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2/6/2015

Unit 1.2

Conic Sections
Conic Sections
1

1

Generators

 

Upper Nappe

Vertex
Vertex

Lower Nappe

3

3

Non-Degenerate Conics

 

A

no n-de

generate

conic

is a set of points on

the plane such that the ratio of the distance

from a

fixe d poin t F

to the distance from a

fixed line d , not passing through the fixed point i s a co nstant.

5

5

 

Conic Section

A

conic s e ction

is an intersection of a plane

and a right circular cone with two na p pes.

2

2

of a plane and a right circular cone with two na p pes. 2 4 .
of a plane and a right circular cone with two na p pes. 2 4 .
of a plane and a right circular cone with two na p pes. 2 4 .
4
4
4
4
4

. While the fixed line is called t he directrix.

The fixed point is called the

focus

6

6

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2/6/2015 P2 5 Q2 Q1 y 4 P1 3 2 F 1 -2 - 1 1
P2 5 Q2 Q1 y 4 P1 3 2 F 1 -2 - 1 1
P2
5
Q2 Q1
y
4
P1
3
2
F
1
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

d

Principal Axis

PF P F 1  2 PQ P 2 Q 1 1 2
PF
P
F
1
2
PQ
P 2
Q
1
1
2

e

7

The line passing through the focus and is perpendicular to the directrix is c alled t he princip al a xis.

5 y 4 3 F Principal Axis 2 1 -2 -1 1 2 3 4
5
y
4
3
F
Principal Axis
2
1
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
d -4
-5

9

an A non-degenerate ellipse, or a hyperbola. conic is either a parabola,

11

Eccentricity

The constant ratio is called the eccentricity

of the conic, denoted by .

e

0   e 1
0
 
e
1

ellipse

e  1
e
 1

parabola

e  1
e
 1

hyperbola

e  1 parabola e  1 hyperbola Vertex 8 conic The intersection is called the

Vertex

8

conic The intersection is called the of vertex. the principal axis and the

Vertex 5 y 4 3 F Principal Axis 2 1 -2 -1 1 2 3
Vertex
5
y
4
3
F
Principal Axis
2
1
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
d -4
-5

10

Parabolaaxis and the Vertex 5 y 4 3 F Principal Axis 2 1 -2 -1 1

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Parabola

A parab ola

which are equidistant from a fixed point and a fixe d l ine.

is the set of all points on the plane

13 P x y  ,  Q   p y ,  F
13
P x y
,
Q
p y
,
F
p
,0
PF
PQ
2
2
2
2
x
p
y
 0
x
p
y
y
2
2
2
x
p
y
x
p
2
2
2
2
2
x
2
xp
p
y
x
2
xp
p
2
y
4
xp
2
y
4
px
15
2
Equation:
x
4
py
Graph:
Parabola
i. focus at
0, p
ii. directrix is y

p
iii. opens upward if
p
0
opens downward if
p 
0
iv. principal axis is
x
 0
v. vertex at
0,0
17
5 y 4 P  x , y  3 2 1 F  p
5
y
4
P
 x , y 
3
2
1
F  p ,0
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

Q p , y

PF  PQ
PF
PQ
14 2 Equation: y  4 px Graph: Parabola i. focus at  p ,0
14
2
Equation:
y
4
px
Graph:
Parabola
i. focus at
p
,0
ii. directrix is x

p
iii. opens to the right if
p 
0
opens to the left if
p 
0
iv. principal axis is
y  0
v. vertex at
0,0
16
Latus Rectum
The line segment joining two points on a
parabola which passes through the focus of
the parabola and perpendicular to its
principal axis is called the latus rectum.
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5 y 4 Latus Rectum 3 2 F Principal Axis 1 -2 - 1 1
5
y
4
Latus Rectum
3
2
F
Principal Axis
1
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
d
-2
-3
-4
-5
1 -2 - 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x -1 d -2 -3 -4

Examples

19

For each of the given equation, find the

i. vertex

ii. focus

iii. directrix

iv. principal axis

v. endpoints of the latus rectum

then sketch the graph of the equation.

of the latus rectum then sketch the graph of the equation. 21 vertex: 0,0  

21

vertex: 0,0   focus: 0, EP of LR:   2  d y
vertex: 0,0
focus: 0,
EP of LR:
2
d y
:
2
PA:
x 
0
 
4,
2

,
4,
2
y
 2
3
y
2
1
-8
-7
 4,  2
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
4,2
5
6
7
8
x
-1
F
0,  2
-2
x
 0
-3
-4
-5
23

Length of the Latus Rectum

The length of  4 the latus rectum 4 of a parabola given by y
The length of  4 the latus rectum 4 of a parabola
given by
y
2
px x
or
2
py
is
4 p
.
5
y
4
3
2
1
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
-4
20
-5
2
1.
x

8
y
2
x
4
2
y
p  2
Graph:
parabola opening downward
i. vertex at
0,0
ii. focus at
0,
2
iii. directrix is
y  2
iv. principal axis is
x  0
v.
endpoints of the latus rectum are
 
4,
2
and
4,
2 .
22
2
2.
y
12
x
2
y
 4

3
x
p  3
Graph:
parabola opening to the right
i. vertex at
0,0
ii. focus at
3,0
iii. directrix is
x  3
iv. principal axis is
y  0
v. endpoints of the latus rectum are
3,6
and
3,
6
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8 y 7  3,6 vertex: 0,0   6 5 focus: 3,0  
8
y
7
 3,6
vertex: 0,0
6
5
focus: 3,0
4
3
d :
x 
3
y
 -6 0
2
6 
1
F 4
3,0
PA:
y 
0
-8
-7
-5
-4
-3
-2
-
1 1
2
3
5
7
8
x
-1
-2
-3
EP of the LR:
x 
3
 3, 6
-4
3,6

,
3,
 6
-5
-6
-7
-8
25

Standard Equation

 

A parabola with vertex at

,

h k

has standard equation

y

k

2

4

p x

h

 

if principal axis is horizontal

   

opens to the right/left

x

h

2

4

p y

k

 

if principal axis is vertical

 
 

opens upward/downward

 

27

 

1.

y

3

2

12

x

1

 

y

3

2

4



3

x



1

   

p 3

 
   

Graph:

parabola opening to the right

 
   

i. vertex

at

1,3

 
   

ii. focus at

2,3

   
 

iii. directrix

is

 

x 

4

 

iv. principal axis

is

y

3

   
 

v. endpoints of latus rectum are

 
   

2,9

and

 

2,

3

   

29

Examples

Find an equation of a parabola having the given

properties.

1. with focus at 0,4 and directrix the line given by y 4.

2. passing with vertex through at the the point origin, 2,4 the x-axis . as its principal axis and

 2,4 the x-axis . as its principal axis and   Example 26 For each

Example

26

For each of the given equation, find the

i. vertex

ii. focus

iii. directrix

iv. principal axis

v. endpoints of the latus rectum

then sketch the graph of the equation.

focus iii. directrix iv. principal axis v. endpoints of the latus rectum then sketch the graph

28

30

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2 2. x   8 x 8 y  40  0 2 x
2
2.
x
 
8
x
8
y
40
0
2
x
  
8
x
8
y
40
2
x
 
8
x
16
 
8
y
40
16
2
 x
  
4
8
y
24
2
 x
 
4
8
y
3
2
 x
 
4
4
2

y

3

31
33
End of Slides
35

x

4

2

4

2

y



3

p  2

Graph:

 

parabola opening downward

 

i. vertex

 

at

4,

3

 

ii. focus

 

at

4,

5

   

iii. directrix

is

y 

1

   

iv. principal axis

is

x

4

   

v. endpoints of latus rectum are

 
 

8,

5

and

0,

5

 

32

5  and  0,  5    32 Examples Find an equation of a

Examples

Find an equation of a parabola having the given properties.

 

1. Determine the standard equation of the parabola with

vertex at 2,

and the principal axis is parallel to the x-axis.

1 , the graph passing through the point

4,3

,

2. with focus at 3,3 and the line given by y 3 as directrix.

34

34