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Alloys and Phase Diagram

• Pure Metals
FUNDAMENTALS OF • Alloys Substitutional

METAL CASTING – Solid solutions

• Substitutional Solid Solution (Zn/Cn and Cu/Ni)
Solid Solution

– Atomic radii is similar

– Lattice type is the same
0. Phase Diagram • Interstitial Solid Solution
1. Overview – Smaller atoms are interstitially located among
bigger atoms
2. Heating & Pouring – Lattice type usually does not change
3. Solidification and Cooling – Intermediate Phases – The solubility of one Interstitial
Solid Solution
element in another element is limited.
• Metallic compounds (Fe3C)
• Intermetallic compounds(Mg2Pb)

1 2

Cu-Ni Phase Diagram Temperature, °F Pb-Sn Phase Diagram

1600 T
Liquid 600
Eutectic Composition
and Temperature
1400 500 L
L+S α+L
400 α 362 °F β+L
1260 β
61.9% Sn

200 α+β
Substitutional Solid Alloys
Cu Ni
26% 36% 50% 62%

Pure Metals Pure Metals 0

L S Time
Pb (lead) Sn (Tin)
3 4

Fe-C Phase Diagram Introduction

• Dated back 6000 years
δ • Ingot vs. Shape casting
• Polymers and ceramics are cast as well.
1400 L+θ • Issues in casting
γ 1130 – Flow
1000 γ+θ – Heat Transfer
α – Selection of Mold Materials
– Solidification- Nucleation and Growth
• Depending on how we control solidification, these
α+θ events influence the size, shape, uniformity and
200 chemical composition of the grains.
Fe 1 2 3 4 5 6 C 5 6

Introduction Classification
• Casting (process) – melt the metal, pour into a Sand Casting

mold by gravity or other force and solidify. Shell Molding

Expandable-mold Vacuum Molding

• Casting (Part) Metal casting Casting Expanded Polystyrene
• Advantages Investment Casting
– Complex geometries – external and internal
Plaster-Mold Casting
– Can be net-shaped or near net-shaped Solidification
– Can produce very large parts Process Ceramic-Mold Casting
Permanent-Mold Casting
– Any metals Glassworking Casting
– Can be mass-produced Variations of
Permanent-Mold Casting
– Size variety – big and small
Die Casting
• Disadvantages
Extrusion Centrifugal Casting
– Limitation in mechanical properties, porosity, Polymers & PMC
Injection Molding
– Dimensional accuracy, surface finish Processing
Other Molding
– Safety Hazard
– Environmental problems Special Molding
for PMC

7 8

1. Overview Two Main Categories

• A Foundry is a casting factory which equipped for
making molds, melting and handling molten metal, 1. Expendable mold processes –A mold after process
performing the casting process, and cleaning the must be destroyed in order to remove casting
finished casting – Mold materials: sand, plaster and similar materials +
– Foundrymen are workers.
– More intricate geometries
• Open Molds – Simple parts 2. Permanent mold processes – A mold can be used
• Closed Molds – Complex parts. many times to produce many castings
– A passageway - the gating system leading into the cavity – Mold: made of metal and, less commonly, a ceramic
refractory material
• Two categories -Expandable or permanent molds.
– Part shapes are limited
– Permanent mold processes are more economic in high
production operations

(a) open mold 9 10

(b) closed mold

Basic features of Molds Casting Processes

• Forming the Mold Cavity
• Sand Casting Molds Parting
– Mold cavity is formed by packing sand around a pattern.
– The pattern usually oversized for shrinkage is removed.
– Mold: cope (upper half) & Pouring
cup – Sand for the mold is moist and contains a binder to maintain shape
drag (bottom half)
• Cores in the Mold Cavity
– Flask - containment – The mold cavity - the external surfaces of the cast part
– Parting line Cope Mold – A core, placed inside the mold cavity to define the interior
geometry of part. In sand casting, cores are made of sand.
– Pattern – the mold cavity
• Gating System - Channel through which molten metal
– The gating system – pouring Drag flows into cavity
cup, (down)sprue, runner – A downsprue, through which metal enters a runner
– Riser – a source of liquid – At top of downsprue, a pouring cup to minimize splash and
metal to compensate for Runner

shrinkage during solidification • Riser - Liquid metal reservoir to compensate for shrinkage
during solidification
– The riser must be designed to freeze after the main casting
11 solidify. 12

Pouring Analysis
2. Heating & Pouring • Bernoulli’s theorem at any two points in a flowing
• Sufficient to melt and raise the molten metal to a right liquid P v2 P v2
state h1 + 1 + 1 = h2 + 2 + 2
ρ 2g ρ 2g
• Total Heat Energy required: • h=head, P=pressure, ρ=density, v=flow velocity, g=gravity, F=friction loss
where ρ=density, V=volume, Cs=specific heat for solid – Assuming no frictional loss and same pressure
Cl=specific heat for liquid, Tm=melting temperature v12 v2
To=starting temperature, Tp=pouring temperature h1 + = h2 + 2
2g 2g
• Factors affecting ‘pouring’
– Pouring temperature (vs. melting temp.) – Assuming point 2 is reference (h2=0) and v1=0, 1
– Pouring rate v2
• Too slow, metal freezes h1 = 2 ; v2 = 2 gh1
• Too high, turbulence 2g
– Turbulence
• Accelerate the formation of oxides
• Continuity law Q = v1 A1 = v2 A2 2
• Mold erosion
• Mold fill time (MFT) MFT =
• Voids? 13 Q 14

Fluidity 3. Solidification(Pure Metals)

• Fluidity: A measure of the capability of a metal to flow into and fill the mold
before freezing. (Inverse of viscosity)
Transformation of molten metal Pure Metals
• Factors affecting fluidity - Pouring temperature, Metal composition, Viscosity,
Heat transfer to the surroundings, Heat of fusion and Solidification into solid state

• Higher Re, greater tendency for turbulence flow • Solidification differs Pouring
– Turbulence and laminar flow depending on a pure temperature
Reynold’s number: Re=vDr/h element or an alloy Liquid cooling
Re ranges 2,000(laminar) to 20,000 (mixture of laminar-turbulence)
• For Pure Metal Freezing
greater than 20,000 turbulence resulting in air entrainment and dross Tm
(scum) formation – Super(Under)cooling temperature
• Minimize turbulence by avoiding a certain range in flow direction – Solidification occurs at a solidification
constant temperature and time Solid cooling

Pure metals: good fluidity supercooled Temperature Total solidification time

Alloys: not as good – Actual freezing during the local

solidification time

Tests for fluidity [Schey, 2000]

15 16

Solidification of Pure Metals Dendrite Growth

• A thin skin of solid metal is
formed at the cold mold wall
immediately after pouring
• Skin thickness increases to form
a shell around the molten metal
as solidification progresses
• Rate of freezing depends on S
heat transfer into mold, as well
as thermal properties of the
Randomly oriented grains of small size
Temp. Temp. Temp. near the mold wall, and large columnar
grains oriented toward the center of the
Slower casting (Dendritic growth)
Heat Transfer
17 18

Solidification of Alloy Solidification of Alloys
• Most Alloys freeze over a temperature range, not at a

single temperature. 4
∆G = πr 3∆G + 4πr 2γ
t v
• Nucleation 3
– Energy involved in homogeneous nucleation L
– Total free energy change: Liquid cooling
where ∆Gv =volume free energy
r = radius of embryo L+S Freezing
γ temperature
= specific surface free energy r
r* Solid cooling
• Chemical compositional gradiency within a single grain S Total solidification time
• Chemical compositional gradiency throughout the casting – ingot
segregation Time
Ni Cu
• Eutectic Alloys – Solidification occurs at a single temperature
cooling curve for a 50%Ni-50%Cu composition during casting
19 20

pattern shrinkage allowance

Solidification Time Shrinkage

• Chvorinov’s Empirical relationship: Solidification time
Metal Volume Contraction
as a function of the size and shape Solidification Thermal
⎛V ⎞

TST = Cm ⎜ ⎟ Aluminum 7% 5.6%

⎝ A⎠ Al alloys 7 5
V=volume A=surface area and n=2 Gray cast iron
1.8 3
Cm=experimentally determined value that depends on Gray Cast Iron
with High C
0 3
mold material, thermal properties of casting metal, Low C Cast Steel
3 7.2
and pouring temperature relative to melting point Copper
4.5 7.5
• A casting with a higher volume-to-surface area ratio Bronze
5.5 6
solidifies more slowly than one with a lower ratio
• Used in riser design: the solidification time of the riser • Exception: cast iron with high C content because of graphitization
must be equal to the solidification time of the cast
during final stages causes expansion that counteracts volumetric
21 decrease associated with phase change 22

Directional Solidification
• To minimize the damage during casting, the region
most distant from the liquid metal supply needs to
freeze first and the solidification needs to procede
toward the riser.
• Based on Chvorinov’s rule, the section with lower
V/A ratio should freeze first. 1. Sand Casting
2. Other Expandable Mold Casting Processes
• Use ‘Chills’: Internal and External chills which
3. Permanent Mold Casting Processes
encourage rapid cooling.
4. Foundry practice
5. Casting Quality
External Chills 6. Metals for Casting
Internal Chills
Made of metal
7. Product Design Consideration

23 24

Introduction 1. Sand Casting
• Casting of Ingot and Shape casting • Most widely used casting process.
• Major Classification • Parts ranging in size from small to very large
• Production quantities from one to millions
– Expandable Mold
• A new mold is required for each new casting
• Sand mold is used.
• Production rate is limited except Sand casting • Patterns and Cores
• Sand Casting, Shell Molding, Vacuum Molding, Expandable – Solid, Split, Match-plate and Cope-and-drag Patterns
Polystyrene, Investment Casting, Plaster Molding, Ceramic – Cores – achieve the internal surface of the part
Mold Casting • Molds
– Permanent Mold – Sand with a mixture of water and bonding clay
– Typical mix: 90% sand, 3% water, and 7% clay
• Mold is made of durable materials
– to enhance strength and/or permeability
• Ideal for a product with a high production rate

25 26

Molds Steps in Sand Casting

The cavity in the sand mold is formed by packing sand around a pattern,
• Sand – Refractory for high temperature separating the mold into two halves
– The mold must also contain gating and riser system
• Size and shape of sand – For internal cavity, a core must be included in mold
– Small grain size -> better surface finish – A new sand mold must be made for each part
– Large grain size -> to allow escape of gases during pouring 1. Pour molten metal into sand mold
2. Allow metal to solidify
– Irregular grain shapes -> strengthen molds due to 3. Break up the mold to remove casting
interlocking but to reduce permeability 4. Clean and inspect casting
• Types 5. Heat treatment of casting is sometimes required to improve metallurgical
– Green-sand molds - mixture of sand, clay, and water;
“Green" means mold contains moisture at time of pouring
– Dry-sand mold - organic binders rather than clay and mold is
baked to improve strength
– Skin-dried mold - drying mold cavity surface of a green-sand
mold to a depth of 10 to 25 mm, using torches or heating

27 28

Types of patterns used in sand

Internal Cavity with Core

(a) solid pattern

(b) split pattern (a) Core held in place in the mold cavity by chaplets

(c) match-plate pattern (b) possible chaplet design

(d) cope and drag pattern (c) casting with internal cavity
29 30

Desirable Mold Properties and
2. Other Expendable Mold Casting
• Strength - to maintain shape and resist erosion • Shell Molding
• Permeability - to allow hot air and gases to pass • Vacuum Molding
through voids in sand
• Expanded Polystyrene Process
• Thermal stability - to resist cracking on contact
with molten metal • Investment casting
• Collapsibility - ability to give way and allow • Plaster and Ceramic Mold casting
casting to shrink without cracking the casting
• Reusability - can sand from broken mold be
reused to make other molds?

31 32

Steps in shell-molding Shell Molding

• Advantages:
– Smoother cavity surface permits easier flow of molten
metal and better surface finish on casting
– Good dimensional accuracy
– Machining often not required
– Mold collapsibility usually avoids cracks in casting
– Can be mechanized for mass production
• Disadvantages:
– More expensive metal pattern
– Difficult to justify for small quantities

33 34

Expanded Polystyrene Casting Expanded Polystyrene Casting

• Advantages:
– Pattern need not be removed from the mold
– Simplifies and expedites mold-making, since two
mold halves (cope and drag) are not required as in a
conventional green-sand mold
– Automated Mass production of castings for
automobile engines
• Disadvantages:
– A new pattern is needed for every casting
– Economic justification of the process is highly
dependent on cost of producing patterns

35 36

Investment Casting Investment Casting
• Advantages:
– Parts of great complexity and intricacy can be cast
– Close dimensional control and good surface finish
– Wax can usually be recovered for reuse
– Additional machining is not normally required - this is
a net shape process
• Disadvantages
– Many processing steps are required
– Relatively expensive process

37 38

Plaster Molding 3. Permanent Mold Casting

• Basic Permanent Mold Process
• Similar to sand casting except mold is made of plaster of
Paris (gypsum - CaSO4-2H2O) – Uses a metal mold constructed of two sections
designed for easy, precise opening and closing
• Plaster and water mixture is poured over plastic or metal
pattern to make a mold – Molds for lower melting point alloys: steel or cast
iron and Molds for steel: refractory material, due to
• Advantages:
the very high pouring temperatures
– Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish
– Capability to make thin cross-sections in casting • Variations
• Disadvantages: – Slush Casting
– Moisture in plaster mold causes problems: – Low-pressure Casting
• Mold must be baked to remove moisture – Vacuum Permanent Mold Casting
• Mold strength is lost when is over-baked, yet moisture content can
cause defects in product • Die Casting
– Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures
• Centrifugal Casting
39 40

Permanent Mold Casting

Basic Permanent Mold Process
• Metals - Al, Mg, Copper alloy and Cast Iron
• Basic Steps
– Preheated Mold (metals to flow)
– Coatings are sprayed
– Pour and solidify
– Mold is open and casting is removed
• Advantage - Good surface finish and dimensional
control and Fine grain due to rapid solidification.
• Disadvantage - Simple geometric part, expensive
• Example - automobile piston, pump bodies
castings for aircraft and missiles. 41 42

Permanent Mold Casting Die Casting
• Advantages: • The molten metal is injected into mold cavity
– Good dimensional control and surface finish (die) under high pressure (7-350MPa).
– More rapid solidification caused by the cold metal Pressure maintained during solidification.
mold results in a finer grain structure, so stronger
castings are produced • Hot Chamber (Pressure of 7 to 35MPa)
– The injection system is submerged under the molten
• Limitations:
metals (low melting point metals such as lead, zinc,
– Generally limited to metals of lower melting point
tin and magnesium)
– Simple part geometries compared to sand casting
because of the need to open the mold • Cold Chamber (Pressure of 14 to 140MPa)
– High cost of mold – External melting container (in addition aluminum,
• Due to high mold cost, process is best suited to brass and magnesium)
automated high volume production
43 44

Die Casting Hot-Chamber Die Casting

• Molds are made of tool steel, mold steel,
maraging steel, tungsten and molybdenum.
• Single or multiple cavity
• Lubricants and Ejector pins to free the parts
• Venting holes and passageways in die
• Formation of flash that needs to be trimmed
• Advantages
– High production, Economical, close tolerance, good
surface finish, thin sections, rapid cooling

45 46

Cold Chamber Die Casting Die Casting

• Advantages:
– Economical for large production quantities
– Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish
– Thin sections are possible
– Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good
strength to casting
• Disadvantages:
– Generally limited to metals with low metal points
– Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity

47 48

Centrifugal casting 4. Foundry Practice
• True centrifugal casting • Furnace
– Cupolas (Fig. 11.18)
• Semicentrifugal casting – Direct Fuel-fired furnace
• Centrifuge casting – Crucible Furnace (Fig. 11.19)
– Electric-arc Furnace
– Induction Furnace
• Pouring with ladle
• Solidification – watch for oxidation
• Trimming, surface cleaning, repair and heat
treat, inspection
49 50

5. Casting Quality

• Casting defects
a) Misruns
Three types : (a) lift-out crucible, (b) stationary pot, from which molten b) Cold shut
metal must be ladled, and (c) tilting-pot furnace
c) Cold shots
d) Shrinkage cavity
e) Microporosity
f) Hot Tearing

Induction furnace
51 52
Electric Arc Furnace

Sand Mold defects 6. Metals for Casting

• Ferrous casting alloys: cast iron
– Gray Cast Iron, Nodular iron, White Cast Iron, Malleable
Iron, Alloy cast iron
(b) Pin hole • Ferrous casting alloys: Steels
(c) Sand wash
– Melting temperature is higher that casting alloys. Thus they
are more reactive.
– Less Fluidity
– Higher strength, Tougher
(d) Scabs
– Isotropy and weldable
(e) Penetration
(f) Mold shift
• Nonferrous casting alloys
– Aluminum, Magnesium, Copper, Tin-based, Zinc, Nickel and
Titanium Alloys

53 54
(g) Core shift (h) Mold crack

7. Product Design Considerations
• Geometric simplicity
• Corners
• Section thicknesses – Hot spot
• Draft (Fig. 11.25)
• Use of Cores
• Dimensional tolerances and surface finish
• Machining allowance
• Tolerance and Surface Roughness for Various Casting
– See Table 11.2