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Pull-Off Strengths for FRP

Bonded to Concrete with

Various Surface Preparation
V.T. McEntee
T.K. Nye
C.P. Pantelides

2016 ACI Spring Convention


• The use of steel plate connections are

commonly used for tilt-up and pre-cast and
concrete building construction
• Connections preform poorly in seismic
• Steel is corrosive and heavy
• Retrofits and repairs of connections are
difficult and costly
Glass Fiber

• Pressure

• Fiber Engagement

• Matrix
Connections Between Pre-Cast Walls
Connections Between Pre-Cast Walls
Push-Off Test

Tests Shear Strength of Bond

Push-Off Test

• Heavy Surface Retarder

• Light Surface Retarder
• Acid Wash
• Hand Scrabble
• Sand Blast
Push-Off Test
Push-Off Test
Push-Off Test Results
Average Maximum Maximum Vertical
Surface Preparation
Load (lbs.) Displacement (in.)

Hand Scrabble 7,016 0.082

Sand Blast 7,434 0.040

Acid Wash 7,702 0.107

Surface Retardant
[With 1,000-psi Pressure 7,642 0.023
Wash (single pass)]
Surface Retardant
[With 1,000-psi Pressure
7,774 0.407
Wash (multiple passes)]
Pull-Off Test

• Strongest bonds
between samples
that had large
aggregate exposure

• Most consistent
results from acid
washing and sand
ASTM D7522 blasting
Pull-Off Test

Fiber Failure Concrete Failure

Pull-Off Test
Pull-Off Test
Pull-Off Test
Pull-Off Test Results
Average Maximum Average Maximum
Surface Preparation
Load (lbs.) Tensile Stress (psi)
Hand Scrabble 7,016 263
Sand Blast 7,434 310

Acid Wash 7,702 440

Surface Retardant
[With 1,000-psi
7,642 306
Pressure Wash (single
Surface Retardant
[With 1,000-psi
7,774 315
Pressure Wash
(multiple passes)]

• Acid washing the concrete yielded the highest and

most consistent tensile strength

• In pull-off tests the majority of failures occurred in

the concrete

• Different surface preparations affect the tensile

capacity at the surface of the concrete

• A correlation between shear and tensile strength

was demonstrated through testing

University of Utah Department of Civil and

Environmental Engineering

Office of Undergraduate Research

Forterra Structural & Specialty Products

Sika Corporation

American Concrete Institute Intermountain Chapter