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Calculation of the Depletion History and Future

Performance of a Gas-Cap-Drive Reservoir


J. E. KIRBY, JR.
JUNIOR MEMBER AIME
H. E. STAMM, III HUMBLE OIL & REFINING CO.
MEMBER AIME HOUSTON, TEX.
l. B. SCHN ITZ
JUNIOR MEMBER AIME

ABSTRACT ducing the reservoir may be deter- the sand limits and completion map
mined. Although these equations rep- in Fig. 1. TRe reservoir development
The production history of a gas- resent the basic technique known for indicates an oil column of 319 ft
cap-drive reservoir was reproduced the detailed analysis of gas-cap-dri vc that is .defin.ed by gas-oil and oil-
by calculations, and predictions were reservoirs, the calculation process~s water contacts. Basic data relative to
made for operations under primary are quite complex and time consum- the characteristics of the formation
depletion, pressure maintenance by ing; hence, the procedure has not had and the formation fluids are shown
gas injection, and pressure mainte- extensive use. in Table 1. The formation exhibits
nance by water injection. Although Recently, these equations were sat- considerable shaliness and thinning
the general equations used in this isfactorily applied with the aid of a near the oil-water contact indicating
analysis have been available to the digital computer to investigate the that little or no benefit will be re-
industry for a number of years, the completion history of a gas-cap-drive ceived from natural water influx.
procedure has not had extensive use reservoir under the following oper- This is substantiated by the fact tRat
because of the unusually large time ating methods: primary depletion, de- wells completed m~ar the original oil-
requirements for developing numer- pletion under full pressure main- water contact have not producoo
ical results. The use of digital com- tenance by gas injection, and deple- water. A sizeable gas cap is present;
puting equipment for processing the tion under full pn~ssure maintenance however, considerable faulting is in
calculation work generally reduced by water injection. The use of digital evidence, and it is believed that only
the time usually required for an computing equipment substantially a limited portion of the gas cap will
extensive analysis of this type. Cal- reduced the time necessary for mak- aid in oil displacement and pressure
culation techniques were developed ing the computations and permitted maintenance.
that were equally applicable for a more concise investigation of the Although the reservoir was in an
solving the gas-cap-drive problem, reservoir's depletion history thaa was initial stage of depletion, it was be-
whether digital computing equipment possible when the desk calculator lieved that as soon as the equilibrium
or desk calculators are used. These was used. This more rigorous inves- gas saturation in the oil zone was ex-
techniques are outlined and the pro- tigation also permitted a detailed ceeded and a number of upstructure
cedures are illustrated by the field analysis of the calculation procedures wells were invaded by the expanding
problem. necessary in the solution of the gas- gas cap, the resulting high gas-oil
cap-drive problem. This paper out- ratio production would rapidly dissi-
INTRODUCTION lines the procedure of analyzing a pate the natural drive and lead to
gas-cap-drive reservoir and illustrates limited oil recoveries and inefficient
The analysis of a gas-cap-drive res- reservoir operation.. This analysis
ervoir requires the simultaneous so- the process with an actual field prob-
lem. evaluated the effectiveness of the
lution of the volumetric balance' and primary displacement mecll.anis,m and
displacement' equations. Equatioas

r~~., ...
for the analysis of combination drive CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
reservoirs were presented by Wooddy RESERVOIR ANALYZED
and Moscrip in a previous paper: Production in the field under con-
These equations permit the evaluation sideration is obtained from a Frio
of possible operating processes in or- formation of Oligocene age at a
der that the optimum method of pro- depth of approximately 5,740 ft sub- r~·00.
sea. The accumulation, which is
Original manuscript received in Society of bounded on the flan.ks by strand \ @ CURRENT COMPLETION
Petroleum Engineers office on Aug. 8, 19@6.
Revised manuscript received April 2, 1957.
liFles, is semirectangular in. shape \
Paper pr2s.;:ntEd at Petroleum Branch Fall with gentle narrowing toward the
Meeting in Los Angeles, Oct. 14-17. 19.6.
'References given at end of paper. base of the structure as shown by FIC. I-MAP OF FIELD.

PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME SPE-671-G 218


TABLE I-RESERVOIR DATA TABLE 2-COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND
2,700 GRAPHICAL VALUES OF 8t/8t1
Original and Saturlltion Pressure, psig
Averoge Pressure on Nov. 1, 1955, psig 2,410 Pressure 8t/8t1
Reservoir Temperature, of lBl Psig Graphical Calculated
659
Original Dissolved Gas·Oil Ratio, cu ft/bbl
Original Flash Shrinkage Factor, bbl/bbl. ..... . 0.736 l,8OO ~ 1.2077·
1,890 1.176 1.1759
Volume of Oil Zone, acre·ft .. _ ~ 20,987 1.1473
10,883 1,980 1.146
Volume of Effective Gas Cap, acre-ft .. _. 2,070 1.122 1.1216
Formation Dip, ft/mile _ .__ _ 226 1.0984
165 2,160 1.099
Average Permeability, md 1.078 1.0776
23 2,250
Average Porosity, per cent .. 2,340 1.059 1.0589
Average Connate Water Content of Oil Zone, per cent 28 1.042 1.0421
25 2,430
Average Connate Water Content of Gas Zone, per cent 2,520 1.026 1.0268
Original Oil in Place, stock-tank bbl .. __ 19,496,000 1.013 1.0128
Original Gas Cap Gas in Place, MeL ________ .. __________ _ 2,610
13,969,000
Cumulative Oil Production to Nov. 1, 1955, stock-tank bbl 1,460,000

determined the benefits of full pres- analyzed, volumetric balance calcu- voir predictions. The history of the
sure maintenance operations by gas lations were needed to determine reservoir was divided into two per-
and water injection. To provide a which portions of the gas cap were iods having approximately the same
basis for an economic comparison (If in communication with the oil zone amount of production in each period.
the various plans considered and to and to substantiate the belief that The saturation distribution in the res-
permit appli~ation of the results III the reservoir had no natural water ervoir at the end of each period was
future planning of field operations, drive. In the volumetric balance cal- calculated by substituting applicable
the analysis for each plan of opera- culation, it was considered that only laboratory data and observed pres-
tion was made in sufficient detail to the gas-cap segment nearest the oil sure-production data in the displace-
portray the performance of the res- zone was in communication. Thus ment equations in the order in which
ervoir throughout future operations. the original volumes of gas-cap gas they are presented in the Appendix.
and reservoir oil considered in the Normally, if a number of upstruc-
PREPARATION OF BASIC volumetric balance amounted to 14,- ture wells have been invaded by the
RESERVOIR DATA 278,000 and 26,489,000 bbl, respec- expanding gas cap, the shape of the
tively. The material balance compu- calculated saturation-distance curve
The preparation of basic reservoir tation resulted in the calculation of a and the positions of movement of
data used in making an analysis with negligible amount of gross water in- the gas-oil contact may be checked
a digital computer corresponds to flux throughout the reservoir's pro- by comparing the observed gas-oil
that required in making an analysis ductive history with the amount of ratios at the end of each period of
with desk calculators. A list of the influx being sufficiently small to per- production with the calculated gas-oil
data used in the study is shown in mit the calculation of no water in- ratios. The calculated ratios are de-
the Appendix. All graphical informa- flux if minor adjustments to the ob- termined from values of gas satura-
tion that is a function of pressure, served pressures were made. These tion taken from the saturation-dis-
water saturation, or gas saturation results were sufficiently conclusive to tance curve corresponding to the re-
was reproduced in the form of poly- prove the previous assumption that spective completion intervals. If the
nominals determined by a method the reservoir did not have a water actual gas-oil ratios of the invaded
presented by Rachford and Schultz'. drive and to indicate that only one wells were less than the calculated
This procedure permitted rapid intro- segment of the gas cap was in com- ratios or if more wells were actually
duction of data to the machine com- munication with the oil zone. Before invaded than the calculated satura-
putation and eliminated the necessity proceeding to the displacement phase tion-distance curve indicated, a lower
of making repeated visual interpola- of the calculation, slight revisions to displacement efficiency actually oc-
tions from graphical or tabular ma- the observed reservoir pressures were curred than that which was com-
terial. An example of the accuracy made such that the water influx cal- puted. These differences may be re-
to which the data can be reproduced culated for each pressure survey per- solved by introducing an appropriate
in polynominal form is shown for the iod was zero. The results of these value of conformance into Eq. 7.
relation of BtIB" vs pressure in small pressure adjustments are shown Because only 1 of the 25 wells in
Table 2. in Fig. 2. the example reservoir had been in-
Displacement calculations were vaded by the expanding gas cap, the
CALCULATION OF PAST made for the past periods of produc- reservoir conformance could not be
RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE tion to determine the efficiency of satisfactorily evaluated by comparing
the gas displacement process and the the calculated and observed gas-oil
The purpose of calculating the
reliability of laboratory measure- ratios in this single completion. As
past performance of a reservoir is
ments for use in making future reser- the efficiency of oil displacement by
to establish a basis for making re-
liable predictions of its future per- gas is affected by the amount of gravi-
formance. These calculations are di- tational segregation between the two
vided into two parts: (1) matching fluids that takes place during the dis-
the calculated pressure-production placement process, evaluation of the
history as determined from the ma- pressure gradient being experienced
terial balance equation with the r~­ at present rates of withdrawal pre-
corded pressure and production sents a satisfactory determination of
the degree to which the calculated
values, and (2) matching the gas
---------~~ -----. ---_._:::-.. and observed displacement process
displacement history as calculated by
conforms. Solution of an adaptation
the displacement equations with the of Darcy's law indicated the reser-
actual displacement progress that has 000 ,.... ._ voir was producing with an average
<owUc."'IO""""",,,,""" 'OOOlns'o.
been observed. permeability of 55 md as compared
FIG. 2-CALCliLATED A:'iD OBSERVF.D
With reference to the reservoir PRESSURES. to 165 md determined from labora-

219 VOL. 210, 1957


tory measurements. This indicated PREDICTIONS OF PRIMARY The saturation-distance profile and
that the effective gravitational force DEPLETION the position of the gas-oil contact
would be one-third the amount di:- Predictions of operations under at the end of the production period
tated by the cores analyzed. primary depletion for the example was assumed. From the position of
reservoir considered a projection of the various wells on the estimated
PREDICTION OF FUTURE the limitations on production cur- saturation-distance curve, the number
RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE rently being experienced. Under pres- and amount of allowable transfers
ent operations, the maximum per and the number of wells that should
The proration policies to be con- well allowable is 60 BID subject to continue to be produced were de-
sidered and the restrictions to be im- approximately 17 producing days termined. Considering the oil and
posed on production and injection per month and the penalty gas-oil gas saturations in the various wells
rates during each phase of the reser- ratio is 2,000 cu ftlbbl. Transfer during the step, a production sched-
voir's depletion should be determined rules provide that allowables for high ule was prepared depicting the aver-
prior to initiating calculations of fu- gas-oil ratio wells may be transferred age rate of oil and gas withdrawals.
ture reservoir performance. Gener- to wells on the same lease having Quantities evaluated at this point
ally, a gas-cap-drive reservoir will be lower ratios under the restriction were as follows:
subjected to at least two of the fol- that wells receiving the transfer can- 1. Average oil production rate
lowing three phases of depletion: (1) not produce more than twice their from the total reservoir.
production as an oil reservoir by normal allowable. Although there
primary depletion, (2) production as 2. Average oil production rate
was a division in royalty ownership from the un invaded portion of the
an oil reservoir by pressure main- for the leases embraced by the res-
tenance, and (3) depletion as a gas reservoir.
ervoir, it was assumed that royalty 3. Average oil production rate
reservoir when oil production opera- pooling would be accomplished and
tions become uneconomical. from each segment previously in-
maximum use of the allowable tram- vaded.
The restrictions that should be fer rule could be made irrespective
considered for each of these phases of lease lines to minimize high gas- 4. Average gas-cap-gas production
are as follows: oil ratio production. Gas depletion rate for each segment previously in-
1. Primary depletion as an oil vaded.
operations were assumed to be initia-
reservoir. ted when the reservoir oil production 5. Average gas-cap-gas production
a. Well capabilities and rate had declined to 85 BID. It was rate for the segment to be invaded
maximum reservoir or considered that a sufficient gas mar- during the period.
per well rates. ket would be available to deplete the 6. Average gas-cap-gas production
b. Penalty restrictions inci- gas reserve within approximately 10 rate for wells completed in the gas
dent to high gas-oil ratio to 12 years. cap, if any.
production. The initial step in predicting reser- The time required to complete the
c. Allowable transfer pro- voir performance for a given period future period of production being
visions. of production was to fix the pressure considered was estimated. The pres-
d. Economic limit of oil pro- of the oil and gas zones at the end sure-production schedules for the per-
duction operations. of the period for which the calcula- iod were then applied in Eq. 2 to
2. Production as an oil reser- tions are to be made. Pressure steps compute the gas saturation in the
voir by pressure maintenance. of 200 psi were used down to a uninvaded portion of the reservoir at
a. Well capabilities and pressure of 1,500 psi, where gas de- the end of the period. This equation
maximum reservoir ,)r pletion operations were considered to was solved by a trial-and-error pro-
per well rates. be initiated. During gas depletion op- cedure. A satisfactory solution to the
b. High gas-oil ratio penalty erations, pressure decrements of 300 equation was indicated when the ra-
and net ratio provisions. psi were used. The saturation changes tio of the gas to oil permeabilities
c. Allowable transfer provis- that occur in the previously invaded assumed for the computation equalled
ions. portions of the reservoir during the the ratio of these permeabilities at
d. Maximum injection rates next period of production are caused the gas saturation calculated. From
(dependent upon the size by shrinkage of the oil remaining be- the proportions
of compressor or water hind the gas-oil contact and the dis- kg D.NI'W
injection facilities, avail- placing action of the invading gas. - and
k,' D.Np '
ability of injection fluids, These two processes occur simul-
and the injectivities of the taneously in the reservoir during the D.G pc ' the vo1umes 0 f stoek -tank
input wells). D. N p
entire period; however, to simplify
e. Economic limit of injec- oil, dissolved gas, free gas, and gas-
the calculation, the oil saturation ex-
tion and oil production cap-gas production for the period
operations. isting in the gas invaded portion of were calculated from the volumetric
the reservoir was reduced by the balance equation. These volumes
3. Depletion as a gas reservoir
when oil production operations be- amount of shrinkage before the dis- were divided by their respective pro-
come uneconomical. placement calculations were made. duction rates to obtain the calculated
a. Well capabilities and This saturation reduction was ac- time for completion of the produc-
number of wells to he complished by multiplying the oil tion period. If the calculated time
employed. saturation at several points along the did not agree with the assumed time,
b. Estimated market de- saturation-distance curve by the ra- then a new estimate was made and
mand for gas. tio of the differential shrinkage fac- the previously described calculations
c. Restrictions on oil and tors for the pressures at the end and were repeated until the difference
gas production rates. beginning of the period. was rectified.

PETROLEIJM TRANSACTIONS. AI ME 220


After the average gas saturation in was made and all of the previously Upon fixing the pressure level at
the uninvaded oil zone had been de- described calculations were repeated which the reservoir was to be main-
termined and the volumetric balance until a match was obtained. When tained, an estimate was made of the
equation was computed, Displace- a satisfactory match was obtained, position and shape of the gas satura-
ment Eqs. 3 through 7 were solved the preceding calculation procedure tion-distance profile at the end of
for each of the segments previously was used to evaluate the remaining the first period of future production.
invaded. The distances of advance uf periods of production to the time of From the anticipated movement of
the gas saturations were determined reservoir abandonment. A flow chart the saturation front, an estimated
from Eq. 5. These distances were outlining the procedure employed in production schedule was prepared
added to the saturation profile for predicting future periods of produc- for the period. From these estimated
the previous period that had been tion by primary depletion is shown average oil and gas-cap production
adjusted for oil shrinkage to deter- in Fig. 3. rates, Eqs. 10 and 11 were solved to
mine a calculated saturation-distance determine the average total daily gas
PREDICTIONS OF DEPLETION BY
profile at the end of the period. injection rate and the average daily
FULL PRESSURE MAINTENANCE-
After the profile for a segment was extraneous gas requirements for the
GAS INJECTION
determined, the average saturation period being considered. If the aver-
remaining in that segment was com- Predictions of future reservoir per- age total daily gas injection rate ex-
puted graphically for use in calculat- formance under gas injection incor- ceeded the specified limitation or if
ing the gas displacement diagram in porated the following assumptions: the average daily extraneous gas re-
the succeeding segment. 1. Maximum per well allowable of quirements came within the desired
The saturation profile was calcu- 60 B/D subject to 17 producing days limits.
lated and plotted a sufficient distance per month. An estimate was made of the time
to include all of the segment being 2. Sufficient gas would bJe injected required to complete the period that
invaded. The average gas saturation to maintain the reservoir pressure at was thought to be compatible with the
under the displacement diagram for its present level. estimated movement of the gas front.
this segment was determined graphic- 3. Production rates would be cur- The quantity of gas injection and oil
ally for various assumed positions of tailed in a sufficient amount to per- and gas production was determined
the gas-oil contact. These average mit constant pressure operations at by multiplying the time estimate by
saturations were plotted vs their re- a maximum injection rate of 4,000 the respective rates determined from
spective gas frontal positions for sub- Mcf/D. the production schedule. The satura-
sequent use in determining the posi- 4. Royalty pooling would be ac- tion-distance profile was computed in
tion of the gas-oil contact at the end complished and allowable transfers a similar manner to that described
of the period. Eq. 8 was then calcu- would be used irrespective of lease for primary depletion operations by
lated to determine the volume of gas lines to minimize high gas-oil ratio solving the displacement equations in
entering the segment being invaded. production. the order 12, 13, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 15
The resulting volume of gas was sub- as shown in the Appendix. At the
stituted in Eq. 9 to compute positions 5. Gas depletion operations would
conclusion of a complete series of
of the gas-oil contact for various as- begin when the reservoir oil produc-
computations for a period of produc-
sUIlled average gas saturations. These tion had declined to 110 BID.
tion, the mathematical check calcu-
positions of the gas-oil contact were 6. A sufficient gas market would lations were used to prove that no
plotted vs their respective values of be available to complete the gas de- errors existed. Finally, if the calcu-
average gas saturation on the pre- pletion phase in 10 to 12 years. lated saturation profile did not cor-
viously prepared graph. The intersec- The procedure for calculating fu- respond with the estimated profile, a
tion of the two curves was the cor- ture reservoir performance by gas new estimate was made and the cal-
rect position of the gas-oil contact. injection involved only slight modi- culations were repeated until a match
At the conclusion of this series of fications of the procedure outlined was obtained. An outline of the pro-
trial computations, a check was made for predictions of primary depletion, cedure for calculating a period of
to determine if any mathematical er- but was considerably less involved production for full pressure main-
rors existed. Eqs. 24 and 25 were because the reservoir pressure was tenance under gas injection is pre-
used to calculate the amounts of oil maintained constant. The calculation sented in Fig. 4.
and gas in place from the satura- was further simplified by virtue of When reservoir predictions had
tion diagram at the beginning and the gas saturation in the uninvaded been made to the point where the
end of the period. Differences be- oil zone being at equilibrium where
oil production became uneconomical,
tween the respective volumes at the it was maintained by constant pres-
sure operations. it was assumed that the reservoir
beginning and end of the period were
would be produced as a gas reserve.
the amounts of oil and gas produced.
A satisfactory mathematical check Predictions of reservoir performance
was indicated when the volumes of
oil and gas calculated from the dis-
placement diagram agreed within 2
per cent of the production for the
poriod as calculated by the volume-
tric balance equation.
If, at the conclusion of the com-
putations, the calculated saturation
proille did not correspond with the
profile and gas frontal position as- FIG. 3-FLOW CHART FOR CALCULATIONS FIG. 4--FLOW CHART FOR CALCULATIONS
sumed, a new estimate of the profile OF PRIMARY DEPLETIONS. DF DEPLETION BY PRESSURE MAINTENANCE.

221 VOL. 210, 1957


for each period of production in the tire time period from the date of to the time the gas depletion phase
gas depletion phase were made in initial reservoir production to the fu- was initiated is presented in Fig. 8.
the same manner as the predictions ture date under consideration. These schedules provided an evalua-
were made for primary depletion. tion of the periodic investments and
RESULTS OF THE RESERVOIR a determination of the annual in-
PREDICTIONS OF DEPLETION BY
STUDY come, expense, and operating profit
FULL PRESSURE MAINTENANCE-
for each plan of operation consid-
WATER INJECTION The reservoir was found to be pro- ered by applying appropriate eco-
In the predictions for pressure ducing under the combined influence nomic factors. Knowledge of these
maintenance by water injection, the of gas cap and solution gas-drive
following assumptions were made: mechanisms. The study indicated that
1. The maximum reservoir allow- no natural water drive existed and
able would be maintained as the that only one segment of the gas cap
water front advanced with the limi- was in communication with the oil 'GASSAYURATION
AT DEPLETION

tation that wells producing the allow- zone. The volume of gas originally in
able could not produce at a rate ex- the effective gas cap was determined
ceeding twice the normal top per to be 13,970 MMcf.
well allowable of 60 BID (subject to The saturation-distribution changes
17 producing days per month). that should occur in the reservoir if CONNATE WATER SATURATION

2. The reservoir pressure would it is produced under primary deple-


be maintained at its present level and tion, gas injection, or water injec- o~~.,~,,,~--~~----~----~b.--.d
c;·o-c 1l1$UNCtALONC;TH(8EOO<'IC;PlANU.FEET

water would be injected into the two tion operations are shown in Figs. 5, FIG. 5-DISPLACEMENT HISTORY, PRIMARY
oil completions nearest the oil-water 6, and 7, respectively. The study in- DEPLETION.
contact. dicated that the ultimate oil recovery
by primary depletion methods will
3. After the upstructure row of
amount to 28 per cent of the oil
wells have been watered out, gas de-
originally in place and that the re-
pletion operations would be made
maining life of the reservoir will be
through wells to be completed later ""'GASSA1\lRATION
40 years. Under gas injection opera- ATOEPu:nON

in the gas cap.


tions, an ultimate oil recovery of 40
4. A sufficient gas market would per cent may be expected and the
OIL SATURATION

be available to complete the gas de- reservoir should be depleted in 58


pletion phase in 10 to 12 years. years. The ultimate oil recovery for
The procedure for calculating fu- water injection operations was indi-
ture reservoir performance under a cated to be 54 per cent of the original o )5l~(;INAl
G-O-C
2000 4000
DIST4NCEALONGTHE8EOI)INGPLA>tES-FfET
{,OOO

water injection program was consid- oil in place, and the operating life FIG. 6--DISPLACEMENT HISTORY, GAS
erably less complex than the proce- of the field under this plan of opera- INJECTION.
dures used for primary depletion in tion was determined to be 68 years.
that: (1) the displacement fluid was Assimilation of the productilJil and
non-compressible, (2) the reservoir injection schedules that were calcu-
pressure was maintained constant, lated for each period of future pro-
~ eo
~
i
'"
20 ; G-O-C
/ ' -Et>lD WATER FLOOD

(3) the gas saturation in the unin- duction under each plan of operation ~ ~ /
~ POSITION Of -----
vaded oil zone was maintained at investigated provided a year-to-year
60:;; 40 INJECTION WELLS

equilibrium, and (4) there was no ~ ~


schedule of (1) the number of wells ~ ~ -~Ng-;ATER FLOOO
free gas production from the gas to be produced; (2) the amount of
cap. The calculation technique for
water injection operations was the
oil, gas, and water production; (3)
the total amount of fluid injection; irl"l-------1--------:.......--------L---1
~
20 80

CONNATE WATER SATURATtON


same as that outlined for gas injec- and (4) the amount of extraneous
tion operations in Fig. 4. Modifica- fluids required for injection. A graph
tions of the volumetric balance and showing a schedule of these qualities FIG. 7-DISPLACEMENT HISTORY,
displacement equations used for for the primary depletion operation \VATER INJECTION.
making these predictions are shown
in the Appendix in the order they 3000 lOOOr------,------------,-----.,-----,---'-T------r------,20000

PREDICTION~
I
were solved. In addition to the cal- HISTORY I ! !
culation made for the movement of
the water displacement front, a 2600 .oo>----:---+-=----------L-~ _~Ii
" I I
I 16000

computation was made to determine -, '\


the changes that the gas-oil contact - I

should undergo as a result of gravi- 2200 600 H_~~\: ',_~------'------~- 12000 30

tational segregation. This computa-


tion was made to determine the num-
ber of wells currently penetrating the 1800 400
- - ___ n _
,
'\~, ____
,
::~'_-?~: ~=
,
_ ___ _ 8000 20

gas invaded portion of the reservoir "" II ....... " ....... , ........

that might later be recompleted as 'x: ,


low gas-oil ratio producers. This cal- ~-,
/' , --,-----+-------1 4000 10

culation was made by solving the gas / "'---'


~"--,----
displacement Eq. 5 at future periods I

by assuming that current gas-cap ex- 1000 ~~'~'--' -~.


165-69 70-74 75 - 79 80 - 84

pansions had occurred over the en- FIG. 8-HISTORY AND PREDICTIONS FOR PRIMARY DEPLETION.

PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 222


quantities permitted an economic sent a satisfactory approximation of appreciation to L. D. Wooddy, Jr.,
comparison of each of the plans on the flow process occurring in the and Robert Moscrip, III, for their
an actual and present-day-value ba- reservoir. Techniques were developed numerous helpful suggestions in mak-
sis. for making the numerous individual ing this reservoir analysis.
calculations involved in this type of
CONCLUSIONS analysis that are equally applicable REFERENCES
for solutions using the digital com-
The equations' previously pre- 1. Schilthuis, R. J.: "Active Oil and Res-
puter as for computations made with ervoir Energy," Trans. AIME (1936),
sented for the analysis of combina- the desk calculators. Through the use 118, 33.
tion drive reservoirs were success- of the digital computer, the time re- 2. Buckley, S. E., and Leverett, M. c.:
fully applied to match past perform- quired to make a complete analysis "Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in
ance of a gas-cap-drive reservoir and Sands," Trans. AIME (1942), 146,
of this type has been greatly reduced, 149.
were used to predict the future de- thus permitting this useful engineer- 3. Wooddy, L. D., Jr., and Moscrip,
pletion of this reservoir under pri- ing calculation to be applied to a Robert, III: "Performance Calcula-
mary depletion, pressure maintenance tions for Combination Drive Reser-
larger number of reservoirs than was voirs," Trans. AIME (1956), 207,
by gas injection, and pressure main-
formerly considered possible. 128.
tenance by water injection. Although 4. Rachford, R. R., Jr., and Schultz,
certain of the mathematical relation- W. P.: "Some Useful Tables for Ap-
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS proximating Smooth Curves by Fifth-
ships included in this calculation are
and-Lower Degree Polynominals,"
not rigorous, they appear to repre- The authors wish to express their Trans. AIME (1955),204, 289.

APPENDIX CORE ANALYSIS DATA PLOTTED GRAPHICALLY


VS GAS SATURATION
BASIC RESERVOIR DATA NEEDED TO ANALYZE kr'l = Relative permeability of the reservoir rock
THE PERFORMANCE OF A GAS-CAP-DRIVE to gas
RESERVOIR k,o = Relative permeability of the reservoir rock
to oil
GENERAL RESERVOIR DATA
k,olk,o = Ratio of the relative permeabilities of the
NBti = Reservoir pore space originally occupied by reservoir rock to oil and gas
oil
GBa; = Reservoir
pore space originally occupied by CORE ANALYSIS DATA PLOTTED GRAPHICALLY
gas-cap gas VS WATER SATURATION

Sin a = Sine of the angle of formation dip kro = Relative permeability of the reservoir rock
k = Average absolute permeability of the reser- to oil
voir k rw = Relative permeability of the reservoir rock
to water
<P = Average porosity of the oil and gas zones
k,·olk rw = Ratio of the relative permeabilities of the
c,o = Average connate water content of the oil reservoir rock to oil and water
and gas zones
Bo. = The volume of oil under original reservoir GENERAL RESERVOIR DATA TO BE
conditions that yields 1 bbl of stock-tank COMPILED IN TABULAR FORM
oil 1. Average oil zone pressure for each survey date
Bu' =
The volume of gas-cap gas under original 2. Average gas zone pressure for each survey date
3. Incremental oil production for each pressure survey
reservoir conditions that yields 1 Mcf
of gas at standard conditions period
4. Incremental total gas production for each pressure
R'i = Original dissolved gas-oil ratio
survey period
HYDROCARBON SAMPLE DATA PLOTTED 5. Incremental gas-cap-gas production for each pres-
GRAPHICALLY VS PRESSURE sure survey field
B ,IB Ii = Expanded volume of oil and its original 6. The respective horizontal component of distance
dissolved gas from the upper and lower perforations of each pro-
Bo = Differential shrinkage factor ducing well to the original gas-oil and oil-water
Bo = Gas expansibility contacts
Vo = Viscosity of reservoir gas MISCELLANEOUS DATA
fLo = Viscosity of reservoir oil 1. Area vs distance curve correlating the cross-sec-
fLolfLo = Ratio of the viscosity of oil to the viscosity tional area of the reservoir perpendicular to the bed-
of gas at the same reservoir temperature ding planes to distance down the bedding planes
and pressure from the original gas-oil contact
fLol fLw = Ratio of the viscosity of oil to the viscosity 2. Maps showing the gas-oil ratio status of the wells
of formation water at the same reservoir at various times in the history of the reservoir
temperature and pressure
L.PO-g = Difference in density between oil and gas NOMENCLATURE*
at the same reservoir temperature and
pressure C, = Conformance factor fraction
L.pw-o = Difference in density between water and oil Symbols not included in the folIo wing nomenclature can be found
at the same reservoir temperature and in "Letter Symbols for Petroleum Reservoir Engineering and Elec-
tric Logging," published in the Oct .. 1956 issue of JOURNAL OF PE-
pressure TROLEUM TECHNOLOGY and Petroleum Transactions- Vol. 207.

VOL. :no, 1957


C", = Average connate water satura- fraction of gas reduced to the average std cond
tion pore space pressure p during any per-
Iv = Fraction of gas in the flow- fraction iod which yields a unit vol-
ing stream in the reservoir ume of stock-tank oil
I w = Fraction of water in the flow- fraction BUi = Volume of gas at original res- bblatpiand
ing stream in the reservoir ervoir pressure and temper- T/Mcf at
GBgi = Reservoir pore space origin- bbl ature per Mcf of gas at std cond
ally occupied by gas standard conditions
G. = Total volume of gas in any cu ft at P Bu = Volume of gas at the average p
bbl at and
segment at end of period reservoir pressure and tem- T/Mcfof
Gpo = Cumulative gas-cap gas pro- Mcfat perature during any period gas at std
duced to end of period std cond per Mcf of gas at standard cond
conditions
G Je = Cumulative free gas produced Mcf at
from uninvaded oil zone to std cond 8 = Differential shrinkage factor,
0 bbl at P and
end of period volume of saturated oil at T/bbl at Pi
any reduced pressure and and T
Gi (ext) = Cumulative gas injected in Mcf at reservoir temperature per
excess of that produced std cond unit volume of saturated oil
from the beginning of pres- at reservoir pressure and
sure maintenance opera- temperature
tions to end of the period
h = Vertical height between da- ft Bo = Differential shrinkage factor, p
bbl at and
tum planes in the reservoir volume of saturated oil at T/bbl at Pi
the average reservoir pres- and T
M, = Slope of the In k,.jk,.g vs S9 sure and temperature dur-
curve ing any period per unit vol-
M, = Slope of the In k,·o vs Sg curve ume of saturated oil at res-
ervoir saturation pressure
M, = Slope of the In k,a/k,,, Vs Sw
and temperature
curve
M, = Slope of the In k,·o vs Sw Wi (ext) = Cumulative water injected in bbl
curve excess of that produced
from the beginning of pres-
Q,x = Total volume of fluid invad- cu ft at P sure maintenance operation
ing any segment during to end of the period
period
a = Angle of dip of bedding degrees
R'i = Original dissolved gas-oil ra- cu ft of gas planes
tio at std cond/
bblSTO () = Total elapsed time since initial days
production
B, = Volume of original reservoir bbl at P and
oil and its original dis- T/bbl at SUBSCRIPT
solved gas reduced to any std cond A, B, C, ... = Denote specific segments III the reser-
pressure P which yields a voir
unit volume of stock-tank
oil x-I = Denotes segment preceding one current-
ly being invaded by gas or water
Bli = Volume of oil under original bbl at Pi and
reservoir conditions which T/bbl at x = Denotes segment currently being in-
yields a volume of stock- std cond vaded by gas or water
tank oil 1, 2, 3, ... = Denote specific time periods, where
B, = Volume of original reservoir p
bbl at and n-l, n, represent the current period
oil and its original dissolved T/bbl at w = Denotes uninvaded oil zone

EQUATIONS FOR EVALUATING GAS-CAP-DRlVE PERFORMANCE BY PRIMARY DEPLETION


VOLUMETRIC BALANCE EQUATION

(1)

PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME


EQUATION FOR CALCULATING THE GAS AND OIL SATURATION IN THE REMAINING OIL ZONE AT
THE END OF ANY PERIOD

SyW("-')~ + [(~)0-1 + (~)n] [(BtlB~g-Bo)n - (BtIB~g-Bo)nJ+


SgW = [(BtlB" - Bo) _ (BtiBii - Bo) lBg
1 + Bo n Bo "-1

2Bo
0.044k"AW(6 P_ 14:6P) 68 (sin a)!!: + ~"Eo(6NpwBoBt;)~']
+( 5.615/Lo Bn kro{Lg . g............ (2)
BtlB" - Bo) _ (BtlB" - Bo) ] BO)
<p Aw Lw 1 -l- [( Bo n B9 (0-1)
5.615 ( . 2 Bo

EQUATIONS FOR THE CALCULATION OF THE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY GAS

QT. = QT(X-l) + G(n_l, x-I) (~


B 9(0_1) - 1 ) - 5.615 6G pdX-1) By - 5.615 6Np(x_" BoB"

+ cj>A(x-1) L(X-1) [(SO\X-1\) + (SOIX_l») ] [(BtIBtl - Bo) _ (BtIBIi - Bo) lB!l


Bo n-l Bo n Bo n Bg n-l 2
- .pA(X_1) L(X_1) [(S-;';o·,)t_,(Bo n - , - Bon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3)

where:

G. = cf>A.L.Sg. (4) 6
L
(89) = QT.
cf>A
(dig)
dS g •
(5)

where:

(6)

and
c, = 0.044 C r k A 6psin n 60 (7)
QT.r {Lo

EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATING THE POSITION OF THE GAS-OIL CONTACT

Q,Jo = Q" - ['~' (cf>A,l'x[Sox,n-1) - Soxo]) _~' (6N px B"Bon) 5.615 -'~'(cpA'Lx[~~L ,[ [j'",o" .. il"" ])]

(S)

(9)

EQUATIONS FOR EVALUATING GAS-CAP DRIVE PERFORMANCE UNDER FULL PRESSURE


MAINTENANCE BY GAS INJECTION

VOLUMETRIC BALANCE EQUATIONS

6G, = ~Np Bo ~ 6N pw ko ~o Bo B" + 6 Gpe


(10)
68 MJ By 6(} ko ;:' Bo 6(}

6 G"ext! _ 6 Np Bo B" _ R, )
MJ - t;B
(
------n;- 1000 . . . . . . (11)

EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATION OF THE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY GAS

QTA. = 5.615 6G,B g • • • • • • • • • • • (12)


QTX = QT(X-O - 5.615 [6Gpc,X-1) Bo + 6Np,X_ L) BoB,l (13)
6L89 is solved by Eqs. 5, 6, and 7.

225 VOL. 210, 1957


EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATION OF THE POSITION OF THE GAS-OIL CONTACT

QT'/y = QTX - [~' ( <pAxLx [S''''''-1) - S,." ]) - x~ ( t-,N px BtiBo ) 5.615 ] (14)

- , 0.044'k:; Aw( - 144 t-,p) . Bo


QTJo - 5.615 t-,G pcx Bo , - - , - - - - t-,p - - - h - t-,(J (sm 0') =- I
L = fLo_~ (15)
x <pAx (Sox - Sgw,n_1l)
EQUATIONS FOR EVALUATING GAS-CAP DRIVE PERFORMANCE UNDER FULL PRESSURE
MAINTENANCE BY WATER INJECTION

VOLUMETRIC BALANCE EQUATIONS

t-, W, _ t-,NpB"B" + t-, N pw B, Bli ko ;, + (16)


~ - t-,(J t;e ~k~ ~
o .~(}

(17)

EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATION OF THE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY WATER


QTA = 5.615 t-,W, . (18)
QTX = QT(X-l) - 5.615 (t-,Wp'X-l) + t-,Np(x-n B"B ti ) . (19)
L - QTx(dl .,) (20)
t-, (Bw) - ¢A dS
w

where

dl w (21)
+ ~" ~]'
dS",
[1 fLo krff'
C, = 0.044 C r k A ~P sin 0' M} (22)
QTX fLo
EQUATION FOR CALCULATING THE POSITION OF THE WATER-OIL CONTACT

5.615 (Wi - W p ) - x~ [<pAxLxP• (Swx - Cwx)]


L,= ------~~~~~~~~----~ (23)
<pAxP. (S"x - C wx )

EQUATIONS USED TO CHECK MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS

EQUATION FOR CALCULATING THE VOLUME OF STOCK TANK REMAINING


IN RESERVOIR FROM SATURATION DISTANCE PROFILE

N - Np = ~ <pAxLx(~) + <PAwL(~). (24)


5.615 BoB" 5.615 BoB"
EQUATION FOR CALCULATING THE VOLUME OF FREE AND SOLUTION GAS
REMAINING IN RESERVOIR FROM SATURATION DISTANCE PROFILE

Gas
.
III place (Mct) =T
GB g ,
+ -'<
~ ¢AxL,[Sox
5.615 Bo +
([1 - C"'] - Sox)
(BoB,,) (1,000)
R'] (25)

where

R, = R" B'
- (B - Bo )Bti
B (1,000) . (26)
" 9

***

PETROLEUM TRANSACTIONS, AIME 226