BM ; KT :).

30 §õî§öîúé: emendation editor §õà§öîúé P õîöîú O õ§öàöîúé V


31 ç§âðé: çâðé VO
32 ñåñúé: äåñúé V
yod 

Arabic yafūru means “it boils, or estuates, it ferments, it flushes or


mantles” (L ).

. 36ãøéå 35àâøåè 짧áå 34ø§öëé 䧧á 33÷ø÷øúé


YTRQRQ, Arab. YKDR, . o.l. TWRG"
. WYRD

Hebrew YTRQRQ is a denominative verb derived from ÷øé or ÷ø÷øé.


Hebrew ÷øé means “to be light-colored, pale, green, yellow” (KB ;
JD ; LW :; SD ; BM ) and ÷ø÷øé means “pale-colored,
greenish; yellowish-green” and features in the Bible, e.g. in Lev :,
and Rabbinic literature (e.g. in ySuk III, d) (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :, ; BM ; Low LV).
Arabic yahdaru
. means “he becomes of a green, dark, or an ashy, dust
˘
colour” (L ). The Arabic term features as the noun x “pallor” in
Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (X, ) and is translated by N as: úå÷ø÷øé
and by Z as: úåøã÷.
Sa#adya on Lev : translates ÷ø÷øé as Arabic ø§ö§ëà (S ).
The vernacular term in MS V seems to correspond to the O. Occ. and
O. Cat. expression torna vert for ‘he/ she/ it becomes green’. For the verb
tornar in combination with color adjectives, cf. RL :a: “Lingostas e
rosilh que tornavan los blatz plus vermeilhs que bresil” (i.e., Rock lobster
and rust which turned the wheat redder than bresil), V. de S. Honorat;
PSW :b: “Cant Jhesu Crist fo el pueg de Thabor, ab lui mosenher
Peire et (ab) mosenher Jacme, la cara de Jhesu Crist s’i tornec si blanca
co neu” (i.e., When Jesus Christ went up the mount Thabor together with
Peter and James, Jesus Christ’s face became as white as snow), Scala div.
amoris, p. . For the adjective vert, cf. DCVB :a and PSW :a.
The spelling of the adjective verd with <d> in both languages seems to be
more modern (cf. DCVB loc. cit. and Levy’s commentary on the feminine
form verda (PSW loc. cit.)).
The spelling of TWRG"
. in MS P with Gimel instead of Nun seems to
be erroneous.

33 ÷ø÷øúé: ÷VOU"úé P
34 ø§öëé: øöëé VO
35 àâøåè: àðøåè V
36 ãøéå: èøéå VO ãYéå P
 shem tov, synonym list 

. ãòúøé 䧧á õìôúé


YTPLS. , Arab. YRT#D

Hebrew YTPLS. means “he or it shudders” and features in the Bible,


namely in Job : (KB ; BM ).
Arabic yarta#idu means “he trembles, quivers, quakes, shivers, or
enters a state of commotion” (L ).
For the identification, cf. Se#adyah ibn Danān (SID :), s.v. õìô:
éðúúòá úåöìô éááì äòú (Is :) (My mind is confused, I shudder in
panic): äøéøòù÷å äãòø; see as well Judah ben Samuel (Abū Zakariyya
Yahyā)
. ibn Bal#am on the same biblical passage: ãàòúøàìà äéô øñô
ïåöìôúé äéãåîòå äðî ìé÷ ã÷å íñà åäå ì÷ì÷úìàå (Ce mot a été traduit par
‘tremblement et secousse’; c’est un nom qui se retrouve dans le verbe
ïåöìôúé).37 Sa#adya translates úåöìô in Is : as Arabic ùòø (cf. DS ;
RT ), and ïåöìôúé in Job : as Arabic ì÷ì÷úú (SJ ; BS ).

. 39§õë§öëé 䧧á 38êùëùé


YS̆KS̆K, Arab. YKDK . D.

Hebrew YS̆KS̆K means “he knocks about, shakes, dabbles” (JD ;
LW :; KA :) or “he rinses” (SDA  s.v. êåù; KA :; BM )
and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bAZ b.
Arabic yahad. hidu
. means “he agitates, moves, stirs, shakes (namely
˘ ˘
water and the like)” (L ).

. 42§âééìåô 짧áå 41§âðãåô 䧧á 40øæòåé


YW#ZR, Arab. PWDNĞ, o.l. PWLYYĞ

For Hebrew YW#ZR and Arabic fūdanğ, cf. Yod no. .


The vernacular term is the O. ¯Occ. pol(i)eg (PSW :b; RM ;
DAO :–; DAO Suppl. : [= RM ]) or pul(i)eg (PSW
:b; RMA ). The meaning is ‘a kind of mint’ (PSW :b),
‘menthe pouliot# (RM a), i.e. Mentha pulegium L. The Occ. word is

37 Cf. J. Derenbourg, Gloses d’Abou Zakariya Yahia Ben Bilam sur Isaïe. Paris ,
p. .
38 êùëùé: êùëúé V
39 §õë§öëé: õëöëé O õãùëé V
40 §âééìåô 짧áå §âðãåô 䧧á øæòåé: om. V
41 §âðãåô: âðãåô O
42 §âééìåô: âééìåô O
yod 

documented for the first time in the th century. In Cat.—although the
variant polig exists—the diminutive poliol or similar forms seem to be
more frequent (DECLC :a–a). In any case, the diphthongised
Occitan variants polieg or pulieg are more probable because of the -YY-
spelling. Also cf. Yod nos  and .

. ìàéø 46§âééìåô 45짧á 44ééøäð 43øæòåé


YW#ZR NHRYY, o.l. PWLYYĞ RY"L

Hebrew YW#ZR NHRYY, which is not attested in secondary literature,


possibly designates “aquatic mint”, Mentha aquatica L. and Var. (cf.
DT : and M : fūdanğ nahrı̄, and Yod no. ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. polieg rial (CB ) or pulieg
real (PSW :b), which was used to designate the same ingredient
as mentioned in entry Yod . See the Alphita, which states: “pulegium
quando simpliciter ponitur regale intellegitur”, Sin , n. ; also cf. Sin
a. For PWLYYĞ, see the preceding entry and entry Yod .

. äéøáà åà 47æàæç 䧧á úôìé


YLPT, Arab. HZ"Z
. or "BRYH

Hebrew YLPT means “(Egyptian) lichen” or “scabs” and features in


the Bible (e.g. in Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bBekh a
(KB ; CD :; JD ; BM ; Low LIV; PB ).
Arabic hazāz
. means “scurf (of the head)” (L ; SN : “Furfures
capitis”) and Arabic ibriya means “warts” (Richter, Über die spezielle
Dermatologie, : “Schinnen”;48 cf. D : s.v. c
: “verrues”).
For the identification of Hebrew YLPT as Arabic hazāz,
. cf. Sa#adya on
Lev :: êùà çåøî åà úôìé åà áøâ åà åðéòá ììáú åà ÷ã åà ïáâ åà (or who is a
hunchback, or a dwarf, or who has a growth in his eye, or who has a boil

43 ìàéø §âééìåô 짧á ééøäð øæòåé: om. V


44 ééøäð: éøäð O
45 䧧á :짧á P
46 §âééìåô: âééìåô O
47 äéøáà åà æàæç: äàéøáà 䧧á íâå úôìé ìù åîåâøú ïëå äàåç V
48 P. Richter, “Über die spezielle Dermatologie des #Alı̄ ibn
al-#Abbās (Haly Abbas) aus
dem . Jahrhundert unserer Zeitrechnung,” Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis 
() pp. –, repr. in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Medizin.
Aufsätze. Dritter Band: Aus den Jahren –, hrsg. von F. Sezgin, in Zusammenar-
beit mit M. Amawi, D. Bischoff, E. Neubauer, Frankfurt am Main , pp. –.
 shem tov, synonym list 

scar, or scurvy, or crushed testes): áø§â åà äðéò éô áéúë åà ùô§ëà åà áãçà åà


øãà åà æàæç åà (S ); IJ , gloss MS Rouen (n. ).

. àãúå 䧧á ãúé


YTD, Arab. WTD’

Hebrew YTD means “peg, nail, handle of a tool” and features in the
Bible (e.g. in Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bGit a (KB  f.;
JD ; LW :; KA : f.; BM  ff.; KT :, ,  n. ; :,
, ).
Arabic watid or watida means “a wooden pin, peg, or stake” (L ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Is :: ïîàð íå÷îá ãúé åéúò÷úå
åéáà úéáì ãåáë àñëì äéäå (he shall be a seat of honor to his father’s
household. I will fix him as a peg in a firm place): áåø§öîìà ãúåìàë ïåëéå
äéáà úéáì íøë éñøëë ïåëéå ïéëø ò§öåî éô (DS ); see as well IJ , gloss
MS Rouen (n. ), SF :, and WB ,  n. .

. 49ìúòé 䧧á ä÷ìé


YLQH, Arab. Y#TL

Hebrew YLQH means “he suffers, is at a disadvantage” or esp. “he is


smitten, afflicted with disease (esp. leprosy)” and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. in bShab b (JD ; LW : ff., ; SD , Aram.
é÷ì; SDA ).
Arabic ya#tallu means “he falls ill” (D :) and features in medieval
medical literature, e.g. in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (XXIII, ,
), and is translated by N as: ìåìò äéäé and by Z as: ìèáúé.

. ìàáøâìà 51èñå 50䧧áå äôðä òöîà àåä äôð íé


YM NPH, it is the middle of the sieve, Arab. WST. "LGRB"L

Hebrew YM NPH means “the receiver of flour” and features in Rab-


binic literature, e.g. in mKel . (JD ; LW :: “ein siebartiges ver-
tieftes Geflecht” (a sieve-like recessed mesh); KA :, :; BKH ;
DAS : f.; Low LIV; PB ).

49 ìúòé: ìàúòé O
50 ìàáøâìà èñå 䧧áå: om. V
51 èñå: úñå O
yod 

Arabic wasat. al-ġirbāl means “middle of the sieve” (for ġirbāl, cf.
L ).
Maimonides on mKel . (MK :) explains äôð as: ìàáøâìà íñà,
and íé as “any vessel, cavity or construction made to collect liquid things
or white flour into it”.

. 53àéñéøè÷éà 짧áå 52ïà÷øé 䧧á ïå÷øé


YRQWN, Arab. YRQ"N, o.l. "YQTRYSY".

Hebrew YRQWN means ) “jaundice”, ) “a disease of the grain, mildew”


and ) “paleness of the face”, and features in the Bible (e.g. in Deut :)
and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bShab a (KB  f.; JD ; LW :;
SD ; SDA ; BM ; DAS :; Low LV: Anaemia; chlorosis;
PB  f.,  n. ).
Arabic yarqān means “jaundice” (D :; SN :
H3 
? “jaun-
dice”, W% 
? “black jaundice”). The term also features in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (II, ; IX, , ; XIII, ; XX, ; cf. BMMa  and
BMMb ) and is translated by N as: ïå÷øé and by Z as: äàéöéøè÷éà/ ïå÷øé
("YQTRY
. S. Y"H) or äàéæéøè÷éà ("YQTRYZY"H).
.
For the identification of YRQWN as yarqān, cf. Sa#adya on Deut
:: ïå÷øéáå ïåôãùáå áøçáå øçøçáå ú÷ìãáå úçã÷áå úôçùá äåäé äëëé
êãáà ãò êåôãøå (The LORD will strike you with consumption, fever, and
inflammation, with scorching heat and drought, with blight and mildew;
they shall hound you until you perish): äãàçìàå ìñìà éîçá äììà êáø§öéå
êúãàáà éìà êåáìëéô ïà÷øéìàå áåùìàå óàô§âìàáå §âìàôìàå òáøìàå (S ).
Cf. as well WB .
The vernacular term seems to be the Lat., O. Occ. or O. Cat. ictericia,
icteritia or hyctericia (RL :b; LLMA a; ThLL –:). Corradini
Bozzi mentions the forms ytericia (CB ) and itericia (CB ) with
loss of the velar element; for the O. Cat. form icterícia, see DCVB :a
and DECLC :b. The meaning of the term is ‘ictère, jaunisse’ (jaun-
dice), see the following O. Occ. quotation: “Hyctericia es tacament de
pel” (i.e., hyctericia is staining of the skin; cf. RL loc. cit.). The word is a
derivation of Lat. ictericus ‘jaundiced’ (ThLL loc. cit.; RL :b; MF ).
The term is also used in the Hebrew fragment of Macer Floridus with the
spelling "YQTRY. S. Y"H and "YTRY. S. Y"H (MF loc. cit.).

52 ïà÷øé: ïå÷øé V
53 àéñéøè÷éà: àééñéøè÷éà O äàéñéøè÷éà V
 shem tov, synonym list 

. úúùúé 䧧á ììåáúé


YTBWLL, Arab. YTS̆TT

Hebrew YTBWLL means “he or it is thrown about” and features in the


Bible in Hos : (KB ; CD :; BM ). As ììá, the term features
in the Bible in Gen :.
Arabic yatas̆attatu means “it becomes dissolved, broken up, discom-
posed, deranged, disorganized, disordered, or unsettled; separated, dis-
united, dispersed, or scattered” (L ).
Sa#adya translates ììá in Gen : as Arabic úúù: éë ìáá äîù àø÷ ïë ìò
õøàä ìë úôù äéäé ììá íù (That is why it was called Babel, because there
the LORD confounded the speech of the whole earth): àäîñà êì§ãìå
§õøàìà ìäà äâì äììà úúù í§ú ïàì ìáàá (S ). Cf. MCS :.

. øöàðòìà 54䧧á úåãåñé


YSWDWT, Arab. "L#N" S. R

Hebrew YSWDWT, featuring in the Bible (e.g. Job :) and Rabbinic
literature (e.g. yErub V, c), means “foundations, walls, bases” (KB ;
CD : f.; JD ; LW :; KA : f.). The term is especially fre-
quent in medieval scientific literature with the meaning of “elements”
(BM ; KTP : f.; cf. as well Efros, Philosophical terms,55 p. 
(transl. of Arabic: t*KT%&); Maimonides, Moreh Nevukhim I, ; Wolf-
son, Arabic and Hebrew Terms for Matter and Element, –).56
Arabic #anās. ir, plural of #uns. ur, has the same meaning (L ; Goi-
chon, Lexique, pp. –,57 no. ; E.I.2 ; ff., s.v. #uns. ur (R. Net-
ton)). It should be noted that #uns. ur has a medical origin as a translation
of Greek χυμ ς (“humour”), and then acquired the meaning of “element”,
following Galen’s statement: “What in the world is an element (στοιχε'ον)
is in animals a humour (χυμ ς)” (Wolfson, ibid., p. ). See as well Shin
.

54 䧧á: àåä O, om. P


55 I. Efros, Philosophicalterms in the Moreh Nebukim, New York .
56 H.A. Wolfson, “Arabic and Hebrew Terms for Matter and Element with Especial
Reference to Saadia”, Jewish Quarterly Review. New Series, vol. XXXVIII, no. , Philadel-
phia .
57 A.M. Goichon, Lexique de la langue philosophique d’Ibn Sı̄nā (Avicenne), Paris .
KAF

. 1ñéðà 짧áå ïåñéðà 䧧á ÷åúî ïåîë


KMWN MTWQ, Arab. "NYSWN, o.l. "NYS

Hebrew KMWN designates “cumin”, Cuminum cyminum L., and fea-


tures in the Bible (e.g. in Is :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mDem
. (KB ; CD :; JD ; LW :; SD ; KA : f., :;
BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FH ; FM ; FO  f.;
FZ  ff.; LA  f.:; LF : ff.). KMWN MTWQ means “sweet
cumin” and is possibly a loan translation of Arabic al-kammūn al-hulw .
(cf. below).
Arabic anı̄sūn means “anise”, Pimpinella anisum L. The cultivated
variety is also called “sweet cumin” (al-kammūn al-hulw) . (DT :;
M ).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. anis for Pimpinella anisum L. (DAO :; for further documen-
tation also see: CB , ; RPA , , among others; RMA ;
RM ; RL :a; FEW :a; DECLC :b–a; DCVB :a),
documented for the first time in an O. Occ. text from  and for O. Cat.
in  (see DAO loc. cit.; DECLC loc. cit.). Besides this form, in O. Occ.,
the variants aniz (RM ; DAO loc. cit.) or anitz (RM ; DAO loc. cit.;
FEW loc. cit.) also existed. In GHAT :, we find the same transcription
of the Romance term, "NYS, also given as a synonym for Arab. "NYSWN.
For further identification cf. AdV ,  where we have the O. Cat. syn-
onym anís for Arab. anı̄sūn. The variant in MS O is probably the genitive
singular of Latin anisum (Sin :; CA ).

. 2äéçàð 䧧á éôìë


KLPY, Arab. N" HYH
.

Hebrew or Aramaic KLPY means “directed towards, opposite, against”


and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mSanh a (JD ; LW :;
SDA ; KA : f., :; BM  f.).

1 ñéðà: éñéðà O
2 äéçàð: àéçàð V
 shem tov, synonym list 

Arabic nāhiya
. means “intention, direction, region” and nāhiyata
.
means “towards” (D :).

. 3íåðàèðåîìéù 짧áå éðàîøë ïåîë 䧧á íéøä ïåîë


KMWN HRYM, Arab. KMWN KRM"NY, o.l. S̆YLMWNT"NWM .

Hebrew KMWN HRYM, literally “mountain cumin”, is not attested in


secondary literature and is possibly a loan-translation of Arabic kammūn
ğabalı̄, which designates a species of Carum (WKAS :; DT :).
Arabic kammūn kirmānı̄ designates a variety of cumin called “cumin
of Kirman”, Carum nigrum Royle (WKAS :; M ).
The vernacular term that appears in the Paris and Vatican MSS seems
to be the Late Lat. sil montanum (Lat. SIL is ‘Bergkümmel’, i.e. Laser-
pitium siler [< Gr. σλι], cf. FEW :a; but see NPRA : sil mon-
tanum for Seseli tortuosum L.), whereas the variant used in the Oxford
MS should be interpreted as O. Occ. silmontan (CB ; DAO :;
FEW :a) or cilmontan (CB , ), with the loss of the final n-
mobile. The same phenomenon is found, for example, in the entry Yod 
(*polieg monta) of this edition, in contrast to safran ortolan (Het
. ), where
the n-mobile is present. Sil montanum usually appears as a synonym for
siler montanus (-um) (cf. Sin :).

. íåëéðåãñî éðéìù 5åøèéô 짧áå ïåéìàñøèá 䧧á 4úåøäðáù ñôøåë


KWRPS S̆BNHRWT, Arab. BTRS"LYWN, . o.l. PYTRW
. S̆LYNY
MSDWNYKWM

Hebrew KWRPS (read KRPS) S̆BNHRWT means “parsley”, Petroselinum


sativum Hoffm., and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. yShebi IX, c,
where it is explained as: ïåðéìéñåøèéô (πετροσλινον) (JD ; LW : f.;
SD ; KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ;
FZ  ff.; LA  ff.:; LF : ff.).
Arabic bat. rāsālı̄nūn (also bat. rāsāliyūn or fat. rāsāliyūn), from Greek
πετροσλινον (LS ), designates “parsley”, Petroselinum sativum
Hoffm. or Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. (DT :). According to Mai-
monides, Sharh. asmā" al-#uqqār (ME ), there are six types of karafs,
among them the maqdūnis (“parsley”) which is called al-karafs as. -s. arahsı̄
˘
3 íåðàèðåîìéù: àèðåîìéù O
4 úåøäðáù: úåøäð O
5 íåëéðåãñî éðéìù åøèéô: éðéìù åøèéô O íå÷éðåãñî éðéìù ùåøèéô V
kaf 

(“celery of Sarakhs”), and which is, according to some, identical to


bat. rāsāliyūn.
In Geonic literature, Hebrew KRPS is explained as Arabic karafs (cf.
SDA ). See as well no.  below.
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS should be read pe-
troselini/petroseleni Macedonicum and corresponds to Latin petroselinum
or petroselenum Macedonicum for Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. with
the first element in the genitive form (NPRA : ‘le Persil est spontané
en Macédoine’, i.e. parsley grows in Macedonia without cultivation). In
the Oxford MS, we only find a transcription of the noun without the
adjective. For the lack of agreement between nouns and adjectives in case
or gender, see also entry Kaf  and the introduction.
For the identification of Arab. bat. rāsāliyūn as Lat. petroselinum (with-
out adjective as in MS O), cf. AdV .

. 7ùùøà 짧áå 6äðñøë 䧧á ïéîñåë


KWSMYN, Arab. KRSNH, o.l. "RS̆S̆

Hebrew KWSMYN (or KWSMT) means “spelt”, Triticum sativum or


Triticum dicoccum Schrad., and features in the Bible (e.g. in Ex :)
and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW :; KA :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, , , ,
 f., , ; FH ,  f., , , ; FM ; FO  ff.; FZ  ff.;
LF : ff.).
Arabic kirsinna means “bitter vetch”, Vicia ervilia Willd. or L. (WKAS
: f.; DT :; M ; DAS :, , ,  f., , ).
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Ex :: éë åëð àì úîñëäå äèçäå
äðä úìéôà (but the wheat and the emmer were not hurt, for they ripen
late): ïàúìôà àîäðàì àáèòé íì äðñøëìàå äèðçìàå (S ). With regard to
KWSMT, Ibn Janāh. (IJ ) makes the following interesting remark on
how the names of plants can differ from region to region: “KWSMT is
kirsinna. The people of Syria call it al-kanı̄t while the people of Iraq call it
al-ğullabān. I have informed you about the different names given to this
plant, so that if you see that someone else gives it a name different from
the name I have given it, you will not be worried and doubtful.”
The vernacular term is the plural of the O. Occ. or Cat. er(r)s for
‘vesce noire’, Ervum ervilia (DAO :; for further documentation see

6 äðñøë: àðñøë O àðéñøë V


7 ùùøà: ùéùøéà O
 shem tov, synonym list 

FEW :a; RL :a; DCVB :a). In Cat., the form ers is only doc-
umented in dictionaries from the th century (see DCVB loc. cit.), but
Catalan usually has forms without a final -s and/or with an etymological
labial sound (er, erp or erb; DECLC :b–a, documented for the
first time as the variant er in ). GHAT : states the Romance
form "YRYS̆ (i.e. the plural of Occ. erre, DAO loc. cit.; FEW loc. cit.)8 as a
synonym of Arab. KRSN" which also forms part of this entry.
The forms er(r)s, er(re), erp and erb go back to the Latin etymon
eruum, on the basis of which eruus (-oris, neuter) is formed, with both
forms meaning “Vicia ervilia Willd. = Ervum ervilia L.” (NPRA ). The
variant with the ending -us might have entered into the Gallo-Romance
languages without a labial plosive or fricative segment /b/, /p/ or /v/, in
contrast to the other Romance languages (FEW :a–b).

. 10ùñéå 짧áå 9äéìà÷ùà 䧧á ïéðéùøë


KRS̆YNYN, Arab. " S̆Q"LYH, o.l. WYSS̆

Hebrew KRS̆YNYN means “bitter vetch”, Vicia ervilia L., and features in
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShab . (JD  f.; LW :; KA :,
:; BM  f.; AEY :; DAS :, , ; FH , , ;
FM ; FZ  ff.; LF : ff.).
Is̆qālya is, according to Maimonides, the Spanish name for Arabic
handarūs or al-#alas, “spelt”, Triticum spelta L. (M ; DAS :;
˘ID :), while, in his commentary on the Mishnah mentioned (MK
:), he identifies KRS̆NYN as al-kirsinna “bitter vetch” (for al-kirsinna,
cf. no.  above).
Ibn Janāh. (IJ , ) identifies Arabic is̆qālya as Hebrew íéîñåë
“spelt”, and wonders why some identify it with Arabic al-kirsinna “bitter
vetch” (IJ ).
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. ves(s)a or veça
for Vicia sativa (DAO :; for further documentation see FEW :a;
PSW :a–b; DECLC :b–a; DCVB :a–b).

8 Magdalena’s interpretation of the Romance term as iris is erroneous.


9 äéìà÷ùà: àéìà÷ùà O äàéìà÷ùéà V
10 ùñéå: ùàñéå VO "ùñéå P
kaf 

. 12ùìå÷ 짧áå 11áðøë 䧧á áåøë


KRWB, Arab. KRNB, o.l. QWLS̆

Hebrew KRWB means “cabbage”, Brassica oleracea L., and features in


Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; SD ; AEY
:; DAS :; FH , , , ; FM ; FZ  ff.; LF : ff.;
cf. as well SDA : Aramaic àáøë).
Arabic kurunb also designates “cabbage”, Brassica oleracea L., and its
varieties (WKAS :; DT :, ; M ; DAS :, ).
For the identification, cf. LO Liqqut. ei Ge"onim on bBer a, p. ,
Sa#adya (SAM :), and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above:
áðøë :áåøë (MK :).
The vernacular term in the Oxford MS seems to be the plural of O. Occ.
caul for ‘cabbage’ (DAO :; FEW –:a; CB , ,  among
others) or its old rectus singular form, which can still occasionally be
found in MSS from the th and th centuries (CB , ). The
Vatican MS has the variant cals (for cal see DAO :–). The variant
given by the Paris MS seems to be either a defective spelling of O. Occ.
cauls or the monophthongised form cols, which is not documented in
O. Occ., but which is the common form in O. Cat. (see DECLC :a–
b; DCVB :b–b).

. 13èééå÷ùéá 짧áå êòë 䧧á ïéëòë


K#KYN, Arab. K#K, o.l. BYS̆QWYYT.

Hebrew or Aramaic K#K, plur. K#KYN, means “pronged and lengthy


unleavened cake” (JD ; LW : and SDA : “type of bread”;
KA :: “Zwieback” (rusk); BM : “Bretzel, Kringel” (pretzel);
DAS :, : “kleines gesüßtes Gebäck in Ringform” (a small sweet
pastry in ring form)) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bPes b.
Arabic ka#k means “something baked (rusk, biscuit, or the like)”
(WKAS : f.; MT  ff.; DAS :, , , ,  f., ).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bPes b, p. .
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. bescueit ‘biscuit’ (RL :b, with
the diphthong indicated by the spelling -YY-), which existed alongside
the forms bescoch, besquech, bescuit and others (FEW –:b). The

11 áðøë: áåðøë O
12 ùìå÷: ùìåà÷ O ùìà÷ V
13 èééå÷ùéá: èééå÷ùá VO
 shem tov, synonym list 

O. Cat. variant is without the diphthong (bescuit) and means ‘galeta de


galera, de vaixell’ (i.e., ship’s biscuit, DECLC :b).

. 15ñèéìåá 짧áå äàîë 䧧á 14ïéäîë


KMHYN, Arab. KM"H, o.l. BWLYTS .

Hebrew KMHYN means “truffles” and features in Rabbinic literature,


e.g. in bBer b (JD ; LW :; SD ; KA :, :; BM ;
AEY : s.v. ãøà; DAS :; LF : ff.).
Arabic kam"a means “truffles”, Tuber melanosorum L. or Terfezia
leonis L. and Var. (WKAS :–; DT :; M ; DAS : f.).
In medieval medical literature, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (XXI, ), Arabic \'Q is translated as: íéäîë/ïéäîë (N and Z).
For the identification, cf. LO Perushim on bNed b, p. .
The vernacular term is the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. bolet (FEW
:b; CB , , ; DAO :; RL :b; DECLC :b–;
DCVB :b–a). The meaning is ‘champignon à pores’ (i.e., mush-
room of the genus Polyporales; DAO :).
In GHAT :, the vernacular term is identified as the Hebrew
lemma and the Arabic synonym of our entry and transcribed in the same
way as in the Vatican MS.

. 18éñåøë 짧áå 17ïàøôòæ 䧧á 16íåëøë


KRKWM, Arab. Z#PR"N, o.l. KRWSY

Hebrew KRKWM designates ) “saffron”, Crocus sativus All., and )


“curcuma”, Curcuma longa L. and features in the Bible, e.g. in Song
:, and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mNid .. In the Jewish tradition,
the biblical and Mishnaic KRKWM is identified as “saffron” (JD ;
LW : f.; SDA : Aramaic àîëøåë; AEY :; DAS :; FM ;
FO  ff.; FZ  f.; LF : ff.).
Arabic za#farān designates “saffron”, Crocus sativus L. and Var. (DT
:; M ; DAS : f.).

14 ïéäîë: om. V
15 ñèéìåá: õèéìåá O ùèéìåá V
16 íåëøë: íëøë O
17 ïàøôòæ: ïøôòæ V
18 éñåøë: éöåø÷ VO
kaf 

For the identification, cf. Sa#adya on Song :: íò ïåîð÷å äð÷ íëøëå ãøð
íéîùá éùàø ìë íò úåìäàå øî äðåáì éöò ìë (nard and saffron, fragrant reed
and cinnamon, with all aromatic woods, myrrh and aloes—all the choice
perfumes): ìë òî ,øáðòå êñî ,ïàáììà ïàãéò ìë òî ,ìãðöå èö÷ ,ïàøôòæå ñøå
áàéèàìà ñåø (SH ). For a Geonic explanation, cf. EG : àåäå íåëøëå ãøð
ïàøôòæ (ìàòîùé = ) ìòîùé §ìáå à÷ùéø úéîøàá; see as well SF :.
The vernacular term is croci, the nominative plural or the genitive sin-
gular of Late Lat. crocus for ‘Safran médical’, Crocus sativus L. (NPRA ).
The Latin genitive is also used in O. Cat. texts (cf. DCVB :a).
For the identification of Arab. za#farān as O. Cat. crossi cf. AdV ,
. In GHAT :, we find the Latin transcript QRWSY as a synonym
for the Arab. term in our edition.

. ùéøéðå 21ùåìéôà÷ 짧áå 20ïàùåàéùøá åà øéáìà 19§§äøåáñë 䧧á øåáä øáñåë
KWSBR HBWR, Arab. KSBWRH "LBYR or BRS̆Y"WS̆"N, o.l. Q"PYLWS̆
WNYRYS̆

Hebrew KWSBR HBWR is a loan translation of Arabic kuzburat al-


bi"r “maidenhair” (cf. below), and features, for instance, in Maimonides’
Medical Aphorisms (IX, , XXI, ; cf. BMMb ) as: øàáä úøåáæë (trans.
N) and as: ùéøéðéåå éìéô÷ (QPYLY WWYNYRYS̆)/àúøáñë (trans. Z), and
in Judah ben Solomon Natan, Kelal Qaz. ar mi ha-Sammim ha-Nifradim
(JNK :, :) as: øàáä ø(å)áñë (cf. as well KZ  and LF :).
Arabic KSBWRH "LBYR, i.e. kuzburat al-bi"r, means “maidenhair,
Venus’ hair”, Adiantum capillus Veneris L. Arabic bars̆iyāwus̆ān is de-
rived from Persian par-i Siyāwus̆(ān) (VL :, ) and designates the
same plant (WKAS :; DT :; M ; DAS :, ). For the
identification of kuzburat al-bi"r as bars̆iyāwus̆ān cf. IJS :.
The vernacular term in the Paris MS is the Late Lat. capillus Veneris
for Adiantum capillus Veneris L. or Asplenium adiantum nigrum L.
(NPRA ). The variants given in the Vatican and Oxford MSS are its
genitive singular capilli Veneris, which is documented in O. Occ. recipes
(see DAO Suppl. :; RPA ; RMM ).
For the identification of Arab. kuzburat al-bi"r as Lat. capillus Veneris
cf. AdV . In GHAT, we find the Latin transcipt QPLY WNHRYS̆ given
as a synonym for the Arab. lemma BR S̆WS̆"N, which corresponds to the

19 øéáìà §§äøåáñë: øéáìà àøáñë O øéáìà àøåáñë V


20 ïàùåàéùøá: O [. . .] ïàùåàéùàøá V
21 ùéøéðå ùåìéôà÷: ùéøðéå éìô÷ O ùéXéðå ùåìéôà÷ P ùéøéðéå éìô÷ V
 shem tov, synonym list 

second Arab. synonym featuring in this entry (:), while the Latin
transcription QPYLY WYNYRYS̆ features as a synonym for the Arab.
lemma KZBR "LBYR, which corresponds to the first Arab. synonym given
here (:).

. 22éôà 짧áå ñôøë 䧧á éñãøô ñôøåë


KWRPS PRDSY, Arab. KRPS, o.l. "PY

Hebrew KWRPS (read KRPS) means “celery”, Apium graveolens L., and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (JD ; LW : f.;
KA :, :; BM ; AEY :; DAS :, ; FM ;
FZ  ff.; LA  ff.:; LF : ff.). Hebrew K(W)RPS PRDSY is
probably coined after the Arabic name for Apium graveolens L. and Var.,
namely karafs bustānı̄ (cf. DT :; M  “garden celery”). Cf. as well
Kaf no.  above.
Arabic karafs or karafs bustānı̄ respectively means “garden celery”,
Apium graveolens L. and Var. (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification of Hebrew KRPS as Arabic karafs, cf. the Arukh
(KA :): ñôøë ìòàîùé §ìáå åéôà §ìá ñôøë, and Maimonides on mShebi
. (MK :). Cf. as well no.  above.
The vernacular term in the Paris and Vatican MSS is the O. Occ. or
O. Cat. api for Apium graveolens L. (DAO :); see also RL :a;
FEW :a; CB , ; RMM , , , among others; RPA ;
RMA ; RM , , , among others; DCVB :a–b; DECLC
:.
The variant in the Oxford MS is the Latin genitive singular apii, which
is also documented in O. Occ. recipes: “rases lo cap et onhes lo am de suc
apii” (i.e., shave the head and anoint it with juice of apium, RMA ),
“semenssa de fenolh et de jolvert, apii, ysopi [ . . . ]” (i.e., seeds of fennel
and of parsley, of apium and of hyssop, RMA ), among others.
In GHAT :, we find the identification of Romance (O. Cat.)
"PY as Arabic KRPS. We also find the Latin genetive apii as another
synonym (the hiatus between the two final vowels is clearly indicated by
the spelling with an epenthetic Alef: "PY"Y). For further identification of
the Arabic and O. Cat. terms mentioned, cf. AdV , .

22 éôà: ééôà O
kaf 

. 짧áå ïåéìàñøèá 䧧á úåøäðáù ñôøåë àåäù 23íéùøôîä úö÷ åøîà äãù ñôøåë
25ãøéá§âå§â åà 24èøéáùåù

KWRPS S̆DH, some commentators said that it is KWRPS S̆BNHRWT,


Arab. BTRS"LYWN,
. o.l. S̆WS̆BYRT. or ĞWĞBYRD

Hebrew äã&ù ñôøåë features in Tanhum . Yerushalmi (cf. ShM  f.),
where it is explained as Arabic karafs barrı̄ (“wild celery”) or karafs fah. s. ı̄
(“uncultivated celery”): ñôøëìà åäô øôàìù ñôøåë åà äãù ñôøåë ìé÷ ïàå
éöçôìà åà éøáìà. For Hebrew KRPS, cf. no.  above, and for Hebrew
KRPS S̆BNHRWT and Arabic bat. rāsālı̄nūn, cf. no.  above.
Ibn Janāh. states the following in the K. at-Talkhı̄s. as quoted by al-Idrı̄sı̄
(IJS :): c
y* z-
[  ,%
M.
The first vernacular term in the Paris MS seems to correspond to
a non-documented O. Occ. or O. Cat. form like *xuxvert, *xusvert or
the like for Petrosilenum sativum. In Cat., we find the diatopic vari-
ants xuvert and juvert (see DECLC :a). The usual Cat. word is juliv-
ert/jolivert and, in O. Occ., the plant name is jolvert with the variants
jovert, jurvert, juvert (DAO :). GHAT : shows the Romance
(O. Cat.) GWS̆BYRT. (probably to be read as *jusvert) as a synonym
for Arab. PTRSLYWN
. and Latin PYTRW.
. This corresponds to the first
form here, which also shows the syllable final sibilant. This sound is also
present in the variants given in the Oxford and Vatican MSS, which seem
to reflect another Catalan variant, namely givert (DCVB :a); the
DCVB locates this word in Cornellà del Conflent/northern Catalonia (i.e,
the territory that today belongs to France).
The second vernacular term in the Paris MS seems to indicate a
graphical and maybe also phonetic variant of *xuxvert, where the first
palatal sound appears to be voiced like in the forms with j- above.

. 27êîàåë 䧧á 26ïéëîë


KMKYN, Arab. KW"MK

Hebrew or Aramaic KMKYN means “a Persian sauce of milk, curdled


milk” (JD ; LW :, : “sourish, savory supplementary food that

23 íéùøôîä: om. V
24 èøéáùåù: om. OV
25 ãøéá§âå§â: èøéåùéâ O èøéáùéâ V
26 ïéëîë: êéëîë V
27 êîàåë: ÷îàë V
 shem tov, synonym list 

whets the appetite and stimulates digestion”, Pers. kāmah, Arab. kāmah;
SDA : “a type of dish containing milk”; KA :, :; Low LVI; ˘
PB , , ) and features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in bNid b.
Arabic kawāmih, plural of kāmah, means “savoury piquant appetiser;
vinegar dressing; ˘fruit etc. laid in vinegar”
˘ and is derived from Persian
kāmah (VL :; WKAS :). The term features in medieval medical
literature, for instance, in Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health (BMR I,
), where it is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: õîåçá íéð÷åúîä úåøéôä,
and in On Asthma (IX, ; cf. BMA  n. , ), where it is translated
as: äëîë in the Hebrew translation of the treatise prepared by Samuel
Benveniste.

. 28ùåøåô 짧áå úàøë 䧧á ïéùøë


KRS̆YN, Arab. KR"T, o.l. PWRWS̆

Hebrew KRS̆YN, plur. of KRYS̆H, means “leek”, Allium porrum L., and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (JD ; LW :,
; SDA  s.v. àúøë; AEY : s.v. øéöç; DAS :; FM ;
LA  ff.:; LF : ff.).
Arabic kurrāt has the same meaning (WKAS : f.; DT :; M ;
¯ no. ).
DAS :; cf. Het.
For the identification, cf. Sa#adya (SAM :); LO Teshuvot on
bGit , p. : úàøë ìà úøàöò ,éúàøëã àøöéà; and Maimonides on the
Mishnah cited above: úàøëìà :ïéùéøëäå (MK :).
The vernacular term featured in the Paris MS seems to be the Late Lat.
por(r)us or the plural of O. Cat. porro ‘leek’ (see NPRA ; DAO : f.;
DECLC :a; the O. Cat. form is documented for the first time in ).
The variant used in the Oxford MS could be the Latin ablative plural (de)
porris, but it is more probable that it is the O. Occ. plural of po(r)ri (see
CB ; DAO :s; DAO Suppl. : ff. [first documentation around
]). It could also be the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. po(r)re (CB ,
, ; DAO :s; DECLC loc. cit.). The variant used in the Vatican
MS appears to be the O. Occ. plural por(r)s (CB , among others;
DAO :s; RL :a).
For the identification of Arab. kurrāt as O. Cat. porros, cf. AdV ,
. ¯

28 ùåøåô: ùøåô O ùéøåô V


kaf 

. 29äùéøëùç 䧧á ùåëùë


KS̆KWS̆, Arab. H. S̆KRYS̆H

Hebrew KS̆KWS̆ is possibly a corruption of the Arabic term hus̆karı̄s̆a


and should be read as: äùéøëùë. ˘
Arabic hus̆karı̄s̆a
. (= hus̆karı̄s̆a) means “eschar” (D :, , ;
MH ; UW ). The˘ Arabic term features in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (XV, ; XXIII,), where it is transcribed as: äùéøëùë/àùéøëùë
by N and translated as: àèùåø÷ ïéòë íù øùà åîöòá íå÷îä by Z.

. ãùåø 33ìàî 짧áå 32ïéá§âðì§â 䧧á 31ùáãá 30éåùòä íéãøå ùåáë
KBWS̆ WRDYM made with honey, Arab. ĞLNĞBYN, o.l. M"L RWS̆D

Hebrew KBWS̆ WRDYM, which is not attested in secondary literature,


means “pressed or conserved roses”. The term KBWS̆ is derived from
KBS̆ (Pi#el) which features in Rabbinic literature (BM ) in the sense
of “to preserve” and which features in a plural form ïéùåáéë in bPesa
(LW :: “eingelegte Kräuter” (preserved herbs)), and in yShab I, c as
äéùåáë (“ihre eingelegten Früchte”). Rose-jam made with sugar or honey
is well-known in Spain, Provence and the Orient (LF :).
The Arabicised form ğulanğubı̄n, from Persian gul meaning “rose” and
angubı̄n meaning “honey” (VL :; :), means “roses confected
with honey” (cf. FAQ  f. and Vázquez de Benito, Herrera, Los arabis-
mos de los textos médicos latinos y castellanos, pp. –;34 see as well
M ).
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. mel rosat: “MEL ROSAT. Pren en
.x. lb. mel scumat .j. lb., suc de rosas frescas, en una ola sus lo fuoc o
metes, e cant s’acomensara a bolhir, metes de rosas talhadas vermelhas
.iiij. lb., e bolhisca tro la comcitio del suc sie comsumida” (i.e., MEL
ROSAT: Take of it ten pounds, one pound of foamed honey, juice of
fresh roses, put it in a pot over the fire and when it starts to boil put
four pounds of cut red roses and boil until the reduction of the juice is
complete; RPA ). The Lat. MEL for ‘honey’, originally neuter, seems

29 äùéøëùç: àùéøëùç O
30 éåùòä: om. OV
31 ùáãá: om. V
32 ïéá§âðì§â: ïéáâðìâVO
33 ãùåø ìàî: ãàùåø ìéî O èàùåø ìéî V
34 C. Vázquez de Benito, M.T. Herrera, Los arabismos de los textos médicos latinos y
castellanos, Madrid .
 shem tov, synonym list 

to have masculine derivations in Gallo-Romance (O. Occ. mel rosat and


M. Fr. miel rosat, see FEW –:b), whereas in Ibero-Romance it has
feminine forms: O. Cat. mel rosada (DECLC :a) and O. Sp. miel
rosada (see DCECH :b, Sin :). However, a masculine form is
documented for O. Cat. in AdV . For the spelling *rosad with a final
-d (appearing in all the variants of our MSS, but see also the next entry),
see the introduction.

. 37ãùåø éøëåñ 짧áå àáøåî ãøå 䧧á 36øëåñá 35éåùòä íéãøå ùåáë
KBWS̆ WRDYM made with sugar, Arab. WRD MWRB", o.l. SWKRY
RWS̆D

For Hebrew KBWS̆ WRDYM, cf. no.  above.


Arabic ward murabban means “rose-jam” (for murabban see D :;
DRD ). The term features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (XXII, ) and is translated by N as: èùåø éøëåñ (SWKRY
RWS̆T)
. and by Z as: áëøéî íéùòðä íéãøååä.
The vernacular term is the O. Occ. sucre rosat or sucre rozat for ‘mit
Rosenessenz gewürzter Zucker’ (i.e., sugar flavored with the essence of
roses, PSW :b); also see RL :b; CB , , , among others;
RMA , . For the final -d in the Paris and Oxford MSS, see the
introduction.

. §âé§âàéìù 39ùåøåô 짧áå éìá§â 38úàøë 䧧á äãù éùéøë


KRYS̆Y S̆DH, Arab. KR"T ĞBLY, o.l. PWRWS̆ S̆LY" ĞYĞ

Hebrew äã× éùéøë designates “field-leek”, Allium ampeloprasum, and


features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mKil . (JD ; LW :; FM ;
LF :), where it is stated that íéùéøë and äã× éùéøë are not Kilayim
(two different species that may not be sown together).
Arabic kurrāt ğabalı̄ means “mountain leek” and is, according to Mai-
monides, kurrā¯t nabat. ı̄, “false leek”, Allium ampeloprasum L. (M ).
¯
Sa#adya (SAM :) explains äã× éùéøë as: éøáìà §úàøëìà (“unculti-

35 éåùòä: om. O
36 øëåñá: éøëåñá V
37 ãùåø: ãàùåø O èàùåø V
38 éìá§â úàøë: éìáâ úøë O éìáâ úàøë V
39 §âé§âàéìù ùåøåô: ùéâàéìù ùåøåô O éâàåìàù ùéøåô V
kaf 

vated leek”), and Maimonides (MK :) explains the term as: §úàøëìà
éöçôìà (field, i.e. uncultivated leek).
The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS seems to be the plu-
ral of a non-documented O. Cat. compound term *porro salvatge, mod-
elled on the Latin porrum agreste or rusticum for Allium ampeloprasum
L. (NPRA ). For porro, see the commentary on the entry Kaf , for
the adjective salvatge, see entry Alef . The variant given in the Vatican
MS might be the plural of O. Occ. or O. Cat. porre, porri (see Kaf ) and
the singular salvatge. For this variant and further information see entry
Kaf .

. àð÷ìà 짧áå àðç 䧧á øôåë


KWPR, Arab. HN",
. o.l. "LQN"

Hebrew KWPR, from Greek κπρος (LS ), designates “henna”,


Lawsonia alba L., and features in the Bible (e.g. in Song :) and
Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mShebi . (KB ; CD :; JD ;
LW : f.; SDA , Aram. àøôåë; KA : f., :; AEY :;
DAS :, :; FEB  ff.; FM ; FO  f.; FZ ; LF : ff.; cf.
as well Alef no. ).
Arabic hinnā"
. designates the same plant (DT :; M ; DAS :).
For the identification, cf. LO Teshuvot on bGit , p. : ,øôåëã àçùî
àðç ìà ïäã, IJ  f., and Maimonides on the Mishnah cited above
(MK :). See as well IJS ::
-[ [F :,B
) . . . ] (Henna
. . . and in Hebrew [it is called]: øôåëä ìåëùà).
The vernacular term seems to be the Late Latin alchanna (DCECH
:b, documented for the first time in a text from the th century
written by G. of Cremona) or the O. Occ. al(a)quana (FEW :b,
RM , for the meaning ‘arcanne, craie rouge, henné’, i.e., henna, see
RM index  among others) or alquana (DCECH :b). In Cat., the
following forms exist: alcanna “Gènere de plantes boraginàcies que tenen
aplicacions tintòries i medicals” (i.e., genus of boraginous plants which
serve for dyeing and medical applications) (DCVB :a) and alquena
(DECLC :a–b). For the identification of Arab. hinnā" . as O. Cat.
alquena, cf. AdV , .
 shem tov, synonym list 

. 40§âðùú 䧧á õååë


KWWS. , Arab. TS̆NĞ

Hebrew or Aramaic KWWS. is derived from the root KWS. “to curl,
shrink” (JD ; LW :; SDA  s.v. õååë; KA :), which features
in Rabbinic literature, e.g in bShab b. In medieval medical literature,
it has the specific meaning of “spasm”, for instance, in the Hebrew
translation of Maimonides’ On the Regimen of Health (cf. BMR IV, ,
) by Moses ibn Tibbon where it features as: õååé÷.
Arabic tas̆annuğ means “spasm”, Spasmus clonicus vel convulsiones,
(D :; SN ) and features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (III,
, , ; cf. BMMa , , ) and is translated by N and Z as: äöéå÷
and õåå÷.

. ùîëúî 䧧á 41ùåîë


KMWS̆, Arab. MTKMS̆

Hebrew KMWS̆ means “wrinkled” and features in Rabbinic literature,


e.g. in mSuk . (JD ; LW :, ; KA :, : f.; BM ).
Arabic mutakammas̆ has the same meaning (L ).

. àèåâ 짧áå 42òøö 䧧á ïåéôë


KPYWN, Arab. S. R#, o.l. GWT" .

Hebrew KPYWN, from the root KPH “to bend, upturn, invert” (JD ;
LW : f.; KA :, :), features in medieval medical literature
and means “epilepsy” (EM ); a Hebrew variant is: äéôë (cf. MD ,
KZ  and below), while in Aramaic we find: àéôëà (cf. SDA ).
Arabic s. ar# means “epilepsy or falling sickness” (L ; IR ) and
features in medieval medical literature, e.g. in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (IX, ; XVIII, ; XXI, ; cf. BMMb ), and is translated
by N as: äééôë/äéôëä úöéåë and by Z as: åàéöéåå.
The vernacular term seems to be the O. Occ. gota ‘type of illness’
(RL :b; in CB  among others for ‘rheumatism’). In O. Fr. (mal-
adie de goutte, i.e. ‘gout’, FEW :a–b), Lat. and O. Cat., we find the
meaning ‘rheumatism’ (see DECLC :a). For the meaning indicated

40 §âðùú: âðùú O âðúù V


41 ùîëúî 䧧á ùåîë: om. V
42 òøö: òàøö O
kaf 

by the Hebrew and Arabic synonyms, see the O. Occ. expression mal de
cazer de gota for ‘epilepsy’ (CB ) as well as for the “morbo caduco.
morbus comitialis, epilepsia” (Nebrija, see DECLC :a). For Cat.
gota del cor (“malatia sobtada: morbus comitialis, epilepsia”) or gota
coral (“mal de caure: morbus comitialis; epilepsia: morbus caducus”), see
DECLC :a; cf. also Sp., gota coral (DECLC loc. cit.).

. ãéàôø 䧧á úåñðåìë


KLWNSWT, Arab. RP"YD

Hebrew KLWNSWT or KLWNS"WT, from Latin columnas (KG : f.;


LR ), means “beams of the loom” or in general “beams, poles”
(JD ; LW :; KA :, : f.; KT :) and features in Rabbinic
literature, e.g. mZab ..
Arabic rafā"id, plur. of rafāda, means “supporting pillars or columns”
(D :).
Maimonides on the mentioned Mishnah (MK :) translates
KLWNSWT as Arabic äáù§ë (a piece of wood), while KLWNS in mKel
. is explained by him as: øéáëìà ò§ã§âìà (a long beam); cf. EG , :
çîåø ìù äð÷ åîë êåøà õò (a long piece of wood like the shaft of a spear).

. 43èøéáãì 짧áå øå÷ð÷ñà àåäå ïåãøç 䧧á çë


KH,
. Arab. HRDWN,
. i.e. "SQNQWR, o.l. LDBYRT.

Hebrew KH . designates “a species of lizard” and features in the Bible (e.g.


in Lev :) and Rabbinic literature, e.g. in Targ. Lev XI,  (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW :; BM ; FAB  f.; LFa ; LZ  f.).
Arabic hir
. dawn or hirdawn
. means “a certain small reptile, a kind of
¯
lizard, chameleon” (L ; JAD :) or “stellion” (KSZ :, :,
:) and Arabic isqanqūr or asqanqūr means “skink”, Scincus officinalis
(D :; BAL ; JAD :; LFa  ff.; StS  f., ; cf. as well M ;
DT : and : possibly Chalcides chalcides or Chalcides ocellatus). The
term also features in Maimonides’ On Hemorrhoids (Cf. BMH VI, ), and
is translated by Moses ibn Tibbon as: èééù âã and is transcribed by Z as:
øå÷ð÷ñ.
For the identification of Hebrew KH . as Arabic hir
. dawn, cf. Sa#adya
on Lev :: úîùðúäå èîçäå äàèìäå çëäå ä÷ðàäå (the¯ gecko, the land

43 èøéáãì: èøéáðéàì O èøéùàì V


 shem tov, synonym list 

crocodile, the lizard, the sand lizard, and the chameleon): ìøåìàå
§õøáà íàñìàå àáøçìàå äéà§èòìàå ïå§ãøçìàå (S ), and IJ .
The vernacular form L" S̆YRT. in the Vatican MS is the O. Occ. lazert
for ‘lizard’ (RL :b), from Lat. LACERTUS (besides LACERTA, see
FEW :a–b) with the variants lauzert (RL :b) and lausert
(RMM ).
The variant LDBYRT. (Paris MS) seems to be a non-documented form
*laduert or something similar; ladert exists in Modern Gascon (see
ALF, map , points , , ); alternatively, the spelling with -d-
in Languedocian or Provençal could be a hypercorrection because of
the development of intervocalic Latin -D- to O. Occ. -z- (for example:
RADICEM > razitz). In fact, the voiced phoneme /z/ is often spelt as
Dalet in Hebrew-Occitan texts (see S̆hK –). The diphthong -ue-
could be the result of a metathesis (lauzert →lazuert), cf. also the O. Cat.
form lluert (see RL :b and DECLC :a).
In the southwestern part of the Occitan speaking territory, there is
one area in which there are Modern Occ. forms with [m] (for example:
limber, lamber; see ALF, map , points , , , ). The variant
L"YNBYRT. (Oxford MS) strongly resembles the form laimber (ALF, point
), so that we may hypothesise an O. Occ. form *lainbert.
In GHAT :, we find the identification of Arab. HRDWN. as the
Romance (O. Cat.), Hebrew mixed term LWS̆"YRT. HGDWL for ‘the big
LWS̆"YRT. ’.

. 47àâéùéå 짧áå 46äðàúî 䧧á 45íéîä äå÷î 44ñéë


KYS MQWH HMYM, Arab. MT"NH, o.l. WYS̆YG"

Hebrew KYS MQWH HMYM, not attested in secondary literature, des-


ignates “the urinary bladder”. The term is a variant for: ñéëä/(ïúùä) äå÷î
(ïúùä) úéçåôìù/ìåãâä a.o. (cf. BM  and MD ).
Arabic matāna has the same meaning (D :; DKT , , ;
FAL :). ¯ The term features, for instance, in Maimonides’ Medical
Aphorisms (e.g. in I, , , , ; cf. BMMa , , ) and is translated
by N as: äå÷î and by Z as: ïúùä ìù ñéëä/úéçåôìù.

44 íéîä äå÷î ñéë: äå÷îä ñéë O


45 íéîä: om. O
46 äðàúî: àðàúî O
47 àâéùéå: ùàâéùéå V
kaf 

The vernacular term in the Paris and Oxford MSS is the O. Occ.
ve(s)sig(u)a, vis(s)ig(u)a, viziga or the O. Cat. and O. Occ. vexiga for the
urinary bladder (CB , , , , , among others; RL :b;
FEW :a; DCVB :a–b; DECLC :a–b). The variant given in
the Vatican MS is its plural.

. 49äãåîë 䧧á 48úåäë


KHWT, Arab. KMWDH

Hebrew KHWT is derived from KHH, which features in the Bible (e.g.
Is :) and means ) “to become inexpressive (eyes)” or “to be dim”
(KB ; CD :; KA :). In Rabbinic literature (e.g. in bMeg a),
KHWT has the meaning of “dimness” and KHH as an adjective means
“dim or faint, dull” (JD ; LW :).
Arabic kumūda means “pallor, paleness, dullness” (WKAS :) and
features in Maimonides’ Medical Aphorisms (VI, ; cf. BMMb ) as
,33
 W'Q “lead-grey” and is translated by N as: úåøéøôòå úåäëå äëéòã
and by Z as: úøôåòä äàøîë åäàøî øùà úåøçùä.

. 51éåèî 䧧á 50êåøë


KRWK, Arab. MTWY .

Hebrew KRWK, part. pass. of KRK, means “twined around, wrapped


up” (JD ; LW : f.; KA : ff., :; BM ; KT :) and
features in Rabbinic literature, e.g. in mBer ., where it is explained by
Maimonides as Arabic óúìî (multaff ) (MK :).
Arabic mat. wı̄ means “folded, folded up, folded together, rolled up”
(L ).

. ù÷åãåá 짧áå 52÷ãàðá 䧧á íéøåãë


KDWRYM, Arab. BN"DQ, o.l. BWDWQS̆

Hebrew KDWR, plur. KDWRYM, originally means “ball, globe” (KB ;
CD :; JD ; LW : f.; SD ; KA :, :; KT : n. ),

48 úåäë: äë O
49 äãåîë: àãåîàë O
50 êåøë: êåøk P
51 éåèî: äåèî V
52 ÷ãàðá: ÷àãðàá V
 shem tov, synonym list 

and has, in medical literature, the secondary meaning of “pill” (LA :;
LF :).
Similarly, Arabic bunduq, plur. banādiq, means “ball of any kind of the
size of a hazel-nut”, but also “a pill or suppository of the size of a hazel-
nut” (L ; FAQ  f.; cf. as well DT :; M ). Banādiq features in
Maimonides’ On Poisons (BMP XXXIX,), and is transcribed as: ÷ãàðá
by Moses ibn Tibbon.
The vernacular form seems to be a non-documented Romance loan
word from the Arabic term featured in this entry (masculine plural
*bu(n)ducs/*bo(n)ducs or feminin plural *bu(n)ducas/*bo(n)ducas).
From the same etymon, we have the O. Sp. loan word albóndiga (< Arab.
búnduqa for ‘ball’, documented for the first time –) and from
there the late loan forms mondongilla in Cat. and mondeghìli or mon-
gadìli in Lombardia (see DCECH :b).

. ñèôà 䧧á ãë


KD, Arab. "PTS
.

Hebrew KD means “arched or rounded” and features in Rabbinic litera-


ture, e.g. in bAZ a (JD ; LW :; KA : f., :; BM ).
Arabic aft. as means “flat-nosed, having a wide and depressed nose”;
(FL :: “Simus, Depressum et latum habens nasum”; = L  f.); cf.
Dozy: zM-> hM (lancette à pointe courte).

. ñàô 䧧á 53ìéùë


KS̆YL, Arab. P"S

Hebrew KS̆YL means “a carpenter’s tool for chipping, axe” (KB ;
CD :; JD  f.; LW :; KA :; BM  f.; KT :,,
 f. n. ) and features in the Bible, e.g. in Ps :: ãçé äéçåúô úòå
ïåîåìäé úåôìéëå ìéùëá (with hatchet and pike they hacked away at its
carved work). In Rabbinic literature, the term features, for instance, in
mBQ ..
Arabic fa’s means “a kind of hoe, adz, axe” and “the small protuberance
above the back of the neck” (L ; cf. as well Mem no.  below). In
medieval medical literature on surgery, the term fa’s designates a “phle-
botome” (SpLA ,  f.). The Arabic term features in Maimonides’

53 ìéùë: ìé!ùk P
kaf 

Medical Aphorisms (III, ; XII, ; cf. BMMa ) and is translated by
N as: íåãø÷ and by Z as: äøéôç.
Sa#adya translates the biblical verse mentioned as: àäùå÷ð òéî§âô ïàìàå
àäðå§âäáé ñåôìàå ìåòîìàá íä (ST ); ñåôìà (plur. of al-fa’s) is thus
a translation for Hebrew úåôìéë, and ìåòîìà for Hebrew ìéùë (see as
well IJ ). Maimonides on the Mishnah mentioned explains ìéùë as:
íåãà÷ìà (MK :). See as well MCS :.

. 55íøä 䧧á 54úåçìë


KLHWT,
. Arab. HRM

Hebrew KLHWT,. a variant for KLH . not attested in secondary literature,


means “ripe age, old age” and features in the Bible (Job :) (KB ;
CD :