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IGCSE Physics CIE Syllabus

Answers

Forces and Motion

1. Explain the difference between average speed and speed at one instant.

Speed at one instant tells how (fast) the object was moving specifically at that instant, whereas average
speed gives overall information about the motion over an interval of time, kind of summary, not
revealing details at different times. If a car journey from London to Birmingham, 160 km apart, takes 4
hours, the average speed is 160/4 = 40km/h. This does not certainly mean the car was travelling at
40kph all the way. How many start –stop were there? Obviously, there would have been countless
number of instantaneous speeds in between.

2. Explain the difference between speed and velocity.

Consider an object moving at the same rate along a circle, for example an ink dot at the edge of a
merry-go-round spinning at constant rate. The dot has the same speed at all times, but different
velocities at every instant. Different velocities because its direction is changing all the time.

Speed of an object just tells us how fast it is moving, whereas velocity tells us how fast it is moving,
and also in which direction. SI units: m/s

3. Define acceleration.
An accelerating body is changing its velocity. The rate at which velocity is changing is called its
acceleration. SI units: m/s2

4. Sketch a distance – time graph for

a. An object at rest at the origin (starting point). b. An object at rest 5 m from the
Origin
Distance
Distance (m)

Time Time
0 0

c. An object moving at a steady speed


Distance

Time
0
5. Sketch a velocity – time graph for
a. An object at rest at the origin b. An object at rest 5 m from the origin
Speed Speed

Time Time
0 0

c An object moving at a steady speed d. An object accelerating at constant rate


Speed Speed

Time Time
0 0

d. An object moving with increasing acceleration e. An object moving with decreasing


acceleration

Speed Speed

Time Time
0 0

6. State the relationship between the gradient of a velocity-time graph and acceleration

They are the same.

7. State the relationship between the area under a velocity-time graph and distance moved

They are the same.

8. What is the value of the acceleration of free fall near the surface of the earth?

9.8 m/s2
9. Ignore air resistance in the following question.

Sketch a speed – time graph for

a. an object falling freely from rest b. an object thrown vertically upwards


Speed Speed

0 Time
0 Time

10. Air resistance is considered as significant in the following question.

Sketch a speed – time graph for

b. an object falling freely from rest b. an object thrown vertically upwards

Speed
Speed

Time Time
0 0

11. Explain the difference between mass and weight of a body.

Mass of a body is a measure of how much matter or ‘stuff’ there is. It is a scalar, and has no direction.
Whereas weight of a body is the force (of attraction) exerted on it by the Earth. This is a vector quantity,
and has the direction towards the centre of the Earth.

12. Define density.

Density is mass per unit volume. SI units: kg/m3

Density = mass/Volume

13. Describe an experiment to determine the density of the material of a solid rectangular block. Include a brief
method,apparatus used, measurements to be taken and how density is calculated from your measurements.

1. Measure the length, width and height of the block in cm using a ruler with mm markings.
2. Calculate its Volume = length x width x height
3. Measure its mass m in grams directly on an electronic balance.
4. Calculate the density using Density = Mass/Volume

14. Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid such as cooking oil. Include brief method, apparatus
used, measurements to be taken and how density is calculated from your measurements.

1. Place a small measuring cylinder on the electronic balance and note down the reading, m1
2. Take the cylinder off the balance and pour 50cm3 of the liquid in the cylinder. This is V
3. Put the cylinder with the liquid on the balance and take down the new reading m 2
4. Calculate the mass m of the liquid using m = m2 - m1
5. Calculate the density d of the liquid using d =
15. Define force in terms of the effects it causes.

A force is that which causes a change in speed, direction or shape of an object.

16. Sketch in the space below a graph of

(a) Force against extension for a spring, assuming limit of proportionality is not exceeded
Force

Extension
0
(b) Force against total length for a spring assuming limit of proportionality is not exceeded

Force

Total length
0

17. Describe an experiment to obtain the graphs above. Include a brief method including a labelled diagram of the
set up, apparatus used, measurements to be taken and how k is calculated from your measurements.

1. The apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram.


Spring 2. The weight hanger is hooked to the bottom end of spring, and the
position of the marker is noted.
Marker
3. One 50g mass is added, and the new reading of the marker position
Weights is taken. The stretching force is taken as 0.5N.
4. Five more 50g masses are added, one at a time, and the
Retort corresponding marker positions are noted
stand Ruler
5. Now one by one the 50g masses are removed, and another set of
position readings are noted against each mass. An average value is
calculated.
6. Extension for each mass is calculated using the equations
Extension = stretched length – original length
Taken from sciencequiz.net
18. State three ways by which a force may change the motion of a body.

1. Change in speed
2. Change in direction

19. Forces of 10N and 15N are acting on a body in the same direction and same sense. State the magnitude of the
resultant force.

25N

20. Forces of 10N and 15N are acting on a body along the same line, but in opposite directions. State the
magnitude and direction of the resultant force.

5N, in the direction of the 15N force

21. What is meant by ‘limit of proportionality’ for an extension/load graph?

The point (or state) in the stretching process where the extension is no longer proportional to the
force.

22. Hooke’s Law may be stated by the equation F = kx

a. What is F? Stretching force


b. What is x? Extension

k is called the force constant or force per unit extension. Calculate the value of k for a spring which extends by
5.0cm when a force of 1.0N acts on its ends. State the units.

1.0N = k x 5.0cm

K = 1.0/5.0 = 0.2 N/cm

23. State the relation between force, mass and acceleration (including the direction).

Force = mass x acceleration . Acceleration occurs in the same direction as the force.

25. What is meant by ‘centripetal force’ for an object moving in a circle? Draw a diagram to illustrate your answer,
showing the direction of the centripetal force and the direction of the velocity at the same instant.

The force that acts towards the centre which enables the object to be confined to the circular orbit can
be called centripetal force. For example, the pull you exert on the string when swirling an object tied to
the string. You always pull at right angles to the direction the object goes.

Object
Velocity

Force