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Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 4678–4683 www.materialstoday.com/proceedings

ICMPC 2017

Effectuation of Lean Tool “5S” on Materials and Work Space


Efficiency in a Copper Wire Drawing Micro-Scale Industry in India
Kshitij Mohan Sharmaa, Surabhi Latab,*
a
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Rohini, Delhi 110086, India
b
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Rohini, Delhi 110086, India

Abstract

The 5S tool of the Lean Manufacturing is considered to be the one of the most important tools as it acts as a window to the other
important tools. There are 5 steps in 5S tool which are – Seiri/Sort, Seiton/Set-in or Straighten, Seisou/Shine or Scrub,
Seiketsu/Standardize and Shitsuke/Systematize or Self-descipline. This paper aims to eliminate the waste and improve the
efficiency, environmental performance, housekeeping, health and safety in a copper wire drawing company based in East of the
National Capital Territory of Delhi, India.
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selection and/or Peer-review under responsibility of 7th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization.

Keywords:Lean Manufacturing; 5S; Waste; Safety; Materials

1. Introduction

The lean manufacturing (LM) or Toyota Production System (TPS), pioneered by a Japanese automotive company,
Toyota, has been implemented by nearly all countries across the word due to its global superiority in cost, quality,
flexibility and quick respond. Lean is a production practice that aims to minimize waste with entire value streams
creating more value for customers [1]. It is purely a customer based strategy which focuses on optimization of lean
techniques. The principles of lean manufacturing states theuse of resources that does not deliver consumer value is a
target for change or elimination. It is practiced across lands in order to improve firm’s efficiency and production [2].
In 1989, the term LM was coined by the researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). James P.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9210055994.


E-mail address:surabhilata.delhi@gmail.com

2214-7853© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Selection and/or Peer-review under responsibility of 7th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization.
Kshitij Mohan Sharma et al./ Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 4678–4683 4679

Nomenclature
LM Lean Manufacturing
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
TPM Total Productive Maintenance
TPS Toyota Production System
3P Pre-Production Planning

Womack and Daniel T. Jones described it as doing “more and more with less and less–less human effort, less
equipment, less time and less space–while coming closer and closer to providing customers with exactly what they
desire [3]. The lean practice explains seven types of wastes namely as overproduction, waiting, over processing,
unnecessary part movement, excess inventory and defects. The waste in any industry can be effectively eliminated
using strategies such as One piece workflow, Takt time and Pull system. There are various tools and techniques
which are used bydifferent firms to implement lean concepts. The core lean methods frequently used are Kaizen
Rapid ImprovementProcess; 5S; Total Productive Maintenance (TPM); Six Sigma; Cellular Manufacturing / One-
piece Flow Production Systems; Just-in-time Production / Kanban; Pre-Production Planning (3P) and Lean
Enterprise Supplier Networks [4]. Priyanka Rai et al.[5] identifies the effectiveness of 5S implementation on
organizational as well employees performance and their attitude towards 5son the basis of data collected by using
Surveying method and distributing questionnaire among general employees of the organizations which have
implemented 5S techniques. Shraddha P. Deshpande et al.[6] applied the ‘5S’ technology in Samsonite South Asia
Pvt. Ltd. in Gonde-Dumala, Maharashtra due to unorganized work-stations, uncomfortable working environment
and the excessive wastes in the company. The successful implementation of ‘5S’ transformed the organization, from
the working conditions to the working satisfaction. Vipulkumar C. Patel et al. [7] explained the methods and
techniques of 5S used to increase the efficiency of all processes in the company, which can be used in all types of
companies. 5S results in the better organization of the plant.ArashGhodrati et al. [8] aimed to determine performance
factors and characteristics in industrial organizations and to identify the effectiveness of 5S implementation on
organizational performance using Surveying method and questionnaire for data collection.Rod Gapp et al. [9]
identified and presented key concepts of 5S from a Japanese management perspective. The results demonstrated the
importance of both the technical (visible) and philosophical (invisible) approaches required for each of the 5S
components.R.S. Agrahari et al. [10] dealt with the implementation of 5S methodology in the small scale industry, in
which the results showed significant improvements in safety, productivity, efficiency and housekeeping. Vipulkumar
C. Patel et al. [11] applied the 5S methodology of lean manufacturing to solve the problems of a ceramic industry in
India to increase its efficiency and eliminate losses.Prof.Saad Shaikh et al. [12] dealt with the 5S implementation in a
small scale industry, which resulted in significant improvements in environmental performance, improved
housekeeping, health and safety.MohdNizam Ab Rahman et al. [13] assessed the implementation of 5S practice in
two manufacturing companies. As per results housekeeping, environmental performance, health and safety standards
were improved in both companies. Abhay R. Kobarne et al. [14] applied the ‘5S’ technology in one of the MNC,
Menon Piston Ltd., which resulted in the organized work space for efficiency and effectiveness and elimination of
excessive wastes in the company.A.R. Abdul Aziz et al. [15] conducted a survey in KPJ Seremban Specialist
Hospital, Malaysia in July 2013. The survey forms were distributed to 330 staff consisting of questionaires which is
divided into two sections. In this survey it was found that before the implementation of 5S, the scores varies from
poor to good (scoring from 1-3) related to the impact on productivity for quality of working place, quality and moral
of staff and safety of work place .However after the implementation of 5S the scores had changed which varies from
good to excellent (scoring from 3-5). Harsha Lingareddy et al. [16] conducted an inspection process on the basis of
5S check lists and the results analyzed to confirm great changes like increasing efficiency in production and quality,
improves safety. Prof.Saad Shaikh et al. [17] conducted review of 5S methodology by studying various research
papers and concluded that this technique is very useful and beneficial in Industrial organizations, also by
implementing 5S the quality, productivity and efficiency of industrial organizations can be improved. R.A. Pasale et
al.[18] conducted a case study by applying 5S in an automotive parts manufacturing company. It was found that after
5s implementation the fixture setting time of Linday housing was reduced by 28%. Materials were stored at its
4680 Kshitij Mohan Sharma et al./ Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 4678–4683

allocated space so that it became very easy to find out material stock level.Richa Sharma et al. [19] try to identify the
effectiveness of 5S practices on the TPM implemented organization performance. As per the results of this research,
it was confirmed that the 5S practice is seen as an effective technique that can improve housekeeping, environmental
performance, health and safety standards in an integrated holistic way. However, 5S execution is an essential
prerequisite of implementation of Total Productive Maintenance. P. M. Rojasra et al. [20] applied the 5S
methodology in the Krishna Plastic Company, Udhyognagar, Amreli, Gujarat. The implementation of 5S technique
leads to the efficiency improvement from 67% to 88.8% through successive week. Also results in better usage of
working area, work environment improvement, prevention of tools losing, reduction in accidents, reduction in
accidents, reduction in pollution, discipline in the employees, increasing of awareness and moral of employees,
improvement in the internal communication, improvement in the internal human relation, decreasing of mistakes
through error proofing. Soumya R. Purohit et al. [21] emphasize on the step by step guidelines required for the
successful implementation of 5S methodology as a part of the daily management practices, by implementing the
methodology in Sphoorti Machine Tools Private Limited, Bangalore, India. It was found that there was increase in
productivity and hence profit levels. The secondary benefits of implementing 5S methodology included higher
enthusiasm and punctuality among the workers and safer working conditions.

2. Experimentation

2.1. Data Acquisition

The ABC incorporated is a local small scale copper wire drawing company in the National Capital Territory of
Delhi. The firm makes copper wires from the solid copper rods and delivers the final products to the othercompanies
a.k.a. clients. This company does not have the knowledge of the tools of the lean manufacturing or the lean
manufacturing itself, but being a very old industry, unknowingly some aspects of the lean manufacturing have been
applied in the company such as pull system and the standardization. During the visit by the author in the company
the major problem encountered was the unorganized floor and lack of cleanliness and self- discipline among the
workers.

2.2. Methodology

Surveying methods and the questionnaires were chosen as the medium for the data collection along with the
series of interviews with the personnel of all levels and departments, i.e. class IV employee to the top management
of the company. The selected method of data acquisition helps to understand the ground reality of the company and
its actual working conditions. This results in the identification of the best LM tool for the company in order to
enhance the yield and optimize the company’s resource, both raw material and the human resource. Follow up
interviews, questionnaires and surveys were made on the basis of the answers given by the personnel. Due to the
various offices, levels and floors present in the company, the organization was majorly divided floor wise and
department wise as shown in below Table 1.

Table 1. Hierarchal Structure of ABC Company.

Floors Sublevels
Floor I Company Head

Accounts Department

Machine Shop
Floor II
Weighing and Packing

Plant Manager Office

Shipping (Input/output)

Floor III Store (Raw Material/Finished Goods)

Heat Treatment
Kshitij Mohan Sharma et al./ Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 4678–4683 4681

After the analysis of the responses, surveys and the data collected, the problems were identified. The extensive
research of the responses and company data, it was concluded that the manufacturing tool selected for the
application will be “5S”.

2.3. Key problems

The data analysis and the responses of the surveys conducted defined following problems within the micro-scale
industry. These problems are broadly listed in the following points:
• Unorganized floor settings resulting in the loss of time for the stacking of raw and finished goods.
• Lack of cleanliness in the machine shop which results in loss of small but essential parts or components.
• Too much time consumption in the accounts department and other offices for the search of particular item.
• Lack of system in offices and other places leads to the frustration and fatigue among employees and
workers.
• Loss of material in heat treatment due to the dust and other impurities creeping in the operation due to lack
of cleanliness.
• Due to the disorganized system in the head office and store, mixing up of the orders and delay in the orders
has become very frequent.
• Poor performances of the machines due to unnecessary vibrations, friction etc.

2.4. Remedial Lean Tool: 5S

The investigation of the ABC Company defined 5S as the most suitable tool for its various departments in
order to organize its material or product flow and improve work ethics.To establish orderly flow, start with
the 5Stechnique— eliminating waste by organizing the workplace. 5S is simple and practical LM technique
[1]. There are five steps of the 5S technique which are defined as follows:
1. Sort: Divide all the items in the workplace into three R categories
• Retain: Retain items that are essential to the functioning of the work area. These items fall into two main
groups: regular use and occasional use.
• Return: Return any items that belong to another department, location, supplier, or customer.
• Rid: Rid the area of all other items. Physically move them straight to the recycle bin or dumpster for
disposal, or a staging area for immediate disposal. Note that any item located in the staging area must be
tagged with clear information about its disposal.
2. Straighten: Find a place for every item and put them in its place. Move theitems that are always needed in
close proximity of their application. Establish anddelineate the standard location for every item. Label
everything. Make itvisual. Better yet, make it sensory. Move those items that are not neededon a frequent
basis to a standard place, near the area — but not a placethat could disrupt flow.
3. Scrub: Clean the entire area. Whether in an office, a kitchen, or a factory,it means deep-clean everything.If
the area or equipment needs a freshcoat of paint, get out the brushes and the rollers. Cleaning is
everyone’sjob — not just the janitor’s or painter’s. This step is important for severalreasons:
• People working in a clean area tend to have a more positive attitude and be more productive and efficient.
• Clean equipment helps one to more quickly detect leaks and problems with equipment or machinery.
• Clean and clear areas make safer work environments.
4. Systematize: Now that the work of cleaning the area once has been accomplished, establishthe schedules
and systems to maintain the area clean regularly, just the way itis on the first day after the cleaning process.
5. Standardize: Turn a one-time event into the way one conducts business. This step isthe most difficult one,
because creation of new habits and levels ofperformance expectations are framed. Forming new habits
requires constantreinforcement and time, before the new habits transform to standards.

3. Results and Discussion

The suggested application of Lean Manufacturing tool “5S” led to the removal of the aforesaid problems by
enforcing simple steps in the ABC micro-scale Company. The results were concluded as follows:
4682 Kshitij Mohan Sharma et al./ Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 4678–4683

1. Cleaning the floors thoroughly led to the better looking workplace and hence development of healthy and
an enjoyable work environment. This further lead to reduced levels of frustration and fatigue among worker
and also increased their efficiency.
2. Providing the machine operators their personal toolboxes, supply closets, trash cans, sitting stools and
workbenches reduced unnecessary time consumption in search of the same during work-in-process hours.
3. Thorough cleaning of the machines organised regular inspection of the machines and hence increased in
their performance and life.
4. Organizing and labelling the files and the documents in the offices – company head office, accounts
department and plant manager office, led to the quick finding of the required document on time causing no
frustration, hence developing positive attitude in employees and saving time and unnecessary disputes.
5. Organizing of the store to avoid the mixing up of the orders led to proper functioning of various
departments and better inter-departmental relations.

4. Conclusion

The Lean manufacturing tool ‘5S’ is a beneficial tool for all types of the firms, plants and companies. It is one of the
most important LM tools, which eliminates waste and channelize the flow of materials or products within and
between various departments in an organization. It is a universal tool which can be applied in any situation and
anywhere starting from machine shop to the accounts department and head office. It crosses all boundaries of all
departments to create orderly flow, improve working conditions and reduce unnecessary wastage of time, space and
human resource. It defines the solution to all the problems irrespective of it being in a shop floor or in the head
office of a company. 5S is, in whole, a visual management system which creates a work environment that is ‘self-
explaining’, self-ordering’ and ‘self-inspiring’.

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