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clothes, hand'made exclusively for


a particular customer. The French 1l
words roughly translate as 'high N.
fashion. Haute couture is a craft and H t "
the techniques used can be very Ë
time-consuming. The clothes are iI
made with great attention io detail and
finish so that they are a perfect fit, even
taking into consideration the customer's
body stance,

ORIGINS OT HAUTE OOUTURE


Paris had established itself as a leader in European culture in ihe
time of Louis XIV when the art, music, architecture and fashions
§ SPEAKING AND READLN_q of the court at Versailles were copied around the continent. With
the accession of Napoleon lll in 1852, Paris again became a
fashionable imperial capital.
1 ln pairs, discuss the following questions.
Around this time, two things happened that were io revolutionise
1 What are your experiences or ideas of Paris?
fashion and would give birth to modern haute couture. One was
2 What do you think of the clothes in the pictures? the invention of a fast and efficient sewing machine. The other was
the arrival in Paris of an English dressmaker, Charles Frederick
2a What do you understand by the term'haute Worth, who was to become the father of haute couture. Worth
couture/? Read the first paragraph of the magazine transformed the role of the dressmaker into that of an artist, a
article and check your answer. fashion designer. lniiially, only his wife was going to wear his
creations but they quickly became popular with Parisians. ln
2b neaa the rest of the article. Are the statements 1858, he entered into a business partnership that enabled him
below true or false? to open his own shop, effectively founding the first true house
of haute couture. Rich, fashion-conscious women flocked there
1 The irnportance of Paris in the world of fashion had from around the world and Worth produced garments for royalty
nothing to do r,r,ith the rulers of France. (the French Empress Eugénie and Britain's Oueen Victoria were
2 The originator of haute couture was not French. clients) and for the families of business magnates.
3 Haute couture is quite a wide-ranging term.
4 Companies do not expect to make money with G RAMMAR: future in the past
haute couture.
5 More young people are br-rying haute couture. 4a Look at the example from the text and complete
3 tn small groups, discuss the following questions. the gaps in the rule.
Two things happened that were to ret'olutiortise iashion
1 Haute couture is variously referred to as an art, as a
ancl w,ould give birth to moclern haute couture.
craft and as a business. Which of these three things
do you think best clescribes haute couture? We usually use past tense forms or rvhen we
are referring to a point in the but u'e want to
2 What do you think the ruies are that define whether
describe an event that rvas still in the
- at that
somcthing is haute couture? Check on page 166.
time. -,
3 Why do yor-r think the rich may be happy to show
off their r,r,ealth these days? 4b f ina and underline examples of the'future in the
a Why do you think lraute couture customers are past'in the article.
Betting yournger?
5 Do yor,r think Paris will maintain its position as a
4c which of the forms you have found describe:
fashion capital? Do yott think cities like Mumbai a) something that hapltened later?
ancl Shanghai lvill lte equally important in 20 years' b) something that clicl not happen later?
tirne? D Language reference and extra practice, pages 142-143
50 Fashions and consumerism
PARIS: FASHION CAPITAL 5.2
I

[0l|
I VOCABULARY: compound i
I I adjectives formed with nouns i

I 7a Putthe four adjectives below into one of the


categories 1-4.
time-consuming high-quality
- HAUTE COUTUNE TOOAY hand-made fashion-conscious
fhe term haute couture now encompasses not only the 1 noun + adjective
: othes, but also the fashion designers and fashion houses. lt
2 noun + present participle
s orotected by French law and there are simple but strict rules
=cout what is or is not haute couture.
3 noun + past participle
-^ s is an elite world with a customer base of only about 4 adjective + noun
: 000-3,000 people. A simple dress can
:asily cost 50,000 euros yet, in spite of 7b No* put these adjectives into one of the
:-e high prices, haute couture is frequently categories1-4in Exercise 7a.
-^crofitable. lnstead, it is used by the eye-catching jet-black big-name world-renowned
::mpanies as a loss leader that enables
:-.m to build brand identity that will help 7c Where could you use the words from Exercise 7b
:^em sell other products like perfume and
in the article? Find suitable places.
:siick to a mass market.
le -^e demrse of haute couture has often been
S

:h
:':dicted. 30 years ago, people thought that § q,ï+§--,\-ç_l
- ,vas likely to disappear, as it was too
=rcensive and too remote from most B ln grorps, discuss these questions.
::ople's lives. Today, however, haute 'l How would you define luxury? What distinguishes
:luture is thriving as the rich get richer,
Iuxury from ordinary?
5 =-C there are more of them. 'lf you've got
l/as . 'iaunt it' seems to be their motto. Also, 2 Why is luxury important to people?
:êcause of globalisation, extreme wealth
s ro longer confined to North America
3 What kind of luxuries interest you most? Why?
:' Western Europe. lnterestingly, Ir---_Èfur
--: average age of customers is
::clining, too. AII this means that it is
Ë wRlr.tNG i

-l: uncommon these days to find a


-1-year-old Thai princess in the front
9 Wit" a brief description (about'100 words) of a
':t of a Paris couture show. Fans of luxury item you possess.
-:.-te couture argue that it rs timeless,
=-: that it will only die out when no
:-e rs interested in beauty or luxury.

5 f ind suitable ways to complete the gaps in these


sentences.
'l The famous supermodel was going to
but fell illjust a few hours before the show.
2 She struggled -.-,first arrived
to make a living when she
in Paris, but she would later .
-----
3 No one realised it at the time, but it was to

NP
aclvances of the modern era.
T. "L
4_ Paris was certain to lose its position as
the world's fashion capital. t
6 Writu some sentences about members of your
family or about famous people, using the future in
the past. Read your sentences to a partner. m 'àIIi
tVy parents were going to emigrate to Argentina, but
they changed their ntind at the last minute. What
happenecl was that ...
FASHION CAPITAL
I#
I vo cA B u LA RY: comoound i

I adjectives formed with'nouns i

*
I 7a Putthe four adjectives below into one of the
categories 1-4.
Ê time-consuming high-quality
HAUTE OOUTURE TODAY hand-made fashion-conscious
-re ierm haute couture now encompasses not only the 1 noun + adjective
: cthes, but also the fashion designers and fashion houses. lt 2 noun + present participle
s crotected by French law and there are simple but strict rules
.:out what is or is not haute couture.
3 noun + past participle
-^ s is an elite world with a customer base of only about
4 adjective + noun
: 100-3,000 people. A simple dress can
::sily cost 50,000 euros yet, in spite of 7b No* put these adjectives into one of the
--: high prices, haute couture is frequently categories1-4in Exercise 7a.
--:rofitable. lnstead, it is used by the eye-catching jet-black big-name world-renowned
-:rpanies as a loss leader that enables
--:lr to build brand identity that will help 7c Where could you use the words from Exercise 7b
--=-'r sell other products like perfume and
in the article? Find suitable places.
: s:'ck to a mass market.
--= demise of haute couture has often been w
--:dicted. 30 years ago, people thought that
- ,',as likely to disappear, as it was too
3!§r; §-t_t_, \,§:
:::ensive and too remote from most B ln grorps, discuss these questions.
:=:cle's lives. Today, however, haute 'l How would you define luxury? What distinguishes
- : -:ure is thriving as the rich get richer,
luxury from ordinary?
r- r 'ihere are more of them. 'lf you've got
- 'aunt it' seems to be their motto. Also, 2 Why is luxury important to people?
-::âuse of globalisation, extreme wealih 3 What kind of luxuries interest you most? Why?
. -: longer confined to North America
-
-,',/estern Europe. lnterestingly,
-: average age of customers is §ïR
:=: ning, too. All this means that it is
-
-: incommon these days to find a 9 wit" a brief description (about 100 words) of a
- --,, ear-old Thai princess in the front luxury item you possess.
-.. of a Paris couture show. Fans of
-.-:e couture argue that it is timeless,
.-: :hat it will only die out when no
- -= s interested in beauty or luxury.

5 fina suitable ways to complete the gaps in these


sentences.
1 The iamous
'-__ suocrmodel
_''f ' eoinp to-
_ was o_"'o

but fell ill just a few hours before the sho"v.


2 She struggled to make a living when she first arrivr:d
in Paris, but she would Iater
3 No one realised it at the time, but it was
-t
to
advances of the modern era. §,
-+ _ Paris was certain to lose its position as
T
the world's fashion capital.

6 writ" some sentences about members of your


family or about famous people, using the future in
the past. Read your sentences to a partner.
parents were going to emigrate to Argentina, but
"1v
-he,v changecl their mind at the last minute. What
^tappened \ÿas tltat ...

UNIT 5
ALK CO

SPEAKINC

1 ln pairs, discuss the following questions.


1 What do the pictures on this spread show?
&
1 What do you know about the arguments related to
these controversial practices?

READ IN C

2a Look at the newspaper headlines 1-6' What do


you think each story is about?
1 'Lawsuit accuses fashion house of running
sweatshops'
(New York Times)
2 'Fashion for size zero* fuels rise in eating disorders
among models'
'nt l
t
ohe lndependent) I

'Discrimination on the ramP**?'


(The lndian Times) 3a Uuke nouns by combining the suffixes in the
box with the words below.
'Creen is the new black'
(The Cuardian) -ability -ist -ity -ion (x2) -ness -ence (x2)
5 'Fur flies on the catwalk'
(The New Zealand Herald) active conscious convenient emerge obsess
popu lar sustain violate
6 'Buy it, wear it, chuck it: the price of fast fashion'
(The Independent) 3b Comptete the gaps in Exercise 2b with the
* size zero - the smallest clothes size in America nouns from Exercise 3a.
** ramp the catwalk at a fashion show
-
3c fhink of more nouns with these endings.
2b uut.tr the headlines (1-6) to the story extracts
(a-f).
LISTENING
a) Holding signs reading 'Burberry: Fur Shame' and
chanting'Fur is dead', three animal-rights 1- 4a @ Listen to the opening of a radio
took to the catwalk during the Burberry show at programme about fashion and social responsibility
Milan Fashion Week. and answer these questions.
b) As many fashion houses do, Donna Karan 1 Which newspaper stories in Exercise 2b does the
lnternational asserts that it should not be held radio show refer to?
resoonsible for wase and hour 2 committed
by factories with which it contracts. 2 Who do you think will defend the fashion business,
Sarah or Diana?
c) The recent rise in such 3eco-- indicates
that people want change ... the market shifted to 4b @ Who do you think will make these points?
accommodate neo-environmentalists' growing Listen and check.
interest in green products and their need for variety
and a_ .
1 Monitoring conditions in suppliers' factories is not
straightforward.
dl The fashion industrv's 5 with size zero
could be driving an even bigger increase in eating
2 Fashion companies aim to increase profits.

disorders among models than previously thought. 3 Thin models have a negative influence on women's
se lf-perceptio n.
e) Crowing demand for cheap clothes is putting an
increasing social and environmental strain on the 4 Designers are artists who rvant to show their work
world, a report has said. lt questions the 6- in the best way possible.
of the 'fast fashion' that is growing in 7-.
5a Listen again and make notes on the arguments
f) After the B- 30 years back of black faces on presented by Sarah and Diana.
catwalks, fashion in the first decade of the 2'l st
century has turned relentlessly white. 5b wno do you think makes the strongest case
overall? Who do you side with and whY?

52 Fashions and consumerism


CATWALK CONTROVERSIES

G RAMMA R: emphatic structures 3 He has designed clothes for film stars and he has

L
also opened stores all around the world.

6a EE lnversion Complete these sentences from


Not...
the radio programme. Listen and check. 4 We mustn't use child labour under any
1_ circumstances.
sooner has _ attached one than he picks up
the next from the thousands in the bag. Under...
2_ do the audience realise _ two models, the 5 The press officer denied the accusation about the
Ramos sisters, are missing today ... use of sweatshops.
3 At _ time arc _ aware of the effect this fast It ...
fashion is having on the environment. 6 People are concerned about the cost of a product,
not its environmental impact.
6b Anr*ur these questions about sentences 1-3 from
It ...
Exercise 6a.
1 What is unusual about the subject-verb word order
7 fhe fashion industry encourages young girls to
worry about their body size.
æ after the opening phrases?
What...
2 Why does sentence 2 above include the word do,
while the others do not? B The designer created new styles out of organic
materials.
7@ Fronting Complete these sentences from the What...
radio programme. Listen and check.
'l _ _
Even
models.
dangerous the effect this has on the
f§P+rryEl
2 ... damning may have been, br-rt it 10 Wort< in small groups to debate these topics.
certainly wasn't ...
1 The fashion industry should be compelled to only
- -
Ba IE Cleft sentences Complete these sentences use models that are of average body size.
from the radio programme. Listen and check. 2 The use of animal fur to make clothes should be
1_ 's the enforcement of these rules banned.
fashion chains have to focus on ... Parents should not encourage children under 12 to
2 lt's _that kind of shallow chanse l'm choose their own clothes.
talking about ... The customer is to blame for the increasingly
, the companies _ is maximise their profits throwaway consumer cu Iture.
_
4_ you need to do change the whole
approach of the industry towards body size.

Bb Arr*", these questions about the sentences in


Exercise Ba.
1 How many clauses are there in each sentence?
2 Look at the first clauses. Which ones concern the
object of the verb in the second clause, and which
concern the verb itself in the second clause?

Bc Rewrite the sentences in Exercise Ba.


a) The industry... c) The companies ...
b) I am... d) You need...
* Language reference and extra practice, pages 142-143

9 Rewrite these sentences using emphatic structures.


1 The first designs were terribly dull. The second designs
were much more vibrant.
The first designs were terribly clull. Much ...
2 The models at the party were all well-known. Kate
TRî.
Moss was the most famous of them all.
!-t@
The models at the party were all well-knor,yn. Most ...

Fashions and consumerism