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NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of

Workplace Hazards

Element 1: Workplace Hazards and Control  Delivery/ collection of money

Work In a Hot Environment
*Control measures for violence at work
*Health effects  Training and information
 Skin burns  The environment
 Cataracts  Design of the job
 Dehydration  Communication
 Heat cramps  Lone working
 Headaches  Reporting and recording incidents
 Fainting
Hazards to Pedestrians
*Precautions  Slips, trips and falls on same level
 Medical pre-selection  Falls from Height
 Acclimatisation  Collisions with moving vehicles
 Limit time of exposure
 Cold drinks Precautions for accident on Staircases
 PPE  Removal of obstructions
 Provision of non-slip surfaces
Work in Cold Environment  Reflective edging
 Adequate lighting
Health effects  Effective maintenance
 Hypothermia  Use of Signs
 Loss of concentration  Width
 Shivering  Provision of handrails
 Frost bite  Dimensions treads and risers
 Landings
Precautions  Consider disabled persons
 Medical pre-selection  Avoid the need to carry heavy objects up and
 Acclimatisation down
 Limit time exposure
 Hot drinks  Causes of Accidents on walkways almost
 Insulated clothing the same

Welfare and Environment issues  Accidents on walkways on staircases

opposite of above
 Sufficient toilets Health Effects of Poor Lighting
 Washing facilities  Eye strain
 Eating and changing facilities  Headaches
 Clothing storage  Poor posture
 Seating  Tripping over unseen objects
 Rest areas  Increased likelihood of human error
 Arrangements for non-smokers  Increased time to vacate work area

*Working Environment Factors to Consider When Assessing Adequacy of

 Temperature Lighting
 Ventilation  The tasks being undertaking
 Lighting  The size and layout of the work area
 Room dimensions  The equipment used
 Suitable work stations and seating  Availability of natural light
 Weather protection for outdoor  Shift times/work patterns
workstations  Suitable number of artificial light
 Contrast levels
Violence at work  Glare
 Areas in shadow
Occupations at risk
 Need for localized lighting
 Taxi drivers  Maintenance of lighting
 Hospitals  Adequate emergency lighting
 Schools
 Cash transactions Ladders
NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

*Hazards in use  Collapse

 Falling off  Underground services
 Overreaching  Persons falling in
 Carrying up materials  Vehicles close to edge
 Unsuitable ladders  Access and egress
 Ladder not properly secured  Hazardous atmospheres
 Incorrect angle  Flooding
 Not reaching above landing place  Contamination
 Aluminium ladders near electrical lines  Type of soil
 Removal of soil
Mobile Tower Scaffold
Precautions for Above opposite
 Erected by competent persons *Precautions for underground services
 Pre use inspections  Plan job
 Positioned on firm ground  Locate cables
 Correct height to base ratio 3.5 :1 inside,  Avoid cables
3:1 outside  Safe digging procedures
 Use of outriggers to broaden base
 Tying in to adjacent structure *Hazardous of Demolition
 People and materials removed before  Underground and over head services
moving  Falls from height
 Handrails and toe boards  Fall of materials
 Suitable work platform  Premature collapse
 Not overloaded  Health hazards
 Gases and vapours
Hazards opposite of above  Noise
 Vibration
Mobile Elevating Work Platforms
 Ionising radiations
Hazards  Biological hazards
 People falling or being thrown
Precautions opposite of above plus
 Materials falling
 Exclusion zones
 Crushing between carrier and a fixed
 Safe method of demolition
Collapse or overturning of MEWP cause by
 Equipment failure
 Unsuitable ground conditions Element 2: Transport Hazards and Control
 Defective or unused outriggers Measures
 Overloading of the carrier
 Struck by load Hazards of Fork Trucks
 Struck by another vehicle  Overturning
 Interference with controls  Overloading
 Loss of loads
Precautions opposite of above  Collisions with other vehicles
Suspended access cradles and platforms  Collision with pedestrians
 Explosions and fire
 Pre- use inspection *Why can trucks overturn
 Supports to building of adequate strength  Traveling on gradients that are too steep
 Suitable maintained  Travelling forwards when descending slopes
 Safe access and egress  Overload or unevenly loaded
 Not exceed safe working load  Travelling over soft or uneven ground
 Guard rails and toe boards fitted  Travelling over slippery surfaces
 Safety harness worn  Travelling too fast
 Limitations on use in strong winds  Striking kerbs of other edges
 Carrying loads at dangerous heights
To avoid overturning opposite of above
*Main Hazards
 Undermining foundations

NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

*Procedures to follow when parking fork lift  Restriction of joint movement

trucks  Soft tissue swelling
 Put gears in neutral position
 Apply the handbrake *Factors to Be Considered During Risk
 Switch off engine Assessment
 Remove key and keep it with the responsible  Force exerted
person/place  Frequency and duration of operation
 Forks to be rested on the floor  Repetition of movement without rest or
 Mast slightly forward recovery
 Parked in the designated parking area making  Posture
sure it’s not blocking Walkways or exits.  Constraints on space
 Environment
*Additional hazards of electric fork trucks
 Hydrogen gas released during safety charging Improve Above plus
 Electricity problems  Mechanise task
 Manual handling of liquids  Use correct tools and equipment
 Corrosive acids
 They are quit (People may not hear them Display Screen Equipment (DSEs)
*Health Effects
Driver Selection  Upper limb pains and discomfort
 Suitable age  Eye and eyesight effects
 Medical examination  Epilepsy
 Routine medical checks at regular intervals  Radiation effects in pregnant women
 Assessment after prolonged absences  Fatigue and stress
 Capable of Training
 Refresher Training Workstation Requirements
 Adequate lighting
*Safety of pedestrian in vehicle moving areas  Minimum noise
 Segregation  Ample legroom
 Suitable parking areas  Suitable screen at eye level
 Avoid reversing if possible  Suitable software
 One- way systems  Keyboard
 Avoid sharp or blind bends  Work surface
 Sufficiently wide entrances and gateways  Suitable work chair
 Vision Aids  Footrest if necessary
 Speed limits
 Signallers (Banksmen) Health Effects of Remaining Seated For a Long
 Protection from fumes Time
 Protection from materials falling off  Vertebral and muscular damage
 High visibility jackets  High blood pressure
 Circulation problems

*Suitable Seat for Sedentary Workers

Element 3: Manual and Mechanical Handling
 Good lumbar support
 Good width and depth
*Ergonomics  Ability to adjust seat back and height
 Stable base
The study of the relationship between workers and
their environment, work equipment and work task.  Ability to swivel
 Provision of arm rests
Work related Upper limb Disorders (WRULDs)
*Manual Handling Injuries
*Causes If WRULDs  External: Cuts, bruises, contusions, abrasions,
 Repetitive finger, hand or arm movements crush injuries (Fractures)
 Twisting movements  Internal: Muscle Strains, Tendon Tears, Hernias,
 Squeezing slipped disc (Disc prolapsed)
 Hammering
Hierarchy to reduce manual handling injuries
 Pushing, pulling or reaching movements
 Avoid manual handling
Symptoms  Assess
 Numbness in fingers  Implement controls
 Pains in hands or arms
NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

*Manual handling Risk Assessment ( LITE)  Failure of load

*Load  Lack of maintenance
 Weight  Failure of load bearing part
 Size
 Shape
 Rigidity Cranes may Overturn Because of
 Difficult to grasp  Poor road surfaces – soft, greasy, uneven
 Unstable surfaces
 Sharp edges  Poor environmental factors such as lighting,
 Hot/Cold dust
 Speeding
*Individual  Lack of regular maintenance
 Sex  Lack of driver competence
 Stature  Overloading of vehicles
 Individual capability  Vehicles carrying unstable loads
 Training  Wind
 Person’s assessment of won capability  Unstable ground conditions

 Holding away from trunk *Safe Use of Cranes
 Twisting, Stooping  Suitable crane
 Reaching upwards  Suitable crane conditions
 Long vertical movement  Use of outriggers
 Long carrying distances  Avoidance of obstructions
 Strenuous pushing or pulling  Care near overhead power lines
 Number of boxes needed to be lifted  Designated and protected area
(frequency of lifting)  Suitable and tested lifting tackle
 Repetitive handling  Correct slinging technique
 Insufficient rest or recovery  Competent personnel
 Work rate imposed by the process  Load gear ground if travelling
 Good visibility
 Good communications
 Constraints on posture
 Suitable storage for fuels etc
 Poor floors
 Variations in levels Hazards opposite of above plus
 Hot/Cold/humid conditions Use of crane in high winds
 Poor lighting
*Employee Safety during Lifting
 Trained personnel
*Correct Manual Handling Technique
 Properly trained equipment
 Assess the load  Equipment has had statutory inspections
 Close to load as possible  Warning of lift taking place
 Secure grip  No employee to walk under load
 Suitable feet position  Ensure load is secure
 Back Straight  SWL crane and tackle not exceeded
 Bend the knees  Lifted to correct height
 Load close to the body  Moved at appropriate speed
 Smooth movement  Adequate supervision
 Lifting Accessories (Tackle)
Types of Crane
Main Hazards
 Mobile
 Over loading/ used above safe working load
 Tower
 Incorrect use e.g. too wide an angle with
 Gantry chains
 Overhead  Insecure attachment of load
 Damage to tackle
Cranes may fail because of
 Incorrect slinging method
 Overturning
 Failure to examine and inspect pre-use
 Overloading
 Incompetent staff
 Unsuitable support or inadequate bases for
crane Precautions opposite of above
 Loss of load

NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

*Conveyors  Temperature of extremes

Hazards Precautions  Ultra violet light
Trapping in driver Guards, No looses clothing  Vibration
Traps, Nips, Pop out, rollers, nip guards Guards - FIAT
Drawing in
Sharp edges Edge protection, eliminate *Fixed Guards
edges  A physical barrier not connected to the
Items jamming Adequate design machine controls which has no moving parts
conveyor and requires a tool to remove it.
Falling objects Edge guards, barriers
Riding or crossing Bridges, complete enclosure *Fixed Guards
conveyor Advantage
Impact with objects Helmets, Padding Minimal maintenance Not linked to m
Noise Hearing protection Only defeated by deliberate act No protection w
Manual handling Mechanical handling Only visual inspection Access to dang
Electrical Hazards Suitable equipment May protect against other hazards e.g. More difficult t
noise, dust, injection of materials access require
Tends to be lef
May hamper vi
Element 4: Work Equipment Hazards and Control
*Interlocking Guard
*Precautions on Maintenance of Work Equipment
 Linked to the machine controls so that when
 Use of permit to work
the machine is in a dangerous condition the
 Isolation/locking off guard cannot be opened or opening the guard
 Dissipation of stored energy causes the machine to become safe.
 Segregation
 Safe means of access *Interlocking Guard
 Use of PPE Advantage
 Competent personnel Allow safe access for feeding materials Increase th
 Ensure safe environment (allow to cool) Convenient to use Difficult to
Less likely to be deliberately defeated May need
*Hazards of Maintenance Work Opposite of Speeds up operations Componen
above plus Regular m
 Chemical May not fa
 Biological
 Asbestos
 Hot or Cold Element 5: Electrical Hazards Controls
 Pressure to complete work
Main Hazards of Electricity (BSAFE)
*Mechanical Hazards of Machinery – (ENTICE)  Burns
 Entanglement  Shock
 Traps (Also referred to as drawing in - shear-  Arcing
crush)  Fire
 Impact  Explosions
 Contact (Also referred to as cutting-
stabbing- puncture) Secondary Effects of Electricity
 Ejection  Fall from height
 Unintentional movement of machine
Draw labelled diagrams of each one  De-activation of control measures
 Loss of information
*Non- Machinery Hazards of Machinery
 Throw off
 Chemical/Biological Hazards
 Dust and fumes *Health effects of Electricity on the Body
 Ergonomics  Damage to nervous system
 Electricity  Irregular heartbeat (fibrillation)
 Fire  Internal Burns
 Explosion  External Burns
 Hazardous substances  Muscular contractions
 Manual Handling  Stopping breathing
 Noise  Stopping of the heart
 Radiation
 Stability of Machine

NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

*Factors Influencing Severity of Electrical Shock Earthing

 Voltage Electricity will always try reach earth and earthing
 Current means providing a path to earth lower than the human
 Time body.
 Conductivity of resistance
 Path of current through the body
The disconnection and separation of the electrical
 Environmental factors – wet conditions
equipment from every source of electrical equipment
 Conductivity of the skin – wet or dry in such a way that the disconnection and separation is
*Action on Finding Someone In Contact With
Electricity Reduced Voltage Systems
 Isolate the supply if possible – or remove By reducing the voltage present system the
person from the supply using a non- consequences of electrical shock can be greatly
conductive instrument reduced.
 Summon help
 Give first- aid if able Residual Current Devices (RCD)
 Remain with casualty until emergency It compares the current flowing into the system with
services arrive the current flowing out. When the level differs by a
present value the RCD will open rapidly and interrupt
Causes of Electrical Fire the supply.
 Inadequate circuits
User Checks
 Overload circuits
 Equipment is of an approved standard
 Incorrect fuses
 Wiring and casing are free from damage
 Damaged insulation
 Cables are correctly routed
 Loose connections
 Systems not overloaded
 Flammable materials too close to electrical
equipment  Correct fuses
 Over heating of cables  Plug properly wired and gripped
 Competent users
*Safety of Portable Electrical Appliances  Using reduced voltage in wet conditions
 Using RCDS’s
*The appliance
 Battery operated Office Environments
 Checked before use  Suitable equipment manufactured to
 Suitable selected equipment appropriate standards
 Properly maintained equipment  Avoid the use of trailing cables
 Avoid multi- socket extensions
*The Lead  Control private electrical equipment
 Ensure not run over by vehicles brought from home
 Dragged over rough services  Report defective and damaged equipment
 Trapped in machinery  Ensure effective heating
 Exposed to hot surfaces or corrosive  Switch off overnight
chemicals  Test appliances at regular intervals
 Continuous flexing

*Joints, Connections and plugs Element 6: Fire Hazards and Control

 Makeshift temporary connections
 Leads getting pulled out *Cause of Fire
 Poor made connections  Arson
 Fuse being replaced  Electrical faults
 Battery operated  Misuse of electrical equipment
 Smoker’s materials
 Oil/gas heating equipment and portable
 A weak link designated to melt, breaking
the circuit at excessive currents
 Unsafe storage of materials
Circuit Breakers  Use of flammable liquids or gases in
unsuitable areas
Electromagnetic device which perform the same
function as fuses i.e. break the circuit at excessive  Welding/ hot work
current although slightly faster.  Mechanical heat (Spark/friction)

*The Fire Triangle:- Fuel, Source of ignition,


NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

 Fore notices
Safety Using the Fire Triangle:  Fire drills
 Remove Fuel = starve  Roll calls
 Remove Heat = cool  Provision for disables
 Remove Oxygen = smother

Flash Point: - The temperature at which a vapor

Element 7: Chemical and Biological Health
given off by substance will ignite when brought
to a source of ignition. hazards and controls

*Classes of Fire: Target Organs

A- Combustible Solid (Wood, Paper Etc) A part of the body which sustains an adverse effect
B- Flammable Liquids (Alcohol, Petrol) when it is exposed to or by contaminated by a
C- Flammable Gases (Butane, Hydrogen, particular harmful agent.
D- Metals (Magnesium) Examples: Mercury, lead the brain, asbestos,
F- Cooking Media (Vegetable Oil or Animal Fats) ammonia the lungs

Method of Heat Transfer *Body Defenses against Dust

 The hair and wetness of the nose
*Direct Contact  The change of direction of the larynx
The flame and a combustible fuel are in direct contact  Sneezing and coughing
and the fuel heats up and eventually ignites.  The hair cells in the respiratory tract
 Tears and blinking of the eyes
Heat travels within a solid material (such as metal) Dermatitis
from hotter to cooler parts Symptoms: Blisters, Inflammation, Dryness,
Reddening, Cracking of skin
*Radiation *Protective measure against Dermatitis
Heat waves (infrared) is radiated through the air  Eliminate the substance
causing heating of a material at a distance from the
 Substitution of the substance
 Barrier creams,
*Convection  Good hygiene practices
Hot air rises in currents causing the build up of hot and  PPE
unburnt gases ceilings etc, and allows fire to spread
from one room to another. *Routes of Entry in the Body
 Inhalation
*Fire precautions to minimize the risk to people  Ingestion
in the event of fire  Absorption
Suitable Fire/ smoke detection  Direct entry
 Injection
*Fire Alarms
 Suitable
 Regular testing *Acute Effects
 Contact with emergency services Adverse health effects resulting from single or short
term exposure to large quantity of the harmful
*Means of Escape substance, it is usually reversible e.g splashing acid
 Travel distances onto the skin will give an immediate reaction.
 Stairways
 Fire doors
Adverse health effects resulting from prolonged or
 Signage
repeated exposure to small quantities of the harmful
 Emergency lighting substance leading to a gradual often irreversible
 Assembly point effects e.g exposure to asbestos duct over many years
will lead to asbestosis and cancer of the lungs-
*Means of Lighting the Fire mesothelioma.
 Suitable extinguishers
 Properly sited extinguishers Classification of Hazardous Substances
 Training in use of extinguishers
 Extinguishers properly maintained Irritant
Non- corrosive substances which through immediate,
*Emergency Evacuation Procedures prolonged or repeated contact with skin or mucous
 Fire marshals membrane may cause inflammation e.g Petrol

NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

Corrosive  Booms, sawdust, spillage procedures

Substance which on a contact with living tissue may  Evacuation procedures
destroy it by burning e.g. acids  Isolation of the area
 Evacuation of the employee at risk
 PPE for staff involved in clear up
Substances which if swallowed, inhaled or penetrate
the skin may cause damage to health. Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV)
Main parts: Hood, Ducting, Filter, Fan
A poisonous substance which in low quantities may Draw sketch as provided.
cause death, acute or chronic damage to health.

Carcinogenic *LEV becomes inefficient because of;

Substance which causes disorders to dell growth that  Blocked filters
may lead to cancer.
 Lack of maintenance
*Information on Manufactures Safety Data  Position of hood
Sheets (MSDS)  Unauthorized alterations
 Broken ducting
 Identification of the substance
 Wear of fan blades
 Manufactures information
 Incorrect settings
 Composition of the ingredients
 Increased contaminant level
 First-aid precautions
 Inadequate design
 Fire-fighting measures
 Failure of operators to use it
 Handling and storage
 PPE Check opposite of above
 Disposal considerations
 Transport information Specific Agents
 Regulatory information
*Grab Sample (Chemical Stain Is a colourless gas with a pungent odour. It is a
Detector Tube) corrosive and can cause irritation to the eyes upper
Advantages respiratory tract in small concentrations. Large
Low cost Inaccurate concentrations can cause blindness and fluid in the
Takes little time lungs.
Positioning of tubeEye protection and respiratory essential.
Immediate result Only a snap shot
Little training Inefficient *Asbestos
Information during spillage Chemical useMain
onlytypes: - Blue, Brown and White
Good for coarse indication Diseases: Asbestos, Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma
Substance specific

Hazardous substance risk assessment 5 steps as  Pipe lagging
normal Control of health hazards Eliminate or  Wall and roof panels
Reduce by substitution  Ceiling tiles
 Textured coatings
Isolate  Insulation materials
 Total enclosure  Gaskets
 Segregate the people  Brake linings

Control Carbon Dioxide

 Engineering Control (LEV) Colourless and odourless gas that is heavier than air.
 Maintenance of controls Low levels increases the rate of respiration and high
 Change the work pattern or method depress the rate of respiration leading to
 Hygiene and housekeeping unconsciousness and even death. Produced in
fermentation process e.g breweries.
Carbon Monoxide
Discipline Colourless and odourless and tasteless gas. Found
where incomplete combustion occurs e.g boilers,
vehicle exhausts.
Emergency controls for spillage, air pollution
Inhalation of the gas results in headache, drowsiness,
 Ventilation systems alarmed flushed “pink’ appearance and ultimately asphyxiation.
 Emergency showers, eye wash facilities

NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

Chlorine Legionella
A greenish toxic gas with a pungent smell which is An airbone bacterium found in water sources such as
highly irritant to the respiratory system. cooling towers, stagnant water etc. It is caused by
inhalation of airbone droplets of water containing the
Dusts legionalla bactieria leading to a form of pneumonia e.i.
Nuisance dust can cause asthma, bronchitis, breathing difficulties, high temperature and possible
emphysema, and conditions such as asbestos, silicosis. death. Those at greatest risk are middle aged smokers
or elderly people with chest problems. Control
*Dust Identification measures involve temperature control and monitoring,
 Visual signs of dust avoiding “dead legs” legs in pipework, biocide
 Dust lamps treatment and effective cleaning and maintenance.
 Static or personal sampling
 Health surveillance
A disease of the liver and can cause high
temperatures, nausea and jaundice. It is caused by
*Control Measures for Dust
hazardous substances or a virus. Health workers and
Elimination those handling bodily fluids are most at risk. The
Substitution e.g. pellets instead of powers control measures involve inoculation and good hygiene
Enclosure of the process practices.
Local exhaust ventilation
Vacuuming instead of sweeping *Control Measures for Biological Hazards
Damping down  Cleaning and disinfection
Limiting time of exposure  Water treatment
Limiting numbers exposed  Vermin control
Respiratory protective equipment  Containment of the biological agent
 Avoidance of sharp implements
Lead  Proper disposal of contaminated waste
A heavy, soft and easily worked metal. Can enter body  Immunization
by eating contaminated food but usually by breathing  Personal Hygiene
fumes or dust.  PPE

Acute lead poisoning can result in nausea, headaches, *Waste of Storage

effects on the nervous system sometimes death in
 Sufficient storage area
serve cases.
 Clearly the label the storage area
*Organic solvents  Ensure storage area secure
These dissolve other substances and are also used as  Protect storage area with bunds etc.
cleaning and degreasing agents. They are volatile and  Store different types of waste separately
evaporate quickly at room temperature so their  Never store incompatible waste together
vapours can be drawn into the lungs.  Select appropriate containers
Acute effects are irritation of the eyes, skin, throat and  Keep quantities of waste to a minimum
lungs. Effects may be headaches, nausea, dizziness  Protect waste from the elements
and loss of consciousness and in extreme cases in

Isocyanates Element 8: Physical and Psychological Hazards

Organic compounds widely used in industry for Noise
products such as spray painting of vehicles and
production of polyurethane rubbers and foams. Noise Terminology
 Frequency: The number of wave fronts
Inflammation of the nasal passages and throat can assign a point in one second measured in
lead to asthma. Hertz
 Intensity: the loudness of the noise
Silica  Decibel: The sound pressure level
Found in sand, granite etc. and the health hazard
comes from breathing it in which can lead to the lung “A” Weighting: A filter in the noise
disease silicosis. meter that equates the noise to how
the human ear perceives the noise.
Biological Agents
Hearing Damage
Leptospirosis or Weils disease
Bacteria found in the urine of female rats and the most Acute
common source is in river water, sewers etc. Enters Stress Noise ind
the body through puncture of the skin or ingestion. Temporary threshold shift Permanen
Attacks the kidneys and liver causing high Temporary tinnitus Permanen
temperatures and may be fatal. Blast deafness Prebyacus
NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

Noise Control *Elimination

Source *Reduce the Degree of Vibration

 Design  Select low vibration equipment
 Damping  Select ergonomically designed equipment
 Isolate  Maintenance of equipment
 Maintenance  Reduce grip and push force with work
Path  Reduce the time workers exposed
 Screens and barriers  Introduce health surveillance
 Enclosure  Glove and heated pads
 Absorption  Information and training on the nature of
 Silencer risks

The Person *Radiation

*Non- lonising
 Distance
Type U
 Time exposed
Infrared Heating and brazing
 Information and training Lasers Cutting, bar code readers
Microwaves Food preparation, signal
Limitation on Personal Hearing Protection
Ultra- violet Welding
 Not worn correctly
 Not lifted correctly *Health Effects
 Not properly maintained  Burns
 Uncomfortable or inconvenient to wear  Reddening of the skin
 Needs constant management commitment  Cataracts
 May introduce secondary risks  Arc Eye
 Temporary sterility
*Factors affecting the choice of Personal Hearing
Protection *Ionizing radiation
 Ease of monitoring Type Use in industry
 Compatibility with other PPE Alpha Smoke detectors
 Hygiene Beta Thickness testing
 Cost Gamma Non- destructive testing
 Quality and performance X-ray Medical
 Comfort Neutron By product nuclear fission
 Ease of use
 Training required Acute effects from high Chronic effects
 Disposable or reusable dose
Reddening of the skin Cancers
*Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Radiation sickness, Sterility
Hearing Protection nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Ear plugs Ear Muffs Hair loss Hereditary defects
Advantage Advantage Death Effects on unborn
Cheap Comfort children
Disposable – hygienic Easy to monitor usage Death
No Interference other PPE Reusable
Disadvantage Disadvantage *Control measures
Uncomfortable Expensive  Time
Difficult to monitor usage Hygiene Issues  Distance
Training required Interferes with other PPE  Shielding

Hand Arm Vibration *Others

*Health Effects  Environment and personal monitoring
 Tingling in the hands extremities  Correct disposal of radiation materials
 Numbness and blanching of the fingers  God hygiene practices
 Swollen painful joints  Training and supervision
 Reduction in manual dexterity
 Reduction in the sensation of touch Stress
Physical Effects
*Control Measures Headaches Increase a

NEBOSH International General Certificate IGC 2 Elements 1-8 Control of
Workplace Hazards

Aching neck and shoulders Irritability  Individual

Skin rashes Sudden mood changes  Environment
Prone to infections Inability to cope
Panic attacks Reduces work Control
outputMeasure for Stress
Panic attacks Reduced work output  Selecting suitable employees
Raised heart rate Increased use of alcohol
 ,etc
Increased blood pressure Poor sleep patterns  Clearly defined roles
Heart disease  Clearly work objectives
Stomach ulcers
 Comfortable working environment
 Good line of communication
*Cause of stress
 Realistic work schedules
 Culture
 Employee involvement
 Demands
 Grievance procedure
 Control
 Impartial investigation of stress
 Relationships
 Management support
 Change
 Role