You are on page 1of 5
a - Sees 2 @ ACE i, 7: D.CMachines “* emf opposition can be represented interms of mechanical power developed Pres = Eola. Apply Fleming’s right hand rule to find the direction of current. Then we can get © undeF North Pole @ wider South Pole. i.¢ opposite direction of current is passing in armature winding, Armature rotates in \) anticlockwise direction, but poles are rotating in Clock wise. Armature rotates in CCW, but Poles ‘or mmf in opposite direction ‘The 3" function of the commutator is, it makes the armature mmf stationary w.r.t stator such that the stator field and armature field are wart each other for the production of unidirectional torque. ‘© The mainfield e.m-f (poles) is stationary wart stator. Thé armature mmf (poles) is also = stationary wart stator, The armature mmf or poles will rotate in opposite direction to rotor. rotation ie. armature rotation. The armature mmf will rotate at double the rated speed w.r! rotor (ie. armature). Construction of D.C machines: 1 Magnetic fame (0) yoke. sore and pole shoe. 4, Commutator. 6. Armature winding. pote shoe are made with ast Pole core is not necessary to ‘Taminate but pile shoe is laminated since it is close, to'-armafure. When load changes, armature, ssthongs, flux changes and 1¢ pole shoe and which causes eddy current. But pole core is excited with field winding. Field winding Laminated pole core Pole shoe Riveted holes iyderabad New Deli | Benglura | Bhubaneswar | Vinyevada | Visakiapatans | Tropa | Pune (Cheanal | Me Electrical Machines - Function: Function of pole core: To accommodate the field winding and ‘behaves as a magnet when it’s ling is excited. + Function of pole shoe: ~ Gives mechanical support for field coil and reduce the magnetic reliictance due to enlarged al : Distribute the flux uniformly in the air gap. Poleare Polepitch — topped wave, which is q the average value of flux is more compitred to sinusoidal flux distribution: * Broad pole shoes are'piefferéd ‘such. that more average value of flux. ~~ A poles shoe covers 70% of the pole pitch: Armature Core: With open slots: of oo Armature core is made with silicon steel, laminated to reduce the eddy current loss since armature current is altemating. ERR ei Nes si ttn To accommodate the armature winding, Offer low reluctance path for magnetic thux, _In D€ machines open slots are preferred because less leakage flux, less inductance, less leakage reactance there by commutation will be improved The armature slots are skewed to reduce the ‘mechanical vibrations. ze Copper Segments & TSS iit ‘Comniiutator is made’ with bard drawn copper to reduce Weat and te: A commutator converts altemating volatage to adirect voltage, No.of commutator segments = no.of armature ais. e Brash rushes: t Function of brush, is to collect the current or give the current:to the armature conductors through the commutator segments. Brushes are made with copper or carbon for small machines and electro-graphite for normal and large rating machines. Carbon-graphite for large current low voltage machines. For small machines carbon brushes are preferred due to the following advantages: 1. More resistance will improve ‘commutation, 2. High thermal stability. 3. Self lubricating property to reduce friction torque. Disadvantage: Voltage drop across brushes. Oo og ACE ica 7 D.C Machines + No.of brushes ~ 2 Duplex winding cof poles in lap winding 2 in wave winding = no.of poles for lange current wave wound machine. ~ ‘Armature winding: The winding may be a lap winding or a wave winding, . “First coil Fig: Wave winding First coil © Second coil Fig: Lap winding No. of parallel paths (A): In multiplex lap winding A = mp In multiplex wave winding A = 2m Where m= plex (or) multiplicity Ifm=1 — Simplex winding ‘Second’ In the - ig the finish of each coil is 3 Triplex winding 4 Quadrant winding ‘The rnultiplex’ winding & used for very. large current machines. : Simplex winding is more commonly used, No. of parallel paths, A : =no.of poles in lap winding =2 in wave winding Lap winding is suitable for comparatively low but high current generators whereas connected tothe; start of the next coil so that In wave winding, ‘the finsish of coil is connected to théstarttof another coil well P=No. af poles, Flax cut by one conductor in one revolution of thearmature, ‘dh = PO webers