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Colour, Refraction of Light and Lenses.

You need to know the following:

1. Colour:
* spectrum:- red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet (ROYGBIV)
* dispersion:- white light into component colours
* pure colour filters:- transmit one colour, absorb the rest
* combinations of coloured filters - what is transmitted?
* monochromatic light on different selective reflective media - what is seen?
* colour addition - blending together of several different colour lights
* primary colours:- red, green and blue - combine to produce white light
* secondary colours:- yellow (red/green), magenta (red/blue), cyan (green/blue)
* complementary colours:- add together to produce white: yellow/blue, magenta/green,
cyan/red, red/green/blue
* colour subtraction from white light followed by addition as in mixing paints e.g. mix yellow and
blue to get green - by colour subtraction white light falling on yellow paint will reflect orange,
yellow(mainly) and green; white light on blue paint will reflect green, blue(mainly) and violet -
green is doubled up and as a result is the most prominent reflected colour - net result: green
* colour TV's - red/green/blue pixels

2. Refraction:
* bending of light at the interface of two optically transparent media - caused by speed change
* bends towards normal when going from less optically dense to more optically dense medium
* bends away from normal when going from more optically dense to less optically dense medium
* n 1-2 (relative refractive index) = n2/n1 (absolute refractive indices)
* Snell's Law n1sin i = n2sin r
* speed (c) changes are in the same ratio as the relative refractive index
n 1-2 = sin i / sin r = n2/n1 = c1/c2

3. Total Internal Reflection (TIR):

* only occurs when light is attempting to travel from more optically dense medium (n1) into less
optically dense medium (n2) e.g. water to air
* critical angle is the angle of incidence at which TIR starts to occur (angle of refraction = 90 o)
sin ic = n2/n1
* remember partial reflection
* e.g. mirages, fish under water, “shallow” pools, optical fibres, use of prisms as "mirrors"

4. Lenses:
* distinguish between concave and convex lenses
* terminology:- center of curvature - C; radius of curvature - R; pole; principal axis, principal
focus, aperture, focal length, f; focal plane
* use of ray diagrams to locate images in convex and concave lenses:- principal rays
* image nature and position for convex lens
i) object outside C - image opposite, real, inverted, diminished (0 < M < 1)
ii) object on C - image opposite, real, inverted, same size (M = 1)
iii) object b/w C and f - image opposite, real, inverted, magnified (M > 1)
iv) object on f - no image
v) object inside f - image same side as object, upright, virtual, magnified (M > 1)
* image nature and position for concave lens - always same side as object, upright, virtual and
diminished (0 < M < 1)

5. Lens formula:
* lens formula:- 1/f = 1/u + 1/v; u = object distance, v = image distance, f = focal length
* magnification, M = -v/u = |Hi/Ho|; Ho = object height, Hi = image height

* virtual image, v, is negative

* concave lens, f, is negative (virtual focus)

6. Spherical and chromatic aberration in lenses:

* lenses only focus to an area around the principle focus - spherical aberration
* stop down the aperture or use parabolic shaped lens to minimise spherical aberration
* different components of white light refract slightly different amounts - this can cause
coloured fringes and is known as chromatic aberration.
* use monochromatic light or an achromatic doublet to minimise chromatic aberration.