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UNIT –I

UNIT-I FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION

Source of Noise - External Noise- Internal Noise- Noise Calculation. Introduction to

Communication Systems: Modulation – Types - Need for Modulation. Theory of Amplitude

Modulation - Evolution and Description of SSB Techniques - Theory of Frequency and

Phase Modulation – Comparison of various Analog Communication System (AM – FM –

PM).

COURSE OBJECTIVE:

To Understand Analog Communication Techniques

PART-A

1. Define noise. (R)

Noise is defined as any unwanted form of energy, which tends to interfere with

proper reception and reproduction of wanted signal.

Noise is broadly classified into two types. They are External noise and internal noise.

(i) External noise can be classified into

1. Atmospheric noise2. Extraterrestrial noises3. Man –made noises or industrial noises

(ii) Internal noise can be classified into

1. Thermal noise 2. Shot noise 3. Transit time noise 4. Miscellaneous internal noise

3. What are the types of extra-terrestrial noise and write their origin? (R)

The two type of extraterrestrial noise are solar noise and cosmic noise Solar noise is the

electrical noise emanating from the sun. Cosmic noise is the noise received from the center

part of our galaxy, other distant galaxies and other virtual point sources.

Signal to noise ratio is the ratio of signal power to the noise power at the same point in a

system.

S/ N at the input

Nose figure (F) = S/ N at the output

S/N = Signal power / Noise Power

5. Explain thermal noise. (U) ( NOV/DEC 2008), ( NOV/DEC 2006)

Thermal noise is the name given to the electrical noise arising from the random

motion of electrons in a conductor.

In an electron tube having one or more positive grids, this noise is caused by irratic partition

of the cathode current among the positive electrodes. In a transistor, thepartition noise is

created from the random fluctuation in the division of current betweenthe collector and base.

Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of high frequency carriersignal is

varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

1. Amplitude modulation

2. Angle Modulation (i) Frequency modulation (ii) Phase modulation.

Amplitude of the carrier signal varies according to amplitude variations in modulating

signal.

Spectrum: Fig shows the spectrum of AM signal. It consists of carrier (ƒc) and two sidebands

at ƒc ± ƒm

10. Why carrier frequencies are generally selected in HF range than low frequency

range? (A/E)

The antenna size is very large at low frequencies. Such antenna is practically not

possible to fabricate. High carrier frequencies require reasonable antenna size for

transmission and reception. High frequencies can be transmitted using tropospheric scatter

propagation, which is used to travel long distances.

11. What are the degrees of modulation? (R)

Under modulation, m<1

Critical modulation, m=1

Over modulation, m>1

12.Calculate percentage modulation in AM if carrier amplitude is 20 V and modulating

signal is

of 15V. (A)

13. What is the difference between high level and low level modulation? (A/E)

In high level modulation, the modulator amplifier operates at high power levels and

delivers power directly to the antenna. In low level modulation, the modulator amplifier

performs modulation at relatively low power levels. The modulated signal is then amplified

to high power level by class B power amplifier. The amplifier feeds power to antenna.

Detection is the process of extracting modulating signal from the modulated

carrier. Different types of detectors are used for different types of modulations.

In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of a carrier signal is varied according to

variations in amplitude of modulating signal.

AM signal can be represented mathematically as,eAM = (Ec + Emsinωmt)sinωct

And the modulating index is given as, m = Em/ Ec

When the modulation index is less than 1, the angle modulated systems are called low index.

The bandwidth requirement of low index systems is approximately twice of the modulating

signal frequency. Therefore low index systems are called narrowband FM.

BW = 2(δ + ƒm (max))

Here δ is the maximum frequency deviation and ƒm (max) is the maximum signal frequency.

18. Differentiate between narrow band FM and wideband FM. (A/E)

In narrowband FM, the frequency deviation is very small. Hence the frequency spectrum

consists of two major sidebands like AM. Other sidebands are negligible and hence they can

be neglected. Therefore the bandwidth of narrowband FM is limited only to twice of highest

modulating frequency.

If the deviation in carrier frequency is large enough so that other sidebands cannot be

neglected, then it is called wideband FM. The bandwidth of wideband FM is calculated as

per Carson’s rule.

transmitter power remains constant in FM whereas it varies in AM.

b) Since amplitude of FM is constant, the noise interference is minimum in FM. Any noise

superimposing amplitude can be removed with the help of amplitude limits. Whereas it is

difficult to remove amplitude variations due to noise in AM.

c) The depth of modulation has limitation in AM. But in FM the depth of modulation can be

increased to any value by increasing the deviation. This does not cause any distortion in FM

signal.

d) Since guard bands are provided in FM, there is less possibility of adjacent channel

interference.

e) Since space waves are used for FM, the radius of propagation is limited to line of sight.

Hence it is possible to operate several independent transmitters on same frequency with

minimum interference.

f) Since FM uses UHF and VHF ranges, the noise interference is minimum compared to AM

which uses MF and HF ranges.

In phase modulation, the phase of the carrier varies according to amplitude variations of the

modulating signal. The PM signal can be expressed mathematically as,

mp = Φm

Here Φm is the maximum value of phase change.

In the indirect method, Fm is obtained from PM. The phase modulated signal can be

represented as, ePM = Ecsin(ωct+ m cosωmt)

Or

ƒp = ƒc - mƒm sin(2πƒmt)

= ƒc + Δƒ where Δƒ = mƒmsin(2πƒmt)

Δƒ = mƒmsin(2πƒmt)

long as modulating frequency does not change, phase modulation produces FM output.

Modulation index indicates the depth of modulation. As the amplitude of modulating signal

increases, modulation index increases.

23. A 107.6 MHZ carrier is frequency modulated by a 7 kHZsine wave. The resultant

FM signal has a frequency of 50 kHZDetermine the modulation index of the FM wave.

(A)

24.If the rms value of the aerial current before modulation is 12.5 A and during

modulation is 14 A, calculate the percentage of modulation employed, assuming no

distortion. (A)

I 2total

m = 2 1

Ic2

142

= 2 2

1 = 0.71

12.5

25.An AM broadcast transmitter radiates 9.5 KW of power with the carrier

unmodulated and 10.925 KW when it is sinusoidally modulated. Calculate the

modulation index. (A)

P

m= 2 total 1

Pc

10.925

m= 2 1 = 0.54

9.5

percentage is 60%. How much is the carrier power? (A)

m2

Ptotal = Pc 1

2

0.62

5 KW = Pc 1

2

Pc = 4.237 KW.

modulation? (R)

increases to 8.96 A when the carrier is modulated by a single tone sinusoid. Find the

percentage modulation. (A)

2

Itotal = Ic 1 m

2

2

8.96 = 8 1 m

2

m = 0.713

determine the maximum and minimum envelope amplitudes and the modulation

coefficients. (A)

Emax = 20 + 5 = 25 V

Emin = 20 – 5 = 15 V

Emax - Emin

Modulation index =

Emax Emin

25 - 15

= = 0.25

25 15

1. Amplitude of the carrier is varied according to Frequency of the carrier is varied according to amplitude of

amplitude of modulating signal. modulating signal.

2. AM has poor fidelity due to narrow band. Since the bandwidth is large, fidelity is better.

3. Most of the power is in carrier hence less efficient. All the transmitted power is useful.

6. AM broadcast operates in MF and HF range. FM broadcast operates in VHF and UHF range.

7. In AM only carrier and two sidebands are present. Infinite numbers of sidebands are present.

9. Transmitted power varies according to modulation Transmitted power remains constant irrespective of

index. modulation index.

10. Depth of modulation has limitation. It cannot be Depth of modulation has no limitation. It can be increased

increased above 1. by increasing frequency deviation

maximum frequency deviation of 5 kHZ .Find 1) Modulation index 2) Bandwidth of the

modulating signal. (A)

Maximum frequency deviation δ = 5 kHZ

5 103

1) Modulation index = mf = δ/ƒm = = 2.5

2 103

2) Bandwidth of the modulating signal, BW = 2(δ + ƒm (max))

Here ƒm (max) is the maximum modulating frequency, which is given as 2 kHZ .

Hence, BW = 2( 5103 + 2 103 ) = 14 kHz.

32. Calculate the bandwidth of commercial FM transmission assuming Δƒ = 75 kH z and W

= 15 kHz. (A) (April/May 2015)

33.An FM transmitter has a rest frequency ƒc= 96 MHZ and a deviation sensitivity K1=

4 kHZ/V.Determine the frequency deviation for a modulating signal Vm (t) = 8sin

(2π2000t). Determine the modulation index. (A)

Compare Vm (t) = 8 sin (2π2000t) with Em(t) = Emsin (2π ƒmt), then we get,

Em= 8 V and ƒm= 2000 HZ , k1= 4 kHz/V.

Total frequency deviation = δ = k1 Em= 4 kHZ/V 8 V = 32 kHz.

32 kHZ

Modulation index, m = δ/ƒm = = 16

2000 HZ

34. Sketch the block diagram for generating FM signal using PM modulator and PM

signal using FM modulator. (A/E)

Integrator Phase

modulator

FM output

Differentiat Frequency

or modulator

PM output

signal does not reach the zero amplitude axis. Hence the message signal is fully preserved in

the envelope of the AM wave. This is known as under modulation.

Frequency modulation is defined as the process by which the frequency of the carrier

wave is changed in accordance with the instantaneous value of the message signals.

modulating frequency.

Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted

on by a modulating signal frequency. The frequency deviation is typically given as the peak

frequency shift in Hertz (Δf).

In FM, the total transmitted power always remains constant. But with increased depth of

modulation, the required bandwidth is increased.

The frequency modulated wave can be obtained from PM system. This is done by integrating

the modulating signals before applying it to the phase modulators

i). In AM system the bandwidth is finite. But FM system has infinite number of sidebands in

addition to a single carrier.

ii). In FM system all the transmitted power is useful whereas in AM most of the transmitted

power is used by the carrier.

iii). Noise is very less in FM,hence there is an increase in the signal to noise ratio.

Demodulation or detection is the process by which modulating voltage isrecovered from the

modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.

43. Define instantaneous phase deviation. (R)

The instantaneous phase deviation is the instantaneous change in phase of the carrier at a

given instant of time and it indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with

respect to the reference phase.

The percent modulation for angle modulation is the ratio of frequency deviation actually

produced to the maximum frequency deviation allowed in percent form.

modulator.

FM modulator is obtained from PM modulator by placing an integrator followed by a PM

modulator

Needs for modulation:

_ Ease of transmission

_ Multiplexing

_ Reduced noise

_ Narrow bandwidth

_ Frequency assignment

_ Reduce the equipments limitations.

AM signal DSB-SC SSB-SC

Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=fm

Contains USB, LSB, carrier Contains USB,LSB Contains LSB or USB

More power is required Power required is less than Power required is less

fortransmission. that of AM thanAM &DSB-SC

Fading effect is absent. The power of the suppressed carrier and sideband is saved

The effect of noise at the receiver circuits is reduced.

51. List the sources of external and internal noise (R) (Nov/dec 2016)

53. List the major segments of electromagnetic spectrum and give their frequency

ranges.

(R) (Nov/dec

2015)

SSB-SC spectrum has only one sidebands either lower or upper. There is no carrier in

the transmission. It needs half of the bandwidth used for DSBSC transmission.

SSB filter is used to extract desired sideband for transmission from DSBSC signal. Half of

the power is needed for transmission in SSB-SC in comparison to DSBSC.

56. A carrier of frequency 100 MHz is frequency modulated by a signal x(t)=20sin

(200πx103t ). What is the bandwidth of the FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of

the modulator is 25 kHz per volt? (A) (Apr/May 2015)

Solution:

Fc=100Mhz; kf =25kHz/V

Vm(t) = 20 sin(200x10 t )

3

2πfm=200π x 103t

200 10 3

Therefore, fm= 2 =100000Hz

Needs for modulation:

Ease of transmission

Multiplexing

Reduced noise

Narrow bandwidth

Frequency assignment

Reduce the equipments limitations.

58. An amplifier operating over the frequency range from 18 to 20 Mhz has a 10KΩ

input resistor. What is the RMS noise voltage at the input to this amplifier if the

ambient temperature is 27°C?

(R)

(Nov/Dec 2014)

PART B

1.(i) Derive equations for AM voltage and power distribution. (U) (8)[April/May 15]

(ii) Explain the frequency analysis of angle modulated waves. (U) (8) [May/June 14]

2. (i) Write a note on frequency deviation of FM waves. (U) (8)

(ii) Describe the generation of FM. (R) (8) [May/June

2014]

3. (i) What is the need for modulation? (R) (4)

(ii) Explain with necessary diagram any one method for generation of AM wave.

(U)(12)[May/June 2013]

4. (i) Explain with block diagram of a FM transmitter using direct modulation. (U)

(12)

(ii) Discuss about spectral characteristics of FM signal. (U) (4) [May/June 2013]

5.Derive the mathematical expression for AM and describes its frequency spectrum and its

bandwidth.(U) [Nov/Dec-2003, 8Marks]

7. Derive power distribution and current relations.(U)

8.For an AM DSBFC wave with a peak unmodulated carrier voltage VC = 10v, load resistance

RL = 10Ω

and a modulation coefficient m=1. Determine

a) Powers of the carrier and the upper and lower sidebands.

b) Total sideband power.

c) Total power of the modulated wave,

d) Draw the power spectrum. (A)

9. Derive the mathematical expression for FM and describes its frequency spectrum and its

bandwidth. (U)

11. Determine the bandwidth requirements for frequency and phase modulation.(U)

[April/May 15]

13. For an FM modulator with a modulation index m=1, a modulating signal Vm(t)= Vmsin

(2π1000t),

b)Their amplitudes.

c)Draw the frequency spectrum showing their relative amplitudes. (A)

14. Derive the average power of an angle modulated wave. (U)

(ii) Explain the principle of AM modulation with mathematical analysis. Also draw the

AM wave and explain its power distribution. (U) [Apr/May 2015, 8 Marks](May 11)

16.Explain the bandwidth requirement for FM and define Carson’s rule. (U) (May 11)

(April/May 15)

(ii)Derive the relationship between the voltage amplitudes of the sideband frequencies and

the carrier and draw the frequency spectrum. (U)

(May 10)

18. Discuss about the sets of side bands produced when a carrier is frequency modulated by a

single frequency sinusoid. (U) (May 10)

modulating signal which causes a change in the output wave of +7.5V. Determine:

(2)Modulation Index.

20. Derive expression for AM wave. Define modulation index and express its value in terms

of maximum and minimum voltage values of signal. Draw the spectrum and time-domain

signal of AM wave. (U (Dec 09)

21. Define FM and PM modulation. Write down their equations. Describe suitable

mechanism that can produce PM from FM modulator. (U) (Dec 09)

22. Explain how the various noises are generated and the method of representing them. (U)

(16)

23. (i) Derive the expression for output signal to noise for a DSBSC receiver using coherent

detection.(U)

(ii) Write short notes on noise in SSB receivers. (U) ( NOV/DEC 2006)

24. Write short notes on :

(i)Shot noise. (4)

(ii)Thermal noise. (U) (4)

25. Explain the working of Super heterodyne receiver with its parameters. (U) (16)

26. Explain about AM transmitters. (U) (16)

27. A commercial AM station is broadcasting with an demodulated carrier power of 10kW.

The modulation index is set at 0.7 for a sinusoidal message signal. Find the total transmitter

power and efficiency.(A)

(MAY/JUNE 2007)

28. How SSB can be generated using Weaver's method? Illustrate with a neat block diagram.

(U)

(6)(April/May 2010)

29. (i) Describe about internal noise. (R) (8) [Nov/Dec 2014]

(ii) In modulation by several sine waves simultaneously, in AM, the bandwidth required

is twice the highest modulating frequency. Prove this concept using appropriate

expressions. (U)

(8) [Nov/Dec 2014]

30. (i) Calculate the percentage power saving when the carrier and one of the side bands are

suppressed in an AM wave modulated to a depth of (1) 100 percent and (2) 50 percent. (A)

(4)

(ii) Describe Frequency modulation and Phase modulation and their inter-relationship.

(U)

(12) [Nov/Dec 2014]

31. With the help of mathematical expressions explain about Amplitude Modulation, its

generation and detection. (U) (16) [April/May 2015]

32. (i) Draw the phasor diagram of a wide band FM and explain about the band width of FM

signal. (U) (8)

(ii) Explain the difference between phase modulation and frequency modulation. (U)

(8) [April/ May 2015]

33. (i) The output modulated wave of a standard AM transmitter is represented S(t) =

500(1+0.4sin3140t)cos6.28*107t. This voltage is fed to a load of 600Ω. Find

(1) Modulating frequency

(2) Carrier frequency

(3) Mean Power Output. (A) (8) [Nov/ Dec 2015]

(ii) Derive efficiency ƞ of standard AM and show that for a single tone AM, ƞmax=33.3% at

µ=1. (A) (8) [Nov/ Dec 2015]

34. With the help of neat block diagram explain about the generation of SSBSC wave and

demodulation. (U)(16) [Nov/ Dec 2015]

35. (a) (i) A receiver connected to an antenna resistance is 50 Ω has an equivalent noise

resistance of 30 Ω. Calculate the receiver’s noise figure in decibels and its equivalent noise

temperature. (A)(7)

(ii) A 1000 KHz carrier is simultaneously modulated with 300 Hz, 800 Hz and 2 KHz

audio sine waves. Find the frequencies present in the output. (A)(6) [NOV/DEC 2016]

36. (i) Derive the expression for the instantaneous voltage of SSB wave.(U)(7)

(ii) A 25 MHz carrier is modulated by a 400 Hz audio sine wave. If the carrier voltage is 4V

and the maximum frequency deviation is 10 KHz and phase deviation is 25 radians. Write the

equation of this modulated wave for (1) FM (2) PM. If the modulating frequency is now

changed to 2 KHz, all else remaining constant. Write a new equation for FM and PM.

(A)(6) [NOV/DEC 2016]

36. A 400 W carrier is amplitude modulated to a depth of 100%. Calculate the total power in

case of the AM and DSBSC techniques. How much power saving in watts is achieved for

DSBSC? If the depth of modulation is changed to 75%, then how much power in W is

required for transmitting the DSBSC wave? Compare the power required for DSBSC in both

cases and comment on the reason for change in the power levels. (A)(7) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:

Students can able to understand various analog communication techniques.

UNIT - II

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) – Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Minimum

Shift Keying (MSK) –Phase Shift Keying (PSK) – BPSK – QPSK – 8 PSK – 16 PSK

- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) – 8 QAM – 16 QAM – Bandwidth

Efficiency– Comparison of various Digital Communication System (ASK – FSK –

PSK – QAM).

COURSE OBJECTIVE:

To Understand Digital Communication Techniques

PART –A

Vm(t) is a normalized binary waveform where +1V is logic 1 and -1V is logic 0.

For a logic 1 input Vm(t) = 1,

VASK(t)= [ 1+1][ A/2 cos(WCt) ]= AcosWCt

For a logic 0 input,

Vm(t) = -1, Vm(t) = -1, VASK(t) = 0

thus the modulated wave VASK(t) is either AcosWCt or 0.Hence the carrier is either

‘on’ or ‘off’. Hence ASK is called on-off keying(ook).

Coherent (synchronous) detection:

In coherent detection, the local carrier generated at the receiver is phase locked with

the carrier at the transmitter. The detection is done by correlating received noisy signal and

locally generated carrier. The coherent detection is a synchronous detection.

Non-coherent (envelope) detection:

This type of detection does not need receiver carrier to be phase locked with

transmitter carrier. The advantage of such a system is that the system becomes simple, but

the drawback is that error probability increases. The different digital modulation techniques

are used for specific application areas. The choice is made such that the transmitted power

and channel bandwidth are best exploited.

I α B*t

Information capacity is direct proportional to Bandwidth and transmission line.

I = B log2(1+S/N)

Or

I =3.32 log1010(1+S/N)

Where B—Band width

S/N—Signal to noise ratio.

4. Compare binary PSK with QPSK. (A/E) (Nov – 2003)

1. One bit forms a symbol. Two bits form a symbol.

2. Two possible symbols. Four possible symbols.

3. Minimum bandwidth is twice Minimum bandwidth is equal

of ƒ b . to ƒ b .

30. What are the advantages of M-ary signaling scheme?(R) (May – 2004)

1) M-ary signaling schemes transmit multiple bits at a time.

2) Bandwidth requirement of M-ary signaling scheme is reduced.

In BPSK, the two symbols are transmitted with the help of following signals,

Symbol ‘1’ s1(t) = 2 P cos (2πƒ0t)

Symbol ‘2’ s2(t) = 2 P cos (2πƒ0t + π)

Here observe that above two signals differ only in a relative phase shift of 1800. Such signals

are called antipodal signals.

32. Compare bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK signals and M-ary FSK signals. (A/E)

(May – 2003)

For N-bit symbol, M-ary PSK requires a bandwidth of,

2ƒb

M-ary PSK, BW =

N

And M-ary FSK requires a bandwidth of,

2 N 1

M-ary FSK, BW = ƒb

N

Thus for N = 4,

2ƒb ƒb

M-ary PSK: BW = =

4 2

41

2

M-ary FSK: BW = ƒb = 8ƒb

4

Thus FSK requires more bandwidth compared to PSK.

33. What are the advantages of QPSK as compared to BPSK? (R)(May – 2005)

1) For the same bit error rate, the bandwidth required by QPSK is reduced to half as compared

to BPSK.

2) Because of reduced bandwidth, the information transmission rate of QPSK is higher.

3) Variation in OQPSK amplitude is not much. Hence carrier power almost remains constant.

1 Modulation Quadrature phase Quadrature amplitude and

phase

2 Location of signal All signal points placed on Signal points are replaced

points circumference of circle symmetrically about origin

3 Distance between 2 0.15Eb for 16 symbols and 2 0.4 Eb for 16 symbols

signal points

2 Eb for 4 symbols

5 Noise immunity Better than QASK Poor than QPSK. But better

than M-ary PSK

6 Error probability Less than QASK Higher than QPSK. Lower than

M-ary PSK.

7 Type of Coherent Coherent

demodulation

35. Draw the phasor diagram of QPSK or Signal constellation of QPSK.[May/June 2013]

36. Define minimum shift keying.(R) (May – 2006)

Minimum shift keying uses two orthogonal signals to transmit binary ‘0’ and ‘1’. The

differences between these two frequencies are minimum. Hence, there are no abrupt changes

in the amplitude and the modulated signal is continuous and smooth.

37. Give the difference between standard FSK and MSK.(A/E)

(Nov – 2007)

Sr.No FSK MSK

1. The two frequencies are integer The difference between the two

multiple of base band frequency frequencies is minimum and at the same

and at the same time they are time they are orthogonal.

orthogonal.

2. BW = 4 f b BW = 1.5 fb

38. Show the arrangement for non-coherent detection of FSK binary signal. (U)

(May – 2007)

filter at detector

b(t)

BPSK

signal Band pass Envelope Comparator

filter at detector

Fig shows the block diagram of BFSK receiver. The receiver consists of two band pass

filters, one with centre frequency f H and other with centre frequency f L . Since f H - f L = 2 f b ,

the outputs of filters do not overlap. The band pass filters pass their corresponding main

lobes without much distortion.

The rate at which data (bits) are transmitted is called bit rate. That is number of bits

transmitted per second. Unit is bps(bits per second).

The rate at which signal elements (pulses) are transmitted is called baudrate (modulation

rate). This means number of signal elements(pulses) transmitted per second. Unit is bauds.

ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) is a modulation technique which converts digital data to

analog signal. In ASK, the two binary values (0, 1) are represented by two different

amplitudes of the carrier signal.

FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) also a modulation technique which converts digital data to

analog signal. In FSK, the two binary values are represented by two different frequencies

near the carrier frequency.

Binary PSK

1. Two different phases are used to represent two binary values.

2. Each signal element represents only one bit.

QPSK

1. Four different phases are used to represent two binary values.

2. Each signal element represents two bits.

The ratio of data rate to transmission bandwidth is referred as bandwidth

efficiency. It is denoted as RBR.

Bandwidth efficiency = R / B

Where,

R – Data rate

B – Bandwidth

21.What are the advantages of QPSK? (R) (April/May 2011-

R2008,April/May 2010)

PhaseShiftKeying(BPSK) oneiswellknown. It is the possibility to transmit in the same

frequency band twice more information, while the number of errors and the Eb/No relation

are the same. It required minimum Bandwidth as in BPSK.

2004)

communicationsystemanditisfunction of bandwidth and transmissiontime.

to noise ratiothenthe channelcapacity is given by

I (or) C = B log2 (1 + S/N) bps

23. Define information capacity. (R)

system that is called information capacity

It is a measure of how much information can be propagated through communication system

and is function of bandwidth and transmission time.

InformationCapacity, I=Bxt

B= bandwidth (Hz)

t=Transmissiontime(sec)

C (or) I = Channel capacityorInformationcapacity

Bitrate is the number of bits transmitted per second or Rate of change of

digital information signal.

25. Define minimum shift keying (R) Nov/Dec 16

Minimum shift keying uses wo orthogonal signals to transmit

binary ‘0’ and ‘1’. The differences between these two frequencies are minimum. Hence, there

are no abrupt changes in the amplitude and the modulated signal is continuous and smooth.

Also, Minimum shift keying (MSK) is a special type of continuous phase-

frequency shift keying (CPFSK) with h=0.5. A modulation index of 0.5 corresponds to the

minimum frequency spacing that allows two FSK signals to be coherently orthogonal, and the

name minimum shift keying implies the minimum .

26. For an 8-PSK system, operating with an information bit rate of 24 kbps, determine (a)

baud, (b) minimum bandwidth, and (c) bandwidth efficiency. (A) Nov/Dec 16

27. Sketch the digitally modulated waveforms for the binary data 10110 using ASK ,FSK.

(R) Nov/Dec 15

28. Why is FSK and PSK signals are preferred over ASK signals? (R) Nov/Dec 15

PSK is less susceptible to errors than ASK, while it requires/occupies the same

bandwidth as ASK and more efficient use of bandwidth (higher data rate) are possible

compared to FSK.

29. Sketch the QPSK signal for the binary sequence 10011100 (R) Nov/Dec 15

30. What is the difference between Standard FSK and MSK? What is the advantage of

MSK? (U) Nov/Dec 14

efficient form of coherent FSK. In MSK, the difference between the higher and lower frequency is

identical to half the bit rate. Consequently, the waveforms that represent a 0 and a 1 bit differ by

exactly half a carrier period.

The maximum frequency deviation is δ = 0.25 fm, where fm is the maximum modulating

frequency. As a result, the modulation index m is 0.5. This is the smallest FSK modulation

index that can be chosen such that the waveforms for 0 and 1 are orthogonal.

PART-B

1. (i) Write a note on Bandwidth consideration in FSK. (U) (6)

(ii) Explain the principle of operation of QPSK. (U) (10)[May/June 2014][April/May

2015]

2. (i) Explain about binary phase shift keying. (U) (8)

(ii) Describe the principle of operation of FSK transmitter. (R) (8) [May/June 2014]

3. With relevant diagram explain the method of synchronous detection of FSK signal. What

should be the relationship between bit rate and frequency shift for a better performance. (U)

(16) [May/June 2013]

4. With neat diagram explain the working of a DPSK transmitter, What are the advantages of

DPSK over PSK. (U) (16) [May/June 2013]

5.(i) Explain the principle of FSK transmitter and receiver. (U) (10)

(ii) Write short notes on the spectrum and bandwidth of FSK. (U) (6) [Nov/Dec 2009]

6. Compare the various types of digital modulation techniques.(A/E) (8)

7. Draw FSK transmitter and receiver block diagrams and explain the functions of each

Block with relevant waveforms and expressions. (U) (8) [Nov/Dec-2011]

8. (i)Explain the QPSK system with appropriate expressions and diagrams. (U) (8)

(ii)Draw QPSK transmitter and receiver block diagrams and describe the functions of

each block. (U) (8)[Nov/Dec-2011]

9. (i) Explain about the Shannon limit for information capacity. (U) (8)

(ii) Define bit rate, baud rate and bandwidth consideration of FSK. (R) (6)

(iii) Define digital amplitude modulation. (R) (2)[Apr/May-2011]

10. (i) Explain ASK system and discuss its advantages. (U) (8)[Apr/May-2011]

(ii) Describe FSK modulator with a neat diagram. (R) (8)

11. Explain in detail about QPSK modulator and demodulator with neat diagram and also

compare with BPSK.(U) (16) [Nov/Dec-2012]

12. Explain in detail about FSK transmitter receiver. (U) (16)[Nov/Dec-2012]

13. (i) With block diagram explain the two different methods of carrier recovery in detail.(U)

(12) [May/June 2012]

(ii) For a QPSK modulator with an input data rate equal to 10 Mbps and a carrier frequency

of 75 MHz. Determine the minimum double side Nyquist bandwidth. (A)(4) [May/June

2012]

14. (i) Explain the working of BPSK transmitter and receiver with necessary block

diagram.(U)

(ii) Determine (i) Peak frequency deviation

(ii) Minimum bandwidth for a binary FSK signal with mark frequency of 45 KHz, a

space frequency of 49 KHz and an input bit rate of 3Kbps. (A) [May/June 2012]

15. (i) Draw FSK Transmitter and explain. Describe its Bandwidth Considerations. (U)

(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]

(ii) For a BPSK modulator with a carrier frequency of 70 MHz and an input bit rate of 10

Mbps, determine the maximum and minimum upper and lower side frequencies, draw the

output spectrum, determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth, and calculate the baud(Assume

fa=5 MHz). (A) (8)

16. (i) Draw and explain the operations of Non-coherent and coherent FSK modulators. (U)

(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]

(ii) Draw QPSK modulator and explain. Describe its Bandwidth considerations. (U) (8)

17. With the neat block diagram, explain coherent binary FSK transmitter and receiver. (U)

[Nov./Dec-2003,8-Marks;Nov/Dec-2005,10-Marks]

18.Draw the block diagram of binary PSK system and explain with signal space diagram. (U)

19. Write an expression for BFSK and explain the spectrum of BFSK. (U)[April-2005,8-

Marks]

20. Explain QPSK modulation scheme with constellation diagram.(U) [Nov./Dec-2004,6-

Mark]

21. What is ASK? Draw the Waveform.(R) [Nov/Dec-2004,6-Maks]

22. Compare BPSK and QPSK.(A/E) [Nov/Dec-2005,6-Marks]

23. Explain the operation of FSK transmitter and receiver and discuss about the bandwidth

requirements of FSK signals. (U) [May/June-2006,16-Marks]

24. Write short notes on the following

i) Costas loop method of carrier recovery

ii)Differential PSK modulator. (U) [May/June-2006,16Marks]

25. Draw the constellation diagram for QPSK signaling scheme. And for the following

binary

sequence sketch the waveform for the1100100010 [Nov/Dec-2003,8-Marks]

i)In-phase and quadrature components.

ii)QPSK signal.(A)

26.(i) Explain the generation and detection of binary phase shift keying. (U)

(ii)Describe the operation of Costas loop receiver. (U) (May 11)

27.(i)Discuss in detail the operation of QAM modulator and demodulator with its phasor

diagram. (U) [April/May 2015, 16 Marks]

(ii) Write note on Quadrature amplitude modulation. (U) (May 11)

28.What is Known as BPSK? Discuss us detail the BPSK transmitter and Receiver and also

obtain the minimum double side Nyquist bandwidth.(U) (May 10)

29. (i)llustrate the concept of 8QAM transmitter with the truth table. (A/E)

[April/May 2015, 16 Marks]

(ii)What is the need for carrier recovery? Explain the Costas loop method of carrier

recovery.(U) (May 10)

30. With relevant expressions and figures, describe QPSK Transmitter, QPSK Receiver and

Bandwidth considerations of QPSK. (U) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]

31. Compare and contrast the various Digital Communication systems.(A/E)

(16) [NOV/DEC 2014]

32. Draw the constellation diagram of QPSK modulation and explain the QPSK modulation

and demodulation of QPSK. (U) (16)[April/May 2015]

33. Explain the method of generation of QAM and the demodulation of the same. (U)

(16)[April/May 2015]

34. (i) Explain in detail about the operation of QPSK transmitter with necessary

diagrams.(U) (10)

(ii) Compare QPSK and BPSK. (A/E) (6)[NOV/DEC 2015]

35. Draw the block diagram of FSK system and explain its working. (U)(16)[NOV/DEC

2015]

36. Describe the generation and detection of binary FSK signal with necessary diagram and

equation. (U) (13)[NOV/DEC 2016]

37. (i) If a digital message input data rate is 8 Kbps and average energy per bit is 0.01 unit.

Find the bandwidth required for transmission of the message through BPSK, QPSK,

BFSK, MSK and 16 PSK.(A) (8)

(ii) Compare the various digital modulation schemes.(A/E) (5)[NOV/DEC 2016]

PART C

1. (i) A data bit sequence consists of the following string of bits 10 11 10 10. Analyze and

draw the nature of waveform transmitted by BPSK transmitter. (A) (8) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:

Students can able to understand various Digital communication techniques.

UNIT- III

DATA AND PULSE COMMUNICATION

Data Communication: History of Data Communication - Standards Organizations for

Data Communication- Data Communication Circuits - Data Communication Codes - Error

Detection and Correction Techniques - Data communication Hardware - serial and parallel

interfaces. Pulse Communication: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) – Pulse Time

Modulation (PTM) – Pulse code Modulation (PCM) - Comparison of various Pulse

Communication System (PAM – PTM – PCM).

COURSE OBJECTIVE:

To Learn Data and Pulse Communication Techniques

PART A

seemingly taking on the identity of a lower frequency in the spectrum of the sampled signal

g(t) is called aliasing or fold over.The effect of aliasing as the output of the reconstruction

filter depends on both the amplitude and phase component of the original spectrum G (f),

making an exact analysis of the output difficult resulting in distortion.

The conversion of analog sample of the signal in to digital form is called quantizing

process. Graphically the quantizing process means that a straight line representing the

relation between the input and the output of a linear analog system.

a) The peak-to-peak range of input sample values subdivided into a finite set of

decision levels or decision thresholds

b) The output is assigned a discrete value selected from a finite set of representation

levels are reconstruction values that are aligned with the treads of the staircase.

Quantization is the value of which equals the difference between the output and input

values of quantizer.

The minimum sampling rate of 2W sample per second for a signal bandwidth of W

hertz is called the nyquist rate.

amplitude of a carrier consisting of a periodic train of rectangular pulses is varied in

proportion to sample values of a message signal.

7. What is single tone and multi tone modulation? (R)

If modulation is performed for a message signal with more than one frequency

component then the modulation is called multi tone modulation. If modulation is performed

for a message signal with one frequency component then the modulation is called single tone

modulation.

Marks].

The signal is compressed at the transmitter and expanded at the receiver. This is called as

companding. The combination of a compressor and expander is called a compander.

Types of companding:

1. μ law companding

2. A law companding

amplitude.Sampling is a process by which an analog signal is divided into sequence of

samples (pulses) on regular interval of time.

11. List the errors in delta modulation. (R)

1. Quantizing noise – When the analog waveform is changing very slowly, there will be

Quantizing noise.

2. Slope overloads noise – When the analog waveform is changing very rapidly, there

will be Slope overload noise.

PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) is a process used to convert analog signal to digital data. In

PCM, the analog signal is first sampled then quantized then each sample is replaced with n

bits binary data.

In Nonlinear encoding the Quantization levels are not equally spaced. That is greater number

of Quantization levels for signals of low amplitude, and smaller number of Quantization

levels for signals of high amplitude.

Pulse code modulation (PCM) is a method of signal coding in which the message signal

is sampled, the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of

discrete levels and encoded so that both time and amplitude are represented in discrete form..

This allows the message to be transmitted by means of a digital waveform.

The conversion of analog sample of the signal into digital form is called quantizing

process.

making the step size of the modulator assume a time- varying form. In particular, during a

steep segment of the input signal the step size is increased. Conversely, when the input signal

is varying slowly, the step is reduced , In this way, the step size is adapting to the level of the

signal. The resulting method is called adaptive delta modulation (ADM).

Quantization error is the difference between the output and input values of Quantizer.

Step size is not uniform. Non-uniform quantizer is characterized by a step size that

increases as the separation from the origin of the transfer characteristics is increased. Non-

uniform quantization is otherwise called as robust quantization.

according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. This is pulse position

modulation (PPM).

analog signal at the time the signal is sampled. This is PWM. PWM is also called as pulse

duration modulation (PDM) or pulse length modulation (PLM).

i) Natural sampling

(Apr-May 2012)[April/May 2015, 2 Marks]

The PDM is signal is clock signal to monostable multivibrator. The multivibraor triggers on

falling edge. Hence a PPM pulse of fixed width is produced after falling edge of PDM pulse.

PDM represents the input signal amplitude in the form of width of the pulse. A PPM pulse is

produced after the width of PDM pulse. In other words, the position of the PPM pulse

depends upon input signal amplitude.

31. What are the error detection and correction capabilities of hamming codes? (R)

(Apr-May 2008, May-June 2009)

The minimum distance (dmin) of hamming codes is 3. Hence it can be used to detect double

errors or correct single errors. Hamming codes are basically linear block codes with dmin =3.

2. To correct up to ‘t’ errors per word, dmin ≥ 2t +1

32. Define code efficiency? (R)

Ans.: The code efficiency is the ratio of message bits in a block to the transmitted bits

33. What is PAM? (R) (May ’06)

PAM is the pulse amplitude modulation. In pulse amplitude modulation, the

amplitude of a carrier consisting of a periodic train of rectangular pulses is varied in

proportion to sample values of a message signal.

34. What do you mean by nonlinear encoding in PCM system? (R)

Nonlinear encoding is a technique used to increase the performance of PCM system. In

Nonlinear encoding the Quantization levels are not equally spaced. That is greater number of

Quantization levels for signals of low amplitude, and smaller number of Quantization levels

for signals of high amplitude.

35. Name the standard organizations for data communications. (R)(Nov/dec 2016)

Pulse Time Modulation (PTM) is a class of signaling technique that encodes the

sample values of an analog signal onto the time axis of a digital signal. The two main types

of pulse time modulation are: 1. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 2. Pulse Position

Modulation (PPM)

In PWM the sample values of the analog waveform are used to determine the width of the

pulse signal. Either instantaneous or natural sampling can be used.

In PPM the analog sample values determine the position of a narrow pulse relative to the

clocking time. It is possible to obtain PPM from PWM by using a mono-stable multivibrator

circuit.

37. Why do we encounter aperture effect in PAM? How will you rectify it?

(R)(Nov/dec 2015)

In flat top sampling,due to the lengthening of the sample, amplitude distortion as well

as a delay of T/2 was introduced.This distortion is referred to as Aperture effect.

Aperture effect can be corrected by connecting an equalizer in cascade with the low pass

reconstruction filter. This equalizer has the effect of decreasing the in-band loss of

reconstruction filter as the frequency increases in such a manner as to compensate for the

aperture effect.

38. State the sampling theorem for bandlimited signal of finite energy. (R)(Nov/dec

2015)

A continuous time signal can be represented in its samples and can be recovered back

when sampling frequency fs is greater than or equal to the twice the highest frequency

component of message signal. i. e.fs≤2fm.

39. State the need for companding in a PCM system. (R)(Apr/May 2015)

In the digital world, a compression technique used in pulse code modulation (PCM). It

reduces the number of bits used to represent digital voice samples in the loudest parts of the

conversation.

In PPM the analog sample values determine the position of a narrow pulse relative to the

clocking time. It is possible to obtain PPM from PWM by using a mono-stable multivibrator

circuit.

41. Determine the odd and even parity bits for the ASCII character R whose hex

code is 52. (R)( Nov/dec 2014)

42. What are the two primary methods used for error correction? (R)( Nov/dec

2014)

Retransmission

Forward Error Correction

PART-B

1. Explain about Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) in detail. (U) (10)[May/June 2014]

2. (i) Explain the principle of operation of adaptive delta modulation. (U) (10)

(ii) Write a note on signal to quantization noise rate. (U) (6) [May/June 2014]

3. With block diagram explain the PCM transmitter and receiver. (U)(12)[May/June 2013]

4. Describe delta modulation system. What are its limitations? How can they be overcome?

(R)(12)[May/June 2013]

5. (i) Explain the elements of PCM system with a neat block diagram.(U) (12)

(ii) Describe the operation of DPCM system with a relevant diagram. (R) (12)

6. Explain the modulation and demodulation process of PCM in Detail.(U)(16)

[Nov/D-011]

7. Explain the quantization process in PCM.(U) (6) [Apr/May-2011]

8. Define pulse modulation and explain about PCM circuit in detail.(R)(16) [Nov/Dec-2012]

9. Describe in detail the PCM technique with focus on its sampling rate, and signal to

quantization Noise ratio. (R)(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]

10. What are the types of pulse modulation? Explain them briefly. (R)

[Nov/Dec- 2010,8Marks]

11. Explain the noise in delta modulation. (U)

12. Explain with suitable diagram, generation of PPM signal.(U)[April 2014,12-Maks]

13.Discuss about generation of PAM and its demodulation.(U)

[April/May 2015, 16Marks]

14.Derive an expression for quantization error.(U) [April/May-2005,8-Marks]

15. Explain different noises in delta modulation system. (U)

16. Discuss the operation of delta modulation system. What are its limitations? (U)

[Nov/Dec-2004,10 Marks]

17. Explain the method of generation of PWM signal. (U) [Nov/Dec-2004,12 Marks]

18. What are the drawbacks of the delta modulation/and how they are overcome in adaptive

delta modulation? Explain with the help of neat block diagram. (R)

[May/June-2006,16 Marks]

19. Explain PCM and differential PCM with the help of block diagrams.(U)

[May/June-2006,16 Marks]

20. (a)What is Companding? What is the need for companding? (R)

(b)What are the drawbacks of delta modulation? Explain how it is overcome in

adaptive delta modulation. (R) May 11)

21. Explain the following: a. Inter symbol interference , b. Eye pattern

c. Quantization noise in PCM (U) (May 11)

22.(i)What is called companding? Briefly discuss the analog companding.(U)

(iiDiscuss about the causes of ISI. (U) (May 10)

23. Write in detail on error detection coding techniques. (U) [April/May 2015, 8 Marks]

24. Write in detail on Error correction coding techniques. (U)

25. Write in detail on Serial and parallel interfaces. (U) [April/May 2015, 16 Marks]

26. Write in detail on Synchronous and Asynchronous data transmission techniques.(U)

27. Write in detail on types of modems.(U)

28. Write in detail on RS232 interface.(U)

29.(i)Explain any two data communication codes presently used for character encoding.

(12) (U)

(ii) Give brief notes on error detection.(U) (4) [May/June 2013]

30. With neat block diagram explain the data communication hardware. (U)

(16) [May/June 2013][April/May 2015]

Discuss in detail about the standard organization for data communication.(U)

[April/May 2015]

31. (i) Discuss in detail about the standard Organization for Data Communication. (U)

(8)[NOV/DEC 2014]

(ii) Explain the concept of Data Communication Circuits using a basic block diagram. (U)

(8) [NOV/DEC 2014]

32. Discuss in detail the concept of PCM. (U) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]

34. The information in a analog wave form with maximum frequency fm=3 KHz, is to be

transmitted over an M-ary PAM system, where the number of pulse levels is M=16. The

quantization distortions specified not to exceed + or -1% of the peak to peak analog signal.

(A)

(i) What is the maximum number of bits/sample or bits/PCM word that should be used in

digitizing the analog waveform? (R) (4)

(ii) What is the minimum required sampling rate and what is the resulting bit transmission

rate?(R) (4)

(iii) What is the PAM pulse or symbol transmission rate? (4)

(iv) If the transmission bandwidth equals 12 KHz determine the bandwidth efficiency for

this system. (A) (4) [NOV/DEC 2015]

35. The information in an analog signal voltage waveform is to be transmitted over a PCM

system with an accuracy of ± 0.1% (full scale). The analog voltage waveform has a

bandwidth of 100 Hz and an amplitude range of -10 to + 10 volts. (A)

(ii) Determine the number of bits in each PCM word. (U) (4)

(iii) Determine minimum bit required in the PCM signal. (U) (4)

(iv) Determine the minimum absolute channel bandwidth required for the transmission of

PCM signal. (U) (4) [NOV/DEC 2015]

36. Discuss about the generation of PAM and its demodulation. (U) (16)[April/May 2015]

37. (i) Explain the working of two station data communication circuits with a block

diagram.(U) (7)

(ii) Discuss the various data communication codes and its significance.

(U)(6)[NOV/DEC 2016]

38. (i) Describe the two methods of error correction in data communication. (R) (6)

(ii) Explain the generation of PCM signal with a block diagram.(U) (7)[NOV/DEC

2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:

Students can gain knowledge on Data and Pulse communication techniques.

UNIT-IV

SOURCE AND ERROR CONTROL CODING

Entropy, Source encoding theorem, Shannon fano coding, Huffman coding, mutual

information, channel capacity, channel coding theorem, Error Control Coding, linear block

codes, cyclic codes, convolution codes, viterbi decoding algorithm.

COURSE OBJECTIVE:

To familiarize with Source and Error control coding.

PART A

Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is givenby the

expression H(X)=_I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol

H(X)- entropy of the source, H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.

1. I(X,Y)=I(Y,X)

2. I(X,Y)>=0

3. I(X,Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X)

4. I(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X,Y).

H(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y/X) =H(Y)+H(X/Y)

H(X)- entropy of the source,H(Y/X),H(X/Y)-conditional entropy

H(Y)-entropy of destination

H(X,Y)- Joint entropy of the source and destination

If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. Theinformation

rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X)- entropy of the source

0< H(X) <log2K, is the radix of the alphabet X of the source.

A conversion of the output of a DMS into a sequence of binary symbols is calledsource

coding. The design of a variable length code such that its average cod word length

approaches the entropy of the DMS is often referred to as entropy coding.

The capacity ‘C’ of a additive Gaussian noise channel is C=B log2 (1+S/N)

B= channel bandwidth,S/N=signal to noise ratio.

The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0 log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0)

p0-probability of symbol ‘0’,p1=(1- p0 ) =probability of transmitting symbol ‘1’

The transition probability diagram of the channel is called the channel diagramand its matrix

representation is called the channel matrix.

For BSC the channel capacity C=1+plog2 p +(1-p)log2(1-p).

For BEC the channel capacity C=(1-p)

If the time rate at which source X emits symbols is r symbols per second. The

information rate R of the source is given by R=r H(X) bits/second H(X)- entropy of the

source .

Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is given by the

expression H(X)=∑I P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.

In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. It is variable length code.

The binary digits are assigned to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence.

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol

H(X)- entropy of the source H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.

17. State Shanon Hartley theorem. (R)

The capacity ‘C’ of a additive Gaussian noise channel is C=B log2(1+S/N) B= channel

bandwidth ,S/N=signal to noise ratio.

1.I(X,Y)=I(Y,X)

2.I(X,Y)>=0

3.I(X,Y)=H(Y)-H(Y/X)

4.I(X,Y)=H(X)+H(Y)-H(X,Y).

19. Give the expressions for channel capacity of a Gaussian channel. (R)(May/June

2012)

Channel capacity of Gaussian channel is given as, C = B log2 (1 + (S/N))

20. Define the entropy for a discrete memory less source. (R)(April/May 2011)

The entropy of a binary memory-less source H(X)=-p0log2p0-(1-p0)log2(1-p0) p0-

probability of symbol ‘0’,p1=(1- p0) =probability of transmitting symbol ‘1’.

21. Define the significance of the entropy H(X/Y) of a communication system where X is

he transmitter and Y is the receiver. (R)

H(X/Y) is called conditional entropy. It represents uncertainty of X, on average, when Y is

known.In other words H(X/Y) is an average measure of uncertainty in X after Y is

received.H(X/Y) represents the information lost in the noisy channel.

22. An event has a six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/32.

Find the entropy of the system. (A)

H = ∑Pklog2(1/Pk)

= (½) log2 2 + (¼) log2 4 + (1/16) log2 16 + (1/32) log2 32 + (1/32) log2 32

= 1.5625.

maximum?(A)

Average information is maximum, when the two messages are equally likely i.e., p1 = p2 =

1/2. Then the maximum average information is given as, Hmax = 1/2 log2 2 + 1/2 log2 2 = 1

bit / message.

1. Prefix coding 2. Shanon-fano coding 3. Huffman coding.

25. Write down the formula for mutual information. (R) (April/May 2010)

The mutual information is defined as the amount of information transferred when Xi is

transmitted Yj is received. It is represented by I( Xi , Yj ) and it is given as,

I(Xi,Yj) = log ( P(Xi/Yj)/ P(Xi) ) bits.

26. Write the expression for code efficiency in terms of entropy. (R)

Redundancy = 1 - code efficiency. Redundancy should be as low as possible.

An efficient code can be obtained by the following simple procedure, known as

Shannon-Fanoalgorthim.

1. List the source symbols in order of decreasing probability.

2. Partition the set into two sets that are as close to equiprobable as possible,

and sign 0 to the upper set and 1 to the lower set.

3. Continue this process, each time partitioning the sets with as nearly equal

probabilities as possible until further partitioning is not possible.

28. Find the entropy of the source alphabet {S0,S1,S2} with respective probabilities

{1/4,1/4,1/2}. (R) (Nov/dec 2016)

29. When a binary code is said to be cyclic code? (R) (Nov/dec 2016)

An (n, k) linear block code C is said to be cyclic if for every code word c = (c0, c1, .

. . , cn−1) in C, there is also a code word c 0 = (cn−1, c0, . . . , cn−2) that is also in C. (c 0 is a

cyclic shift of c.)

30. Show that if Ci and Cj are two code vectors in the (n,k) linear block code, then their

sum is also a code vector with an example. (R) (Nov/dec 2015)

32. An event has six possible outcomes with probabilities 1/2,1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32,1/32. Find

the entropy of the system. (A) (Apr/May 2015)

Mutual information I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y)

bits/symbol H(X)- entropy of the source H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.

34. Define entropy (R) (Nov/dec 2014)

Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is givenby

the expression H(X)= P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.

35. What are linear Block codes? (R) (Nov/dec 2014)

A block code is a code in which k bits (or, more generally, symbols) are input and n

bits (or, more generally symbols) are output. We designate the code as an (n, k) code.If we

input k bits, then there are 2k distinct messages (or, more generally q k ). Each message of n

symbols associated with a with each input block is called a codeword.

A Linear Code has the following properties: (i) The sum of two codewords belonging

to the code is also a codeword belonging to the code. (ii) The all-zero codeword is always a

codeword. (iii) The minimum Hamming distance between two codewords of a linear code is

equal to the minimum weight of any non-zero codeword, i.e., d* = w* .

PART B

1. Find the (7,4) linear systematic block code word corresponding to 1101. Assume a suitable

generator matrix.(A) (Apr-May 2011)

2. Explain how encoding is done by convolutional codes with an example.(U)(Nov-Dec

2010)

3. Explain the tree diagram, trellis diagram and state transition diagram ofconvolutional

codes.(U) (Nov-Dec 2010)

4. Explain error detecting and correcting capabilities of linear block code. (U)

[April/May 2015, 8 Marks](May-June2012)

5. Consider a (7,4) linear block code whose parity check matrix is given by

1110100

H 1101010

1011001

ii) How many errors this code can detect?

iii) How many errors can this code be correct?

iv) Draw circuit for encoder and syndrome computation.(A) (May-June2012)

6. (i) Explain 2-dimensional parity scheme of error detection. What are its error detection

capabilities? (U) (8)

(ii) Derive a single–bit-error correction code for 8-:-bit data and illustrate with an

example.(U) (8)[May/June 2014]

7. Discuss Source coding theorem, give the advantage and disadvantage of channel coding in

detail, and discuss the data compaction. (U) (16)

8. Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual informationand the joint

entropy of the channel input and channel output.(A) (NOV/DEC 2006)

9. Explain in detail Huffman coding algorithm and compare this with the other types of

coding.(U)

10.Explain the properties of entropy and with suitable example, explain the entropy of binary

memory less source. (U) (8)

11.Give the advantage and disadvantage of channel coding in detail. Discuss the data

compaction.(R)

12.What is entropy? Explain the important properties of entropy. (R) (8)

13.Five symbols of the alphabet of discrete memory less source and their probabilities are

given below. S=[S0,S1,S2,S3,S4] P[S]=[.4,.2,.2,.1,.1]Code the symbols using Huffman

coding.(A)

14. Write short notes on Differential entropy, derive the channel capacity theorem and

discuss the implications of the information capacity theorem. (U) (16) MAY/JUNE 2007

15.What do you mean by binary symmetric channel? Derive channel capacity formula for

symmetric channel. (U) (8)

16.Construct binary optical code for the following probability symbols using Huffman

procedure and calculate entropy of the source, average code Length, efficiency,

redundancy and variance? 0.2, 0.18, 0.12, 0.1, 0.1, 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, 0.06, 0.04 (A)

(16)

17. Define mutual information. Find the relation between the mutual information

and the joint entropy of the channel input and channel output. Explain the important

properties of mutual information. (U) (16)

18. Derive the expression for channel capacity of a continuous channel. Find also the

expression for channel capacity of continuous channel of a infinite bandwidth. Comment on

the results. (U) (16) [April/May2015]

19. A discrete memory less has a alphabet given below. Compute two different Huffman

codes for this source, hence for each of the two Codes. Find

i. The average code-word length.

ii. The variance of the average code-word length over the ensemble of source symbol. (A)

SYMBOL S0 S1 S2 S3 S4

PROBABILITY 0.55 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.05

20. Show that the joint entropy H(X,Y) = H(X) +H(Y/X). (A)

21. (i) What is the capacity of the Discrete memory less channel? (R)

(ii) A Discrete memory less channel has the following alphabet with probability of

occurrence. Generate the Huffman code, Find average encoded Length, entropy and n. (A)

(14) ( NOV/DEC 2007)

Symbol I SO Sl S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

Probability : 0.125 0.0625 0.25 0.0625 0.125 0.125 0.25

22. (i) Prove that the entropy of a discrete memory less source IS maximized when the

symbols are equiprobable. (U)(6)

(ii) A source has five outputs denoted by [ml, m2, m3, m4, ms] with respective probabilities

[0.41,0.19,0.16,0.15,0.09]. Determine the code words to represent the source outputs using

Shannon-Fano Encoding technique and determine its efficiency. (A) (10) MAY/JUNE 07

23. A discrete source emits 2000 symbols once every second. The symbol probabilities are{

0.40.25,0.15,0.1,0.06,0.04} respectively. Determine the source entropy and information rate.

A)

25. A discrete source emits 2000 symbols once every second. The symbol probabilities

are{0.5,0.20,0.15,0.1,0.05} respectively. Determine the source entropy and information

rate.(A)

26.Determine Shannon-Fano code for the source alphabet ’X’ with probabilities

P(X)={0.3,0.25,0.2,0.1,0.1,0.05}. Also find the code efficiency. (A)

27. Determine Huffman code for the source alphabet ’X’ with probabilities

P(X)={0.07,0.08,0.04,0.26,0.14,0.09,0.07,0.25 }. Also find the code efficiency. (A)

28.Determine Huffman code for the source alphabet ’X’ with probabilities

P(X)={0.3,0.25,0.2,0.05,0.05,0.1,0.05 }. Also find the code efficiency. (A)

29. (i) Find the code words for five symbols of the alphabet of a discrete memory- less source

with probability [0.4, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.1], using Huffman coding and determine the source

entropy and average code word length. (A)

(ii) Discuss the source coding theorem. (U) (April/May 2010)

30. Using Huffman code I, encode the following symbols. S = [0.3, 0.2, 0.25, 0.12, 0.05,

0.08,] Calculate (i) Average code word length (ii) Entropy of the source

(iii) Code efficiency and (iv) Redundancy .(A) (April/May 2011)

31. State and Prove the properties of Mutual information. (U) (April/May 2011)

32. A Database Management System (DMS) has following alphabet with probability of

occurrence as shown below

Symbol: s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6

Generate the Huffman code with minimum code variance. Determine the code variance and

code efficiency. (A) (April/May 2012)

33. Derive Shannon-Hartley theorem for the channel capacity of a continuous channel

having an average power limitation and perturbed by an additive band-limited white

Gaussian noise. Explain the bandwidth signal- to- noise ratio tradeoff for this theorem.

(U)(April/May 2012)

34. Describe the concept of channel capacity. (R) [April/May 2015, 8 Marks]

.(i) Find out the Huffman code for a discrete memoryless source with probability statistics

{0.1,0.1,0.2,0.2,0.4}. (A) (8) [NOV/DEC 2014]

(ii) Describe the concept of channel capacity. (R) (8) [NOV/DEC 2014]

(i) Linear block codes

(ii) Viterbi decoding algorithm. (A) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]

36.Explain how Viterbi’s decoding procedure is used for decoding convolutional codes.(U)

(16) [April/May 2015]

37. Derive the expression for channel capacity of a continuous channel. Comment on the

trade-off between SNR and capacity.(U) (16) [April/May 2015]

38. A source generates five messages m0, m1, m2, m3 and m4 with probabilities

0.55,0.15,0.15,0.10 and 0.05 respectively. The successive messages emitted by the source are

statistically independent. Determine code words for the messages and efficiency using

Shannon Fano Algorithm.(A) (16) [NOV/DEC 2015]

39. (i) Design a syndrome calculator for a (7,4) cyclic code generated by the polynomial

g(x)=x2+x+1. Calculate the syndrome for the received vector 1001101.(A) (8)

(ii) Design a cyclic encoder for the same (7,4) cyclic code and obtain code vector for the

message vector 1100. (A) (8) [NOV/DEC 2015]

40. Five source messages are probable to appear as m1=0.4, m2=0.15, m3=0.15, m4=0.15

and m5=0.15. Find coding efficiency for (i) Shannon Fano coding, (ii) Huffman coding. (A)

41. Explain the concept of code generation and decoding of correlation code. (U)

(13) [NOV/DEC 2016]

PART C

Design Encoder and syndrome calculator for this code using systematic form. (A)

(15) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:

Students can gain knowledge on Source and Error control coding techniques.

UNIT V

MULTI-USER RADIO COMMUNICATION

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) - Global System for Mobile

Communications (GSM) - Code division multiple access (CDMA) – Cellular Concept and

Frequency Reuse - Channel Assignment and Hand off - Overview of Multiple Access

Schemes - Satellite Communication - Bluetooth.

COURSE OBJECTIVE:

To Gain knowledge on Multi-user Radio Communication

PART A

1. Define Handoff.(R)[Nov/Dec 2014]

It involves change of radio resources from cell to another adjacent cell.

2. What are the factors that used to define the right time for Handoff? (R)

Signal strength.

Signal phase.

Bit Error Rate.

Distance.

3. Define Hard Handoff. (R)

It is also known as break before make. It releases current radio resources from the prior BS

before acquiring resources from the next BS.

TDMA and FDMA employs Hard Handoff.

4. Define Soft Handoff. (R)

It is employed in CDMA. If the code is not orthogonal to other codes being used in

the next BS, the code could be changed. Therefore, it is possible for a MS to communicate

simultaneously with the prior BS as well as the new BS.

5. Define Multicasting. (R)

It is the process of transmitting message from a source to multiple recipients by using a

single address known as group address.

6. What are the AMPS parameters? (R)

Base station transmission band 869 to 894 MHz

Mobile unit transmission band 824 to 849 MHz

Channel bandwidth 30KHz

Number of full duplex voice channels 790

Number of full duplex control channels 42

Mobile unit maximum power 3 watts

Cell size, radius 2 to 20 km

Modulation, voice channel FM, 12KHz peak deviation

Modulation control channel FSK, 8KHz peak deviation

Data transmission rate 10 Kbps

Error control coding BCH (48,365) and (40,285)

7. Define FDMA.(R)

FDMA is a channel access method used in multiple-access protocols as a

channelization protocol. FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency

bands, or channels. It is particularly commonplace in satellite communication. FDMA, like

other multiple access systems, coordinates access between multiple users. Alternatives

include TDMA, CDMA, or SDMA.

8. Define TDMA.(R)

Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared-

medium networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing

the signal into different time slots.[1] The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the

other, each using its own time slot. This allows multiple stations to share the same

transmission medium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel

capacity.

9. What are all the TDMA design considerations? (R)

Number of logical channels.

Maximum cell radius.

Frequency.

Maximum vehicle speed.

Maximum coding delay.

Maximum delay spread.

Bandwidth.

10. List out the steps in the design of TDMA time slot.(R)

Speech coding.

Speech sample.

Error correction code.

Speech block.

Training sequence of Adaptive filter.

Burst design.

Multiplex design.

Final burst design.

11. Define GSM.(R)

Global System for Mobile Communication. It was developed to provide a

common second generation technology for Europe so that the same subscriber units could

be used throughout the continent.

A mobile station communicates across the Um interface, also known as the air interface,

with a base station transceiver in the same cell in which the mobile unit is located.

13. What is the function of Mobile Equipment? (R)

It is the physical terminal such as a telephone or PCS device, which includes the radio

transceiver, digital signal processor and the subscriber Identity Module.

14. What is the role of Base Station Subsystem(BSS)? (R)

It consists of a Base Station Controller(BSC) and one or more transceivers.

15. What is the role of Network Subsystem(NS)? (R)

It provides the link between the cellular network and the public switched telecommunication

network.

16. Define CDMA. (R)

Transmission is in the form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) which uses a chipping

code to increase the data rate of the transmission, resulting in an increased signal

bandwidth. Multiple access is provided by assigning orthogonal chipping code to multiple

users, so that the receiver can recover the transmission of an individual unit from multiple

transmissions.

17. What are the advantages of CDMA? (R)

1. Frequency Diversity.

2. Multipath resistance.

3. Privacy.

4. Graceful degradation.

5. Self jamming.

6. Near far problem.

7. Soft handoff.

18. Name the four types of channels supported by IS-95 Forward link. (R)

Pilot (Channel 0).

Synchronization (Channel 32).

Paging (Channels 1 to 7).

Traffic (channels 8 to31 and 33 to 63)

19. Write about 3G system. (U)

It is to provide fairly high speed wireless communications to support multimedia, data and

video in addition to voice.

• Thereisonlylimitedcellcapacityforallusers.

• Speed is lower.

• WhenMSisnot available,thereisnostorageandforwardservice.

Whatarethetwotypesoftopologiesusedinwirelessnetworks?

Infrastructurenetworktopology

AD-hoc(centralized)networktopology.

21. What are the two types of interference in cellular architecture? (R)

• Co-channelinterference

• Adjacentchannelinterference.

22 .What is the formula to find number of simultaneous users?(R)[AUApril/May2008]

N=m/B(W/N)

W-Totalspectrumwhichis

available.B- Bandwidthneededusers

N-Frequencyreusefactor.

m-Numberofcallsneededto cover an area n-

Thenumberofsimultaneoususers.

23..Write some of the characteristics of Bluetooth. (U)(May /June 2012)

Frequency band 2.5GHz

Technology Spread spectrum

Transmission method Hybrid direct sequence and frequency

hopping

Transmitting power 1 milliwatt

Data speed Asymmetric- 721+57.6 Kbps, symmetric

link – 432.6Kbps

Range 10ms

• Equilateraltriangle.

• Square.

• Regular hexagon.

26. What are the steps involved in Handoff process? (R)(Nov/dec 2016)

A handoff refers to the process of transferring an active call or data session from one

cell in a cellular network to another or from one channel in a cell to another.

27. Mention the three most commonly used multiple accessing schemes. (R)(Nov/dec

2016)

In any cellular system it is necessary for it to be able have a scheme whereby it can handle

multiple users at any given time. The multiple access schemes are known as FDMA,

TDMA, CDMA and OFDMA.

There are a number of requirements that any multiple access scheme must be able to meet:

maximise the spectrum efficiency 3. Must be robust, enabling ease of handover

between cells.

28. What is Bluetooth? (R)(Nov/dec 2015)

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances

(using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz[4]) from

fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by

telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994,[5] it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative

to RS-232 data cables.

29. What are the various handovers carried out in GSM? (R)(Nov/dec 2015)

Within the GSM system there are four types of handover that can be performed for

GSM only systems:

the frequency or slot being used by a mobile because of interference, or other

reasons

Inter-BTS Intra BSC handover: This for of GSM handover or GSM handoff occurs

when the mobile moves out of the coverage area of one BTS but into another

controlled by the same BSC

Inter-BSC handover: When the mobile moves out of the range of cells controlled

by one BSC, a more involved form of handover has to be performed, handing over

not only from one BTS to another but one BSC to another..

Inter-MSC handover: This form of handover occurs when changing between

networks. The two MSCs involved negotiate to control the handover.

30.What is near far effect in a CDMA system? (R)(Apr/May 2015)

wireless communication systems, in particular, CDMA.The near–far problem is a condition

in which a receiver captures a strong signal and thereby makes it impossible for the

receiver to detect a weaker signal.

(R)(Apr/May 2015)

Frequency reuse is the process of using the same radio frequencies on radio transmitter

sites within a geographic area that are separated by sufficient distance to cause minimal

interference with each other. Frequency reuse allows for a dramatic increase in the number

of customers that can be served (capacity) within a geographic area on a limited amount of

radio spectrum (limited number of radio channels).

2-Cell Frequency Reuse Cluster [Invalid]: In this cluster, the allocated band is

divided into 2 bands and the two sub‐ bands are reused in an alternating fashion somehow.

Clearly, only two cells with the same frequency as a particular cell are at equal distance

from it.

32. Why are hexagons employed to model coverage areas of mobile communication?

(R)(Nov/Dec 2014)

Hexagonal shapes are preferred than square or circle in cellular architecture because it

covers an entire area without overlapping.We can argue that even square shaped system

does not overlap. It is because it requires fewer cells to represent a hexagon than triangle or

square.

1.The frequency reuse become possible using this shape. 2. The radiation pattern of the

antennas used is 60 degree which means 6 are required for the full 360 degrees coverage

which is the same no. of sides the hexagon consists.(equidistant antennae). 3 .Minimum

interference.

PART B

2.Explain the use of TDMA in wireless communication systems.(U) (8) [May/June 2014]

3.Give brief notes on

(i) Use of spread spectrum with CDMA. (U) (8)

(ii) Pseudo random sequence generator. (U) (8) [May/June 2013]

4. Explain how PWM and PPM signals are generated? (U) (Apr-May 2011)

5. Write short notes on handoff call establishment. (U)

6. Explain the GSM protocol architecture for signaling. (U) [April/May2008,2009,2015]

7. Explain about IS-CDMA forward and reverse channel? (U) [AUNov/Dec2008]

8. ExplainaboutforwardchannelsinWCDMAandCDMA2000.Assume a (2,1) convolutional

coder with constraint length 6. Draw the tree diagram, state diagram and trellis diagram for

the assumed coder. (U) (Apr-May 2011)

10. Explain about Bluetooth architecture and protocol stack. (U) [AUNov/Dec2008]

11. Describe the Bluetooth architecture with relevant sketch. (R) [AU April/May 2012]

12. Discuss the interference handling mechanism adopted in Bluetooth technology with all

other ISM band technologies. (U) [AU April/May 2012]

13. Compare between the TDMA and CDMA wireless communication systems. (A/E)

(8) [Nov/Dec-2010]

14. Compare the merits and demerits of TDMA and FDMA multiple access schemes.(A/E)

[May/June-2006,8 Marks]

15. Comparison of Multiple Access Techniques.(A/E) [May/June-2006, 8Marks]

16. Describe the principles of TDMA AND CDMA in wireless communication system.(R)

17. Explain the near-far problem in spread spectrum modulation.(U) (May 10)

18. Explain in detail about the cellular concept and frequency reuse.(U)

(16)[April/May 2015]

19. Discuss in detail about Cellular Concept and Frequency Reuse.(U) (16) [NOV/DEC

2014]

20. Describe the concept of Satellite Communication. (R) (16) [NOV/DEC 2014]

21. Explain the concept of cellular topology and cell fundamentals with examples.(U)

(16) [NOV/DEC 2015]

22. Explain the architecture of GSM with a neat diagram. (U) (16) [NOV/DEC 2015]

23. Draw the architecture of GSM system and explain the function of each block. (U)

(16) [April/May 2015]

24. Illustrate the operation of a satellite communication system with a block diagram.(U)

(16) [April/May 2015]

25. (i) Describe the working of global system for mobile communication. (U)(6)

(ii) Briefly explain the concept of frequency reuse and channel assignment in CDMA. (U)

(7) [NOV/DEC 2016]

26. (i) Explain the principle of working of satellite communication with a block diagram. (U)

(8)

(ii) Briefly explain about the Bluetooth technology. (U) (5) [NOV/DEC 2016]

COURSE OUTCOME:

Students can be able to understand Multi-user Radio communication Concepts

CO-PO MAPPING

YEAR/SEMESTER : II / III

YEAR OF STUDY : 2017 –2018 ODD (R – 2013)

COURSE OUTCOMES:

CO205.2 Students can able to understand various Digital communication techniques.

CO205.3 Students can gain knowledge Data and Pulse communication techniques.

CO205.4 Students can gain knowledge on Source and Error control coding techniques.

CO205.5 Students can be able to understand Multi-user Radio communication concepts

CO-PO MATRICES

CO PO1 PO2 PO3 PO4 PO5 PO6 PO7 PO8 PO9 PO10 PO11 PO12

3 2 2

CO212.1 - - - - - - - - -

3 2 2

CO212.2 - - - - - - - - -

3 2 3

CO212.3 - - - - - - - - -

3 2 2

CO212.4 - - - - - - - - -

2 1 3

CO212.5 - - - - - - - - -

3 1.8 2.4

CO212 - - - - - - - - -