DIS ISOLATOR MODELING IN SAP2000 & ETABS
December, 2010
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CONTENTS
1.0 
INTRODUCTION 
2 
2.0 
DIS COMPONENTS 
2 
2.1 Low Damping Elastomeric Bearings (LDR) 
2 

2.2 Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) 
3 

2.3 PTFE Sliding Bearings 
5 

3.0 
ANALYSIS METHODS 
7 
3.1 Nonlinear Analysis 
7 

3.2 Linear Analysis 
8 

4.0 
SAP2000/ETABS ELEMENT IMPLEMENTATION 
8 
4.1 Standard Elastomeric Bearing (LDR) 
11 

4.2 Lead Rubber Bearings 
12 

4.2.1 LRB Example 1 (nonlinear analysis) 
14 

4.2.2 LRB Example 2 (linear analysis) 
15 

4.3 PTFE Sliding Bearings 
16 

5.0 
ANALYSIS REFERENCES 
18 
5.1 Computer and Structures 
18 

5.2 Design Codes and Guides 
18 

5.2.1 USA 
18 

5.3 Isolation and Structural Dynamics References 
18 
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DISCLAIMER
This document serves to introduce DIS isolator modeling using the SAP2000 analysis engine. It
is not a substitute for the locally adopted design code, or SAP2000 analysis manual. Structural
modeling and design using these methods should be conducted by an experienced engineer practiced in structural dynamics and performance based design with working knowledge of SAP2000 software. Analysis results should be independently verified by an experienced and qualified engineer taking responsibility for the results.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this document is to familiarize structural engineers with analytical modeling of DIS isolation bearing elements. Programs that will be discussed are SAP2000 (V14), SAP2000/Bridge, and ETABS (V9), commercially available object and element based structural analysis programs from Computers and Structures.
SAP2000 is a multipurpose program that can be used for all structure types. SAP2000/Bridge is
a SAP2000 module used for preprocessing and postprocessing to design and analyze bridge
structures. ETABS is a building specific program that uses the SAP2000 analysis engine, but is
catered to buildings and idealizes multistory diaphragm structures. Isolator element input methodology is identical for SAP2000, SAP2000/Bridge, and ETABS.
Three types of DIS isolation bearings will be discussed and corresponding SAP2000 modeling input will be explained with the support of screen shots from the SAP2000 preprocessor. Element input for both linear frequency (RSA) and time history analysis (LTHA), and for nonlinear frequency (FNA) and time history analysis (NTHA) will be covered. Section 7 includes a list of analysis references for background information to analyze and design isolated structures.
2.0 DIS COMPONENTS
The DIS components that will be discussed in this document are flexible bearing elements intended to increase lateral flexibility through stiffness decoupling, and in some cases, to increase energy dissipation through hysteretic yielding. The components that are included are:
1) Standard elastomeric bearings (LDR), idealized as linear elastic 2) Lead rubber bearings (LRB), idealized as bilinear hysteretic 3) PTFE sliding bearings, idealized as elastoplastic friction hysteretic
2.1 Low Damping Elastomeric Bearings (LDR)
This is the simplest of the three bearing types that will be discussed. The standard elastomeric bearing, also known as low damping rubber bearing (LDR), consists of vulcanized rubber and steel shims with steel mounting plates that connect to the structure.
The LDR bearings are identical to the Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) shown in Figure 2 (discussed in section 3.2), except they do not have an energy dissipating lead core and therefore have significantly less hysteretic damping.
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(a)
(b)
Figure 1: (a) Actual and (b) idealized forcedisplacement hysteresis of linear LDR bearing.
Figure 1 shows actual (Figure 1a), and idealized (Figure 1b) lateral loaddisplacement curves for LDR bearings. Due to the natural softening of rubber as strain is increased, LDR bearings exhibit some hysteretic damping, typically in the equivalent viscous damping (EVD) range of 5 10 percent. Since nonlinearity of LDR bearings is low, they are typically idealized as linear elastic (Figure 1b). The stiffness K _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} is equivalent to the yielded stiffness, K _{d} , of lead rubber bearings discussed in section 2.2. LDR bearing vertical stiffness, K _{v} , is also similar to that discussed in section 2.2. A damping value ζ _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} of 5 percent can typically be assumed.
2.2 Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) A typical DIS lead rubber bearing (LRB) consists of vulcanized rubber and steel shims with steel mounting plates that connect to the structure. LRB contain one or more lead plugs at the core to of the bearing to produce hysteretic damping (Figure 2).
(a)
(b)
Figure 2: (a) Diagram and (b) photograph of installed DIS lead rubber bearings.
Figure 3 shows the idealized forcedisplacement backbone curve (Figure 3a), and full hysteresis loop (Figure 3b) for DIS LRB. Plastic shearing of the lead core, combined with flexibility of the rubber, leads to stable bilinear hysteretic loops capable of dissipating a significant amount of hysteretic damping.
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(a)
^{P}
(b)
∆
Figure 3: (a) Forcedisplacement backbone curve and (b) complete hysteresis loop of idealized LRB bilinear behavior.
The properties of bearings based on a given geometry are defined by DIS using the following variables that can be referenced at http://www.disinc.com/engineering.html:
Q _{d} = Characteristic strength (Location where Kd crosses force axis) K _{e} = Postyield stiffness of bearing K _{d} = Elastic preyield stiffness of bearing. For design, typically taken as 10*K _{e} K _{v} = Vertical (compression) stiffness of bearing ζ _{v} = Vertical damping of bearing (typically taken as 5 to 10 percent)
Other variables and relations useful to define hysteresis relationships for the LRB analysis are:
D _{y} = Yield displacement of bearing F _{y} = Yield force of bearing
D
^{y}
F
y
=
Q
d
K
e
−
K
d
= K
e
* D
y
(Equation 1)
(Equation 2)
For linear analysis it is necessary to define the LRB using effective stiffness (secant stiffness) and effective damping. Effective properties for linear analysis must be iterated with the displacement demand from linear analysis of the system. The variables and equations for this calculation are the following:
K _{e}_{f}_{f} = Effective bearing stiffness (secant stiffness) ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} = Effective bearing damping. Newer versions of software require input of “C value.” D = Displacement demand from the system analysis
K
eff
ζ eff
=
K
d
+
Q
d
D
=
4
Q
d
*
(
D
−
D
y
)
2
π
*
K
eff
*
D
2
(Equation 3)
(Equation 4)
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2.3 PTFE Sliding Bearings Sliders support vertical loads and have low lateral resistance. They are often used in conjunction with standard leadrubber bearings to optimize a system, or to protect lighter parts of a structure such as stairs or lightly loaded columns.
DIS PTFE sliding bearings consist of a Teflonstainless steel sliding system and are typically added to a standard lead rubber bearing (Figure 4). The rubber bearing (elastomeric backing) is used to accommodate rotations in the structure to avoid undesirable pressure distributions on the PTFE surface. Lead is often included in the core to dissipate unwanted vibration of the isolator.
Figure 4: (a) Diagram and (b) photograph of DIS PTFE lead rubber bearings.
Figure 5 shows the idealized lateral forcedisplacement backbone curve (Figure 5a), and full hysteresis loop (Figure 5b) for a typical DIS sliding bearing. The initial stiffness of shown in Figure 5a horizontal displacement prior to slip which is due to the linear stiffness of the bearing. In cases where the sliding bearing does not contain elastomeric backing the initial stiffness is very large and essentially rigid. When the friction force is overcome, the isolator slides and experiences plastic shearing action, which leads to stable elastoplastic hysteretic loops (Figure
5b)
µ*N
P
∆
Figure 5: (a) Forcedisplacement backbone curve and (b) complete hysteresis loop of idealized PTFELRB elastoplastic behavior
As shown in Figure 5, the bearing lateral yield (sliding) force is equal to the normal force, N,
The friction coefficient for a PTFE surface is
dependant on velocity.
multiplied by the coefficient of friction, µ.
Equation 5 describes the empirically derived relationship between
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minimum friction coefficient (µ _{m}_{a}_{x} ), maximum friction coefficient, (µ _{m}_{i}_{n} ), rate parameter (a), and velocity (v). The values are dependant on the sliding surface and pressures, but typical values are µ _{m}_{a}_{x} = 0.1, µ _{m}_{i}_{n} = 0.04 and a = 1. Figure 6 shows the friction coefficient vs. velocity curve for these typical values.
µ
=
µ
max
−
(
µ
max
−
µ
min
) e
^{−}
av
Velocity (mm/second)
(Equation 5)
Velocity (inch/second)
Figure 6: DIS PTFE typical friction coefficient vs. velocity curve.
Other variables useful to define relationships for the hysteresis curve for analysis of PTFE isolation bearings are:
K _{e} = Initial stiffness of sliding bearing due to elastomeric backing. Value is equal to K _{e} from LRB properties discussed in section 2.2. K _{v} = Vertical stiffness of bearing
For linear analysis it is necessary to define the sliding bearing using effective stiffness and effective damping. Effective properties for linear analysis must be iterated with the displacement demand from linear analysis of the system. The variables and equations for this calculation are the following:
K _{e}_{f}_{f} = Effective bearing stiffness (secant stiffness) ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} = Effective bearing damping (if K _{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} = rigid, then ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} = 2/π) D = Displacement demand from system analysis
^{K} eff
ζ eff
=
=
µ
max
* N
D
2
µ
max
* N
−
π
π
*
D
*
K
initial
(Equation 6)
(Equation 7)
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3.0 ANALYSIS METHODS
Isolation bearings produce a nonlinear effect by decoupling stiffness between structural elements, or at supports. Through hysteretic yielding, isolators can provide additional damping. Performance of an isolated structure can be evaluated using either linear or nonlinear seismic analysis.
For nonlinear analysis, the full forcedisplacement relationship is modeled (Figure 7). However, for linear analysis, since the isolated structure is a nonlinear system and linear analysis is limited to linear elements, the elements must be idealized to account for both the reduction in stiffness and increase in damping. Therefore, for linear analysis, the secant stiffness (K _{e}_{f}_{f} ) and effective damping (ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} ) must be determined. Newer versions of software require input of “C value.”
Nonlinear analysis
Linear analysis using secant stiffness (need K eff , and ζ eff )
Figure 7: Typical element forcedisplacement response for nonlinear and linear analysis.
3.1 Nonlinear Analysis
Nonlinear seismic analysis of an isolated structure includes both nonlinear time history analysis (NTHA), and nonlinear model time history analysis (FNA). This type of analysis typically requires analyzing a suite of time history motions that are spectrally matched to the design spectrum of the site.
NTHA is the most thorough of the analysis methods. It is also the most commonly used method of nonlinear analysis. Isolation elements are modeled using the full hysteretic relationships shown in Figures 3 and 5 and the structural response is integrated through time steps. Since the damping and stiffness for given displacement are implied by the curves, NTHA will produce the exact solution and iteration using calculated damping and secant stiffness is not necessary.
FNA is another nonlinear method that that includes the full hysteretic element relationships. However, rather than direct integration through the time domain, FNA, is based on modal superposition with time step. This method is generally very efficient compared to NTHA, however, it does not consider full damping that couples the modes, is less efficient than NTHA when impact occurs, and only limited nonlinear elements (link elements only) can be used.
It should be noted that when analyzing a system using nonlinear analysis, the standard modal analysis is based on the linear properties that are input for a given element. These linear properties are discussed in Section 3.2.
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3.2 Linear Analysis
Linear seismic analysis of an isolated structure includes response spectrum analysis (RSA), and Linear TimeHistory Analysis (LTHA). RSA requires a design acceleration response spectrum, while LTHA requires analyzing a suite of time history motions that are spectrally matched to the design spectrum of the site
For the nonlinear analysis discussed in 3.1, the nonlinearity and damping of isolators is implied by the forcedisplacement curve. For linear analysis, the isolator elements must be modeled with an equivalent linear element (Figure 7). The effective stiffness, K _{e}_{f}_{f} , and effective damping, ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} , define the linear element that represents nonlinear response. [Newer versions of software require input of “C value.”] Effective properties are a function of the isolator forcedisplacement curve and the displacement demand.
Displacement demand must be iterated by performing multiple linear analyses and iterating displacement demand with K _{e}_{f}_{f} and ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} , as discussed in Section 2 and shown in Equations 3, 4, 6, and 7.
4.0 SAP2000/ETABS ELEMENT IMPLEMENTATION
The analysis process of DIS isolation bearings will be discussed assuming the user is familiar with SAP2000, or ETABS, and has created an analysis model of the structure. Isolator input properties should be calculated using the DIS design parameters located online at www.dis inc.com/engineering.html, and the equations listed in Section 2 of this document. Figure 8 and 9 show flow charts of the general process used to analyze isolated structures with SAP2000.
Figure 8 is for a structure isolated only by standard elastomeric (LDR) bearings. Since LDR bearings behave linearly, the analysis process with LDR is identical for both nonlinear and linear analysis, and no iteration is required.
Verify Coordinate System: VIEW > SET DISPLAY OPTIONS > LINKS > LOCAL AXIS (Figure 11)
Run and check Dead Load and Modal analysis: Verify load path and for correct connectivity
Done: Check results independently using rational engineering methods
Figure 8: Flow chart for SAP2000/ETABS analysis of DIS Elastomeric Bearings (LDR)
Figure 9 shows the analysis process for systems with LRB, PTFE, or any combination of LDR, LRB, and PTFE bearings. Note that the link elements in SAP2000/ETABS have both linear and
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nonlinear input parameters. The nonlinear input is only used for nonlinear analysis, in which case the linear parameters are not used. The linear parameters are used for linear analysis including modal analysis and linear response spectrum analysis (RSA). As shown in the figure and described in Section 3.2, the process will require iteration of linear isolator properties analysis is performed with linear methods (RSA or LTHA). It should be noted that for complicated systems with many isolators it can be impractical to iterate effective isolator properties using linear methods. In this case, it is prudent to either lump the isolator properties into an idealized system, or to perform nonlinear time history analysis.
Start: Begin with structural model having unconnected nodes at the top and bottom of each isolator location. (Figure 10)
Input linear and nonlinear bearing properties:
Define one link element property for each type of bearing. Note if only linear or nonlinear analysis is to be performed than only respective linear or nonlinear properties are used by the program. Initially, calculate linear properties, K _{e}_{f}_{f} and ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} , based on anticipated displacement demand or preyield stiffness DEFINE>SECTION PROPERTIES > LINK/SUPPORT PROPERTIES (Section 4.1)
Assign bearing elements: Assign link elements between nodes that represent isolator top and bottom. DRAW > DRAW 2 JOINT LINKS
Figure 9: Flow chart for SAP2000/ETABS analysis of DIS Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB), PTFE Bearings, or any combination of LDR, LRB, and PTFE bearings.
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Anticipated location of isolator element
Figure 10: Example diagram of unconnected nodes at location of anticipated isolator. Note that for buildings with slab or planar frame above isolated level, an ETABS floor diaphragm, or SAP2000 nodal diaphragm constraint should be modeled at the top nodes.
VIEW > SET DISPLAY OPTIONS > LINKS > LOCAL AXIS
(a)
(b)
Figure 11: (a) Display option selection box, and (b) example diagram of link element lebel and local axis. Note that the local axes are displayed as 1 = red, 2 = white, and 3 = blue.
Isolators are modeled in SAP2000 and ETABS using link elements. The following sections will describe which link element to use for each type of DIS element, and how to calculate the input parameters. Note that the bearing properties are defined in local axes. Axis 1 should be in the axial (normal) direction of bearings. Axes 2 and 3 should be in the orthogonal lateral axes of the bearing. For detailed explanation of the link elements, and their implementation in SAP2000 and ETABS refer to the SAP2000/ETABS, SAFE Computers and Structures Analysis Reference Manual listed in Section 5.
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4.1 Standard Elastomeric Bearing (LDR) Standard elastomeric bearings (LDR) are defined in SAP2000/ETABS using the “Rubber Isolator” link element and the variables described in Section 2.1. Note that for ETABS this link element is called “Isolator 1”.
(a)
K linear
ζ linear
Based on
geometry
(b)
K v
ζ v
^{K} linear
^{ζ} linear
Based on
geometry
(c)
(d)
Figure 12: (a) Input tab for LDR bearing using the Rubber Isolator element, (b) Properties for direction 1 (vertical), (c) direction 2 (horiz. 2), and (d) direction 3 (horiz. 3) directions.
Input dialogue for a Rubber Isolator element using an LDR bearing is shown in Figure 12. All values in the initial window can be left as default as shown in Figure 12a. Directions U1 (vertical), U2 (horizontal 2), and U3 (horizontal 3) should be checked in the direction box, and
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properties are defined with the button under the properties tab. The nonlinear boxes should remain unchecked since LDR bearings do not exhibit nonlinear behavior.
Figures 12b, 12c, and 12d show input windows for the vertical and orthogonal lateral directions, respectively. Input data for a symmetric LDR bearing should be identical for both lateral directions (Figures 12c 12d)
4.2 Lead Rubber Bearings Similar to the standard elastomeric bearings discussed in section 4.1, Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) are defined in SAP2000/ETABS using the “Rubber Isolator” link element (“Isolator 1” in ETABS). However, the LDR bearings did not include the “Rubber Isolator” element capability of nonlinear response (Figure 12a). As discussed in section 2.2, the LRB exhibit nonlinear behavior and therefore must be modeled using the nonlinear or effective properties discussed in section 2.2. Figure 13 illustrates the configuration of the “Rubber Isolator” link element. For linear analysis, the element responds based on effective properties.
Figure 13: Diagram of SAP2000 “Rubber Isolator” link element (from SAP2000/ETABS reference manual).
Input dialogue for a Rubber Isolator element using an LRB is shown in Figure 14. Directions U1 (vertical), U2 (horizontal 2), and U3 (horizontal 3) should be checked in the direction box, and properties are defined with the button under the properties tab (Figure 14a). The nonlinear boxes for U2 and U3 should also be checked since LRB exhibit nonlinear behavior.
Figures 14b, 14c, and 14d show input windows for the vertical and orthogonal lateral directions, respectively. Nonlinear input data (K _{e} , F _{y} , and K _{d} ) for a symmetric LRB should be identical for both lateral directions (Figures 14c 14d). However, if performing linear analysis (LTHA or RSA), the iterated lateral input data for effective stiffness, K _{e}_{f}_{f} , and effective damping, ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} , will likely be different for each direction (K _{e}_{f}_{f} _{2} ≠ K _{e}_{f}_{f} _{3} ), and (ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} _{2} ≠ ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} _{3} ) based on the lateral displacement demand in each direction being different (D _{2} ≠ D _{3} ).
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(a)
K eff 2
ζ eff 2
Based on
geometry
K e F y K _{d} /K _{e}
(b)
K v
ζ v
K eff 3
ζ eff 3
Based on
geometry
K e F y K _{d} /K _{e}
(c)
(d)
Figure 14: (a) Input tab for LDR bearing using the Rubber Isolator element, properties for (b) direction 1 (vertical), (c) direction 2 (horiz 2), and (d) direction 3 (horiz 3).
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The following examples are for a single lead rubber bearing as modeled using the flow chart shown in Figure 9. Section 4.2.1 is a sample input for nonlinear analysis (NTHA, FNA). Section 4.2.2 is sample input for linear analysis (RSA, LTHA). For a system with multiple bearings, these properties would need to be defined for each bearing type prior to running the analysis.
4.2.1 LRB Example 1 (nonlinear analysis) Assume that an 800mm diameter bearing with the following properties is to be modeled with nonlinear analysis (nonlinear timehistory analysis, NTHA):
Note that the DIS engineering properties sheet (www.disinc.com/engineering.html) shows range of parameters for each isolator size. For this example it will be assumed that an isolator will be constructed with the maximum possible yield stiffness and characteristic strength:
From engineering properties sheet for 800mm diameter isolator:
Yielded stiffness, K _{d} = 5.3 kN/mm Characteristic strength, Q _{d} = 265 kN Compression stiffness, K _{v} = 1000 kN/mm Maximum Displacement, D _{m}_{a}_{x} = 510 mm Axial Capacity, P _{m}_{a}_{x} = 4000kN Compression Damping, ζv = 0.05 (typical value for LRB) K _{e} = Elastic stiffness = 10*K _{d} = 53kN/mm
Calculate additional nonlinear properties based on Section 2.2.
Using Equation 2:
K _{d} / K _{e} = 0.1
F
y
=
K
e
*
Q
d
K
e
−
K
d
= 
53 
kN 
/ mm * 265 kN 
= 294.4 kN 

53 
kN 
/ mm 
− 0.53 kN 
/ 
mm 
The following values should be entered into bearing properties shown in Figure 14:
K _{v} =1000kN/mm; ζ _{v} = 0.05; K _{e} = 53kN/mm; F _{y} = 294.4kN; K _{d} /K _{e} = 0.1
Since this is nonlinear analysis, the linear effective properties in Figures 14c and 14d will not be used. However, linear modal analysis, the preyield properties could be used, a design displacement could be assumed, or the actual displacement could be used to calculate linear effective properties. Effective property calculation using actual displacement is demonstrated in Section 4.2.2.
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4.2.2 LRB Example 2 (linear analysis) Assume that an 800mm diameter bearing with the following properties is to be modeled with linear analysis (linear response spectrum analysis, RSA):
Note that the DIS engineering properties sheet (www.disinc.com/engineering.html) shows range of parameters for each isolator size. For this example it will be assumed that an isolator will be constructed with the maximum possible yield stiffness and characteristic strength:
Use engineering properties sheet for 800mm diameter isolator fro previous page:
Calculate initial effective properties assuming a design displacement of 200mm for both horizontal directions (D _{2} =200mm, D _{3} =200mm).
Using Equation 1:
D
Using Equation 2: F
y
y
=
Q
d
265
=
K
e
−
K
d
53
−
5.3
=
K
e
*
D
y
= 53* 5.56 =
_{=} 5.56 mm
294.4
kN
Using Equation 3:
Using Equation 4:
K
eff
ζ eff
=
K
d
+
Q
d
D
K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 5.3+265/200 = 6.63 kN/mm
=
4
Q
d
*
(
D
−
D
y
)
2
π
*
K
eff
*
D
2
ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 4*265*(2005.56)/(2π*6.63*200 ^{2} ) = 0.124
The following values should be entered into bearing properties shown in Figure 14:
K _{v} =1000kN/mm; ζ _{v} = 0.05; K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = 6.63kN/mm; K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 6.63kN/mm; ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = 0.124, ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 0.124. Newer versions of software require input of “C value.”
(Since this is linear analysis, the nonlinear properties in Figures 14c and 14d will not be used.)
are:
Calculated displacements do not equal original
Run
analysis.
From
analysis,
lateral
displacement
demands
on
bearing
D _{2} =240mm,
and D _{3} =300mm.
displacements of D _{2} =200mm, and D _{3} =200mm
Iterate effective stiffness values with calculated displacement demands:
K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = 5.3+265/240 = 6.40 kN/mm
K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 5.3+265/300 = 6.18 kN/mm
ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = 4*265*(2405.56)/(2π*6.40*240 ^{2} ) = 0.107
ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 4*265*(3005.56)/(2π*6.18*300 ^{2} ) = 0.089
The following values in bearing properties as shown in Figure 14: K _{v} =1000kN/mm; ζ _{v} = 0.05; K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = 6.40kN/mm; K _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 6.18kN/mm; ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{2} = 0.107, ζ _{e}_{f}_{f}_{3} = 0.089
Run analysis. 
From 
analysis, 
lateral displacement demands 
on bearing 
are: 

D _{2} =242mm, 
and 
D _{3} =298mm. 
Calculated displacements 
are close 
enough 
to 
previously iterated displacements of D _{2} =240mm, and D _{3} =300mm and therefore
analysis results are accurate.
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4.3 PTFE Sliding Bearings PTFE bearings are defined in SAP2000/ETABS using the “Friction Pendulum Isolator” link element. Note that for ETABS this link element is called “Isolator 2”. This nonlinear element must be modeled using the nonlinear or effective properties discussed in section 2.3. Figure 15 illustrates the configuration of the “Friction Pendulum Isolator” link element. For nonlinear analysis, the element is composed of biaxially coupled lateral friction bearing elements in series with elastic springs, and in parallel with a concave sliding surface (not used for flat PTFE). The vertical degree of freedom imparts normal force and corresponding friction that can be variable throughout the analysis. For linear analysis, the element responds based on effective properties.
Figure 15: Diagram of SAP2000 “Friction Pendulum Isolator” link element (from SAP2000/ETABS reference manual).
Input dialogue for a Friction Pendulum element using a PTFE bearing is shown in Figure 16. Directions U1 (vertical), U2 (horizontal 2), and U3 (horizontal 3) should be checked in the direction box, and properties are defined with the button under the properties tab (Figure 14a). The nonlinear boxes for U1, U2, and U3 should also be checked since PTFE sliders exhibit nonlinear behavior.
Figures 16b, 16c, and 16d show input windows for the vertical and orthogonal lateral directions, respectively. Nonlinear input data (K _{e} , µ _{m}_{i}_{n} , µ _{m}_{a}_{x} and a) for a symmetric PTFE bearing should be identical for both lateral directions (Figures 16c 16d). Ke is equal to the elastic stiffness of the elastomeric backing. If elastomeric backing is not present, than Ke will be rigid (relatively large number). Radius of sliding surface should also be input as a large number (10000) to represent a flat PTFE surface.
If performing linear analysis (LTHA or RSA), the iterated lateral input data for effective stiffness, K _{e}_{f}_{f} , and effective damping, ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} , will likely be different for each direction (K _{e}_{f}_{f} _{2} ≠ K _{e}_{f}_{f} _{3} ), and (ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} _{2} ≠ ζ _{e}_{f}_{f} _{3} ) based on the lateral displacement demand in each direction being different (D _{2} ≠ D _{3} ). Newer versions of software require input of “C value.”
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(a)
K eff 2
ζ eff 2
Based on
geometry
K e
µ
µ
min
max
a
(b)
(c)
(d)
K v
ζ v
K v
ζ v
K eff 3
ζ eff 3
Based on
geometry
K e
µ
µ
min
max
a
Figure 16: (a) Input tab for PTFE bearing using the Friction Pendulum Isolator element, properties for (b) direction 1 (vertical), (c) direction 2 (horiz 2), and (d) direction 3 (horiz 3).
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5.0 ANALYSIS REFERENCES
Following are references that are relevant to the analysis of structures with DIS isolators:
5.1 Computer and Structures CSI Analysis Reference Manual for SAP2000, ETABS, and SAFE, Computers and Structures, (2009), Berkeley, CA, USA
SAP2000 User’s Manual, Computers and Structures, (2009), Berkeley, CA, USA
ETABS User’s Guide & Introductory Manual, Computers and Structures, (2008), Berkeley, CA, USA
5.2 Design Codes and Guides
5.2.1 USA AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design, 3 ^{r}^{d} Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), (2010), Washington D.C., USA
ASCE/SEI 710 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), (2010), Reston, VA, USA
5.3 Isolation and Structural Dynamics References Design of Seismic Isolated Structures from Theory to Practice, F. Naeim and J. Kelly, Wiley and Sons, (1999), New York, NY, USA
Dynamics of Structures, 3 ^{r}^{d} edition, R. Clough and J. Penzien, Computers and Structures, (2003), Berkeley, CA, USA
Static and Dynamic Analysis of Structures, E. Wilson, Computers and Structures, (2003), Berkeley, CA, USA
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