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# CS6304 ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

UNIT –I
UNIT-I FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION
Source of Noise - External Noise- Internal Noise- Noise Calculation. Introduction to
Communication Systems: Modulation – Types - Need for Modulation. Theory of Amplitude
Modulation - Evolution and Description of SSB Techniques - Theory of Frequency and
Phase Modulation – Comparison of various Analog Communication System (AM – FM –
PM).

COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To Understand Analog Communication Techniques
PART-A
1. Define noise. (R)
Noise is defined as any unwanted form of energy, which tends to interfere with
proper reception and reproduction of wanted signal.

## 2. Give the classification of noise. (R)

Noise is broadly classified into two types. They are External noise and internal noise.
(i) External noise can be classified into
1. Atmospheric noise2. Extraterrestrial noises3. Man –made noises or industrial noises
(ii) Internal noise can be classified into
1. Thermal noise 2. Shot noise 3. Transit time noise 4. Miscellaneous internal noise

3. What are the types of extra-terrestrial noise and write their origin? (R)
The two type of extraterrestrial noise are solar noise and cosmic noise Solar noise is the
electrical noise emanating from the sun. Cosmic noise is the noise received from the center
part of our galaxy, other distant galaxies and other virtual point sources.

## 4. Define signal to noise ratio and noise Figure. (R)

Signal to noise ratio is the ratio of signal power to the noise power at the same point in a
system.
S/ N at the input
Nose figure (F) = S/ N at the output
S/N = Signal power / Noise Power
5. Explain thermal noise. (U) ( NOV/DEC 2008), ( NOV/DEC 2006)
Thermal noise is the name given to the electrical noise arising from the random
motion of electrons in a conductor.

## 6. Define Partition noise. (R)

In an electron tube having one or more positive grids, this noise is caused by irratic partition
of the cathode current among the positive electrodes. In a transistor, thepartition noise is
created from the random fluctuation in the division of current betweenthe collector and base.

## 7. Define Modulation? (R) (MAY/JUNE 2007)

Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of high frequency carriersignal is
varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

## 8.What are the types of analog modulation? (R) (NOV/DEC 2005)

1. Amplitude modulation
2. Angle Modulation (i) Frequency modulation (ii) Phase modulation.

## 9. Define AM draw its spectrum. (R) (April/May 2015)

Amplitude of the carrier signal varies according to amplitude variations in modulating
signal.
Spectrum: Fig shows the spectrum of AM signal. It consists of carrier (ƒc) and two sidebands
at ƒc ± ƒm

10. Why carrier frequencies are generally selected in HF range than low frequency
range? (A/E)
The antenna size is very large at low frequencies. Such antenna is practically not
possible to fabricate. High carrier frequencies require reasonable antenna size for
transmission and reception. High frequencies can be transmitted using tropospheric scatter
propagation, which is used to travel long distances.
11. What are the degrees of modulation? (R)
Under modulation, m<1
Critical modulation, m=1
Over modulation, m>1
12.Calculate percentage modulation in AM if carrier amplitude is 20 V and modulating
signal is

of 15V. (A)

## Percentage modulation = m * 100= 75%

13. What is the difference between high level and low level modulation? (A/E)

In high level modulation, the modulator amplifier operates at high power levels and
delivers power directly to the antenna. In low level modulation, the modulator amplifier
performs modulation at relatively low power levels. The modulated signal is then amplified
to high power level by class B power amplifier. The amplifier feeds power to antenna.

## 14. Define detection. (R)

Detection is the process of extracting modulating signal from the modulated
carrier. Different types of detectors are used for different types of modulations.

## 15. Define amplitude modulation. (R)

In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of a carrier signal is varied according to
variations in amplitude of modulating signal.
AM signal can be represented mathematically as,eAM = (Ec + Emsinωmt)sinωct
And the modulating index is given as, m = Em/ Ec

## 16. What do we understand by narrowband FM? (R)

When the modulation index is less than 1, the angle modulated systems are called low index.
The bandwidth requirement of low index systems is approximately twice of the modulating
signal frequency. Therefore low index systems are called narrowband FM.

## Carson’s rule of FM bandwidth is given as,

BW = 2(δ + ƒm (max))

Here δ is the maximum frequency deviation and ƒm (max) is the maximum signal frequency.
18. Differentiate between narrow band FM and wideband FM. (A/E)
In narrowband FM, the frequency deviation is very small. Hence the frequency spectrum
consists of two major sidebands like AM. Other sidebands are negligible and hence they can
be neglected. Therefore the bandwidth of narrowband FM is limited only to twice of highest
modulating frequency.

If the deviation in carrier frequency is large enough so that other sidebands cannot be
neglected, then it is called wideband FM. The bandwidth of wideband FM is calculated as
per Carson’s rule.

## a) The amplitude of FM is constant. It is independent of depth of modulation. Hence

transmitter power remains constant in FM whereas it varies in AM.

b) Since amplitude of FM is constant, the noise interference is minimum in FM. Any noise
superimposing amplitude can be removed with the help of amplitude limits. Whereas it is
difficult to remove amplitude variations due to noise in AM.

c) The depth of modulation has limitation in AM. But in FM the depth of modulation can be
increased to any value by increasing the deviation. This does not cause any distortion in FM
signal.

d) Since guard bands are provided in FM, there is less possibility of adjacent channel
interference.

e) Since space waves are used for FM, the radius of propagation is limited to line of sight.
Hence it is possible to operate several independent transmitters on same frequency with
minimum interference.

f) Since FM uses UHF and VHF ranges, the noise interference is minimum compared to AM
which uses MF and HF ranges.

## 20. Define PM. (R)

In phase modulation, the phase of the carrier varies according to amplitude variations of the
modulating signal. The PM signal can be expressed mathematically as,

## Here mp is the modulation index for phase modulation. It is given as,

mp = Φm
Here Φm is the maximum value of phase change.

## 21.What is meant by indirect method of FM generation? (R)

In the indirect method, Fm is obtained from PM. The phase modulated signal can be
represented as, ePM = Ecsin(ωct+ m cosωmt)

## ω = dθ(t) / dt = d/dt [ωct+ m cosωmt] = ωc- m sinωmt * ωm

Or

ƒp = ƒc - mƒm sin(2πƒmt)

= ƒc + Δƒ where Δƒ = mƒmsin(2πƒmt)

## Thus modulated signal frequency has deviation of Δƒ with respect to ƒc . And

Δƒ = mƒmsin(2πƒmt)

## If ƒm remains constant, then frequency deviation will be directly proportional to m. Thus as

long as modulating frequency does not change, phase modulation produces FM output.

## 22.What is modulation index? (R)

Modulation index indicates the depth of modulation. As the amplitude of modulating signal
increases, modulation index increases.

## m = δ/ƒm = Maximum frequency deviation / Modulating frequency

23. A 107.6 MHZ carrier is frequency modulated by a 7 kHZsine wave. The resultant
FM signal has a frequency of 50 kHZDetermine the modulation index of the FM wave.
(A)

## Modulation index = δ/ƒm = 50/7 = 7.142

24.If the rms value of the aerial current before modulation is 12.5 A and during
modulation is 14 A, calculate the percentage of modulation employed, assuming no
distortion. (A)

## Here Itotal = 14 A and Ic = 12.5 A.

 I 2total 
m = 2 1

 Ic2 

 142 
= 2 2
1 = 0.71
 12.5 
25.An AM broadcast transmitter radiates 9.5 KW of power with the carrier
unmodulated and 10.925 KW when it is sinusoidally modulated. Calculate the
modulation index. (A)

## Ptotal = 10.925 KW, Pc = 9.5 KW

P 
m= 2 total 1
 Pc 

 10.925 
m= 2 1 = 0.54
 9.5 

percentage is 60%. How much is the carrier power? (A)

## Ptotal = 5 KW, m = 0.6,Pc =?

 m2 
Ptotal = Pc 1  
 2 

 0.62 
5 KW = Pc 1  
 2 

Pc = 4.237 KW.

modulation? (R)

## 28.The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8 A when only carrier is sent, but it

increases to 8.96 A when the carrier is modulated by a single tone sinusoid. Find the
percentage modulation. (A)

## Here Itotal = 8.96 A and Ic = 8 A.

2
Itotal = Ic 1  m
2

2
8.96 = 8 1  m
2

m = 0.713

## 29. If a modulated wave with an average voltage of 20 Vp changes in amplitude  5 V,

determine the maximum and minimum envelope amplitudes and the modulation
coefficients. (A)
Emax = 20 + 5 = 25 V

Emin = 20 – 5 = 15 V

Emax - Emin
Modulation index =
Emax  Emin

25 - 15
= = 0.25
25  15

## Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation

1. Amplitude of the carrier is varied according to Frequency of the carrier is varied according to amplitude of
amplitude of modulating signal. modulating signal.

2. AM has poor fidelity due to narrow band. Since the bandwidth is large, fidelity is better.

3. Most of the power is in carrier hence less efficient. All the transmitted power is useful.

## 5. Adjacent channel interference is present. Adjacent channel interference is avoided.

6. AM broadcast operates in MF and HF range. FM broadcast operates in VHF and UHF range.

7. In AM only carrier and two sidebands are present. Infinite numbers of sidebands are present.

## 8. The transmission equipment is simple. The transmission equipment is complex.

9. Transmitted power varies according to modulation Transmitted power remains constant irrespective of
index. modulation index.

10. Depth of modulation has limitation. It cannot be Depth of modulation has no limitation. It can be increased
increased above 1. by increasing frequency deviation

## 31. A carrier is frequency modulated with a sinusoidal signal of 2 kH Z resulting in a

maximum frequency deviation of 5 kHZ .Find 1) Modulation index 2) Bandwidth of the
modulating signal. (A)

## Given data: Modulating frequency ƒm = 2 kHZ

Maximum frequency deviation δ = 5 kHZ
5  103
1) Modulation index = mf = δ/ƒm = = 2.5
2  103
2) Bandwidth of the modulating signal, BW = 2(δ + ƒm (max))
Here ƒm (max) is the maximum modulating frequency, which is given as 2 kHZ .
Hence, BW = 2( 5103 + 2  103 ) = 14 kHz.
32. Calculate the bandwidth of commercial FM transmission assuming Δƒ = 75 kH z and W
= 15 kHz. (A) (April/May 2015)

## BW = 2(δ + ƒm (max)) = 2[75+15] kHz = 180 kHz

33.An FM transmitter has a rest frequency ƒc= 96 MHZ and a deviation sensitivity K1=
4 kHZ/V.Determine the frequency deviation for a modulating signal Vm (t) = 8sin
(2π2000t). Determine the modulation index. (A)

Compare Vm (t) = 8 sin (2π2000t) with Em(t) = Emsin (2π ƒmt), then we get,
Em= 8 V and ƒm= 2000 HZ , k1= 4 kHz/V.
Total frequency deviation = δ = k1  Em= 4 kHZ/V  8 V = 32 kHz.
32 kHZ
Modulation index, m = δ/ƒm = = 16
2000 HZ

34. Sketch the block diagram for generating FM signal using PM modulator and PM
signal using FM modulator. (A/E)

Integrator Phase
modulator
FM output

Differentiat Frequency
or modulator
PM output

## In this case the modulation index m<1, (i.e.)Vm<Vc. The envelope of AM

signal does not reach the zero amplitude axis. Hence the message signal is fully preserved in
the envelope of the AM wave. This is known as under modulation.

## 36. Define frequency modulation. (R)

Frequency modulation is defined as the process by which the frequency of the carrier
wave is changed in accordance with the instantaneous value of the message signals.

## Modulation index is defined as the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the

modulating frequency.

## 38. Define frequency deviation. (R)

Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted
on by a modulating signal frequency. The frequency deviation is typically given as the peak
frequency shift in Hertz (Δf).

## 39. What is the effect of increasing modulation index in FM? (R)

In FM, the total transmitted power always remains constant. But with increased depth of
modulation, the required bandwidth is increased.

## 40. How do you get FM using PM system? (U)

The frequency modulated wave can be obtained from PM system. This is done by integrating
the modulating signals before applying it to the phase modulators

## 41. Why is FM superior to AM in performance? (U)

i). In AM system the bandwidth is finite. But FM system has infinite number of sidebands in

ii). In FM system all the transmitted power is useful whereas in AM most of the transmitted
power is used by the carrier.

iii). Noise is very less in FM,hence there is an increase in the signal to noise ratio.

## 42. Define demodulation. (R)

Demodulation or detection is the process by which modulating voltage isrecovered from the
modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.
43. Define instantaneous phase deviation. (R)

The instantaneous phase deviation is the instantaneous change in phase of the carrier at a
given instant of time and it indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with
respect to the reference phase.

## 44. Define percent modulation for angle modulation. (R)

The percent modulation for angle modulation is the ratio of frequency deviation actually
produced to the maximum frequency deviation allowed in percent form.

modulator.

## 47. How can we obtain FM modulator from PM modulator? (U)

FM modulator is obtained from PM modulator by placing an integrator followed by a PM
modulator

## 48.What is the need for modulation? (R) [MAY/JUNE 2013][April/May2015]

Needs for modulation:
_ Ease of transmission
_ Multiplexing
_ Reduced noise
_ Narrow bandwidth
_ Frequency assignment
_ Reduce the equipments limitations.

## 49. Compare AM with DSB-SC and SSB-SC. (A/E) ( NOV/DEC 2005)

AM signal DSB-SC SSB-SC
Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=fm
Contains USB, LSB, carrier Contains USB,LSB Contains LSB or USB
More power is required Power required is less than Power required is less
fortransmission. that of AM thanAM &DSB-SC

## 50. What are the advantages of SSB. (R) (MAY/JUNE 2007)

Fading effect is absent. The power of the suppressed carrier and sideband is saved
The effect of noise at the receiver circuits is reduced.
51. List the sources of external and internal noise (R) (Nov/dec 2016)

## 52. Differentiate frequency and phase modulation(U) (Nov/dec 2016)

53. List the major segments of electromagnetic spectrum and give their frequency
ranges.

(R) (Nov/dec
2015)

## 54. Compare AM with DSB – SC and SSB-SC. (R) (Nov/dec 2015)

SSB-SC spectrum has only one sidebands either lower or upper. There is no carrier in
the transmission. It needs half of the bandwidth used for DSBSC transmission.
SSB filter is used to extract desired sideband for transmission from DSBSC signal. Half of
the power is needed for transmission in SSB-SC in comparison to DSBSC.

## 55. Draw the spectrum of an AM signal(R) (Apr/May 2015)

56. A carrier of frequency 100 MHz is frequency modulated by a signal x(t)=20sin
(200πx103t ). What is the bandwidth of the FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of
the modulator is 25 kHz per volt? (A) (Apr/May 2015)
Solution:

Fc=100Mhz; kf =25kHz/V

Vm(t) = 20 sin(200x10 t )
3

2πfm=200π x 103t

200  10 3
Therefore, fm= 2 =100000Hz

## 57. What is the need for modulation? (R) (Nov/Dec 2014)

Needs for modulation:
 Ease of transmission
 Multiplexing
 Reduced noise
 Narrow bandwidth
 Frequency assignment
 Reduce the equipments limitations.

58. An amplifier operating over the frequency range from 18 to 20 Mhz has a 10KΩ
input resistor. What is the RMS noise voltage at the input to this amplifier if the
ambient temperature is 27°C?
(R)
(Nov/Dec 2014)
PART B

1.(i) Derive equations for AM voltage and power distribution. (U) (8)[April/May 15]
(ii) Explain the frequency analysis of angle modulated waves. (U) (8) [May/June 14]
2. (i) Write a note on frequency deviation of FM waves. (U) (8)
(ii) Describe the generation of FM. (R) (8) [May/June
2014]
3. (i) What is the need for modulation? (R) (4)
(ii) Explain with necessary diagram any one method for generation of AM wave.
(U)(12)[May/June 2013]
4. (i) Explain with block diagram of a FM transmitter using direct modulation. (U)
(12)
(ii) Discuss about spectral characteristics of FM signal. (U) (4) [May/June 2013]

5.Derive the mathematical expression for AM and describes its frequency spectrum and its
bandwidth.(U) [Nov/Dec-2003, 8Marks]

## 6. Derive AM voltage distribution and power distribution. (U)

7. Derive power distribution and current relations.(U)
8.For an AM DSBFC wave with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage VC = 10v, load resistance
RL = 10Ω
and a modulation coefficient m=1. Determine
a) Powers of the carrier and the upper and lower sidebands.
b) Total sideband power.
c) Total power of the modulated wave,
d) Draw the power spectrum. (A)
9. Derive the mathematical expression for FM and describes its frequency spectrum and its
bandwidth. (U)

## 10. Define and mathematically describe angle modulation. (R)

11. Determine the bandwidth requirements for frequency and phase modulation.(U)

[April/May 15]

## 12. Explain the frequency analysis of angle modulated wave. (U)

13. For an FM modulator with a modulation index m=1, a modulating signal Vm(t)= Vmsin
(2π1000t),

## a) Number of sets of significant side frequencies

b)Their amplitudes.
c)Draw the frequency spectrum showing their relative amplitudes. (A)
14. Derive the average power of an angle modulated wave. (U)

## 15. (i) Distinguish between frequency and phase modulation. (A)

(ii) Explain the principle of AM modulation with mathematical analysis. Also draw the
AM wave and explain its power distribution. (U) [Apr/May 2015, 8 Marks](May 11)

16.Explain the bandwidth requirement for FM and define Carson’s rule. (U) (May 11)

## 17. (i)distinguish between FM and PM by giving its mathematical analysis.(A)

(April/May 15)

(ii)Derive the relationship between the voltage amplitudes of the sideband frequencies and
the carrier and draw the frequency spectrum. (U)
(May 10)

18. Discuss about the sets of side bands produced when a carrier is frequency modulated by a
single frequency sinusoid. (U) (May 10)

## 19. In an AM modulator, 500Khz carrier of amplitude 20V is modulated by 10 KHz

modulating signal which causes a change in the output wave of +7.5V. Determine:

## (1)Upper and lower side band frequencies.

(2)Modulation Index.

## (4)Maximum and minimum amplitudes of envelope. (A) (May 10)

20. Derive expression for AM wave. Define modulation index and express its value in terms
of maximum and minimum voltage values of signal. Draw the spectrum and time-domain
signal of AM wave. (U (Dec 09)

21. Define FM and PM modulation. Write down their equations. Describe suitable
mechanism that can produce PM from FM modulator. (U) (Dec 09)
22. Explain how the various noises are generated and the method of representing them. (U)
(16)
23. (i) Derive the expression for output signal to noise for a DSBSC receiver using coherent
detection.(U)
(ii) Write short notes on noise in SSB receivers. (U) ( NOV/DEC 2006)
24. Write short notes on :
(i)Shot noise. (4)
(ii)Thermal noise. (U) (4)
25. Explain the working of Super heterodyne receiver with its parameters. (U) (16)
26. Explain about AM transmitters. (U) (16)
27. A commercial AM station is broadcasting with an demodulated carrier power of 10kW.
The modulation index is set at 0.7 for a sinusoidal message signal. Find the total transmitter
power and efficiency.(A)
(MAY/JUNE 2007)
28. How SSB can be generated using Weaver's method? Illustrate with a neat block diagram.
(U)
(6)(April/May 2010)
29. (i) Describe about internal noise. (R) (8) [Nov/Dec 2014]
(ii) In modulation by several sine waves simultaneously, in AM, the bandwidth required
is twice the highest modulating frequency. Prove this concept using appropriate
expressions. (U)
(8) [Nov/Dec 2014]
30. (i) Calculate the percentage power saving when the carrier and one of the side bands are
suppressed in an AM wave modulated to a depth of (1) 100 percent and (2) 50 percent. (A)
(4)
(ii) Describe Frequency modulation and Phase modulation and their inter-relationship.
(U)
(12) [Nov/Dec 2014]
31. With the help of mathematical expressions explain about Amplitude Modulation, its
generation and detection. (U) (16) [April/May 2015]

32. (i) Draw the phasor diagram of a wide band FM and explain about the band width of FM
signal. (U) (8)

(ii) Explain the difference between phase modulation and frequency modulation. (U)
(8) [April/ May 2015]
33. (i) The output modulated wave of a standard AM transmitter is represented S(t) =
500(1+0.4sin3140t)cos6.28*107t. This voltage is fed to a load of 600Ω. Find
(1) Modulating frequency
(2) Carrier frequency
(3) Mean Power Output. (A) (8) [Nov/ Dec 2015]

(ii) Derive efficiency ƞ of standard AM and show that for a single tone AM, ƞmax=33.3% at
µ=1. (A) (8) [Nov/ Dec 2015]

34. With the help of neat block diagram explain about the generation of SSBSC wave and
demodulation. (U)(16) [Nov/ Dec 2015]

35. (a) (i) A receiver connected to an antenna resistance is 50 Ω has an equivalent noise
resistance of 30 Ω. Calculate the receiver’s noise figure in decibels and its equivalent noise
temperature. (A)(7)
(ii) A 1000 KHz carrier is simultaneously modulated with 300 Hz, 800 Hz and 2 KHz
audio sine waves. Find the frequencies present in the output. (A)(6) [NOV/DEC 2016]
36. (i) Derive the expression for the instantaneous voltage of SSB wave.(U)(7)

(ii) A 25 MHz carrier is modulated by a 400 Hz audio sine wave. If the carrier voltage is 4V
and the maximum frequency deviation is 10 KHz and phase deviation is 25 radians. Write the
equation of this modulated wave for (1) FM (2) PM. If the modulating frequency is now
changed to 2 KHz, all else remaining constant. Write a new equation for FM and PM.
(A)(6) [NOV/DEC 2016]

36. A 400 W carrier is amplitude modulated to a depth of 100%. Calculate the total power in
case of the AM and DSBSC techniques. How much power saving in watts is achieved for
DSBSC? If the depth of modulation is changed to 75%, then how much power in W is
required for transmitting the DSBSC wave? Compare the power required for DSBSC in both
cases and comment on the reason for change in the power levels. (A)(7) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:
Students can able to understand various analog communication techniques.
UNIT - II
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) – Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Minimum
Shift Keying (MSK) –Phase Shift Keying (PSK) – BPSK – QPSK – 8 PSK – 16 PSK
- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) – 8 QAM – 16 QAM – Bandwidth
Efficiency– Comparison of various Digital Communication System (ASK – FSK –
PSK – QAM).
COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To Understand Digital Communication Techniques
PART –A

## VASK(t)= [ 1+Vm(t)][ A/2 cos(WCt) ]

Vm(t) is a normalized binary waveform where +1V is logic 1 and -1V is logic 0.
For a logic 1 input Vm(t) = 1,
VASK(t)= [ 1+1][ A/2 cos(WCt) ]= AcosWCt
For a logic 0 input,
Vm(t) = -1, Vm(t) = -1, VASK(t) = 0
thus the modulated wave VASK(t) is either AcosWCt or 0.Hence the carrier is either
‘on’ or ‘off’. Hence ASK is called on-off keying(ook).

## 2. Compare:coherent and non-coherent detection. (A/E) [Nov/Dec -2011]

Coherent (synchronous) detection:
In coherent detection, the local carrier generated at the receiver is phase locked with
the carrier at the transmitter. The detection is done by correlating received noisy signal and
locally generated carrier. The coherent detection is a synchronous detection.
Non-coherent (envelope) detection:
This type of detection does not need receiver carrier to be phase locked with
transmitter carrier. The advantage of such a system is that the system becomes simple, but
the drawback is that error probability increases. The different digital modulation techniques
are used for specific application areas. The choice is made such that the transmitted power
and channel bandwidth are best exploited.

## 3. What is shannon limit for information capacity? (R)[May2012, 2013][Nov-2010]

I α B*t
Information capacity is direct proportional to Bandwidth and transmission line.
I = B log2(1+S/N)
Or
I =3.32 log1010(1+S/N)
Where B—Band width
S/N—Signal to noise ratio.
4. Compare binary PSK with QPSK. (A/E) (Nov – 2003)

## Sr.No BPSK QPSK

1. One bit forms a symbol. Two bits form a symbol.
2. Two possible symbols. Four possible symbols.
3. Minimum bandwidth is twice Minimum bandwidth is equal
of ƒ b . to ƒ b .

## 4. Symbol duration = T b . Symbol duration = 2T b .

30. What are the advantages of M-ary signaling scheme?(R) (May – 2004)
1) M-ary signaling schemes transmit multiple bits at a time.
2) Bandwidth requirement of M-ary signaling scheme is reduced.

## 31. What are antipodal signals? (R) (Nov – 2006)

In BPSK, the two symbols are transmitted with the help of following signals,
Symbol ‘1’  s1(t) = 2 P cos (2πƒ0t)
Symbol ‘2’  s2(t) = 2 P cos (2πƒ0t + π)
Here observe that above two signals differ only in a relative phase shift of 1800. Such signals
are called antipodal signals.
32. Compare bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK signals and M-ary FSK signals. (A/E)
(May – 2003)
For N-bit symbol, M-ary PSK requires a bandwidth of,
2ƒb
M-ary PSK, BW =
N
And M-ary FSK requires a bandwidth of,
2 N 1
M-ary FSK, BW = ƒb
N
Thus for N = 4,
2ƒb ƒb
M-ary PSK: BW = =
4 2
41
2
M-ary FSK: BW = ƒb = 8ƒb
4
Thus FSK requires more bandwidth compared to PSK.

33. What are the advantages of QPSK as compared to BPSK? (R)(May – 2005)
1) For the same bit error rate, the bandwidth required by QPSK is reduced to half as compared
to BPSK.
2) Because of reduced bandwidth, the information transmission rate of QPSK is higher.
3) Variation in OQPSK amplitude is not much. Hence carrier power almost remains constant.

## 34. Compare QASK and QPSK. (A/E) (Nov – 2013)

phase
2 Location of signal All signal points placed on Signal points are replaced
points circumference of circle symmetrically about origin
3 Distance between 2 0.15Eb for 16 symbols and 2 0.4 Eb for 16 symbols
signal points
2 Eb for 4 symbols

## 4 Complexity Relatively simpler Relatively complex

5 Noise immunity Better than QASK Poor than QPSK. But better
than M-ary PSK
6 Error probability Less than QASK Higher than QPSK. Lower than
M-ary PSK.
7 Type of Coherent Coherent
demodulation

35. Draw the phasor diagram of QPSK or Signal constellation of QPSK.[May/June 2013]
36. Define minimum shift keying.(R) (May – 2006)
Minimum shift keying uses two orthogonal signals to transmit binary ‘0’ and ‘1’. The
differences between these two frequencies are minimum. Hence, there are no abrupt changes
in the amplitude and the modulated signal is continuous and smooth.
37. Give the difference between standard FSK and MSK.(A/E)
(Nov – 2007)
Sr.No FSK MSK
1. The two frequencies are integer The difference between the two
multiple of base band frequency frequencies is minimum and at the same
and at the same time they are time they are orthogonal.
orthogonal.
2. BW = 4 f b BW = 1.5 fb

## 3. This is binary modulation. This quadrature modulation.

38. Show the arrangement for non-coherent detection of FSK binary signal. (U)
(May – 2007)

## Band pass Envelope

filter at detector

b(t)

BPSK
signal Band pass Envelope Comparator
filter at detector
Fig shows the block diagram of BFSK receiver. The receiver consists of two band pass
filters, one with centre frequency f H and other with centre frequency f L . Since f H - f L = 2 f b ,
the outputs of filters do not overlap. The band pass filters pass their corresponding main
lobes without much distortion.

## 39. What do you mean bit rate and baud rate?

The rate at which data (bits) are transmitted is called bit rate. That is number of bits
transmitted per second. Unit is bps(bits per second).
The rate at which signal elements (pulses) are transmitted is called baudrate (modulation
rate). This means number of signal elements(pulses) transmitted per second. Unit is bauds.

## 40. What do you mean by ASK? (R)

ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) is a modulation technique which converts digital data to
analog signal. In ASK, the two binary values (0, 1) are represented by two different
amplitudes of the carrier signal.

## 41. What do you mean by FSK? (R)

FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) also a modulation technique which converts digital data to
analog signal. In FSK, the two binary values are represented by two different frequencies
near the carrier frequency.

## 42. Differentiate Binary PSK and QPSK. (A/E)

Binary PSK
1. Two different phases are used to represent two binary values.
2. Each signal element represents only one bit.

QPSK
1. Four different phases are used to represent two binary values.
2. Each signal element represents two bits.

## 20. What is bandwidth efficiency?(R)

The ratio of data rate to transmission bandwidth is referred as bandwidth
efficiency. It is denoted as RBR.
Bandwidth efficiency = R / B
Where,
R – Data rate
B – Bandwidth
21.What are the advantages of QPSK? (R) (April/May 2011-
R2008,April/May 2010)

PhaseShiftKeying(BPSK) oneiswellknown. It is the possibility to transmit in the same
frequency band twice more information, while the number of errors and the Eb/No relation
are the same. It required minimum Bandwidth as in BPSK.

2004)

## Channelcapacity is a measure of howmuchinformation can be propagate through the

communicationsystemanditisfunction of bandwidth and transmissiontime.

## Shannon theoremstates thatifthe bandwidthofthechannelisBHzand(S/N)isthe signal

to noise ratiothenthe channelcapacity is given by
I (or) C = B log2 (1 + S/N) bps
23. Define information capacity. (R)

## InformationCapacity is represents the number of symbols that can be carried through a

system that is called information capacity
It is a measure of how much information can be propagated through communication system
and is function of bandwidth and transmission time.

InformationCapacity, I=Bxt
B= bandwidth (Hz)
t=Transmissiontime(sec)
C (or) I = Channel capacityorInformationcapacity

## 24.Define bit rate. (R)

Bitrate is the number of bits transmitted per second or Rate of change of
digital information signal.
25. Define minimum shift keying (R) Nov/Dec 16
Minimum shift keying uses wo orthogonal signals to transmit
binary ‘0’ and ‘1’. The differences between these two frequencies are minimum. Hence, there
are no abrupt changes in the amplitude and the modulated signal is continuous and smooth.
Also, Minimum shift keying (MSK) is a special type of continuous phase-
frequency shift keying (CPFSK) with h=0.5. A modulation index of 0.5 corresponds to the
minimum frequency spacing that allows two FSK signals to be coherently orthogonal, and the
name minimum shift keying implies the minimum .
26. For an 8-PSK system, operating with an information bit rate of 24 kbps, determine (a)
baud, (b) minimum bandwidth, and (c) bandwidth efficiency. (A) Nov/Dec 16
27. Sketch the digitally modulated waveforms for the binary data 10110 using ASK ,FSK.

(R) Nov/Dec 15

28. Why is FSK and PSK signals are preferred over ASK signals? (R) Nov/Dec 15

## FSK is less Susceptible to errors than ASK.

PSK is less susceptible to errors than ASK, while it requires/occupies the same
bandwidth as ASK and more efficient use of bandwidth (higher data rate) are possible
compared to FSK.

29. Sketch the QPSK signal for the binary sequence 10011100 (R) Nov/Dec 15
30. What is the difference between Standard FSK and MSK? What is the advantage of
MSK? (U) Nov/Dec 14

## Minimum frequency-shift keying or minimum-shift keying (MSK) is a particular spectrally

efficient form of coherent FSK. In MSK, the difference between the higher and lower frequency is
identical to half the bit rate. Consequently, the waveforms that represent a 0 and a 1 bit differ by
exactly half a carrier period.

The maximum frequency deviation is δ = 0.25 fm, where fm is the maximum modulating
frequency. As a result, the modulation index m is 0.5. This is the smallest FSK modulation
index that can be chosen such that the waveforms for 0 and 1 are orthogonal.

PART-B
1. (i) Write a note on Bandwidth consideration in FSK. (U) (6)
(ii) Explain the principle of operation of QPSK. (U) (10)[May/June 2014][April/May
2015]
2. (i) Explain about binary phase shift keying. (U) (8)
(ii) Describe the principle of operation of FSK transmitter. (R) (8) [May/June 2014]
3. With relevant diagram explain the method of synchronous detection of FSK signal. What
should be the relationship between bit rate and frequency shift for a better performance. (U)
(16) [May/June 2013]
4. With neat diagram explain the working of a DPSK transmitter, What are the advantages of
DPSK over PSK. (U) (16) [May/June 2013]
5.(i) Explain the principle of FSK transmitter and receiver. (U) (10)
(ii) Write short notes on the spectrum and bandwidth of FSK. (U) (6) [Nov/Dec 2009]
6. Compare the various types of digital modulation techniques.(A/E) (8)
7. Draw FSK transmitter and receiver block diagrams and explain the functions of each
Block with relevant waveforms and expressions. (U) (8) [Nov/Dec-2011]
8. (i)Explain the QPSK system with appropriate expressions and diagrams. (U) (8)
(ii)Draw QPSK transmitter and receiver block diagrams and describe the functions of
each block. (U) (8)[Nov/Dec-2011]
9. (i) Explain about the Shannon limit for information capacity. (U) (8)
(ii) Define bit rate, baud rate and bandwidth consideration of FSK. (R) (6)
(iii) Define digital amplitude modulation. (R) (2)[Apr/May-2011]
(ii) Describe FSK modulator with a neat diagram. (R) (8)
11. Explain in detail about QPSK modulator and demodulator with neat diagram and also
compare with BPSK.(U) (16) [Nov/Dec-2012]
13. (i) With block diagram explain the two different methods of carrier recovery in detail.(U)
(12) [May/June 2012]
(ii) For a QPSK modulator with an input data rate equal to 10 Mbps and a carrier frequency
of 75 MHz. Determine the minimum double side Nyquist bandwidth. (A)(4) [May/June
2012]
14. (i) Explain the working of BPSK transmitter and receiver with necessary block
diagram.(U)
(ii) Determine (i) Peak frequency deviation
(ii) Minimum bandwidth for a binary FSK signal with mark frequency of 45 KHz, a
space frequency of 49 KHz and an input bit rate of 3Kbps. (A) [May/June 2012]

15. (i) Draw FSK Transmitter and explain. Describe its Bandwidth Considerations. (U)
(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]
(ii) For a BPSK modulator with a carrier frequency of 70 MHz and an input bit rate of 10
Mbps, determine the maximum and minimum upper and lower side frequencies, draw the
output spectrum, determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth, and calculate the baud(Assume
fa=5 MHz). (A) (8)
16. (i) Draw and explain the operations of Non-coherent and coherent FSK modulators. (U)
(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]
(ii) Draw QPSK modulator and explain. Describe its Bandwidth considerations. (U) (8)
17. With the neat block diagram, explain coherent binary FSK transmitter and receiver. (U)
[Nov./Dec-2003,8-Marks;Nov/Dec-2005,10-Marks]
18.Draw the block diagram of binary PSK system and explain with signal space diagram. (U)
19. Write an expression for BFSK and explain the spectrum of BFSK. (U)[April-2005,8-
Marks]
20. Explain QPSK modulation scheme with constellation diagram.(U) [Nov./Dec-2004,6-
Mark]
21. What is ASK? Draw the Waveform.(R) [Nov/Dec-2004,6-Maks]
22. Compare BPSK and QPSK.(A/E) [Nov/Dec-2005,6-Marks]
23. Explain the operation of FSK transmitter and receiver and discuss about the bandwidth
requirements of FSK signals. (U) [May/June-2006,16-Marks]
24. Write short notes on the following
i) Costas loop method of carrier recovery
ii)Differential PSK modulator. (U) [May/June-2006,16Marks]
25. Draw the constellation diagram for QPSK signaling scheme. And for the following
binary
sequence sketch the waveform for the1100100010 [Nov/Dec-2003,8-Marks]
ii)QPSK signal.(A)
26.(i) Explain the generation and detection of binary phase shift keying. (U)
(ii)Describe the operation of Costas loop receiver. (U) (May 11)
27.(i)Discuss in detail the operation of QAM modulator and demodulator with its phasor
diagram. (U) [April/May 2015, 16 Marks]
(ii) Write note on Quadrature amplitude modulation. (U) (May 11)
28.What is Known as BPSK? Discuss us detail the BPSK transmitter and Receiver and also
obtain the minimum double side Nyquist bandwidth.(U) (May 10)
29. (i)llustrate the concept of 8QAM transmitter with the truth table. (A/E)
[April/May 2015, 16 Marks]
(ii)What is the need for carrier recovery? Explain the Costas loop method of carrier
recovery.(U) (May 10)
30. With relevant expressions and figures, describe QPSK Transmitter, QPSK Receiver and
Bandwidth considerations of QPSK. (U) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]
31. Compare and contrast the various Digital Communication systems.(A/E)
(16) [NOV/DEC 2014]
32. Draw the constellation diagram of QPSK modulation and explain the QPSK modulation
and demodulation of QPSK. (U) (16)[April/May 2015]
33. Explain the method of generation of QAM and the demodulation of the same. (U)
(16)[April/May 2015]
34. (i) Explain in detail about the operation of QPSK transmitter with necessary
diagrams.(U) (10)
(ii) Compare QPSK and BPSK. (A/E) (6)[NOV/DEC 2015]
35. Draw the block diagram of FSK system and explain its working. (U)(16)[NOV/DEC
2015]
36. Describe the generation and detection of binary FSK signal with necessary diagram and
equation. (U) (13)[NOV/DEC 2016]
37. (i) If a digital message input data rate is 8 Kbps and average energy per bit is 0.01 unit.
Find the bandwidth required for transmission of the message through BPSK, QPSK,
BFSK, MSK and 16 PSK.(A) (8)
(ii) Compare the various digital modulation schemes.(A/E) (5)[NOV/DEC 2016]

PART C
1. (i) A data bit sequence consists of the following string of bits 10 11 10 10. Analyze and
draw the nature of waveform transmitted by BPSK transmitter. (A) (8) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:
Students can able to understand various Digital communication techniques.

UNIT- III
DATA AND PULSE COMMUNICATION
Data Communication: History of Data Communication - Standards Organizations for
Data Communication- Data Communication Circuits - Data Communication Codes - Error
Detection and Correction Techniques - Data communication Hardware - serial and parallel
interfaces. Pulse Communication: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) – Pulse Time
Modulation (PTM) – Pulse code Modulation (PCM) - Comparison of various Pulse
Communication System (PAM – PTM – PCM).

COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To Learn Data and Pulse Communication Techniques
PART A

## The phenomenon of a high-frequency in the spectrum of the original signal g(t)

seemingly taking on the identity of a lower frequency in the spectrum of the sampled signal
g(t) is called aliasing or fold over.The effect of aliasing as the output of the reconstruction
filter depends on both the amplitude and phase component of the original spectrum G (f),
making an exact analysis of the output difficult resulting in distortion.

## 2. Define quantizing process. (R)

The conversion of analog sample of the signal in to digital form is called quantizing
process. Graphically the quantizing process means that a straight line representing the
relation between the input and the output of a linear analog system.

## 3. What are the two fold effects of quantizing process? (R)

a) The peak-to-peak range of input sample values subdivided into a finite set of
decision levels or decision thresholds

b) The output is assigned a discrete value selected from a finite set of representation
levels are reconstruction values that are aligned with the treads of the staircase.

## 4.Define quantization error? (R)

Quantization is the value of which equals the difference between the output and input
values of quantizer.

## 5. What is Nyquist rate? (R)

The minimum sampling rate of 2W sample per second for a signal bandwidth of W
hertz is called the nyquist rate.

## PAM is the pulse amplitude modulation. In pulse amplitude modulation, the

amplitude of a carrier consisting of a periodic train of rectangular pulses is varied in
proportion to sample values of a message signal.
7. What is single tone and multi tone modulation? (R)

If modulation is performed for a message signal with more than one frequency
component then the modulation is called multi tone modulation. If modulation is performed
for a message signal with one frequency component then the modulation is called single tone
modulation.

## 8. What do you mean by companding? Define compander.(R)[April/Mary 2015, 2

Marks].

The signal is compressed at the transmitter and expanded at the receiver. This is called as
companding. The combination of a compressor and expander is called a compander.

## 9. Mention the types of companding? (R)

Types of companding:

1. μ law companding
2. A law companding

## Quantization is a process by which an analog signal is divided into number of levels on

amplitude.Sampling is a process by which an analog signal is divided into sequence of
samples (pulses) on regular interval of time.
11. List the errors in delta modulation. (R)

1. Quantizing noise – When the analog waveform is changing very slowly, there will be
Quantizing noise.

2. Slope overloads noise – When the analog waveform is changing very rapidly, there

## 12. What is PCM? (R)

PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) is a process used to convert analog signal to digital data. In
PCM, the analog signal is first sampled then quantized then each sample is replaced with n
bits binary data.

## Nonlinear encoding is a technique used to increase the performance of PCM system.

In Nonlinear encoding the Quantization levels are not equally spaced. That is greater number
of Quantization levels for signals of low amplitude, and smaller number of Quantization
levels for signals of high amplitude.

## 14. What is meant by PCM? (R)

Pulse code modulation (PCM) is a method of signal coding in which the message signal
is sampled, the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of
discrete levels and encoded so that both time and amplitude are represented in discrete form..
This allows the message to be transmitted by means of a digital waveform.

## 15. Define quantizing process. (R)

The conversion of analog sample of the signal into digital form is called quantizing
process.

## The performance of a delta modulator can be improved significantly by

making the step size of the modulator assume a time- varying form. In particular, during a
steep segment of the input signal the step size is increased. Conversely, when the input signal
is varying slowly, the step is reduced , In this way, the step size is adapting to the level of the

## 25. Define quantization error? (R)

Quantization error is the difference between the output and input values of Quantizer.

## 26. What you mean by non-uniform quantization? (R)

Step size is not uniform. Non-uniform quantizer is characterized by a step size that
increases as the separation from the origin of the transfer characteristics is increased. Non-
uniform quantization is otherwise called as robust quantization.

## The position of a constant-width pulse within a prescribed time slot is varied

according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. This is pulse position
modulation (PPM).

## The width of a constant-amplitude pulse is varied proportional to the amplitude of the

analog signal at the time the signal is sampled. This is PWM. PWM is also called as pulse
duration modulation (PDM) or pulse length modulation (PLM).

## 29. What are the types of sampling? (R)

i) Natural sampling

## 30. How is PDM wave converted into PPM message? (R)

(Apr-May 2012)[April/May 2015, 2 Marks]
The PDM is signal is clock signal to monostable multivibrator. The multivibraor triggers on
falling edge. Hence a PPM pulse of fixed width is produced after falling edge of PDM pulse.
PDM represents the input signal amplitude in the form of width of the pulse. A PPM pulse is
produced after the width of PDM pulse. In other words, the position of the PPM pulse
depends upon input signal amplitude.

31. What are the error detection and correction capabilities of hamming codes? (R)
(Apr-May 2008, May-June 2009)
The minimum distance (dmin) of hamming codes is 3. Hence it can be used to detect double
errors or correct single errors. Hamming codes are basically linear block codes with dmin =3.

## 1. To detect up to ‘s’ errors per word, dmin ≥ S+1

2. To correct up to ‘t’ errors per word, dmin ≥ 2t +1
32. Define code efficiency? (R)
Ans.: The code efficiency is the ratio of message bits in a block to the transmitted bits
33. What is PAM? (R) (May ’06)
PAM is the pulse amplitude modulation. In pulse amplitude modulation, the
amplitude of a carrier consisting of a periodic train of rectangular pulses is varied in
proportion to sample values of a message signal.
34. What do you mean by nonlinear encoding in PCM system? (R)
Nonlinear encoding is a technique used to increase the performance of PCM system. In
Nonlinear encoding the Quantization levels are not equally spaced. That is greater number of
Quantization levels for signals of low amplitude, and smaller number of Quantization levels
for signals of high amplitude.
35. Name the standard organizations for data communications. (R)(Nov/dec 2016)

## 36. Define pulse time modulation. (R)(Nov/dec 2016)

Pulse Time Modulation (PTM) is a class of signaling technique that encodes the
sample values of an analog signal onto the time axis of a digital signal. The two main types
of pulse time modulation are: 1. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 2. Pulse Position
Modulation (PPM)

In PWM the sample values of the analog waveform are used to determine the width of the
pulse signal. Either instantaneous or natural sampling can be used.

In PPM the analog sample values determine the position of a narrow pulse relative to the
clocking time. It is possible to obtain PPM from PWM by using a mono-stable multivibrator
circuit.

37. Why do we encounter aperture effect in PAM? How will you rectify it?
(R)(Nov/dec 2015)
In flat top sampling,due to the lengthening of the sample, amplitude distortion as well
as a delay of T/2 was introduced.This distortion is referred to as Aperture effect.

Aperture effect can be corrected by connecting an equalizer in cascade with the low pass
reconstruction filter. This equalizer has the effect of decreasing the in-band loss of
reconstruction filter as the frequency increases in such a manner as to compensate for the
aperture effect.
38. State the sampling theorem for bandlimited signal of finite energy. (R)(Nov/dec
2015)
A continuous time signal can be represented in its samples and can be recovered back
when sampling frequency fs is greater than or equal to the twice the highest frequency
component of message signal. i. e.fs≤2fm.

39. State the need for companding in a PCM system. (R)(Apr/May 2015)
In the digital world, a compression technique used in pulse code modulation (PCM). It
reduces the number of bits used to represent digital voice samples in the loudest parts of the
conversation.

## 40. Mention how PPM is derived from PWM. (R)(Apr/May 2015)

In PPM the analog sample values determine the position of a narrow pulse relative to the
clocking time. It is possible to obtain PPM from PWM by using a mono-stable multivibrator
circuit.

41. Determine the odd and even parity bits for the ASCII character R whose hex
code is 52. (R)( Nov/dec 2014)

42. What are the two primary methods used for error correction? (R)( Nov/dec
2014)
 Retransmission
 Forward Error Correction

PART-B
1. Explain about Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) in detail. (U) (10)[May/June 2014]
2. (i) Explain the principle of operation of adaptive delta modulation. (U) (10)
(ii) Write a note on signal to quantization noise rate. (U) (6) [May/June 2014]
3. With block diagram explain the PCM transmitter and receiver. (U)(12)[May/June 2013]
4. Describe delta modulation system. What are its limitations? How can they be overcome?
(R)(12)[May/June 2013]
5. (i) Explain the elements of PCM system with a neat block diagram.(U) (12)
(ii) Describe the operation of DPCM system with a relevant diagram. (R) (12)
6. Explain the modulation and demodulation process of PCM in Detail.(U)(16)
[Nov/D-011]
7. Explain the quantization process in PCM.(U) (6) [Apr/May-2011]
8. Define pulse modulation and explain about PCM circuit in detail.(R)(16) [Nov/Dec-2012]
9. Describe in detail the PCM technique with focus on its sampling rate, and signal to
quantization Noise ratio. (R)(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]
10. What are the types of pulse modulation? Explain them briefly. (R)
[Nov/Dec- 2010,8Marks]
11. Explain the noise in delta modulation. (U)
12. Explain with suitable diagram, generation of PPM signal.(U)[April 2014,12-Maks]
13.Discuss about generation of PAM and its demodulation.(U)
[April/May 2015, 16Marks]
14.Derive an expression for quantization error.(U) [April/May-2005,8-Marks]
15. Explain different noises in delta modulation system. (U)
16. Discuss the operation of delta modulation system. What are its limitations? (U)
[Nov/Dec-2004,10 Marks]
17. Explain the method of generation of PWM signal. (U) [Nov/Dec-2004,12 Marks]
18. What are the drawbacks of the delta modulation/and how they are overcome in adaptive
delta modulation? Explain with the help of neat block diagram. (R)
[May/June-2006,16 Marks]

19. Explain PCM and differential PCM with the help of block diagrams.(U)
[May/June-2006,16 Marks]
20. (a)What is Companding? What is the need for companding? (R)
(b)What are the drawbacks of delta modulation? Explain how it is overcome in
adaptive delta modulation. (R) May 11)
21. Explain the following: a. Inter symbol interference , b. Eye pattern
c. Quantization noise in PCM (U) (May 11)
22.(i)What is called companding? Briefly discuss the analog companding.(U)
(iiDiscuss about the causes of ISI. (U) (May 10)
23. Write in detail on error detection coding techniques. (U) [April/May 2015, 8 Marks]
24. Write in detail on Error correction coding techniques. (U)
25. Write in detail on Serial and parallel interfaces. (U) [April/May 2015, 16 Marks]
26. Write in detail on Synchronous and Asynchronous data transmission techniques.(U)
27. Write in detail on types of modems.(U)
28. Write in detail on RS232 interface.(U)
29.(i)Explain any two data communication codes presently used for character encoding.
(12) (U)
(ii) Give brief notes on error detection.(U) (4) [May/June 2013]
30. With neat block diagram explain the data communication hardware. (U)
(16) [May/June 2013][April/May 2015]
Discuss in detail about the standard organization for data communication.(U)
[April/May 2015]
31. (i) Discuss in detail about the standard Organization for Data Communication. (U)
(8)[NOV/DEC 2014]
(ii) Explain the concept of Data Communication Circuits using a basic block diagram. (U)
(8) [NOV/DEC 2014]
32. Discuss in detail the concept of PCM. (U) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]
34. The information in a analog wave form with maximum frequency fm=3 KHz, is to be
transmitted over an M-ary PAM system, where the number of pulse levels is M=16. The
quantization distortions specified not to exceed + or -1% of the peak to peak analog signal.
(A)
(i) What is the maximum number of bits/sample or bits/PCM word that should be used in
digitizing the analog waveform? (R) (4)
(ii) What is the minimum required sampling rate and what is the resulting bit transmission
rate?(R) (4)
(iii) What is the PAM pulse or symbol transmission rate? (4)
(iv) If the transmission bandwidth equals 12 KHz determine the bandwidth efficiency for
this system. (A) (4) [NOV/DEC 2015]
35. The information in an analog signal voltage waveform is to be transmitted over a PCM
system with an accuracy of ± 0.1% (full scale). The analog voltage waveform has a
bandwidth of 100 Hz and an amplitude range of -10 to + 10 volts. (A)

## (i) Determine the maximum sampling rate required. (U) (4)

(ii) Determine the number of bits in each PCM word. (U) (4)

(iii) Determine minimum bit required in the PCM signal. (U) (4)

(iv) Determine the minimum absolute channel bandwidth required for the transmission of
PCM signal. (U) (4) [NOV/DEC 2015]

## 35.Discuss about serial and parallel interfaces. (U) (16)[April/May 2015]

36. Discuss about the generation of PAM and its demodulation. (U) (16)[April/May 2015]

37. (i) Explain the working of two station data communication circuits with a block
diagram.(U) (7)
(ii) Discuss the various data communication codes and its significance.
(U)(6)[NOV/DEC 2016]

38. (i) Describe the two methods of error correction in data communication. (R) (6)

(ii) Explain the generation of PCM signal with a block diagram.(U) (7)[NOV/DEC
2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:
Students can gain knowledge on Data and Pulse communication techniques.

UNIT-IV
SOURCE AND ERROR CONTROL CODING
Entropy, Source encoding theorem, Shannon fano coding, Huffman coding, mutual
information, channel capacity, channel coding theorem, Error Control Coding, linear block
codes, cyclic codes, convolution codes, viterbi decoding algorithm.

COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To familiarize with Source and Error control coding.

PART A

## 1. Define entropy.(R) [April/May 2015, 2 Marks] ( NOV/DEC 2005)

Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is givenby the
expression H(X)=_I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.

## 2. Define mutual information. (R) ( NOV/DEC 2006)

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol
H(X)- entropy of the source, H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.

## 4.State the properties of mutual information. (R)

1. I(X,Y)=I(Y,X)
2. I(X,Y)>=0
3. I(X,Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X)
4. I(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X,Y).

## 5.Give the relation between the different entropies. (R)

H(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y/X) =H(Y)+H(X/Y)
H(X)- entropy of the source,H(Y/X),H(X/Y)-conditional entropy
H(Y)-entropy of destination
H(X,Y)- Joint entropy of the source and destination

## 6.Define information rate. (R) (NOV/DEC 2007)

If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. Theinformation
rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X)- entropy of the source

## 7.State the property of entropy. (R)

0< H(X) <log2K, is the radix of the alphabet X of the source.

## 8. What is source coding and entropy coding? (R) (NOV/DEC 2006)

A conversion of the output of a DMS into a sequence of binary symbols is calledsource
coding. The design of a variable length code such that its average cod word length
approaches the entropy of the DMS is often referred to as entropy coding.

## 9.State Shannon Hartley theorem. (R) (NOV/DEC 2005)

The capacity ‘C’ of a additive Gaussian noise channel is C=B log2 (1+S/N)
B= channel bandwidth,S/N=signal to noise ratio.

## 10.What is the entropy of a binary memory-less source? (R) (NOV/DEC 2006)

The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0 log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0)
p0-probability of symbol ‘0’,p1=(1- p0 ) =probability of transmitting symbol ‘1’

## 11.What is channel diagram and channel matrix? (R)

The transition probability diagram of the channel is called the channel diagramand its matrix
representation is called the channel matrix.

## 12.What is the channel capacity of a BSC and BEC? (R)

For BSC the channel capacity C=1+plog2 p +(1-p)log2(1-p).
For BEC the channel capacity C=(1-p)

## 13. Define information rate. (R)

If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. The
information rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X)- entropy of the
source .

## 14. Define entropy? (R)

Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is given by the
expression H(X)=∑I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.

## 15. What is a prefix code? (R)

In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. It is variable length code.
The binary digits are assigned to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence.

## 16. Define mutual information. (R)

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol
H(X)- entropy of the source H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.
17. State Shanon Hartley theorem. (R)
The capacity ‘C’ of a additive Gaussian noise channel is C=B log2(1+S/N) B= channel
bandwidth ,S/N=signal to noise ratio.

## 18. State any four properties of entropy. (R) (April/May 2011)

1.I(X,Y)=I(Y,X)
2.I(X,Y)>=0
3.I(X,Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X)
4.I(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X,Y).
19. Give the expressions for channel capacity of a Gaussian channel. (R)(May/June
2012)
Channel capacity of Gaussian channel is given as, C = B log2 (1 + (S/N))

20. Define the entropy for a discrete memory less source. (R)(April/May 2011)
The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0) p0-
probability of symbol ‘0’,p1=(1- p0) =probability of transmitting symbol ‘1’.

21. Define the significance of the entropy H(X/Y) of a communication system where X is
he transmitter and Y is the receiver. (R)
H(X/Y) is called conditional entropy. It represents uncertainty of X, on average, when Y is
known.In other words H(X/Y) is an average measure of uncertainty in X after Y is
received.H(X/Y) represents the information lost in the noisy channel.

22. An event has a six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/32.
Find the entropy of the system. (A)
H = ∑Pklog2(1/Pk)
= (½) log2 2 + (¼) log2 4 + (1/16) log2 16 + (1/32) log2 32 + (1/32) log2 32
= 1.5625.

## 23. When is the average information delivered by a source of alphabet size 2,

maximum?(A)
Average information is maximum, when the two messages are equally likely i.e., p1 = p2 =
1/2. Then the maximum average information is given as, Hmax = 1/2 log2 2 + 1/2 log2 2 = 1
bit / message.

## 24. Name the source coding techniques. (R) (April/May 2010)

1. Prefix coding 2. Shanon-fano coding 3. Huffman coding.

25. Write down the formula for mutual information. (R) (April/May 2010)
The mutual information is defined as the amount of information transferred when Xi is
transmitted Yj is received. It is represented by I( Xi , Yj ) and it is given as,
I(Xi,Yj) = log ( P(Xi/Yj)/ P(Xi) ) bits.
26. Write the expression for code efficiency in terms of entropy. (R)
Redundancy = 1 - code efficiency. Redundancy should be as low as possible.

## 27. Explain Shannon-Fano coding.(U)

An efficient code can be obtained by the following simple procedure, known as
Shannon-Fanoalgorthim.
1. List the source symbols in order of decreasing probability.
2. Partition the set into two sets that are as close to equiprobable as possible,
and sign 0 to the upper set and 1 to the lower set.
3. Continue this process, each time partitioning the sets with as nearly equal
probabilities as possible until further partitioning is not possible.
28. Find the entropy of the source alphabet {S0,S1,S2} with respective probabilities
{1/4,1/4,1/2}. (R) (Nov/dec 2016)

29. When a binary code is said to be cyclic code? (R) (Nov/dec 2016)

An (n, k) linear block code C is said to be cyclic if for every code word c = (c0, c1, .
. . , cn−1) in C, there is also a code word c 0 = (cn−1, c0, . . . , cn−2) that is also in C. (c 0 is a
cyclic shift of c.)

30. Show that if Ci and Cj are two code vectors in the (n,k) linear block code, then their
sum is also a code vector with an example. (R) (Nov/dec 2015)

## 31.Define channel capacity of a discrete memory less channel(R) (Nov/dec 2015)

32. An event has six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2,1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32,1/32. Find
the entropy of the system. (A) (Apr/May 2015)

## 33. What is Mututal information. (R) (Apr/May 2015)

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y)
bits/symbol H(X)- entropy of the source H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.
34. Define entropy (R) (Nov/dec 2014)
Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is givenby
the expression H(X)= P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.
35. What are linear Block codes? (R) (Nov/dec 2014)
A block code is a code in which k bits (or, more generally, symbols) are input and n
bits (or, more generally symbols) are output. We designate the code as an (n, k) code.If we
input k bits, then there are 2k distinct messages (or, more generally q k ). Each message of n
symbols associated with a with each input block is called a codeword.

A Linear Code has the following properties: (i) The sum of two codewords belonging
to the code is also a codeword belonging to the code. (ii) The all-zero codeword is always a
codeword. (iii) The minimum Hamming distance between two codewords of a linear code is
equal to the minimum weight of any non-zero codeword, i.e., d* = w* .

PART B

1. Find the (7,4) linear systematic block code word corresponding to 1101. Assume a suitable
generator matrix.(A) (Apr-May 2011)
2. Explain how encoding is done by convolutional codes with an example.(U)(Nov-Dec
2010)

3. Explain the tree diagram, trellis diagram and state transition diagram ofconvolutional
codes.(U) (Nov-Dec 2010)

4. Explain error detecting and correcting capabilities of linear block code. (U)
[April/May 2015, 8 Marks](May-June2012)

5. Consider a (7,4) linear block code whose parity check matrix is given by
1110100
H  1101010
1011001

## i) Find the generator matrix.

ii) How many errors this code can detect?
iii) How many errors can this code be correct?
iv) Draw circuit for encoder and syndrome computation.(A) (May-June2012)
6. (i) Explain 2-dimensional parity scheme of error detection. What are its error detection
capabilities? (U) (8)
(ii) Derive a single–bit-error correction code for 8-:-bit data and illustrate with an
example.(U) (8)[May/June 2014]
7. Discuss Source coding theorem, give the advantage and disadvantage of channel coding in
detail, and discuss the data compaction. (U) (16)
8. Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual informationand the joint
entropy of the channel input and channel output.(A) (NOV/DEC 2006)
9. Explain in detail Huffman coding algorithm and compare this with the other types of
coding.(U)
10.Explain the properties of entropy and with suitable example, explain the entropy of binary
memory less source. (U) (8)
11.Give the advantage and disadvantage of channel coding in detail. Discuss the data
compaction.(R)
12.What is entropy? Explain the important properties of entropy. (R) (8)
13.Five symbols of the alphabet of discrete memory less source and their probabilities are
given below. S=[S0,S1,S2,S3,S4] P[S]=[.4,.2,.2,.1,.1]Code the symbols using Huffman
coding.(A)
14. Write short notes on Differential entropy, derive the channel capacity theorem and
discuss the implications of the information capacity theorem. (U) (16) MAY/JUNE 2007
15.What do you mean by binary symmetric channel? Derive channel capacity formula for
symmetric channel. (U) (8)
16.Construct binary optical code for the following probability symbols using Huffman
procedure and calculate entropy of the source, average code Length, efficiency,
redundancy and variance? 0.2, 0.18, 0.12, 0.1, 0.1, 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, 0.06, 0.04 (A)
(16)
17. Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual information
and the joint entropy of the channel input and channel output. Explain the important
properties of mutual information. (U) (16)
18. Derive the expression for channel capacity of a continuous channel. Find also the
expression for channel capacity of continuous channel of a infinite bandwidth. Comment on
the results. (U) (16) [April/May2015]
19. A discrete memory less has a alphabet given below. Compute two different Huffman
codes for this source, hence for each of the two Codes. Find
i. The average code-word length.
ii. The variance of the average code-word length over the ensemble of source symbol. (A)
SYMBOL S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
PROBABILITY 0.55 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.05

20. Show that the joint entropy H(X,Y) = H(X) +H(Y/X). (A)
21. (i) What is the capacity of the Discrete memory less channel? (R)
(ii) A Discrete memory less channel has the following alphabet with probability of
occurrence. Generate the Huffman code, Find average encoded Length, entropy and n. (A)
(14) ( NOV/DEC 2007)
Symbol I SO Sl S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
Probability : 0.125 0.0625 0.25 0.0625 0.125 0.125 0.25
22. (i) Prove that the entropy of a discrete memory less source IS maximized when the
symbols are equiprobable. (U)(6)
(ii) A source has five outputs denoted by [ml, m2, m3, m4, ms] with respective probabilities
[0.41,0.19,0.16,0.15,0.09]. Determine the code words to represent the source outputs using
Shannon-Fano Encoding technique and determine its efficiency. (A) (10) MAY/JUNE 07

23. A discrete source emits 2000 symbols once every second. The symbol probabilities are{
0.40.25,0.15,0.1,0.06,0.04} respectively. Determine the source entropy and information rate.
A)

## 24. Derive an expression for source entropy.(U)

25. A discrete source emits 2000 symbols once every second. The symbol probabilities
are{0.5,0.20,0.15,0.1,0.05} respectively. Determine the source entropy and information
rate.(A)
26.Determine Shannon-Fano code for the source alphabet ’X’ with probabilities
P(X)={0.3,0.25,0.2,0.1,0.1,0.05}. Also find the code efficiency. (A)

27. Determine Huffman code for the source alphabet ’X’ with probabilities
P(X)={0.07,0.08,0.04,0.26,0.14,0.09,0.07,0.25 }. Also find the code efficiency. (A)

28.Determine Huffman code for the source alphabet ’X’ with probabilities
P(X)={0.3,0.25,0.2,0.05,0.05,0.1,0.05 }. Also find the code efficiency. (A)
29. (i) Find the code words for five symbols of the alphabet of a discrete memory- less source
with probability [0.4, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.1], using Huffman coding and determine the source
entropy and average code word length. (A)
(ii) Discuss the source coding theorem. (U) (April/May 2010)
30. Using Huffman code I, encode the following symbols. S = [0.3, 0.2, 0.25, 0.12, 0.05,
0.08,] Calculate (i) Average code word length (ii) Entropy of the source
(iii) Code efficiency and (iv) Redundancy .(A) (April/May 2011)
31. State and Prove the properties of Mutual information. (U) (April/May 2011)
32. A Database Management System (DMS) has following alphabet with probability of
occurrence as shown below
Symbol: s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6

## Probability: 0.125 0.0625 0.25 0.0625 0.125 0.125 0.25

Generate the Huffman code with minimum code variance. Determine the code variance and
code efficiency. (A) (April/May 2012)

33. Derive Shannon-Hartley theorem for the channel capacity of a continuous channel
having an average power limitation and perturbed by an additive band-limited white
Gaussian noise. Explain the bandwidth signal- to- noise ratio tradeoff for this theorem.
(U)(April/May 2012)
34. Describe the concept of channel capacity. (R) [April/May 2015, 8 Marks]
.(i) Find out the Huffman code for a discrete memoryless source with probability statistics
{0.1,0.1,0.2,0.2,0.4}. (A) (8) [NOV/DEC 2014]

(ii) Describe the concept of channel capacity. (R) (8) [NOV/DEC 2014]

## 35.Write short notes on:

(i) Linear block codes
(ii) Viterbi decoding algorithm. (A) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]
36.Explain how Viterbi’s decoding procedure is used for decoding convolutional codes.(U)
(16) [April/May 2015]
37. Derive the expression for channel capacity of a continuous channel. Comment on the
trade-off between SNR and capacity.(U) (16) [April/May 2015]
38. A source generates five messages m0, m1, m2, m3 and m4 with probabilities
0.55,0.15,0.15,0.10 and 0.05 respectively. The successive messages emitted by the source are
statistically independent. Determine code words for the messages and efficiency using
Shannon Fano Algorithm.(A) (16) [NOV/DEC 2015]
39. (i) Design a syndrome calculator for a (7,4) cyclic code generated by the polynomial
g(x)=x2+x+1. Calculate the syndrome for the received vector 1001101.(A) (8)

(ii) Design a cyclic encoder for the same (7,4) cyclic code and obtain code vector for the
message vector 1100. (A) (8) [NOV/DEC 2015]
40. Five source messages are probable to appear as m1=0.4, m2=0.15, m3=0.15, m4=0.15
and m5=0.15. Find coding efficiency for (i) Shannon Fano coding, (ii) Huffman coding. (A)

## (13) [NOV/DEC 2016]

41. Explain the concept of code generation and decoding of correlation code. (U)
(13) [NOV/DEC 2016]
PART C

## 1. The generator polynomial of a (15, 11) Hamming code is given by g(x)=1+x+x2.

Design Encoder and syndrome calculator for this code using systematic form. (A)
(15) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:
Students can gain knowledge on Source and Error control coding techniques.
UNIT V
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) - Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) - Code division multiple access (CDMA) – Cellular Concept and
Frequency Reuse - Channel Assignment and Hand off - Overview of Multiple Access
Schemes - Satellite Communication - Bluetooth.

COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To Gain knowledge on Multi-user Radio Communication

PART A
1. Define Handoff.(R)[Nov/Dec 2014]
It involves change of radio resources from cell to another adjacent cell.
2. What are the factors that used to define the right time for Handoff? (R)
Signal strength.
Signal phase.
Bit Error Rate.
Distance.
3. Define Hard Handoff. (R)
It is also known as break before make. It releases current radio resources from the prior BS
before acquiring resources from the next BS.
TDMA and FDMA employs Hard Handoff.
4. Define Soft Handoff. (R)
It is employed in CDMA. If the code is not orthogonal to other codes being used in
the next BS, the code could be changed. Therefore, it is possible for a MS to communicate
simultaneously with the prior BS as well as the new BS.
5. Define Multicasting. (R)
It is the process of transmitting message from a source to multiple recipients by using a
6. What are the AMPS parameters? (R)
Base station transmission band 869 to 894 MHz
Mobile unit transmission band 824 to 849 MHz
Channel bandwidth 30KHz
Number of full duplex voice channels 790
Number of full duplex control channels 42
Mobile unit maximum power 3 watts
Cell size, radius 2 to 20 km
Modulation, voice channel FM, 12KHz peak deviation
Modulation control channel FSK, 8KHz peak deviation
Data transmission rate 10 Kbps
Error control coding BCH (48,365) and (40,285)

7. Define FDMA.(R)
FDMA is a channel access method used in multiple-access protocols as a
channelization protocol. FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency
bands, or channels. It is particularly commonplace in satellite communication. FDMA, like
other multiple access systems, coordinates access between multiple users. Alternatives
include TDMA, CDMA, or SDMA.

8. Define TDMA.(R)
Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared-
medium networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing
the signal into different time slots.[1] The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the
other, each using its own time slot. This allows multiple stations to share the same
transmission medium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel
capacity.
9. What are all the TDMA design considerations? (R)
Number of logical channels.
Frequency.
Maximum vehicle speed.
Maximum coding delay.
Bandwidth.
10. List out the steps in the design of TDMA time slot.(R)
Speech coding.
Speech sample.
Error correction code.
Speech block.
Burst design.
Multiplex design.
Final burst design.
11. Define GSM.(R)
Global System for Mobile Communication. It was developed to provide a
common second generation technology for Europe so that the same subscriber units could
be used throughout the continent.

## 12. What is the function of Mobile Station?(R)

A mobile station communicates across the Um interface, also known as the air interface,
with a base station transceiver in the same cell in which the mobile unit is located.
13. What is the function of Mobile Equipment? (R)
It is the physical terminal such as a telephone or PCS device, which includes the radio
transceiver, digital signal processor and the subscriber Identity Module.
14. What is the role of Base Station Subsystem(BSS)? (R)
It consists of a Base Station Controller(BSC) and one or more transceivers.
15. What is the role of Network Subsystem(NS)? (R)
It provides the link between the cellular network and the public switched telecommunication
network.
16. Define CDMA. (R)
Transmission is in the form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) which uses a chipping
code to increase the data rate of the transmission, resulting in an increased signal
bandwidth. Multiple access is provided by assigning orthogonal chipping code to multiple
users, so that the receiver can recover the transmission of an individual unit from multiple
transmissions.
17. What are the advantages of CDMA? (R)
1. Frequency Diversity.
2. Multipath resistance.
3. Privacy.
5. Self jamming.
6. Near far problem.
7. Soft handoff.
18. Name the four types of channels supported by IS-95 Forward link. (R)
Pilot (Channel 0).
Synchronization (Channel 32).
Paging (Channels 1 to 7).
Traffic (channels 8 to31 and 33 to 63)
19. Write about 3G system. (U)
It is to provide fairly high speed wireless communications to support multimedia, data and

## 20. What are the limitations of GPRS? (R) [AUNov/Dec2009]

• Thereisonlylimitedcellcapacityforallusers.
• Speed is lower.
• WhenMSisnot available,thereisnostorageandforwardservice.
Whatarethetwotypesoftopologiesusedinwirelessnetworks?
Infrastructurenetworktopology
21. What are the two types of interference in cellular architecture? (R)
• Co-channelinterference
22 .What is the formula to find number of simultaneous users?(R)[AUApril/May2008]
N=m/B(W/N)
W-Totalspectrumwhichis
available.B- Bandwidthneededusers
N-Frequencyreusefactor.
m-Numberofcallsneededto cover an area n-
Thenumberofsimultaneoususers.
23..Write some of the characteristics of Bluetooth. (U)(May /June 2012)
Frequency band 2.5GHz
Transmission method Hybrid direct sequence and frequency
hopping
Transmitting power 1 milliwatt
Data speed Asymmetric- 721+57.6 Kbps, symmetric
Range 10ms

## 25. What are the various cell shapes? (R)

• Equilateraltriangle.
• Square.
• Regular hexagon.

26. What are the steps involved in Handoff process? (R)(Nov/dec 2016)

A handoff refers to the process of transferring an active call or data session from one
cell in a cellular network to another or from one channel in a cell to another.

27. Mention the three most commonly used multiple accessing schemes. (R)(Nov/dec
2016)

In any cellular system it is necessary for it to be able have a scheme whereby it can handle
multiple users at any given time. The multiple access schemes are known as FDMA,
TDMA, CDMA and OFDMA.

There are a number of requirements that any multiple access scheme must be able to meet:

## 1. Ability to handle several users without mutual interference. 2. Ability to be able to

maximise the spectrum efficiency 3. Must be robust, enabling ease of handover
between cells.
28. What is Bluetooth? (R)(Nov/dec 2015)

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances
(using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz[4]) from
fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by
telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994,[5] it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative
to RS-232 data cables.
29. What are the various handovers carried out in GSM? (R)(Nov/dec 2015)

Within the GSM system there are four types of handover that can be performed for
GSM only systems:

##  Intra-BTS handover: This form of GSM handover occurs if it is required to change

the frequency or slot being used by a mobile because of interference, or other
reasons
 Inter-BTS Intra BSC handover: This for of GSM handover or GSM handoff occurs
when the mobile moves out of the coverage area of one BTS but into another
controlled by the same BSC
 Inter-BSC handover: When the mobile moves out of the range of cells controlled
by one BSC, a more involved form of handover has to be performed, handing over
not only from one BTS to another but one BSC to another..
 Inter-MSC handover: This form of handover occurs when changing between
networks. The two MSCs involved negotiate to control the handover.
30.What is near far effect in a CDMA system? (R)(Apr/May 2015)

## The near–far problem or hearability problem is a situation that is common in

wireless communication systems, in particular, CDMA.The near–far problem is a condition
in which a receiver captures a strong signal and thereby makes it impossible for the
receiver to detect a weaker signal.

## 31.Define the term frequency reuse factor in a cellular communication system.

(R)(Apr/May 2015)

Frequency reuse is the process of using the same radio frequencies on radio transmitter
sites within a geographic area that are separated by sufficient distance to cause minimal
interference with each other. Frequency reuse allows for a dramatic increase in the number
of customers that can be served (capacity) within a geographic area on a limited amount of

2-Cell Frequency Reuse Cluster [Invalid]: In this cluster, the allocated band is
divided into 2 bands and the two sub‐ bands are reused in an alternating fashion somehow.
Clearly, only two cells with the same frequency as a particular cell are at equal distance
from it.

32. Why are hexagons employed to model coverage areas of mobile communication?
(R)(Nov/Dec 2014)

Hexagonal shapes are preferred than square or circle in cellular architecture because it
covers an entire area without overlapping.We can argue that even square shaped system
does not overlap. It is because it requires fewer cells to represent a hexagon than triangle or
square.

## Other advantages of hexagonal cellular system:

1.The frequency reuse become possible using this shape. 2. The radiation pattern of the
antennas used is 60 degree which means 6 are required for the full 360 degrees coverage
which is the same no. of sides the hexagon consists.(equidistant antennae). 3 .Minimum
interference.

PART B

## 1. Write a note on multiple access techniques. (U) (8)[May/June 2014]

2.Explain the use of TDMA in wireless communication systems.(U) (8) [May/June 2014]
3.Give brief notes on
(i) Use of spread spectrum with CDMA. (U) (8)
(ii) Pseudo random sequence generator. (U) (8) [May/June 2013]
4. Explain how PWM and PPM signals are generated? (U) (Apr-May 2011)
5. Write short notes on handoff call establishment. (U)
6. Explain the GSM protocol architecture for signaling. (U) [April/May2008,2009,2015]
7. Explain about IS-CDMA forward and reverse channel? (U) [AUNov/Dec2008]
coder with constraint length 6. Draw the tree diagram, state diagram and trellis diagram for
the assumed coder. (U) (Apr-May 2011)
10. Explain about Bluetooth architecture and protocol stack. (U) [AUNov/Dec2008]

11. Describe the Bluetooth architecture with relevant sketch. (R) [AU April/May 2012]
12. Discuss the interference handling mechanism adopted in Bluetooth technology with all
other ISM band technologies. (U) [AU April/May 2012]
13. Compare between the TDMA and CDMA wireless communication systems. (A/E)
(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]
14. Compare the merits and demerits of TDMA and FDMA multiple access schemes.(A/E)
[May/June-2006,8 Marks]
15. Comparison of Multiple Access Techniques.(A/E) [May/June-2006, 8Marks]

16. Describe the principles of TDMA AND CDMA in wireless communication system.(R)
17. Explain the near-far problem in spread spectrum modulation.(U) (May 10)
18. Explain in detail about the cellular concept and frequency reuse.(U)
(16)[April/May 2015]
19. Discuss in detail about Cellular Concept and Frequency Reuse.(U) (16) [NOV/DEC
2014]
20. Describe the concept of Satellite Communication. (R) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]
21. Explain the concept of cellular topology and cell fundamentals with examples.(U)
(16) [NOV/DEC 2015]
22. Explain the architecture of GSM with a neat diagram. (U) (16) [NOV/DEC 2015]
23. Draw the architecture of GSM system and explain the function of each block. (U)
(16) [April/May 2015]
24. Illustrate the operation of a satellite communication system with a block diagram.(U)
(16) [April/May 2015]
25. (i) Describe the working of global system for mobile communication. (U)(6)
(ii) Briefly explain the concept of frequency reuse and channel assignment in CDMA. (U)
(7) [NOV/DEC 2016]

26. (i) Explain the principle of working of satellite communication with a block diagram. (U)
(8)
(ii) Briefly explain about the Bluetooth technology. (U) (5) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:
Students can be able to understand Multi-user Radio communication Concepts
CO-PO MAPPING

## COURSE NAME : CS6304– ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATON

YEAR/SEMESTER : II / III
YEAR OF STUDY : 2017 –2018 ODD (R – 2013)

COURSE OUTCOMES:

## CO205.1 Students can able to understand various analog communication techniques.

CO205.2 Students can able to understand various Digital communication techniques.
CO205.3 Students can gain knowledge Data and Pulse communication techniques.
CO205.4 Students can gain knowledge on Source and Error control coding techniques.
CO205.5 Students can be able to understand Multi-user Radio communication concepts

## On Completion of this course, student will gain

CO-PO MATRICES
CO PO1 PO2 PO3 PO4 PO5 PO6 PO7 PO8 PO9 PO10 PO11 PO12
3 2 2
CO212.1 - - - - - - - - -
3 2 2
CO212.2 - - - - - - - - -
3 2 3
CO212.3 - - - - - - - - -
3 2 2
CO212.4 - - - - - - - - -
2 1 3
CO212.5 - - - - - - - - -
3 1.8 2.4
CO212 - - - - - - - - -