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Unit 1.2 Conic Sections 1 Generators Upper Nappe Vertex Lower Nappe 3 Non-Degenerate Conics A no n-de generate conic is a set of points on the plane such that the ratio of the distance from a fixe d poin t F to the distance from a fixed line d , not passing through the fixed point i s a co nstant. 5
 Conic Section A conic s e ction is an intersection of a plane and a right circular cone with two na p pes. 2       4 . While the fixed line is called t he directrix. The fixed point is called the focus 6

2/6/2015  P2
5
Q2 Q1
y
4
P1
3
2
F
1
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

d

Principal Axis PF
P
F
1
2
PQ
P 2
Q
1
1
2

e

7

The line passing through the focus and is perpendicular to the directrix is c alled t he princip al a xis. 5
y
4
3
F
Principal Axis
2
1
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
d -4
-5

9

an A non-degenerate ellipse, or a hyperbola. conic is either a parabola,

11

Eccentricity

The constant ratio is called the eccentricity

of the conic, denoted by .

e 0   e 1 ellipse e  1 parabola e  1 hyperbola Vertex

8

conic The intersection is called the of vertex. the principal axis and the Vertex
5
y
4
3
F
Principal Axis
2
1
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
d -4
-5

10

Parabola 12

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Parabola

A parab ola

which are equidistant from a fixed point and a fixe d l ine.

is the set of all points on the plane 13
P x y
,
Q
p y
,
F
p
,0
PF
PQ
2
2
2
2
x
p
y
 0
x
p
y
y
2
2
2
x
p
y
x
p
2
2
2
2
2
x
2
xp
p
y
x
2
xp
p
2
y
4
xp
2
y
4
px
15
2
Equation:
x
4
py
Graph:
Parabola
i. focus at
0, p
ii. directrix is y

p
iii. opens upward if
p
0
opens downward if
p 
0
iv. principal axis is
x
 0
v. vertex at
0,0
17 5
y
4
P
 x , y 
3
2
1
F  p ,0
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

Q p , y PF
PQ 14
2
Equation:
y
4
px
Graph:
Parabola
i. focus at
p
,0
ii. directrix is x

p
iii. opens to the right if
p 
0
opens to the left if
p 
0
iv. principal axis is
y  0
v. vertex at
0,0
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Latus Rectum
The line segment joining two points on a
parabola which passes through the focus of
the parabola and perpendicular to its
principal axis is called the latus rectum.
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2/6/2015 5
y
4
Latus Rectum
3
2
F
Principal Axis
1
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
d
-2
-3
-4
-5 Examples

19

For each of the given equation, find the

i. vertex

ii. focus

iii. directrix

iv. principal axis

v. endpoints of the latus rectum

then sketch the graph of the equation. 21 vertex: 0,0
focus: 0,
EP of LR:
2
d y
:
2
PA:
x 
0
 
4,
2

,
4,
2
y
 2
3
y
2
1
-8
-7
 4,  2
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-
1
1
2
3
4
4,2
5
6
7
8
x
-1
F
0,  2
-2
x
 0
-3
-4
-5
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Length of the Latus Rectum The length of  4 the latus rectum 4 of a parabola
given by
y
2
px x
or
2
py
is
4 p
.
5
y
4
3
2
1
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
x
-1
-2
-3
-4
20
-5
2
1.
x

8
y
2
x
4
2
y
p  2
Graph:
parabola opening downward
i. vertex at
0,0
ii. focus at
0,
2
iii. directrix is
y  2
iv. principal axis is
x  0
v.
endpoints of the latus rectum are
 
4,
2
and
4,
2 .
22
2
2.
y
12
x
2
y
 4

3
x
p  3
Graph:
parabola opening to the right
i. vertex at
0,0
ii. focus at
3,0
iii. directrix is
x  3
iv. principal axis is
y  0
v. endpoints of the latus rectum are
3,6
and
3,
6
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y
7
 3,6
vertex: 0,0
6
5
focus: 3,0
4
3
d :
x 
3
y
 -6 0
2
6 
1
F 4
3,0
PA:
y 
0
-8
-7
-5
-4
-3
-2
-
1 1
2
3
5
7
8
x
-1
-2
-3
EP of the LR:
x 
3
 3, 6
-4
3,6

,
3,
 6
-5
-6
-7
-8
25
 Standard Equation A parabola with vertex at  , h k  has standard equation  y  k  2  4 p x   h  if principal axis is horizontal  opens to the right/left   x  h  2  4 p y   k  if principal axis is vertical  opens upward/downward  27 1.  y  3  2  12  x  1   y   3 2  4  3 x   1  p  3 Graph: parabola opening to the right i. vertex at   1,3  ii. focus at  2,3  iii. directrix is x  4 iv. principal axis is y  3 v. endpoints of latus rectum are  2,9  and  2,  3  29

Examples

Find an equation of a parabola having the given

properties.

1. with focus at 0,4 and directrix the line given by y 4.

2. passing with vertex through at the the point origin, 2,4 the x-axis . as its principal axis and Example

26

For each of the given equation, find the

i. vertex

ii. focus

iii. directrix

iv. principal axis

v. endpoints of the latus rectum

then sketch the graph of the equation. 28

30

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2.
x
 
8
x
8
y
40
0
2
x
  
8
x
8
y
40
2
x
 
8
x
16
 
8
y
40
16
2
 x
  
4
8
y
24
2
 x
 
4
8
y
3
2
 x
 
4
4
2

y

3

31
33
End of Slides
35
  x  4  2  4   2  y   3  p  2 Graph: parabola opening downward i. vertex at  4,  3  ii. focus at  4,  5  iii. directrix is y  1 iv. principal axis is x  4 v. endpoints of latus rectum are  8,  5  and  0,  5  32 Examples Find an equation of a parabola having the given properties. 1. Determine the standard equation of the parabola with  vertex at 2,  and the principal axis is parallel to the x-axis.   1 , the graph passing through the point  4,3  , 2. with focus at 3,3 and the line given by y 3 as directrix. 34