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Cloud Computing

An oversimplified overview of Cloud computing

„ The concept of Cloud Computing
‰ The Revolution of IT industry
‰ What is Cloud Computing
‰ What is new in Cloud Computing
„ The trend of Cloud Computing
„ Why is it the time for Cloud Computing
„ Cloud Computing and Other Computing
‰ Grid Computing v.s Cloud Computing
„ The application of Cloud Computing
‰ The Provider and the User
„ What are the Barriers to Cloud Computing
‰ Customer Perspective
‰ Vendor Perspective
„ Conclusion and Future
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The Long-held Dream of Computing
As a Uutility

PC Internet Cloud computing

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The Internet: from Hardware to Community


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What Do Today’s Users Want?
• Accessibility
– Access from anywhere and from multiple devices

• Shareability
– Make sharing as easy as creating and saving

• Freedom
– Users don’t want their data held hostage

• Simplicity
– Easy-to-learn, easy-to-use

• Security
– Trust that data will not be lost or seen by unwanted

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What is Cloud Computing
„ Applications delivered as services
over the Interne;
„ Hardware and systems software in
the datacenters.

Cloud: The datacenter hardware

and software.

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„ IT Infrastructure
‰ as a whole
„ as a service
‰ with a Twist (*)
„ Storage
„ Processing
„ Software

(*)Ubiquitous access Pay-per-

use & ”Always-ON”
Massively scalable
and YES – you've seen this (youtube, googledocs )

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„ Public Cloud: pay-as-you-go

Utility Computing: the service being sold
e.g.: AmazonWeb Services
Google AppEngine
Microsoft Azure
„ Private Cloud: unavailable to the public

„ Cloud Computing =SaaS + Utility Computing -

Private Clouds

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Users and Providers of Cloud Computing

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What is new in Cloud Computing
Hardware Point:
„ The illusion of infinite computing resources
available on demand

„ The elimination of an up-front commitment by

Cloud users How it's used ?

„ The ability to pay for use of computing

resources on a short-term basis as needed

eg:Intel Computing Services

Amazon Web Services
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Attributes of Cloud Computing
• Data stored on the cloud
• Software & services on the cloud - Access via web browser
• Based on standards and protocols - Linux, AJAX, LAMP, etc.
• Accessible from any device

Personal PC Client Server Cloud Computing

Hardware Centric Software Centric Service Centric

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How it's used ?
„ CloudSourcing
„ Webby *aaS – Anything as a
‰ Anywhere service
‰ Anytime SaaS – Software as a service
‰ Friendly PaaS – Platform as a service
„ As-A-Service DaaS – DataBase as a service
AaaS – Application as a service
‰ On-demand
‰ Instantly
„ Powerfully
‰ Scalably
‰ Virtually
‰ Sharedly

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Projected Cloud Spending (IDC 2008)
Year 2008 2012 Growth
Cloud IT Spending $16B $42B 27%
Total IT Spending $383B $494B 7%
Total – Cloud Spend $367B $452B 4%
Cloud / Total Spend 4% 9%

Cloud Spending is growing 6X faster

than traditional IT spending!

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Google Trends

Cloud computing ascends while grid

computing descend.

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Why Now, Not Then?
Key: computer datacenters
„ Technology trends and Business models

„ New Application Opportunities

Mobile interactive applications
Parallel batch processing
The rise of analytics
Extension of compute-intensive applications
“Earthbound” applications

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What is Driving Cloud Computing?
Customer Perspective
„ In one word: economics
„ Faster, simpler, cheaper to use cloud apps
„ No upfront capital required for servers and
„ No ongoing operational expenses for running
„ Applications can be accessed from anywhere,

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What is Driving Cloud Computing?
Vendor Perspective
„ Easier for application vendors to reach new
„ Lowest cost way of delivering and supporting
„ Ability to use commodity server and storage
„ Ability to drive down data center operational
„ In one word: economics

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Breakthroughs for Cloud Computing
1 User-Centric

2 Task-Centric

3 Powerful

4 Intelligent

5 Affordable

6 Programmable
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Cloud Computing and Other Computing

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Cloud Computing v.s Other Computing

Cloud Computing

Software as a Service

Utility Computing • Anytime, anywhere

access to IT
resources delivered
Grid Computing • Network-based dynamically as a
subscriptions to service.
• Offering computing applications
• Solving large resources as a
problems with metered service
parallel computing

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Grid Computing
„ Resource sharing
‰ Computers, storage, sensors, networks, …
‰ Sharing always conditional: issues of trust,
policy, negotiation, payment, …
„ Coordinated problem solving
‰ Beyond client-server: distributed data analysis,
computation, collaboration, …
„ Dynamic, multi-institutional virtual orgs
‰ Beyond client-server: distributed data analysis,
computation, collaboration, …
‰ Large or small, static or dynamic

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Grid Computing v.s Cloud Computing
„ Lack of central control
‰ Where things run
‰ When they run

„ Shared resources
‰ Contention, variability

„ Communication
‰ Different sites implies different sys admins, users,
institutional goals, and often “strong personalities”

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Who would become a Cloud
Computing provider, and why?
„ Necessary but not sufficient condition
Large datacenters
Large-scale software infrastructure
Operational expertise
„ Additional factors
Make a lot of money
Leverage existing investment
Defend a franchise
Attack an incumbent
Leverage customer relationships
Become a platform
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Who is the provider?
Who What
3Tera Server
Amazon EC2 Server
Amazon S3 Storage
Amazon SimpleDB Database
Box-Net Storage
Dell DCS Server
EMC Mozy Storage
Flexiscale Server
Google Apps Application
HP AiaaS Server
IBM Blue Cloud Server
iCloud Application
Joyent Server
Azure All
Sun Caroline Server

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Cloud Computing Economics
Elasticity: Shifting the Risk

the risk of mis-estimating workload is shifted from the service operator to the
cloud vendor.
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Should I Move to the Cloud?
„ What are the PROS :
‰ COST of usage
‰ COST of access HW
‰ COST of providing
„ Energy
„ Licenses
„ Administration
„ Learning
„ Time

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Who is the user?
„ VISTA Innovation Portal (VIP) -
Vietnam Government

„ General Eletric

„ Utah state university

„ Arizona state university

„ The New York Times

„ Daily Telegraph

„ Procter & Gamble

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What are the Barriers to Cloud Computing?
Customer Perspective
„ Data Security
‰ Many customers don’t wish to trust their data to “the cloud”
‰ Data must be locally retained for regulatory reasons

„ Latency
‰ The cloud can be many milliseconds away
‰ Not suitable for real-time applications

„ Application Availability
‰ Cannot switch from existing legacy applications
‰ Equivalent cloud applications do not exist

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What are the Barriers to Cloud Computing?
Vendor Perspective
„ Service Level Agreements
‰ What if something goes wrong?
‰ What is the true cost of providing SLAs?

„ Latency
‰ SaaS/PaaS models are challenging
‰ Much lower upfront revenue

„ Application Availability
‰ Customers want open/standard APIs
‰ Need to continuously add value

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Conclusion and Questions about the
Clouds of Tomorrow
„ Pay-as-you-go and multiplexing
„ Easy to own fabrication line
„ Next generation of systems

„ Applications Software Client and Cloud

„ Infrastructure Software Run on VM
„ Hardware Systems Special Design

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What it will look like in five years

„ Change In Technology and Prices Over Time

network bandwidth

„ Virtualization Level
EC2,Azure and Google AppEngine

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The KEY Points
„ Ubiquitous access

„ Pay-per-use

„ “Always ON”

„ Service-oriented

„ Shared / Virtual resources

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Reference Material

„ Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing
„ 伯克利云计算白皮书(节选), 《高性能计算发展与应用》
„ Cloud Computing (An oversimplified overview), ppt, Alexandre Botao
„ Cloud Computing, ppt, Andy Bechtolsheim
„ Cloud computing Revolution --the third IT industry Revolution, ppt, Liming Liu
„ 汉周云计算白皮书简版 , ppt, 汉周云计算
„ Google and Cloud Computing, ppt,王咏刚
„ Grid Computing & Cloud Computing, ppt, 刘鹏
„ IBM's Perspective on Cloud Computing, ppt, Lauren States
„ Cloud Computing and Grid Computing 360-Degree Compared, Ian Foster

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