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Structural Design of a Water Intake Tower Located Inside a Reservoir

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reservoir

joao.jardim@tecnico.ulisboa.pt

October 2016

Abstract

The work that follows is the design of a reinforced concrete water intake tower located inside a

reservoir, following the rules of European standards and other works.

Taking as initial data the geometric definition of an existing water intake tower, designed in the 1950

decade, the reinforced concrete design of the structure was made in the perspective of modern codes,

to guarantee safety. The materials used and cover of reinforcement were discussed taking into

account durability issues.

The actions on the structure were analysed taking into special attention the seismic hydrodynamic

added masses.

The structure was modelled in a finite element analysis program in order to evaluate the stresses

resulting from the defined actions.

Having the design stresses, it is possible to accurately perform the safety checks and reinforcement

calculations for the relevant ultimate and serviceability limit states.

Finally, some aspects relevant for the correct detailing of rebar are mentioned and some conclusions

are taken about this type of structure and its behaviour.

Keywords: Intake tower, hydrodynamic added masses, structural design, reinforced concrete

1 Introduction

A water intake tower is a hydraulic structure with the purpose of collecting water for a variety of uses,

such as providing water to populations and agricultural fields, utilization in industrial facilities and

power generation.

Therefore, its concept should be based on hydraulic principles that guarantee the necessary flow of

water upstream. Nonetheless, its structural safety must be guaranteed, and is the main aspect of this

work.

The present work will consider the analysis and design of a reinforced

concrete tower structure, with an initial geometry that was previously

defined, and hypothetically situated inside a reservoir in West Algarve city,

near Lagos, a region of high seismic effects in the Portuguese context.

2 Geometrical definition

The structure, represented in figure 1, has 61,8 meters of height above

foundation, which is admitted to be supported in a concrete foundation with

sufficient weight to ensure stability. The ground foundation is considered as

good quality foundation, a competent rock.

As it’s possible to see, the structure is composed of 10 columns, 4 of those

only supporting the beam of the rolling bridge, whereas the other six go from

the base to the top. These 6 columns change their cross-section along their

height, having a considerable dimension near the base, which allows them

to resist significant loads.

The main tower composed of columns P1-A, P1-D and P2 has four plans of

diagonal bracings, very effective for resistance against horizontal actions.

These bracings need to be stopped at 13,5m above footing level so there is

Figure 1 - Three

space for the grates that move along a guideline in the columns to stay. This dimensional geometric

structural discontinuity is analysed in detail. model of the structure

1

Although the grates are most of the time on the mentioned place, the most compromising place that

they can be for the safety of the structure is at its top, so when designing the structure, this position

was the one considered, especially for seismic action

Columns P1-A, P1-D and P2 are also supported on base walls, with a high resistant capability and

stiffness. These walls provide a significant resistance to the tower for lateral loading, and inside them

is the beginning of the hydraulic circuit of the intake tower.

Columns P2, P1-B and P1-C are also connected by beams, with a similar purpose to the diagonal

bracing, but those aren’t as effective. Joining both columns P1-B and P1-C is another plan of diagonal

bracings, similar to the other four. On the beams from the backside of the tower are ladders that give

access to the lower levels of the structure.

This structure has two slabs, one of which has no particular purpose and the other is a support

platform for works on the tower. It is usually acted by live loading, basically from normal operation of

the structure.

Nowadays, when projecting a structure, besides the usual concerns with safety and functionality, there

is also the issue of durability. The structure needs to guarantee those for a determined period of time

or the project won’t be economic and sustainable.

Therefore, there are norms such as NP EN 1992 1-1[1] that determine some parameters that should

be met so the required durability is provided.

Usually the design is made taking into account a 50 year minimum lifespan for the structure, but in

certain cases such as hard to repair structures or important projects, the minimum lifespan should be

widened for 100 years. This tower is part of both of those exceptions, and therefore was projected to

have a 100 year lifespan.

The choice of materials on the design of a reinforced concrete structure, more specifically the choice

of the concrete class, and the choice of the cover for the reinforcement are the main aspects that need

to be controlled so the durability requirements are met.

As mentioned before, NP EN 1992 1-1[1] determines some measures to be taken, based on the

structures exposition to degrading agents.

First, it’s determined the structure’s class of exposition. As this structure is far from the ocean and

placed on an environment that’s cyclic wet and dry, its reinforcement corrosion shall only happen due

to carbonation. Therefore its class of exposition is, as defined by NP EN 1992 1-1[1] XC4.

This norm imposes a minimum resistance class for the concrete to be used according to its class of

exposition. The type of concrete used was C30/37 and was solely determined by this, because for the

stresses generated for the static and dynamic actions, a lower class of resistance was enough.

As for the reinforcement, there is no such thing as a minimum class of resistance because the steel is

not as important as concrete when it comes to durability issues. The steel chosen was A500 NR.

The materials used and their characteristics are specified on tables 2 and 3.

Class 𝑓𝑐𝑘 [MPa] 𝑓𝑐𝑑 [MPa] 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑘 0.05[MPa] 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 [MPa] 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑘 0.95 [MPa] 𝐸𝑐,28 [GPa]

C30/37 30 20 2 2.9 3.8 33

-3

Class 𝑓𝑦𝑘 [MPa] 𝑓𝑦𝑑 [MPa] 𝐸𝑠 [GPa] 𝜀𝑦𝑑 [x10 ]

A500 NR 500 435 200 2,175

The covers used follow as well the premises of NP EN 1992 1-1 [1]. They are dependent from the

structural class and exposition class

4 Actions

The project actions that were taken into account were the imposed load, the dead load, the permanent

load, the wind action, the seismic action on full and empty reservoir and the temperature action.

2

4.1 Imposed load

The platform slab has a function of supporting any works that may happen on the tower. Because of

this, this slab is often loaded by heavy materials such as machinery, or other deposited materials.

The document Critérios de Projecto Civil de Usinas Hidroelétricas from Eletrobras [2] gives insight

about intake towers and the actions that should be considered on their design. This document

2

suggests the use of a distributed imposed load of 15kN/m on the platform slab, and this was the only

imposed load considered.

There are many loads beside the dead load that are permanently acting on the structure and with

values well defined. They are the ladders, grates, floodgate, crane and some other materials that are

permanently loading the structure.

They take the values presented on table 3.

Action Value

Ladders 2kN

Grates 100kN

Floodgate 200kN

Crane 200kN

2

Materials 1kN/m

Usually on tall, slender structures the wind action can be problematic, because the global forces and

moments generated tend to be high. This tower is one of those cases, and therefore the correct

definition of the wind load is very important.

The wind load was defined following the procedures recommended by NP EN 1991 1-4 [3]. According

to this norm, the structure is located on zone A of Portugal, as it is farther away than 5km from the

coast and at a height below 600m. Its terrain category is I, because it is inside a reservoir which is

similar to a lake.

This norm also classifies the structure pieces according to their cross-sections. The types present in

this work are elements with rectangular cross section, elements with sharp edged cross section, lattice

structures and walls.

Having this classification made, the wind forces were obtained taking into account what’s written on

NP EN 1991 1-4 [3].

The seismic action in Portugal is very important on the structural design, seeing as its frequency is

relatively high and can lead to large scale disasters. Furthermore, this structure is located in the most

unfavourable place of Portugal’s mainland for seismic effects.

Therefore, the dynamic characterization of the tower should be careful and the definition of the seismic

action correct.

To do so, the procedures of NP EN 1998 1-1 [4] were followed in the definition of this action.

As the seismic shake accelerates masses, two different cases should be defined for the structure: one

where the reservoir is full and another on in which the reservoir is empty. When the reservoir is empty,

the seismic effects on the structure are the typical ones, just like when designing a normal building.

However, when the reservoir is full, due to the fact of water mass acceleration because of the seismic

shake, there are hydrodynamic effects on the structure that need to be counted for.

There are some ways to take these into account, but in this work the method used was first talked

about by Goyal and Chopra [5], it’s based on the concept of hydrodynamic added masses and will be

explained short after.

NP EN 1998 1-1 [4] defines the seismic action using the concept of response spectrum which provides

the maximum value of ground acceleration as a function of the structure vibration period. These

3

response spectrums depend on the zone of the structure and the type of foundation grounds. This

tower is located on zones 1.1 and 2.1 and the foundation ground is type A.

Having this defined, the norm’s Nacional Annex [6] indicates the values needed to define the elastic

response spectrum of the horizontal and vertical acceleration.

They are also affected by an importance factor that tries to evaluate the risk for the populations

associated with a possible collapse of the structure collapse. This structure was evaluated as class of

importance 2, and therefore the importance factor is equal to 1,0 for seismic actions type 1 and type 2.

However, these elastic response spectrums are too conservative to be used on the actual design,

because when the seismic shake happens the structure loses stiffness and as such, it’s easier for the

seismic displacements to happen and fewer forces are generated.

Because of this, if the structure has enough ductility its response spectrum can be divided by the

behaviour factor q, to obtain the design response spectrum, as described by equation (1).

𝑆𝑒

𝑆𝑑 = (1)

𝑞

The behaviour factor to be used on the design of a certain structure depends mostly on the distribution

of forces on the structure when there’s a seismic shake and also on the materials own ductility.

The forces distribution depends on its dynamic characterization, particularly its torsional effects.

Therefore, to make a proper assessment of the behaviour factor to be used, the dynamic

characteristics of the structure should be studied.

Studies were made to determine which values of the behaviour factor should be used for certain

common structure types. However, a reinforced concrete latticed water intake tower is not that

common and there aren’t many studies about it.

Seeing as the forces distribute on the structure because of the lattice structure, the many columns and

the base walls, admittedly its behaviour was compared as that of a one-bay frame and so the

behaviour factor used for the seismic motion in the biggest plan dimension was of 3,6. As for the other

dimension, seeing as there isn’t a one-bay frame, the factor used was half of the other dimension, 1,8.

For the vertical motion the behaviour factor used was 1,5.

To take into account the hydrodynamic effects of the seismic acceleration, water masses were

discretized into the structure to simulate the hydrodynamic effects that are similar to a determined

mass of water having the seismic acceleration. The method was devised by Goyal and Chopra [5].

4.4.5 Temperature

The effects of temperature on the vast majority of structures aren’t usually concerning for their safety,

because of the loss of stiffness on the ultimate limit states. These effects may pose problems for the

serviceability limit states as the loss of stiffness isn’t as significant.

However, the thermal action is slow and as a cause of that NP EN 1991 1-5 [7] allows the designer to

consider the modulus of elasticity of concrete as half of the real one to ease the stresses due to

temperature, as the variation isn’t instantaneous.

As this structure is most of the time submerged, the change of temperature considered for the load

combinations was that of inside the water.

However the temperature of the water below

water level doesn’t change as described by NP

EN 1991 1-5 [7], because the variations

mentioned in this norm are air temperature.

Therefore, studies made by University of Évora

for Alqueva reservoir [8] were consulted and

comparisons were drawn for this reservoir about

the temperature below water level. Figure 2

illustrates the temperature variation at various

levels below water level.

It’s possible to see that below a certain level the

temperature is constant and with a value of

15ºC. Well, in Lagos and according to NP EN

1991 1-5 [7] this would mean a 0ºC variation of Figure 2 - Temperature changes below water lever at Alqueva

reservoir [8]

4

temperature and no stresses generated due to the thermal load, so, to simulate the higher variation on

the upper levels, on the part of the structure that’s always above water level was applied an uniform

variation of temperature of 10ºC and bellow an uniform variation of 5ºC. This approach is very

simplified and supposedly conservative.

The load combinations for the ultimate limit states ULS and service limit states SLS, are defined by NP

EN 1990 1-1 [9], and are summarized on table 4:

Table 4 – Load combinations for the ultimate and serviceability limit states

Wind Vertical load

combinations reservoir reservoir

ULS G+𝐴𝐸𝑑 +∑ 𝜓2,𝑖 𝑄𝑖 G+𝐴𝐸𝑑 +∑ 𝜓2,𝑖 𝑄𝑖 1,35G+1,5𝑄1 +∑ 𝛾𝑄,𝑖 𝜓0,𝑖 𝑄𝑖 1,35G+1,5𝑄1 +∑ 𝛾𝑄,𝑖 𝜓0,𝑖 𝑄𝑖

SLS G+𝜈𝐴𝐸𝑑 +∑ 𝜓2,𝑖 𝑄𝑖 G+𝜈𝐴𝐸𝑑 +∑ 𝜓2,𝑖 𝑄𝑖 - G+∑ 𝜓2,𝑖 𝑄𝑖

The values for 𝜈 are 0,4 or 0,45 if it is seismic action type or type 2 accordingly. As for 𝛾𝑄,𝑖 , if the action is

unfavourable on the structure its value is 1,5 and if it’s favourable is 0.

To make a proper analysis on the behaviour of the structure for the project actions due to its

complexity, the tower has to be modelled on a finite elements program [10].

The model was composed of beam elements and shell elements, and its geometry was defined by the

axis of the elements. Whenever any simplification was needed it was always with the intention of

reducing lever arms, increasing the resultant stresses.

The step by step modelling is as described:

5.1 Materials

The materials used were C30/37 concrete, with some modifications to its properties according to the

project situation. Whenever a temperature load was acting on the structure, the concrete modulus of

elasticity was reduced by 50%, by indication of NP EN 1991 1-5 [7].

5.2 Columns

The columns were defined as beam elements respecting the geometrical cross-section characteristics.

As their cross-section changes along height, so do their axis. However, the axes were continued from

bottom to top to simplify the model. The material used was C30/37 concrete.

5.3 Slabs

The slabs were defined as shell thin elements, so as to generate all slab and membrane stresses, and

ignoring the shear deformability of these elements. They were modelled by the axes of the beams,

and meshed into properly refined meshes, so the results given were as accurate as possible.

5.4 Beams

The definition of the beams was very similar as that of the pillar and therefore won’t be as detailed.

The modelling of the bracing truss is very similar to that of the beams and columns. It should be

mentioned however that some of its parts were ignored, due to being hard to model and having a big

influence on the structure behaviour.

5

5.6 Base walls

The base walls were modelled as shell thin elements similarly to the slabs, due to its laminar aspect.

This is the way their characteristics are best represented, however they could also have been

modelled considering beam elements.

Due to its cross-section being hard to represent, a simplification was made, considering for each wall

the thickness of the zone where it was the less thick.

As the structure is founded on a massive footing on good quality rocks, its support conditions are well

described by fully fixed conditions. Therefore, these were used to describe the support conditions of

the structure.

5.8 Actions

The dead load of the structure is automatically considered on the model. The wind and imposed loads

and the permanent load on the slab were modelled as uniformly distributed loads. The other

permanent loads due to the crane, flood gates, grates and ladders were modelled as point loads on

the most compromising place. The thermal action was taken into account applying a temperature

change on the elements.

To model the seismic action, response spectrums for both horizontal and vertical shakes were

defined. The modal combination used was the complete quadratic combination, and the directional

combination was a linear add of the seismic motion in one of the three directions plus 30% of the

others, as suggested by NP EN 1998 1-1 [4]. The modes considered were the ones whose effective

modal masses added to 90% of the total mass, to avoid disproportioned work using all the modes. To

model the hydrodynamic added masses, masses were added to the discretized points of the structure.

The first three modes of vibration in an empty and full reservoir are represented on figure 3

Figure 3 - First three vibration modes of the structure from top to bottom. Left ones are empty reservoir, right ones

full

6

The period of vibration from the modes increases when adding the water masses,

which was expected because for the same stiffness of the structure there’s an

increase in mass, meaning the period of vibration for each mode will be higher.

The overall aspect of the three dimensional model with the added masses is as

shown in figure 4.

behaviour

When design any kind of structure, certain criteria must be met. The structure

must function properly during its lifespan and safety must always be verified, even

on exceptional situations.

Therefore, proper reinforcement should be calculated and some other

verifications must be made to ensure the quality of the project. Since this is an

academic work, not every section of every element was verified, but only a select

few.

model with hydrodynamic

Three limit states are needed to verify the rolling bridge beam safety and they are added masses

bending, shear and the corbel where the beam is supported safety, where this last

one is a zone of discontinuity.

6.1.1.1 Bending

The conditioning stresses for the bending design of the rolling bridge beam are the ones shown on

table 5. To take into account the dynamic effect of the crane moving on top of the bridge, its action

was aggravated by a dynamic factor, as described in Swiss norm SIA 261/1:2003 [11] and its value

was 1,20.

Table 5 – Bending moments and reinforcement for the rolling bridge beam

Section A B C D E

𝑀𝑠𝑑 [kNm] 312 -530,4 or 199,2 432 710,4 -713,16

2 14,73(3φ25)-

Reinforcement[cm ] 9,42(3φ20) 12,56(4φ20) 19,64(4φ25) 19,64(4φ25)

6,28(2φ20)+

𝑀𝑅𝑑 [kNm] -379 -732 or 247 479 732 -737

6.1.1.3 Shear

To ensure a proper design for shear and a ductile failure mode, the shear stresses on the beam were

obtained using capacity design, meaning the stresses were the result of the equilibrium of resistant

moment and not acting moments. The acting stresses resulting of this and the reinforcement needed

is displayed on table 6.

Table 6 – Shear stresses and reinforcement for the rolling bridge beam

𝑉𝑠𝑑 [kN] 100,6 222,2 83 283

The reinforcement used for all spans was two stirrups of diameter 8mm spaced 20 cm of each other.

The compressive resistance of the shear strut is 926kN, so there won’t happen any problems of the

concrete crushing.

To verify safety on the platform slab, bending and shear limit states must be verified. This slab is

supported by many beams, so despite it being heavily loaded, it isn’t expected high stresses.

7

6.1.2.1 Bending

The stresses and reinforcement needed on both bending directions of the slab are shown on table 7

2

𝑚11 [kNm/m] 𝑚22 [kNm/m] Reinforcement[cm ]

28 -32 3,93(φ10//20)

6.1.2.2 Shear

Usually slab aren’t reinforced for shear, because due mostly to the arc effect, slabs have great

resistance to this solicitation. This is shown on table 8, where we can compare the acting and resistant

shear stresses.

49 55 74 83

Due to its geometry, this lattice structure is mostly acted by axial force. Therefore, its most

compromising design situation is when huge tension forces act upon it. The values that determine its

reinforcement are the ones represented on table 9:

2

𝑁𝑠𝑑 [kN] 𝑀𝑠𝑑 [kNm] 𝑉𝑠𝑑 [kN] Reinforcement[cm ]

913,6 -4,9 0,7 21(4φ25+2φ16)

6.1.4 Columns

The columns need to be verified for bending acting together with axial forces as well as shear. Also,

because they are subjected to huge compressive axial forces, to ensure ductility they need to be

reinforced for confinement of the cross-section.

An analysis was run to determine the most compromising situation for the columns cross-section. On

the zone where the lattice structure ends, there’s a significant concentration of stresses that lead to

the most unfavourable condition to the design. The worst situation and the reinforcement needed are

represented on table 10.

Table 10 – Axial force, bending moments and reinforcement for the column

2

6.1.4.2 Shear

Although this may be discussible and is a bit conservative, the acting shear stresses, similarly to the

beams were obtained by capacity design. The stresses obtained and the respective reinforcement are

as shown on table X

2

Reinforcement[cm ]

2

To guarantee adequate confinement, as indicated by NP EN 1998 1-1 [4] the mechanical volumetric

ratio of the required confinement reinforcement should be bigger than a certain value, described by

equation (2).

8

𝑏𝑐

𝛼𝜔𝑤𝑑 ≥ 30𝜇𝜑 𝜈𝑑 𝜀𝑠𝑦,𝑑 − 0,035 (2)

𝑏𝑜

Since the base walls have great stiffness, they are acted by considerable forces. The values of the

stresses are the ones shown on table 12, and the reinforcement needed was calculated using a

section design program [12].

2041 -201

To ensure the proper functioning of the tower some verifications had to be made regarding service

limit states. Cracking had to be controlled, and the long term displacements on the structure as well as

the relative displacements between grid guides had also to be limited.

Cracking control can be made mostly by limiting the tension on the reinforcement bars. According to

NP EN 1992 1-1 [1] crack width should be limited to 0,3mm for class of exposition XC4 like the one on

this structure. The proceedings for calculating cracks width were also the ones present on NP EN

1992 1-1 [1].

6.2.1.1 Slab

Slabs have a big capacity for redistributing stresses and because of this aren’t usually prone to

problem regarding cracking. However, since the loading on this slab is very heavy and is almost

always acting on the structure, the resultant stresses for the quasi-permanent combination are

relatively high. These stresses are shown on table 13 and the resulting crack width.

18 19 10 3 0,19

needed, to reduce the tension on the steel.

equipment guides

The guides can support very big displacements due to its mechanical

looseness. However, if they sustain a difference of 20mm on their

displacements it’s clear that the grid or floodgate would fall. Therefore,

these displacements should be limited to this value. The phenomenon

described is easier to understand with the help of figure 4.

When calculating the displacements for the seismic action, these should

be multiplied by the behaviour factor, to take into account the non-

elastic effects of cracking and reinforcement yielding.

The values of the relevant displacements to evaluate security are the

ones on table 14. Seeing as none exceeds 20mm, all the conditions are

met.

Figure 4 – Displacements on

the equipment guide sections

9

Table 14 – Displacements on the equipment guide sections

Seismic empty

0,135 0,135 0

reservoir

Seismic full reservoir 0,1894 0,189 -0,0004

When design a reinforced concrete structure, special attention should be paid to the detailing of the

sections. If this is not done carefully, the reinforcement loses its purpose and the resistance to tension

conferred by it is gone.

Some relevant aspects are for example the anchorage length, the lapping of reinforcement bars, the

existence of a minimum space between bars to ensure proper concreting and vibration, the use of the

established value of cover and the guarantee that the minimum mandrel diameter for bending bars is

used.

Another problem altogether, but also related to the detailing of the structure are the deviation forces

acting for outside the structure. These should by all means possible be avoided and to do so the

detailing should be careful.

The structure elements were conditioned by the wind load.

The effect the hydrodynamic added masses have an interesting effect on the design. On most cases,

the stresses due to the situation with a full reservoir were higher than with an empty one without water

masses oscillating. This shows how important the seismic effect is for the design of submerged

slender structures.

It would be interesting if more studies were made on the dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete

towers, and also it would be beneficial if a more precise method to account for hydrodynamic added

masses for towers with different geometries was devised.

9 References

[1] NP EN 1992-1-1:2010, Eurocódigo 2 – Projecto de estruturas de betão, Parte 1-1: Regras gerais e

regras para edifícios;

[2] Eletrobrás (2003), Critérios de Projeto Civil de Usinas Hidroelétricas

[3] NP EN 1991 1-4:2009, Eurocódigo 1 – Acções em estruturas, Parte 1-1: Acções gerais pesos

volúmicos, pesos próprios, sobrecargas em edifícios

[4] NP EN 1998 1-1:2010, Eurocódigo 8 – Projecto de estruturas para resistência aos sismos, Parte 1:

Regras gerais, acções sísmicas e regras para edifícios;

[5] U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Structural Design and Evaluation of Outlet Works, 2003

[6] Anexo Nacional da NP EN 1998 1-1:2010, Eurocódigo 8 – Projecto de estruturas para resistência

aos sismos, Parte 1: Regras gerais, acções sísmicas e regras para edifícios;

[7] NP EN 1991 1-5:2009, Eurocódigo 1 – Acções em estruturas, Parte 1-5: Acções gerais Acções

térmicas

[8] University of Évora, Evolução da temperatura da água a várias profundidades (Alqueva-Montante),

http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt/?p=258, consulted in May 2016

[9] NP EN 1990:2009, Eurocódigo – Bases para o projecto de estruturas

[10] Manual of Software SAP2000 Ultimate V.18.0.1 2016 Csi Berkeley

[11] SIA 261/1:2003, Actions sur les structures porteuses – Spécifications complementaires

[12] ALASHKI, Ilia, Gala Reinforcement Version 4.1e, 2002

10

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- 3Bar Shapes as Per BS8666Hochgeladen vonAshraf Gomah Mohamed Elshamandy
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- 20 m spanHochgeladen vonEr KanwarPal Singh
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- ME 2254 — STRENGTH OF MATERIALS april.may 2011.bakHochgeladen vonPunitha Kumar
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- Module 1_3_W_1D Workbench distributed.pdfHochgeladen vonrhshihab
- MOSI CE119v3Hochgeladen vonAwais Ahmed
- Doubly Reinforced SectionsHochgeladen vonDipendraGautam
- materialsHochgeladen vonShyam Radsun
- P02S_V37No3Y2013.pdfHochgeladen vonjvasilva13
- Iia-ejemplo Calculo Puente Pretensado -AashtoHochgeladen vonKatherineMartinez
- BMHochgeladen vonFrancisco DeLos Angeles III
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