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SEKOLAH MENENGAH

KEBANGSAAN
BANDAR UTAMA DAMANSARA (2)

Additional Mathematics
Project Work
4/2010

Curriculum Development Division Ministry of


Education Malaysia

STATISTICS

Name : Toh Kai Chuen


Class : 5 Science 1
IC Number : 930921-10-5474
Teacher’s Name: Mr Tan Chuan Chen
Table of Contents
No. Title Page
1 Appreciation 3
2 Introduction 3
3 A Brief History of Statistics 4
4 Statistics Today 5
5 Part 1 6 to 11
6 Part 2 12 to 15
7 Part 3 16
8 Further Exploration 17
9 Reflection 18
10 Reference 18

Appreciation
I would like to express my gratitude towards my Additional Mathematics teacher, Mr
Tan Chuan Chen for his patient guidance to bring about the completion of this project. He
has provided invaluable tips and was very willing to give pointers to help us with the project. I
would also like to thank my parents for their support and encouragement and my siblings for
providing useful suggestions to improve my work. Furthermore, I am very grateful for the
cooperation and help I received from my friends. We divided tasks amongst ourselves to
reduce the workload and later combined all the information gathered.

Introduction

Students taking the elective subject Additional Mathematics in Form Five are
required to carry out a project work as required in the syllabus. This year, the Curriculum
Development Division of the Ministry of Education Malaysia prepared a total of four tasks for
the students where we are required to choose and complete one of the four based on our
area of interest. The title of the project work I have selected is on statistics. The objective of
this project is to improve the skill of applying mathematics in the daily lives of students while
adapting a variety of strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems. The project aims
to improve the thinking skills of students while learning to use the language of mathematics
to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely to increase the student’s confidence.
Students are required to undergo this task within groups. Through the group effort of
carrying out the project, it promotes effective mathematical communication and at the same
time it develops mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases
students’ interest and confidence. It provides an ideal learning environment to stimulate and
enhance effective learning. The students learn to develop a positive attitude towards
mathematics as well. Students will be able to apply knowledge and skills gained for
experience in classroom environments in meaningful ways to solve real-life problems and at
the same time express their mathematical thinking, reasoning and communication. It will also
prepare them from the demand of their future undertakings and in their workplace while
learning to be independent leaders. Lastly, students will learn to use technology especially
ICT appropriately and effectively.

A Brief History of Statistics


Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663, with the publication of “Natural
and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality” by John Graunt. Early applications of
statistical thinking revolved around the needs of states to base policy on demographic and
economic data, hence its stat- etymology.
By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of
demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of
"statistics" broadened to include the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, and
analysis of data in general.
The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of
probability and statistical inference, which are used in statistical practice. The mathematical
foundations of statistics were laid in the 17th century with the development of the probability
theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. The relation between statistics and probability
theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th century, statistics increasingly used
probability theory, whose initial results were found in the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly
in the analysis of games of chance such as gambling.
By 1800, astronomy used probability models and statistical theories, particularly the
method of least squares, which was invented by Legendre and Gauss around 1974. Early
probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace; following
Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continual development. In the 19th century,
social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new
sciences of experimental psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical
reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and
statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with
the development of inductive logic and the scientific method.
Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science, like
computer science or operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins in
public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics.
Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has close
association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis on learning from data and
making best predictions, statistics has great overlap with the decision science and
microeconomics. With its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information science
and computer science.

Statistics Today

Today, statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all the sciences.
Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowed statisticians
to develop "computer-intensive" methods. The use of modern computers has expedited
large-scale statistical computation, and has also made possible new methods that are
impractical to perform manually.
During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research,
public health concerns (epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control, and
economic and social purposes (unemployment rate, econometry, etc.) necessitated
substantial advances in statistical practices.
Till this day, the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins. Individuals and
organizations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the
natural and social sciences, medicine, business, and other areas.
Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a
distinct, albeit allied, field. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistics
departments. Statistics is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology, education,
and public health.

Part 1

The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy
goods which are not only reasonably priced but also give value for their money.
You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following
categories i.e. food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three different
shops.

(a) Collect pictures, newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen. Design a
collage to illustrate the chosen items.

(b) Record the items and their prices systematically as in


the table below. Since items may be differently packed, be
sure to use consistent measurements for each item
selected so that comparison can be done easily and
accurately.

Category Item Price (RM)


Tesco Econsave Jaya Jusco
Food 1. Self-raising flour(1000g) 3.65 3.95 4.05
2. Sugar(1000g) 1.65 1.65 1.65
3. Butter(500g) 8.49 8.90 8.90
4. Eggs - Grade A(10s) 3.59 3.99 4.00
Total Price 17.38 18.49 18.60
Detergent 1. Softlan(3000ml) 6.99 6.95 6.99
2. TOP Liquid Blue
Oceania(5000ml) 21.99 22.90 24.90
3. Trojan Lau Powder(4000g) 17.90 17.90 17.90
4. Dynamo Regular(3000g) 18.25 12.50 12.99
Total Price 65.13 60.25 62.78
Stationer
y 1. Pencil (12pcs) 9.20 7.20 9.60
2. Pen (4pcs) 2.39 3.20 3.50
3. Ruler (2pcs) 1.00 1.00 1.20
4. Correction pen (2pcs) 10.40 10.70 12.40
Total Price 22.99 22.10 26.70
Grand total 105.50 100.84 108.08

(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to
compare and contrast the prices of the items chosen.
(d) Based on the graphical representations that you have constructed in Part 1 (c), interpret,
discuss and draw conclusions. Comment on your findings.

From the chart above, we can see that:


1. The price of selected foods are always lowest at Tesco.
2. The price of detergents at Tesco also very competitive, except Dynamo Regular (3000g),
where it is about 45% higher than Econsave and Jaya Jusco.
3. The price of selected stationeries at Tesco are relatively low compared to Econsave and
Jaya Jusco, except for pencils where Econsave has the lowest price which is about 22%
lower than Tesco and Jaya Jusco.
4. The total price of the selected items for foods are about the same in the three shops.
Econsave has the lowest total price for detergents. The total price of stationeries are about
the same for Tesco and Econsave but much higher at Jaya Jusco.

The prices at Tesco are competitive for most items. However, shoppers are advised to
compare prices between Tesco and Econsave, especially the high priced item such as
detergents. This is because the price for certain items in Tesco is abnormally higher than
Econsave. The prices are less competitive at Jaya Jusco (especially stationeries). However,
for detergents and food, the price difference is not obvious. Therefore, shoppers are advised
to consider other factors such as parking fee, transportation, time consuming and etc. before
making their decisions.
Part 2

Every year, SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. This year, the
school plans to install air conditioners in the school library. Last year, during the carnival, you
class made and sold butter cakes. Because of the popularity of butter cakes, your class has
decided to carry out the same project for the year’s carnival.

(a) Suggest a shop from Part 1 from which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the
butter cakes. State and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested.
Tesco. All the ingredients from Tesco are the cheapest compared to the other two.

(b) (i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in the table for the year 2010
based on the year 2009.

Ingredient Quantity per cake Price in the year 2009 Price in the year 2009
(RM) (RM)
Self-raising flour 250g 0.90 0.9125
Sugar 200g 0.35 0.33
Butter 250g 3.30 4.245
Eggs (Grade A) 5 eggs (300g) 1.25 1.795

• Self-raising flour
I = 0.9125
0.90 x 100
= 101.39

• Sugar
I = 0.33
0.35 x 100
= 94.29

• Butter
I = 4.245
3.30 x 100
= 128.63

• Eggs
I = 1.795
1.25 x 100
= 143.6
(ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the
year 2009. Discuss how you obtained your answers.

Index number, I Weightage, w Iw


101.4 0.9 x 10 = 9 912.6
94.3 0.35 x 10 = 3.5 330.05
128.6 3.3 x 10 = 33 4243.8
143.6 1.25 x 10 = 12.5 1795
∑w = 58 ∑Iw = 7281.45

• Composite index, Ī = ∑Iw


∑w
= 9 x 912.6 + 3.5 x 330.05 + 33 x 4243.8 + 12.5 x 1795
9 + 3.5 + 33 + 12.5
= 7281.45
58
= 125.54

(iii) In the year 2009, the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each. Suggest a suitable
selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010. Give reasons for your answer.

• RM 15 x 125.54% = RM 15 x 125.54
100
= RM 18.80

OR

• Increment, RM 15 x 25.54% = RM 15 x 25.54


100
= RM 3.80
New selling price, RM 15 + RM 3.80 = RM18.80

From the composite index, we know that the cost of the ingredient has risen by 25.54%.
Therefore, the price of a butter cake should be increased by 25.54%, that is, from RM15 to
RM18.80 to keep the profit margin unchanged.

(c) (i) Find out from reliable sources how to determine a suitable capacity of air-conditioner
to be installed based on volume/size of a room.

Capacity of any cooling machine is known as ton. Ton refers to one ton of water or 1,000kg.
The quantity of ice produced in one day (24 hours) when water is put into the cooling
machine will determine its capacity. If it produces one ton of ice then the capacity of the
machine is one ton. If it produces 100kg of solid ice in 24 hours then the capacity is 0.1 ton.

The capacity of an air conditioner is given in BTU (British Thermal Unit) or HP (Horse
Power). The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is a unit of energy equal to about 1.06 kilojoules
(kJ). It is approximately the amount of energy needed to heat 1 pound or 0.454kg of water 1
°F or 0.556 °C. It is used to generate power and steam as well as heating and air
conditioning industries. In scientific contexts, the BTU has largely been replaced by the SI
unit of energy, which is joule, though it may be used as a measure of agricultural energy
production (BTU/kg). It is still used unofficially in metric English-speaking countries (such as
Canada and the United Kingdom), and remains the standard unit of classification for air
conditioning units manufactured and sold in many non-English-speaking metric countries.

In North America, the term "BTU" is used to describe the heat value (energy content) of
fuels, and also to describe the power of heating and cooling systems, such as furnaces,
stoves, barbecue grills, and air conditioners. When used as a unit of power, BTU per hour
(BTU/h) is the correct unit, though this is often abbreviated to just "BTU".

To determine the BTUs needed to cool a given space, follow this procedure:
1. Calculate the total square feet to be cooled by measuring the size of the room (or rooms)
to be cooled, to obtain total square feet followed by multiplying the room length by width for
each room and if there are multiple rooms, add the room areas together to get a single
number.

2. Read the Base BTUs needed from Table below. The table below gives recommended air
conditioning BTU's necessary to cool a single room. The data in the table assumes that the
ceiling over the room is insulated and that the room is not over or is not itself a special heat-
producing area such as a kitchen or boiler room.

Number of rooms Room area minimum Room are maximum BTUs needed
cooled square feet square feet
One 100 4,000 - 6,000
One 100 180 6,000 - 7,500
One 180 270 7,500 - 9,000
One 270 400 9,000 - 10,500
Several 400 10,500 - 12,000
Several 400 500 12,000 - 13,500
Several 500 700 13,500 - 15,000
Several 700 800 15,000 - 16,500
Large areas 900 16,500 - 18,000
Large areas 900 1,000 18,000 - 19,500
Large areas 1,000 1,100 19,500 - 21,000
Large areas 1,000 1,100 19,500 - 21,000
Large areas 1,100 1,200 21, 000 - 22,500
Large areas 1,200 1,500 22,500 - 24,000
Large areas 1,500 1,700 24,000 - 25,500
Large areas 1,700 1,900 25,500 - 27,000
Large areas 1,900 2,200 27,000 - 28,500

3. Add additional BTUs for these factors:


• + 4,000 BTUs for each room below a ceiling or roof which is not insulated.
• + 4,000 BTUs for a home or residential kitchen included in the cooled area.
• + 1,500 BTUs for each window which receives significant daily sunshine.
• + 1,500 BTUs for a room over a kitchen or boiler room IF the kitchen or boiler room is
actively producing heat during the cooling period.
• + 600 BTUs per person over two, if more than two occupants will be occupying the
room during the cooling period.

4. Subtract BTUs from the total required if these factors are present:
• - 1,000 BTUs if the room is on the shaded side of the building.

5. Calculate the final total BTU/h needed from the above steps. To estimate the range of
cooling capacity needed.

Note:
The guide is based on a room of about 8 feet height. If the height of a building is about 8-9
feet, then the guide above can be used. If a building has a ceiling much higher than that, (old
building usually), then the following guide can be used:

Step 1: Measure the room. The square footage of the room as well as the height of the
ceiling need to be known.
Step 2: Find the room's volume in cubic feet. Multiply the room's square footage by the
height of the ceiling. The total is the room's volume in cubic feet.
Step 3: Rate the room's insulation within a range of three numbers. Very good insulation is
rated 2, average is 3, and 4 represents poor insulation.
Step 4: Multiply the room's insulation rating by the room's volume. This will give the total
number of BTUs it takes to heat a room.
Step 5: Plus/Minus base on the factors given in previous guide.

In Malaysia, usually, we use HP (Horse Power) as the capacity of an air conditioner.


However, most air conditioners give both HP and BTU as their cooling capacity. Therefore,
calculation in both HP and BTU is acceptable. You can convert BTU to HP by a factor of
42.44/minute or 2545/hour.

(ii) Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. Explain how you arrive
at your answer. Hence, determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate
capacity required for your library.

Assuming the volume of the school library is 12,000 cubic feet, has an average insulation,
has 4 windows receiving significant sunlight, about 30 students at an average using the
library all the time every day, the calculation of the Capacity of the Air Conditioner is as
below:

12,000 x 3 = 36,000 BTU/h (for a room of 12,000 cubic feet with average insulation)
+ 4 x 1,500 BTU/h (for 4 windows receiving significant sunlight)
+ 30 x 600 BTU/h (for 30 students occupying the library)
= 60,000 BTU/h
Air conditioners with a total capacity of 60,000 BTU/h is required for the library. The AIR
COND-WALL SPLIT TYPE 2HP from Hock Sin Leong (HSL) has a cooling capacity of
17,100 BTU/h and costs RM2,399 each while the AIR COND-WALL SPLIT 1HP (Model
SHP-AHAUP9LMV) which is also a product of HSL, has a cooling capacity of 9000 BTU/h
and costs RM1,199 for a single unit. In order to obtain this cooling capacity, 3 units of AIR
COND-WALL SPLIT TYPE 2HP and 1 unit of AIR COND-WALL SPLIT 1HP (Model SHP-
AHAUP9LMV). Therefore, the total price is:
RM 2,399 x 3 + RM 1,199 = RM 8,396

(iii) If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library, how many
butter cakes must your class sell in order to buy the air conditioner?

If the selling price of the cake is RM 18.80, the profit made for selling each cake is:
RM 18.80 - (RM 0.9125 + RM 0.33 + RM 4.245 + RM 1.795)
= RM 11.5175
≈ RM11.6

The price of the 4 units of air conditioner is RM 8,396. In order to buy the 4 units of air
conditioner, 730 units of butter cakes need to be sold.

8,396
11.5 = 730

Part 3
As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an estimated budet to
organise this year’s carnival. The committee has to take into consideration the increase in
expenditure from the previous year due to inflation. The price of food, transportation and
tents has increased by 15%. The cost of games,prizes and decorations remain the same,
whereas the cost of miscellaneous items have increased by 30%.
(a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.

Expenditure Amount in 2009 (RM) Amount in 2010 (RM)


Food 1220 1380
Games 500 500
Transportation 300 345
Decoration 200 200
Prizes 600 600
Tents 800 920
Miscellaneous 400 520

Expenditure Index number, I Weightage, w Iw


Food 115 12 1380
Games 100 5 500
Transportation 115 3 345
Decoration 100 2 200
Prizes 100 6 600
Tents 115 8 920
Miscellaneous 130 4 520
∑w = 40 ∑Iw = 4465

(b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010
based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer.

Composite index, Ī = 4465


40
= 111.625

The overall budget for year 2010 should increase by 11.625% based on the value of the
composite index of 111.625 as calculated above.

(c) The change in the composite index for the estimated budget for the carnival from the year
2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011.
Determine the composite index of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.

Composite index, Ī = 111.625


100 x 111.625
= 124.6

Further Exploration

Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution
index, stock market index, gold index and property index.
Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two
different types of index numbers of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of
these index numbers in daily life situations.
Index numbers are designed to measure the magnitude of economic changes over
time. They work in a similar way to percentages and make such changes easier to compare.
The method of index number is used for measuring changes in price level. The prices of
base years are compared to the prices of the current year. It is also used to note increase in
prices. Index numbers lets a customer know the rate of inflation. An index number of the cost
of living can guide us in the adjustment of wages to the changing prices. Labourers can
demand more wages on the basis of changes in price. The government can revise the pay
after regular periods. It can also determine the industrial production and business activity.
Index numbers may be helpful in judging the effect of certain policy adopted by the
government. To a businessman, they are helpful in comparing production in his own
business with that of an industry. Index numbers are helpful to measure the intelligence of
the students. The teachers can check their efficiency through index numbers. The
Government can then take remedial measures for the improvement of students and
teachers. Index numbers are helpful in judging the changes in investment. The stock
exchange prepares index numbers to show investment made by the people from time to
time. Investor can buy and sell shares in order to earn more profit. It is useful to note the
changes in employment level. The Government can increase the employment level by
creating new jobs. The increase in employment means the economy is developing.
Decrease in employment alarm the Government to take remedial measure.

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials


that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural
environment into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous
system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to
air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's
ecosystems.
The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant
Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to
characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly
large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health
effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model.
The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and
is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each
range is assigned a descriptor and a colour code. Standardized public health advisories are
associated with each AQI range. An agency might also encourage members of the public to
take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.

Reflection

While I was conducting this project, I have learnt to be patient and to not give up easily while
looking for information to complete my project. Furthermore, I realized the importance in
comparing prices before making purchases to avoid wastage. After doing so much research
and problem solving, I now know how vital the usage of index numbers and statistics is in
our daily life. It is not only widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the
surrounding air or water. I am more appreciative of statistics and am very thankful of those
who have contributed to the idea of it.

Reference

http://www.hslene.com.my/default_ca.htm
http://www.ehow.com/how_4793243_many-btus-takes-heat-room.html#ixzz0qwMO5xL6
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080728234218AAKp6A8
http://www.inspectapedia.com/aircond/AirConditionerChart.htm
http://sawaal.ibibo.com/physics/how-calculate-capacity-airconditioner-813215.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_thermal_unit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_statistics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_numbers