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1. QUICK REFERENCE TO RANGES OF MOST


FREQUENTLY-USED ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS >
t-C
Instrument Written Range Sounding Written Range Comments -e
(Professional) .. (Nonprofessional)" .. CO
Strings
.--
8va-,

/-
-eo
0-
Violin t :u 7 / / as written -r-
.It.
/_01=
-

t--' •
><
I 0-

I
I
I
i
Viola
I v
as written -..i Zir-" >
Cello as written

l!
I '1: 0
I
I'
Double Bass " , " octave lower
I

1f _ -
I

I
!
Mandolin as written
j U'

I *The uppermost notes for professional players are "limitless" on many instruments. The ones given here are those
"
usually called for in orchestral playing.
0> **The filled-in middle-range notes are for beginning orchestras; the others are for amateur groups.
C1 tNot found on every instrument.

11..
0'
0'

Instrument Written Range Sounding Written Range Comments


(Professional) (N onprofessional)
;f
;t.,
et>

Banjo !): II as written, but Tenor Banjo .....


C
sounds octave lower 0-
'<:
S,
o
Guitar II octave lower ri
:::r-
et>
en
U"
.....
8VQl
a.....-.
Harp
(with pedals
up)
{! -= as written
a
::s

8 bassoJ

Woodwinds
811G_, 8vo -,
Piccolo
a 7'
L-
eo

octave higher
_-eo
7' z "
o 8IJG _,
.0. &0.,
/- _eo
Flute as written
v-
8vo_,

t=o
eo
/-
Alto Flute
-&>z
/- 7'
perfect 4th
lower
Usually not available in
amateur groups
( 1

¥ /
0-
-e-

7
7
/=
Oboe &0"'/ as written ----"7

/e- /0-
7
22 z
English Horn \ ;.. /7
perfect 5th z z Very seldom available in
0-7
lower amateur OT school
orchestras

8va, Bb: major 2nd lower .n. Usually no D or Eb


/=
4- A: minor 3rd lower
-&
All Clarinets Z
z
7
7
clarinets in
Z
i except Bass
z D: major 2nd higher 7
7
nonprofessional
=7
"U" Eb: minor 3rd higher =7
0- orchestras

I -&
major 9th lower; if Usually
j
-e-

I
/= z .c=
Bass Clarinet z written in bass clef, z 7
z unavailable in
i
i;po// major 2nd lower amateur or school
groups

,. /-
z .%
.. Watch lowest and
I' Bassoon zz as written z zz highest notes for
(' amateurs
t;
" '>
II1'1 '0
'0
z L=
co
II
I'
II
Contrabassoon ,. 2
7
7
octave lower
Usually not available
in nonprofessional
_.
::l
CL.

I ><
groups
I
>
!
i:

Ol

I
'iii
'-l
0)
I-lo
Q:)

Instrument Written Range Sounding Written Range Comments


(Professional) (Nonprofessional)
.....
CI.l
t:
0..
-e- '<:
Bb Soprano: major 2nd lower If available in
All
saxophones t &u.7
zz
z z
Eb Alto: major sth lower
Bb Tenor: major 9th lower
Eb Baritone: octave and major
amateur groups,
the saxophones
should not be
0""S
o
::r
Ctl
6th lower scored very low or .....
<:n
""S
Q
Brass Bb Bass: 2 octaves and a major very high
2nd lower I gO
I
Horn
(plus pedal
notes)
2 fuzzzf· perfect 5th lower ::;...

C: as written

All Trumpets
except Eb Bass
t F/
zz
zz
-&
/-
Bb: major 2nd lower
D: major 2nd higher
Eb: minor 3rd higher
z z
z z "" Use only Bb and
C trumpets
Cornet in Bb: major 2nd lower
Bass in C: octave lower

* /-
Bass in Bb: major 9th lower
Flugelhorn: major 2nd lower
major 6th lower
In Eb -/

- r
- -<'-«
Tenor
as written
Trombone

.f,.e.
.0.
/-
Bass i):-- 7/
-/ as written
Trombone

,
I -e-

Tuba ".--
, • ;;>. /
/=
as written
_e

I
!
,
./

8 basso.J
--::;?"

8 basso---.J
II!I
I
III Baritone --.y.=--,
• ..7
./
as written; if notated in
treble clef, major 9th lower
:1
!I

'I
I' as written; if notated in
Rarely available in
>
I Euphonium -3==% amateur orchestras, '"0

Ii treble clef, major 9th lower '"0


I7u: but always found ('l)

in bands CL
'-" .
x
( >

i c-
!-'
c..(
620 The Study of Orchestration

Instrument Written Range Sounding


(Professional)
Percussion
,: f1 fi l
-
Timpani e as written
f n

h </<> Sca ;

Xylophone

Marimba '1:
- f <>-
n 2
z
7 7

se«;
octave higher

as written
I'>

9-
-\
tT
,
Z
Glockenspiel zz
2
2 octaves highe:
-7 I

Vibraphone tJ'
U"

1/--
..0.
- ..
81'°1

as written
-\ .

--
--I
(w)
1

-
0

Chimes z z
;;>
<
as written

Keyboard

Piano as written
9-
B bassos

Celesta octave higher.


I
- I

Harpsichord A as written

Harmonium ,:
-
, 9-
..0.

as written

Organ as written
Appendix A 621

2. NAMES OF INSTRUMENTS IN FOUR LANGUAGES


AND THEIR ENGLISH ABBREVIATIONS
English Italian French German
Strings: Archi: Cordes: Streichinstrumente:

Violin (vl.) Violino Violon Violine or Geige


Viola (vla.) Viola Alto Bratsche
Violoncello (vIc.) Violoncello Violoncelle Violoncell
Double Bass (d.b.) Contrabasso Contrebasse Kontrabass
Harp Arpa Harpe Harfe

Woodwinds: Legni (or Fiati): Bois: Holzbldser:


Piccolo (pice.) Ottavino or Petite Flute Kleine FlOte
Flauto Piccolo or Pickelflote

Flute (fl.) Flauto Flute Fl6te


Oboe (ob.) Oboe Hautbois Oboe or Hoboe
English Horn Corno Inglese Cor Anglais Englisches Horn
(Eng. hn.)
Clarinet (cl.) Clarinetto Clarinette Klarinette
Bass Clarinet (b. cl.] Clarone Clarinette Basse Bassklarinette
Bassoon (bn.) Fagotto Basson Fagott
Contrabassoon (cbn) Contrafagotto Contrebasson Kontrafagott
Saxophone (sax). Sassofone Saxophone Saxophon

Brass (es): Ottoni: Cuivres: Blechinstrumente:


Horn (hn.) Corno Cor Horn
Trumpet (tr. or tpt.) Tromba Trompette Trompete
Trombone (trb. or tbn.) Trombone Trombone Posaune
Tuba (1.) Tuba Tuba Tuba

Percussion Percussione Batterie Schlagzeug


I
IDIOPHONES OF DEFINITE PITCH
i
I

Marimba (mar.) Marimba Marimba Marimbaphon


Xylophone (xyl.) Xilofono Xylophone Xylophon or
or Silofono or Claquebois Holzharmonika

---- .. _-------
0')
N
N

English Italian French German


I
;i
METAL INSTRUMENTS OF DEFINITE PITCH l<tl
en
.....
c
c,
Orchestral Bells (Glsp.) Campanelli or Jeu de Timbres Glockenspiel or '<
Campanette or Carillon StahlspieI -S.
Vibraphone (vib.) Vibrafono Vibraphone Vibraphon .0..,
Tubular Chimes (chm.) Campane [eu des Cloches Rohrenglocken (")
:r-
or Cam pane Tubolari or Glacken <tl
.....
CI'l
...,
0
.....
......
Celesta (eel.) Celesta or Celeste Celeste Celesta 0
::l

Gong (gong) Gong Gong Gong


Crotales (crot.) Crotali Crotales or Zimbeln
Cymbales Antiques
Anvil (anv.) Incudine Enclume Amboss
Musical Saw (saw) Sega Cantante Lame Musicale Singende Sage
Flexatone (flex.) Flessatono Flexatone Flexaton

MEMBRANOPHONES OF DEFINITE PITCH


Timpani (timp.) Timpani Timbales Pauken
Rota-Tom (r. tom) Roto-Tom-Tom Rota-Tom Tom-Tom-Spiel

MEMBRANOPHONES OF INDEFINITE PITCH


Snare Drum (s. dr.) Tamburo Piccolo Caisse Claire or Tambour Kleine Trammel
(with snares on) (Colle Corde) (avec timbres) (mit Schnarrsaite)
(with snares off) (senza Ie corde) (sans timbres) (ohne Schnarrsaite )
Tenor Drum (t. dr.) Tamburo Militare Tambour Militaire WirbeltrommeIor
Ruhrtrommel
f ( r
;r

Tom-Tom (t.t.) Tom-Tom Tom-Tom Tom-Tom


Bongos (bong.) Bongos or Bonghi Bongos Bongos
Timbales (timb.) Timpanetti Timbales Cubaines Kuba-Pauken
Conga Drum (conga) Tumba Conga Conga-Trommel or
Tumba

Bass Drum (b. dr.] Gran Cassa Grosse Caisse Grosse Trommel
or Gran Tamburo
(upright) (verticale) (verticale) (aufrecht)
(on side) (orizzontale) (a plat) (liegend)
Tambourine Tamburo basco or Tambour de Basque Tamburin or
(tamb.) Tamburino Schellentrommel

WOODEN INSTRUMENTS OF INDEFINITE PITCH

Woodblock (w. bl.) Blocco de Legno Bloc de Bois Holzblock


I Temple Block (1. bl.) Blocco de Legno Cinese Temple-Bloc Tempelblock

: Claves (claves) Claves Claves Claves or Holzstab


Castanets (cast.) Castagnette or Nacchere Castagnettes Kastagnetten

METAL INSTRUMENTS OF INDEFINITE PITCH I

>
'0
Finger Cymbals (fing. cymb.) Cimbalini Cymbales Digitales Fingerzimbeln "D
Ctl
Crash Cymbals (cymb.)
Suspended Cymbal (susp. cymb.)
Piatti or Cinelli
Piatto Sospeso
Cymbales
Cymbale Suspendue
Becken or Tellern
Hangendes Becken -.....
,....
><
Sizzle cymbal (sizz. cymb.) Piatto Chiodat Cymbale sur Tiges Nietenbecken :;,.

I-
I'

I:
0')
N

English Italian French German

-
Cl)

METAL INSTRUMENTS OF DEFINITE PITCH (cant.) en


l::
0...
Triangle Triangel '-.::
Triangle (trgl.) Triangolo or Acciarino
Cencerro Sonnailles or Kuhglocken or -S,
Cowbells (cowb.)
Cloches a Vache Kuhschellen o..,
(j
::J'"
Tam-Tam (t.t.) Tamtam Tam-Tam Tamtam
--..,_.
Cl)
e:t.l

o
o
OTHER SOUND SOURCES OF INDEFINITE PITCH
=
Whip or Slapstick (slapst.) Frusta Fouet Peitsche
Ratchet (ratch.) Raganella Crecelle Ratsche
Sandpaper Blocks (sandp. bl.] Carta Vetrata Papier de Verre Sandpapier or
Sandblocke
Wooden Wind Chimes Bacchette di Baguettes de Holz- Windglocken
Legno Sospese Bois Suspendues
Bamboo Wind Chimes Tubi di Bambu Bambou Suspendu Bambusrohre
Metal Wind Chimes Bacchette di Baguettes Metall-Windglocken
Metallo Sospese Metalliques Suspendues
Glass Wind Chimes Bacchette di Baguettes de Glas-Windglocken
Vetro Sospese Verre Suspendues

_J
Appendix A (j')
.... ,.)\<

3. SOME FREQUENTLY-USED ORCHESTRAL


TERMS IN FOUR LANGUAGES
English Italian French German

Muted Con Sordino Sourdine(s) mit Dampfer (or


'--
Con sordini Cedampft, in horns)
Take Off Mutes Via Sordini Enlevez les Dampferln] Weg
Sourdines
Without Mute Senza Sordino Sans Sourdine Ohne Dampfer
Divided Divisi (div.) Diviselels (div.) Geteilt (get.)
Divided in 3 Parts div. a 3 div. a 3 Dreifach
Divided in 4 Parts div. a 4 div. a 4 Vierfach
In Unison Unisono (unis.) Unis Zusammen
Solo Solo Seul Allein
All Tutti Tous AIle
1. (first only), 2. 1°, 2° ler,2e 1ste (or einfach), 2te
a2 a2 a2 zu 2
At (near) SulPonticello Sur le Chevalet am Steg
the Bridge
Over the SuI Tasto (or Sur la Touche am Griffbrett
'--
Fingerboard Sulla Tastiera)
I With the Wood Col Legno Avec Ie Bois Col Legno (or
of the Bow mit Holz)
At the Point Punta d'Arco (de la) Pointe Spitze
of the Bow
At the Frog al Tallone du Talon am Frosch
Bells in the Air Campane in Aria Pavillons en l'Air Schalltrichter auf
Half (a string group) la meta la rnoitie die Halfte
Stopped (horns) Chiuso (Chiusi J Bouchels] Gestopft
Brassy Cuivre Schmetternd
Open Aperto (Aperti) Ouvert(s) Offen
With Soft Stick Bacchetta di Baguette d'Eponge mit
Spugna (Baguette molle) Schwammschlegel
With Hard Sticks Bacchette di Legno Baguettes en Bois mit Holzschlegeln
Change C to E Sol Muta in Mi Changez Do en Mi C nach E Umstimmen
Change to Piccolo Muta in Piccolo Changez en Piccolo Piccolo Nehmen
Near the Sounding Pres de la Table
Board (harp)
Desk or Stand Leggio Pupitre Putt
In the Ordinary Modo Ordinario Mode Ordinaire Cewohnlich
Way (after sul
pont., sul teste, etc.)
String Corda Corde Saite