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Q. 1.

(a)(i) Process A: Process B: Process C:


(ii)
(b) (i) Cell P: Cell Q:
(ii) Cell P: Cell Q:
(c) (i) (d)
(ii)
(iii) They are similar in terms of sex, blood
group and physical characteristics.

Q. 2 (a) (i) R: Spermatozoon S: Secondary spermatocyte


T: Spermatid U: Primary spermatocyte
V: primordial germ cell
(ii) W (Sertoli cell) supply nutrient to the spermatozoon.
(b) The process begins along the primordial germ cells that are located on the walls of the seminiferous
tubule. The primordial germ cells divide to form many diploid spermatogonia. The spermatogonia will grow
to form a primary spermatocyte. The spermatocyte undergoes meiotic division to produce secondary haploid
spermatocytes. The secondary haploid spermatocytes undergo second meiotic division to form four
spermatids. Spermatids differentiate to form sperms.

Q. 5

(d) In spermatogenesis, all spermatids produced in meiosis II will form sperms, whereas in oogenesis, only
one of the four secondary oocytes produced in meiosis II will form an ovum. The rest will form polar
bodies and eventually disintegrate.

Q. 6 (a) Produced: Q or Seminiferous tubules Stored: P or epididymis


(b) Enlargement of testis and penis / Deepening of the voice/ Growth of hair in the pubic region, armpit,
chest and face
(c) (ii) It stops producing __________ and breaks down.
(d) The secondary oocyte is released from the ovary and goes into the fallopian tube. It then travels down the
fallopian tube towards the uterus. If there is no fertilization, the secondary oocyte is discharged via
cervix and vagina.

Q. 7

(c)(i) (ii)

(iii) From the 22ndday of the second month:


The level of progesterone increases after fertilisation as implantation has taken place.
High levels of progesterone stimulate the endometrium to continue to thicken, become more folded and
highly vascular to support the growing foetus.
From the second to the third month: The level of progesterone continues to rise.
Progesterone continues to stimulate the endometrium, to further develop and support the growing
embryo.
Q8

(d)
(ii) Woman J: She might undergo a miscarriage. Due to the absence of hormone Q (progesterone), the
endometrium is not thickened and implantation of embryo is thus not firm.
Woman K: She might give birth to non-identical twins as both secondary oocytes will be fertilised,
producing two separate embryos.

Q9

(b) If oestrogen (P) secretion is reduced, LH(Y) is inhibited or reduced. Ovulation is delayed or does not
occur.
If oestrogen (P) secretion is excessive, stimulates secretion of LH (Y) inhibits FSH (X). No follicle
development. Ovulation is hastened.
(c) (d) (i) Hormone Q: Progesterone Structure T: Corpus luteum
th
(ii) On the 16 day, T is formed, hormone Q is secreted.
On the 24th day, T degenerates and the levels of hormone Q declines.

(e)The pituitary gland produces FSH to stimulate the development of follicles in the ovary. The follicle
secretes oestrogen to repair the uterine wall. After the 14thday, the pituitary gland produces LH that
causes ovulation.

Q 10

Q12

(c) The egg is much bigger than the sperm because it contains yolk in its cytoplasm to supply energy during
the early stages of development of a zygote.
(d) A chromosome is a long, thread-like structure in the nucleus which shows up clearly during the early
stages of cell division. Each chromosome is made up of two chromatids and there is a series of genes
along the length of chromosome.
(f) (ii) Haemophilia is due to an inheritable gene mutation and is transmitted via an X chromosome. Females
who are heterozygous or carriers of the trait, carry the recessive gene. Despite the father having a normal
gene
Q 16

(ii) (Pick any two) Ovum Blastocyst


Single-celled Consists of a few cells
Haploid OR number of chromosomes 23 Diploid OR number of chromosomes 46 OR
OR number of chromosomes half of parent number of chromosomes same as parent cell
cells
Product of meiosis Product of mitosis
This is a gamete. Originates from a zygote OR product of
fertilisation between an ovum and a sperm
(b) (i)
(ii) Sperms carry either sex chromosome X or Y while an ovum carries only X chromosomes. Fertilisation
between an ovum and a sperm with an X chromosome produces a baby girl. Fertilisation between an
ovum with a sperm with a Y chromosome produces a baby boy.
(iii)
(c) Structure A separates maternal blood from foetal blood OR Structure A separates the uterus from the
blastocyst. Maternal blood and foetal blood do not mix. Nutrients and oxygen from maternal blood is
allowed through A to the embryo. Waste products from the embryo is allowed through A to maternal
blood.

Q. 21(a) In this treatment, the Fallopian tube is clipped. This (b)(i)


action prevents the ovum from being released by the ovary
through the Fallopian tube, the fertilisation process cannot
occur.
(b) (ii) This method prevents the implantation of the zygote
on the uterus wall.
(c) Answer on the figure.

(d)(i) The ovum is removed using a fine tube that is inserted into the body space through a surgical cut at the
abdomen, to obtain the ovum from the ovary.
(ii) A blocked oviductus prevents the ovum from being removed through the uterus and oviductus.
(e) The ovum that is removed is then mixed with a sperm so that fertilisation occurs to form a zygote. The
zygote is allowed to divide into the blastula before being inserted into the woman's uterus