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VDA AK 8D – definition of failure cause categories for 8D reporting

Version: 1.0
Date: November 15, 2016
Contact: rootcausecat-change-mgmt@vda-qmc.de
http://vda-qmc.de/publikationen/formulare/
VDA download:

Level 1 Level 2

Specification

Concept

Product development

Development
Process development

Verifying and validating

Storage

Semi-finished product

Order picking

Handling
Joining

Shaping
Shaping

Forming

Chipping cutting

Chipless cutting

Production

Surface treatment
Surface treatment

Lubricating

Cleaning

Assembling

Set-up

Programming the control unit

Infrastructure
Testing

Packaging

Reworking

Maintenance

Component production process


Component production process

Transport

Packaging

Logistics

Marking and labeling

Data exchange

OK according to analysis

OK according to No Trouble Found process

Failure cause
Caused by customer
unfamiliar or
unknown

Failure cause cannot be determined


Failure cause cannot be determined
egories for 8D reporting

Level 3
Specification missing
Requirements changed
Specification unclear
Miscellaneous
Compatibility
Industrial feasibility

Architecture
Cable routing or cable harness routing
Usability

Internal interface

External interface
Change to the application profile
Software update process

Diagnostic capability

Test planning concept


Miscellaneous
No alignment with requirements

Material selection
Circuit board design
Construction
Circuit diagram
Product drawing
Development environment and IT tools

Basic software and functional software


Data management

Change management
Miscellaneous
No alignment with requirements

Development environment selection


Production process selection
Production control system selection
Production planning system selection
Manufacturing sequence
Transport system automation planning
Plant control automation planning

Production line layout


Plant planning
Logistics planning
Packaging planning
Personnel planning
Maintenance planning
Quality planning and test planning
Energy planning
Rework planning
Production resource preparation
Start-up planning

Programming process planning


Data management
Change management
Miscellaneous
Protection missing
Test coverage insufficient
Methodological error
Miscellaneous

Storage period
Storage conditions
Miscellaneous
Processing period
Miscellaneous

Type error
Quantity error
Completeness error
Miscellaneous
Manual handling

Machine handling
Contamination
Miscellaneous
Gluing process
Dispensing process

Welding process

Soldering process
Riveting process

Wire bonding process


Fastening process
Clamping process
Clipping process
Latching process

Plugging process
Screwing process
Sealing process
Clinching process
Shrinking process
Lamination process

Press-fit process
Sewing process
Weaving process
Crimping process
Woven fabric production process
Embroidery process
Miscellaneous
Casting process

Injection molding process


Metal vapor process
Vulcanization process
Spray compacting process
Sintering process
Foaming process
Thixoforming process
Calendering process
Extrusion process
Blow mold process
Glass production process
Permanent mold casting process
Overmolding process
Miscellaneous
Bending process
Pressing process
Folding process
Rolling process
Forging process
Deep drawing process
Pull-through process
Flanging process
Rolling process
Resin injection process
Wet pressing process
Draping process

Twisting process
Miscellaneous
Cutting process
Drilling process
Milling process
Turning process
Honing process
Grinding process
Sawing process
Deburring process
Rotational turning process
Miscellaneous
Stamping process
Crushing process
Laser cutting process
Electron beam cutting process
Water jet cutting process
Knife cutting process
Miscellaneous
Painting process
Heat treatment process
Diffusion process
Hardening process
Flame treatment process
Coating process
Etching process
Galvanization process
Polishing process
Flocking process
Anodizing process
Embossing process
Preservation process
Shot peening process
Miscellaneous
Missing
Insufficient
Methodological error
Miscellaneous
Air cleaning process
Laser cleaning process
Plasma cleaning process
Ultrasonic cleaning process
Sandblasting process
Water jet cleaning process
Washing process
Miscellaneous
Assembly process
Depositing process or placement process
Telescoping process
Application process
Mounting process
Spring-assisted forming joining process
Setting process
Process sequence

Positioning process of the component


Miscellaneous
Balancing process
Adjustment process
Teaching-in process
Miscellaneous
Software version
Coding process
Programming process
Miscellaneous
Network
Server
Production software
Production control system
Power failure
Conveyor technology
Miscellaneous
Incoming goods inspection
Alignment process and adjustment process
Leakage test
Torque test
Electrical test

Electric component test

Electric component final test


Final test and function test
High temperature test
Hydraulic test
Dimension check
Position check
Automatic visual check
Manual visual check
Pneumatic test
Pre-measurement process
Concentricity test
X-ray test
Unbalance test
Thermal imaging test
Hardness test
Eddy current test
Ultrasonic test
Test marking

Rheology test
Humidity test
Temperature test
Miscellaneous
Packaging missing

Packaging incorrect
Packaging faulty
Marking and labeling
Miscellaneous
Reworking not permitted
Reworking insufficient
Reworking missing
Miscellaneous
Maintenance cycle
Maintenance
Miscellaneous
Single error chip production
Systematic chip production error

Single error chip housing

Systematic chip housing error


Passive components production process
Miscellaneous

Loading process
Transportation process
Storage
Delivery documents
Miscellaneous
Packaging size
Packaging goods
Packaging cleanliness
Packaging material
Packaging concept
Specification not adhered to
Miscellaneous
Marking or label missing
Marking or label cannot be read
Marking or label incorrect
Marking or label mixed up
Marking or label pasted over
Accompanying documents missing
Scanning process
Positioning incorrect
Information carrier
Miscellaneous
Data
Transfer
Miscellaneous

According to standard test


According to load test
Data collection and data analysis
System test
Process evaluation
Contamination

Damage or destruction
Logistics
Handling

Incorrect diagnosis and disassembly

Out of warranty
Not in accordance with the contract
Electrical overstress EOS
Electrostatic discharge ESD
Miscellaneous
Part lost during analysis
Part destroyed during analysis
Failure cannot be reproduced
Miscellaneous
Examples

Requirements insufficient

Fixing points do not match, incorrect bus protocol


Screw not reachable, inadequate test possibilities
Increased bus load for data flow, insufficient electromagnetic
compatibility in the system, runtime problems
Fixation inadequate
Menu navigation (multimedia), haptic feedback for switch
Incorrect connection technology, software driver for hardware
components
Plug design incorrect, syntax protocol for communication, inadequate
sealing concept
Deviating product lifecycle, modified installation space

Clear correlation between failure memory entry and failure location,


basic diagnostic capability
Definition of test parameters, limit values for stress test in production,
identifying test criteria

Unsuitable temperature range for component


Contact corrosion, expansion coefficients, material pairing unsuitable,
insufficient insulation for cable harness
Placement on the circuit board, design rules not adhered to
Tolerances incorrectly determined
Pull-up resistor missing, ESD protective circuit missing
Incorrect or no dimensions
Incorrect data formats, incorrect versioning, faulty tool chain
Matlab model incorrect, faulty AUTOSAR module, faulty hardware
drivers, parameterization incorrect, firmware error
Incorrect or old coding data/software version
After correcting the active component, the external circuitry interim
solution was not removed

Low process optimization due to selected development environment


Unfavorable material selection in relation to the production process (e.g.
silver migration when soldering)

Inadequate plant utilization

PLC programming, material flow simulation


Soldering profile programming for wave soldering
Spatially separated production lines, limited spatial options (doors too
narrow), building planning
Selection of the appropriate production machines

Not ESD-compliant

Maintenance cycles, maintenance concept


No visual inspection
Emergency power supply

Tool manufacturing
Construction, conversion, commissioning, start-up protection
Selection of programming location and programming procedure,
switching from programmable memory to hardware programming (ROM
mask)

Missing or insufficient change management

Testing from the customer's point of view


Durability test (e.g. battery missing)

Storage period exceeded, storage concept (e.g. FIFO) not adhered to

Humidity, temperature

Processing period exceeded

An incorrect item is available as a replacement or in addition to the


correct item.
The quantity of the correct item is too high or too low.
An item is missing

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) specifications inadequate


Driverless transport unit, contact points unsuitable, electrostatic
discharge (ESD) specifications inadequate
Contamination that is external to the process
Gluing with physically binding adhesives, wet gluing process, contact
gluing process, activated gluing process, adhesive process

Applying heat-conducting paste or liquid seal


Contact welding process, laser welding process, friction welding
process, ultrasonic welding process, resistance welding process,
manual welding process, crack formation in weld, cavities in the weld,
raised weld seam
Dip soldering process, wave soldering process and flow soldering
process, selective soldering process, reflow soldering process, light
soldering process, inductive soldering process, resistance soldering
process, cold soldering process, vacuum soldering process, hot air
soldering process, laser soldering process, soldering with an open gas
flame, diffusion soldering process, amorphous brazing foil, vapor phase
soldering process, ultrasonic soldering process, manual soldering
process

Solid rivet process, piercing rivet process, blind rivet process


Inadequate definition of the process window, monitoring of process
parameters on production equipment not activated
Clicking

Securing housing cover with clip

Bent pin in electrical plug connection, pushing through of plug pin


(incorrect connection)

Screw sequence not adhered to

Clinching, toxing, pressure joining, forming joining

Press-fit (plug in circuit board), force fitting (e.g. pressing in ball or


bolts), pressing on
Seats, steering wheel
Carbon fibers
Crimped insulation; missing crimp-force monitoring
Carbon mat production
Carbon mat production

Tempering, hardening, casting (e.g. also ECU or sensor housing)


Too much raw material, air pockets, clogged nozzle, injection position
incorrect, melting temperature too low

Tires
Film production
Forming with a mold

Glass pane overmolding process

Cold pressing, hot pressing

Rolling, cold rolling, hot rolling


Caulking

Wire drawing

Carbon fiber reinforced plastics, resin transfer molding


Carbon fiber reinforced plastics
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics
Tooth setting process, twisting of rods or molded parts (e.g. crankshaft)

Thread-cutting, deburring and cleaning processes


Technical cleanliness for blind holes
Depanelization

Tool wear influence


Depanelization

Color and gloss level


Tempering, annealing, burning, baking
Galvanizing
Irradiation, or hardening or irradiating (e.g. paint with UV)
Plastic production (e.g. preconditioning of surface)
Powder-coating process

Chroming, galvanizing
Leather embossing
Brake disc preservation, corrosion protection

Unclean bond pad surface

Labels not removed

Assembling of electronic component

Orienting process of the component or position incorrect, imprecise,


variation

Adjusting headlights or sensor


Brake, clutch

Incorrect version
Incorrect parameterization
Flash error, abort

Checking completeness, properties

Inadequate method or process, test coverage insufficient


Test equipment error
Test process, in-circuit test, electrical characterization of the lithium-ion
cell, open circuit voltage test after storage period and formation, and
metallic particles as impurities
Water test, slippage, insufficient test coverage, insufficient test depth,
incorrect bin limits or bin classes
Final test, slippage, insufficient test coverage, insufficient test depth,
incorrect bin limits or bin classes

Laser scanning
Reference sample faulty

Two-dimensional force measurement


Computer tomography
Tire unbalance

Type plate
Test of the viscosity and dispersion of the substance applied as part of
cell coating

Unsuitable packaging, e.g. does not comply with technical cleanliness

Labeling

Maintenance intervals too long


Maintenance incorrect, insufficient or not carried out

Defect density problems, single error, statistical error


Process problem, batch problem, contamination
Contamination, damage during manual visual inspection, statistical error

Process problem, batch problem, contamination, equipment fault


Mechanical damage because box falls down
Mechanical damage due to shifting in the truck
Environmental influences, e.g. rain, sun
Missing, incorrect or incomplete delivery documents

Porous film
Contaminated
Incorrect packaging material used for sea freight/air freight
No ESD-safe packaging

Multiple markings
Right or left
Marking no longer clear (e.g. dangerous goods), marking covered
Variant mix-up, semi-finished products

Radio frequency identification, data matrix code, bar code

Incorrect or no data
Interrupted data transmission, delayed, too early, incomplete

According to "VDA volume Field Failure Analysis"


According to "VDA volume Field Failure Analysis"
According to "VDA volume Field Failure Analysis"
According to "VDA volume Field Failure Analysis"
According to "VDA volume Field Failure Analysis"
Particles, fluids
Mechanical, thermal damage; assembly, disassembly, improper external
intervention
Marking, packaging, storage, transportation
Electrical application error, programming process, diagnosis
Diagnostics, guided troubleshooting, exchange of non-causative
component
Mileage exceeded
Manipulation, chip tuning
Electrical overstress EOS
Electrostatic discharge ESD
Failure could be proven once, failure disappeared, e.g. pressure-
sensitive mat for seat occupancy detection shifted slightly and moved
into the correct position itself after loosening the screws
QDX ID
010010001
010010002
010010003
010019999
010020004
010020005

010020006

010020007
010020008

010020009

010020010

010020011
010020019

010020013

010020014

010029999
010030015

010030016

010030017
010030018
010030012
010030020
010030021

010030022

010030023

010030024

010039999
010040015

010040025
010040026

010040027
010040028
010040029
010040030
010040031

010040032

010040033
010040034
010040035
010040036
010040037
010040038
010040039
010040040
010040041
010040042

010040043

010040023
010040024
010049999
010050044
010050045
010050046
010059999

020060047

020060048
020069999
020070049
020079999

020080050

020080051
020080052
020089999
020090053

020090054

020090055
020099999
020100056

020100057

020100058

020100059

020100060

020100061

020100062
020100063
020100064
020100065

020100066

020100067
020100068
020100069
020100070
020100071

020100072

020100073
020100074
020100075
020100076
020100077
020109999
020110078

020110079

020110080
020110081
020110082
020110083
020110084
020110085
020110086
020110087
020110088
020110089
020110090
020110091
020119999
020120092
020120093
020120094
020120095
020120096
020120097
020120098
020120099
020120100
020120101
020120102
020120103

020120104

020129999
020130105
020130106
020130107
020130108
020130109
020130110
020130111
020130112
020130113
020139999
020140114
020140115
020140116
020140117
020140118
020140119
020149999
020150120
020150121
020150122
020150123
020150124
020150125
020150126
020150127
020150128
020150129
020150130
020150131
020150132
020150133
020159999
020160134
020160135
020160046
020169999
020170136
020170137
020170138
020170139
020170140
020170141
020170142
020179999
020180143
020180144
020180145
020180146
020180147
020180148
020180149
020180150

020180151

020189999
020190152
020190153
020190154
020199999
020200155
020200156
020200157
020209999
020210158
020210159
020210160
020210161
020210162
020210163
020219999
020220164
020220165
020220166
020220167
020220168

020220169

020220170

020220171
020220172
020220173
020220174
020220175
020220176
020220177
020220178
020220179
020220180
020220181
020220182
020220183
020220184
020220185
020220186
020220187

020220188

020220189
020220190
020229999
020230191

020230192

020230193
020230194
020239999
020240195
020240196
020240197
020249999
020250198
020250199
020259999
020260200
020260201

020260202

020260203
020260204
020269999

030270205
030270206
030270207
030270208
030279999
030230209
030230210
030230211
030230212
030230213
030230214
030239999
030280215
030280216
030280217
030280218
030280219
030280220
030280221
030280222
030280223
030289999
030290224
030290225
030299999

040300226
040300227
040310228
040310229
040310230
040320055

040320231
040320232
040320233

040320234

040320235
040320236
040320237
040320238
040329999
040330239
040330240
040330241

040339999
Term

Failure

Failure cause

Failure cause categories

Failure cause location

Root cause(s)

QDX
Definition

Non-conformity à Non-fulfillment of a requirement.

The failure cause is a cause that is (jointly) responsible for the failure.

Structured reduction of complexity by grouping the failure causes. The failure cause
categories only represent the root cause to a limited extent.

Specification of the location of the failure cause, e.g. position in the value chain; production
step

Root cause(s) are causes that cannot be traced back any further after questions such as
"Why did this failure occur/what caused this unexpected situation?" have been asked
multiple times; can also be understood as the "origin" of a failure.

Electronic exchange of information/data regarding the complaint process via a


standardized XML interface in accordance with the QDX format (Quality Data eXchange)
issued by the VDA QMC.
Source

DIN EN ISO 9000

VDA volume – Standardized Process for Handling Customers'


Complaints

VDA AK 8D

No source available

VDA volume – Standardized Process for Handling Customers'


Complaints

VDA volume 7 – Exchanging quality data (QDX)