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# ft , and '?

## w = well bore radi-

us, ft
For a vertical well located
at the center of a drainage
circle or a square , the time to
10 .., = 0.1. Substituting th is
in Equation 3 , we have
0.000264 kt
to ... = 0.1 = --~· µ c,, A
(4)

k (5)

## lpss = time to reach pseu -

15.79 <I> µ c1, A
tpdss = k (6)

## !poss is the time to reach pseu-

Generally, oil wells are de-
veloped on 40-acre spacing
and gas wells are developed
on 160-acre spacing. Hence
40 acres = 40 x 43 ,560
sq ti/acre = 1.7424 x 106
Methods calculate area sq ft
1 60 a cre s = 1 60 x
(7)

## drained by horizontal wells 43 ,560 sq tuacre = 6.9696

x 106 sq ft (8)
Substituting these a reas
S.D. Joshi that the recovery factors are, and it will drain the entire into Equation 6 gives for a 40
Joshi Technologies in general, 2-5% higher than reservoir . although it may acre well :
International Inc. those for vertical wells. Until take a very long time.
Tulsa more long term histories are Well spacings are de-. _ 27.512 x 106 d>µc, , ( )
lposs - k 9
available, 11 is d1ff1 cult to signed so as to maximize the
The drainage area of a hor- make an exact Judgment on 011 recovery and economic
izontal well can be calculated the improvement of recovery benefit of production . To esti- and for a 160 acre well :
by averaging the results ob- factors . mate the drainage area of a _ 110.05
6
10 d> µ
tained from two different In a given time period, a horizontal well, first one must tposs -
X
k
C11 (
10)
methods. For anisotropic res- horizontal well drains a larger estimate the drainage area
ervoirs, nonuniform perme- reservoir volume than a verti- (or well spacing) of a vertical Equations 4 and 5 show
. ability has to be included in cal well. Thus, the spacing well. that tra nsient time depends
drainage area calculations. used for a horizontal well on the basic reservoir proper-
should be larger than that Pseudosteady state ties. such as permeability,
Well spacing used for a vertical well. Dimensionless time, 10 , porosity. and compressibility.
Horizontal w ells, 1n gener- The drainage area o f a hor- which is used to define vari- Time to reach pseudosteady
al, give higher reserves than izontal w ell also depends ous regions , is given as: state does not depend on
vertical wells. Two reasons upon natural fracturing in a wel l stimulation.
tor obta1n1ng higher ultimate fractured reservoir. 0.000264 kt In the case of oil wells,
reserves are increase in the In a naturally fractured res - lo = <l> µ c~ rw2 (1 ) normally, the time to reach
drainage area and increase ervo ir , a hori zon tal well pseudosteady state in of the
in the recovery fa ctor . drains more volume in the and area-based dimension- order of a few day s t o
The most important reason direction parallel to the natu- less time months.
for obtaining lugher ull1male ral fractures than 1n the direc- In contrast, for gas wells in
reserves fr om horizontal tion perpendicular to the nat- lo... lo (r•.2/A) (2) low-permeability reservoirs.
wells 1s the significant en- ural fractures Therefore. the the time to reach pseudo-
hancement of the drainage well spacing requirement Thus steady state could be very
area, especially as compared along a fracture trend 1s dif- 0.000264 kt long ; in some cases as long
to vertical wells. The other ferent than that perpendicular
4>µc,.A
(3) as a few years .
reason tor an increase 1n re- to the fracture trend.
serves 1s improvement in the II 1s important to note that Oil well example
recovery factors. Recovery even for a vertical well , the where : k = perm e ability For an oil well drilled on 40-
factor is the percentage of well spacing is based upon (md). t = time (hr), acre spacing, calculate the
the original oil in place that the reservoir parameters and 4> porosity (fraction),
Based on Chapter 2 of Horizontal
can be produced. economic criteria . Theoreti - µ = v isco si ty (cp), Well Technology. Vol. 1. to be pub·
At the present time, the cally speaking , one can drill a c,. = tnillal total compress- loshed by PennWell Publishing on late
1990
fi eld histories tend to 1nd1cate single well in a large reservoir ib1l1ty (psi '). A = area sq

## Sepl 17. t 990 . Ool & Gas Journal 77

Fig 1 wells in reservoirs with per-
meability less than 0.1 md .
Drainage areas can take years for the tran-
'.'IPJ'llllt"J.iimr:l~~!'.%'i~ sient state to end. In such
tight reservoirs. it is very diffi-
cu lt to drain the reservoir
economically. In these cases,
methods are needed to ac-
celerate reservoir drainage.
Infill drilling and horizontal
drilling provide alternatives to
drain the reservoir effectively.
The dimensionless time to
toA = 0.1, as long as the
well is centrally located in a
drainage plane, i.e .. when the
well is at the center of a circle
or a square (x,.Jy. - 1).
When the drainage area
becomes rectangular, the
state increases. For example,
when one side of a drainage
rectangle is five times larger
than the other side (x.t
Ye = 5) the dimensionless
state is toA = 1.0, i.e .. ten
times longer than a vertical
I Fig. 1c Naturally fractured reservoirs I well located centrally in the
drainage plane.
Thus, vertical wells are un-
able to drain effectively rect-

r~
angular drainage areas in
·J
r·· uniform permeability reser-

) 1r r1:\1 L _ _ _J \ k.,>> k,
' ....
~
voirs.
As shown in Fig. 1a. a long
horizontal well in a given time
can drain a larger area than a
"'--------~· . vertical well.
Wiii ~ • 1,000 ft
Ven!C81 well
Draln9ge - • 74 ecr-.. <x.Y•• 1.87)
A 40-acre spacing vertical
-
, - -- --- - --}- --,
.: ! "! r-==2x. - 3,490"
state in 16 days. By the same
principle (Fig. 1) a 2,000 ft
long well would reach pseu-
I I I/\.... E 745"
area in 16 days .
I I Table 1 tells us that the
I I time to reach pseudosteady
I I state using vertical well drain-
I
- I ing a rectangle with dimen-
'- --- - - -------' Well~ = 2,000 ft . sions x.1y. = 2.5 would 2.5
times longer than that for a
Horizontal well
.... , .. OrWnege - ,. 108 ec:r-..
. .. : ·"'·
(JIJY. - 2.34)
-• • · '
... I
.. : . - " •! . . ..
2,000 ft long horizontal well
(assumes L is ::? 1 - the
• • " > .•. • •
quantity y8 / x8 ).
·; :·; . Thus, horizontal wells can
: ..., ...,~ ... be utilized to drain a larger
reservoir volume than vertical
time to reach pseudosteady to reach pseudosteady state ac res . tpss 7,974 wells in a given ti me period.
state given <I> = 10%.., for a gas well drilled at either hr == 332 days = O. 91 This becomes very important
C11 = 0.00005 r psi - 1 , 20 or 160-acre spacing in a years. in tight reservoirs when close
k = 35 md, and µ = 4.2 reservoir with an initial pres· For 160 ac res, vertical well spacing is re-
cp (shallow well-dead oil). sure (p,) of 1,450 psi and the loss = 63, 772 hr = 2,657 quired to drain the reservoir
Using Equation 5, tpss reservoir properties of days = 7.3 years of infinite- effectively.
0.0002274 A = 396 hr = <I> 7%, k = 0.03 md, acting period. Therefore , in a tight reser-
16.5 days. µ. = 0 .015 cp, and As noted in the previous voir, horizontal wells can be
c,, ~ 0.000690 psi - 1 • exa mple. gas wells (or 011 used to enhance drainage
Gas well example Again using Equ ati on 5 well s) drilled in a very tight volume per well in a given
Calculate the.time required tpss = 0.00915A. For 20 re servoir, especially gas t ime period.

## 78 Oil & Gas Journal, Sept 17, 1990

Fog 2
Multiplying an.Q__flividtng
throughout by .' k,ky. Equa·
Development patterns for 360 acres lion 12 becomes

kk ?y
~
. .. k. d2 d pl
2

## ... ... • t ~ I .. t • /k.ky k~ + k = 0

' y (13)
I ·_ ..
l

. :~ .~;: ... ,· \
{ ~- -. .,~:

## Four 1,000 ft horizontal ~ ~~- . This can be transformed

IFig. 2a Nine vertical wells I Fig. 2b and one vertical wells into

k,. - k.,
---- k,

• • • '

• • •
...
IT
;r:

i..;
where
y' = y / k,lky

and
(15)

## Thus, an areally anisotro-

pic reservoir would be equiv·
• • • • alent to a reservoir with effec-
tive permeability of .,. k,ky.
The drainage length along
3,690 It I the high-permeability side is
larger by a factor of J kyfk,
: . ~- ..
than the drainage length
along a low-permeability
'. • I ' . , '; .,:.· • ~ ; •-. side.
Three 1,000 ft horlzontal
Fig. 2c and three vertical wells I Fig. 2d Three 2,000 ft horizontal wells I Thus, if permeability along
the fracture trend is 16 times
larger than perpendicular to
it, then drainage length along
the fracture is four times larg-
er than the length perpendic-
I
I
I
I ... ular to the fracture (Fig 1b) .
In such areally anisotropy
reservoirs, using vertical
wells, it is difficult to drain the
I I
larger reservoir lengths in the
r' I' I
low-permeability direction.
A horizontal well drilled
along the low-permeability di-
rection has a potential to
drain a significantly larger
I I
' I
area than a vertical well and
therefore recover more re-
serves than vertical wells.
- - - - - - - 3.690 tt------.~ ------3,890 11-----"'4 Thus, horizontal wells are
. . ..... ·• ,') •• .:f../'".~• highly beneficial in areally
.. ' •'t .t !J . _; ...._,,,. . , anisotropic reservoirs .
• '. ,; -~ 'I.. ......., , i ~ w' sl-"~~'llt r'
..• '-. ::f,rr • .; :-.,.: .~ ~'~ . It is obvious that in natural·
. -~ .... J.~
--
\, ·~
. . ., . . •· 1.r'·
"'' " ' """""~ ., ly fractured formations, hori-
. . . ,,. ••

• ••

J ,_,.
t

r- '
· : ,.

~ 1, - '

. . . ..
;
~

-(-,
....

I

.I'\

,
-

of

··-·~·;..1
• ,

,, f
,

## •... : '.~· · ~¥,': ~,,

• • ' "

3, .;. ~ "...\!,-;7t-~;.!j' ;

## +"" \,; '

• - • : .. ,

. , ·~-
;:'

' __, • •

~ Q. ""'"
• .. ·. ;

1l
l
·' ~
. ,..
...
f
zontal wells drilled in a direc·
tion perpendicular to the nat-
• •;. ·· .' .. ·\L.'~ , , ........~. .. · '::*.~·-l ·· ~f·~ .... •. ,. ural fractures are highly ben-
eficial (Fig 1c). The success
Areal anisotrophy would drain more length along of horizontal wells in naturally
The discussion so far has the fracture trend. fractured reservoirs, such as
been restricted to reservoirs The derivation starting with Austin chalk formation in
with homogeneous areal per- Equation 1 1 can be used to Assuming constant values Texas and Bakken formation
meability, namely k, = ky estimate each side of a drain- of k, and kv in x and y direc- in North Dakota, illustrates
(Fig. 1b) . In naturally frac- age area in an areally aniso- tions, respectively, Equation the advantage of horizontal
tured reservoirs, the perme- tropic reservoir. The equation 1 1 is rewritten as drilling 1n areally anisotropic
ability along the fracture trend assumes a single phase, formations.
is larger than in a direction steady-state {lime indepen- For fractured vertical wells,
perpendicular to fractures. In dent) flow through an homo- limited results are available to
such cases. a vertical well geneous formation. calculate the time to reach

. .. .. . •.
Tll:>le1
·~ Tebte 2

## Start of pseudosteady state time -- Dimensionless time, toApssi at the

~~ Lo
~-
Ll2lr.
. . ~J :.
,;, ~ 0.2 ; ~-: .:
x.IY. - 1
0.4 ·· ...• 0.8 0.8 1.0
t-f~ 1 :•;-· , I 0.4 ~ 't. 0.4 ··.; '. ' 0.4 0 .4 0.4
t.<..:, 5 d l) • . :, I, 0.4 .• 0.4 ! ~.. 0.4 .:,•. 0 .4 . . ' 0.4
'I-I 10 ; .. •. . . , 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
20 . 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
" 50 0.4 i 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
f'. 100 < 0.1 . 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

x.IY•• 2
~ 0.2 0.4 0.11 0.8 1.0
0.2
pseudosteady state in square but most engineers accept 1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6
drainage boundaries.1 2 Khan toA = 0.1 as a dimension- ; -t: s 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.2
10 0.6 0.6 0.6 06 0.2
has obtained results for frac- less time to start a pseudo- 20 0.6 0 .6 0.6 0.6 0.2
tured vertical wells in rectan- steady state for a vertical well 50 0.6 0 .6 0.6 0.6 0.2
100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.2
gular areas. 3 located centrally in either a
Recently, similar results circular or square drainage Lo x.IY. = 5
were also available for hori- area. Ll2x. 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0
zontal wells .H Mutalik, et Reference 1 does not in- 1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.4
a1 .. • calculated the time to clude information about crite-
s 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.6
10 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.6
reach the pseudosteady stale rion that were used to calcu- 20 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 06
for fractured vertical wells late toA = 0.1. probably be- so 2.0 2 .0 2.0 2.0 0.6
100 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.6
and horizontal wells in rect- cause these results were ob-
'Aesl*s - • - ~ Y• • 933.33 ft end r. • 0.225 It. Times are tor
angular drainage areas (Ta- tained using a numerical sim- -*mly local9d _ . . IDr Clllerent l*•elioi., l/21., end dlmenSionless leng1ha.
bles 1 and 2) . ulator. ~
It is important to note that The results by Mutalik. et
there is some discrepancy in al.• for calculation of pseu-
calculating the trme to start . dosteady state for horizontal
pseudosteady stale. For a wells are probably conserva- Table 3
single-phase flow in a homo- tive because they used a
geneous reservoir. the rela- slope requirement of 5%
Alternative well lengths
tionship between the dimen- within the value of 2rr. Method 1 - half circles
sionless pressure and the di- The above discussion indi-
Horizontal length 500 ft 1000 11 2000 ft
mensionless time for a well cates that before using any Area of two hall cil'cles. 30+30 30+30 30 + 30
producing at a constant rate dimensionless time to reach acres -60 • 60 -60
in a bounded reservoir (i.e., pseudosteady stale. it is im- Area of central
reservoir with a fixed drain- portant to critically review the r&etangle, acres 20.9 41.9 63.7
age area) is a given, as criterion that has been used. Orlllf\8ge area, acres 80.9 101 .9 143.7
This is especially important in
Po = A' + 2-rrloA (17) determining well spacing in Method 2 - elllpae
leases that last only for a a • Hall major axis, ft 250 + 9 12 500 + 912 1.000 + 912
- 1,162 - 1,142 z 1,912
where A' is a constant. short time, say less than 10
Taking derivative of Equa- years. b z Hall minol' axis, It 912 912 912
tion 17 gives In these reservoirs . know- Drainage erea. Ba'es 76.4 92.9 125.8
ing the beginning of pseudo-
m = dpo/dtoA = 2-rr (18) steady state becomes impor- Average of Method• 1 and 2
tant to drain a reservoir effec- Average drainage area. 79 96 135
aaea (Methods 1 + 2)
Th us, in a single -phase tively in a limited time period.
flo w calculation, pseudo- Number of wells for 6 6 5
Drainage 60().aae field
m, becomes 2-rr . Due to longer well length,
Some engineers assume in a given lime period under each end of a horizo~tal well drainage areas of horizontal
that when m reaches within similar operating conditions. would drain half a circular well s generally give fairly
10% of 2-rr value, pseudo- a horizontal well will drain a area . with a rectangu l ar similar results. As a ru le of
steady begins. Others use larger reservoir area than a drainage area at the center. thumb, a 1,000 ft long hori-
5% criteria and a few use 1% vertical well. II a vertical well This concept implicitly as· zontal well can drain twice
criterion. drains a certain reservoir vol- sumes that the rese rvoir the area of a vertical well,
Depending upon the criteri- . ume of area in a given time, thickness is considerably while a 2,000 ft long well will
on used, one can estimate then this information can be smaller than the sides of the drain three times a vertical
different values for the begin- used to calculate a horizontal drainage area. It is possible well, in a given time
ning of pseudosteady state. well drainage area. to calculate the drainage Thus. ii is important to use
Different criterion can give A horizontal well can be area of a horizontal well by larger well spacing for a hori-
significantly different values looked upon as a number of assuming an elliptical drain- zontal well development than
for the beginning of pseudo- vertical wells drilled next lo age area in the horizontal that used for a vertical well
steady state .7 8 each other and completed in plane, with each end of a well development.
At present, there is no con- a limited pay-zone thickness. as a foci of drainage ellipse. The following examples for
sensus about the criterion, Then as shown in Fig. 1d. The methods to estimate drainage area calculations

## 80 Oil & Gas Journal . Sept 17. 1990

are for reservoirs with uni- 2,000 ft long wells. The reservoir has nonuni-
form permeability in the areal Horizontal wells are very The author . . . form permeability 1n the areal
plane. In a fractured reser· appropriate for offshore and plane with k. = 0.5 md and
voir, where permeability in hostile environment applica- ky = 4.5 md. Hence, kyl
one direction is higher than tions where a substantial up- k = 4 .5/0. 5 = 9 and
the other, then the well would front savin~s can be obtained • kylk. = 3
accordingly drain a larger by drilling long horizontal If the drainage rectangle
length in a high-permeability wells. Because a large area has sides 2x. and 2y., and if
direction by a factor of v'kylk •. can be drained with less we assume that Harris-1
The ky represents higher per- wells, fewer slots are re- drains only 40 acres (Equa-
meability and k, represents quired on offshore platforms, tions 15 and 16):
lower permeability in the hori· and therefore, costs are sig-
zontal plane (Fig. 1c). nificantly reduced. (2x,) x (2y.) 40 x
43,560
Horizontal wells needed Alternative well lengths
A 400-acre lease is to be A 690-acre lease is to be additionally due to anisotro-
developed using 10 vertical developed with ten vertical Joshi py, 2yJ2x. = 3.
wells. An engineer suggested wells. Another alternative is Solving the above two
S 0 Joshi 1s president of Jo·
drilling either 1,000 or 2,000 to drill 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ft sh1 Produchon Tethnologies Inc equations simultaneously,
ft long horizontal wells. Cal- long horizontal wells. Table 3 ol Tulsa . which 1s involved m the
culate the possible number of shows the possible number research and development ol 2x, = 762 ft and 2y.
of horizontal wells that will l1eld apphcatlons lor horizontal 2,286 ft
horizontal wells that will drain weU technology in the U.S and
the lease effectively. Assume drain the leases ettecllvely. overseas Joshi has 9 years ex·
that a single vertical well ef- A 60 acre vertical well would perience m the area of horizontal Thus, for a vertical well, the
fectively drains 40 acres. drain a circle of radius, r,., of well lechnology drainage length along the
II rev is a drainage radius of 912 ft. Area of a cir- Along with Frank J Schuh ol north-south direction, which
01.tling Technology Inc., Joshi
a vertical well, then a 40 acre cle = nr..2 = 60 acres x teaches an rndustry short course is a high permeability direc-
vertical well drains an area of 43,560 sq ft/acre, r., = 912 on horizontal well technology tion 1s 2,286 ft.
a circle = 'lTr •• 2 = 40 ft. through the Umverslly of Tulsa Hence, vertical well spac-
acres x 43,560 sq ft/acre, Again using the two meth· Joshi received his PhD m me· ing along the north-south di·
chamcal eng1neenng from Iowa
r•• = 745 ft . ads described in the previous State University Pnor to forming rect1on, 2y,, should be three
Two methods can be em- example, Table 3 shows that his company 1n 1988, Joshi was times as large as along the
ployed to calculate horizontal a 600-acre field can be effec- a senior research engineer in the east-west direction, 2x,.
well drainage area on the ba· tively drained either by ten produchon research department Assuming that each well tip
of Phillips Pelroleum Co.
sis of 40 acre drainage area vertical wells, eight 500 ft of a horizontal well drains half
of a vertical well. long horizontal wells, six of a vertical well, for a 2,000
In Method 1 (Fig. 1d), a 1,000 ft long wells, or five ft long horizontal well drilled
1,000 It long well will drain 74 2,000 ft long wells. along the east-west direction,
acres. The drainage area is Anisotropic developm'ent the drainage length along this
presented as two half circles Development patterns A well, Hams-1, drains ap- direction 1s 2x 1 = 2,000 +
at each end and a rectangle A 360 acre lease (Fig. 2) is proximately 40 acres in a 35 762 = 2,762 It.
in the center. Similarly (Fig. to be developed using nine ft thick naturally fractured Similarly, drainage length
1d) a 2.000 ft long well will vertical wells . How many reservoir. along the north-south direc-
drain 108 acres. 1,000 It long horizontal wells Pressure tests conducted tion will be the same as that
In Method 2, if we assume could drain this reservoir ef- between the Harris-1 and the for a vertical well which is
that the horizontal well drain- fectively? How many 2,000 It well to the east between Har- 2y. = 2,286 ft.
age area 1s an ellipse in a long horizontal wells could ris· 1 and the well to the north, Therefore, well spacing
hori:Zontal plane, then for a drain this effechvely? What 1s indicate permeability differ- should be at least 2,286 11
1,000 ft long well : the suggested development ences along the two direc- along the north-south direc-
a = hall major axis of an pattern. tions. The permeability along tion and the horizontal well
el li pse = (L/2) + r •• = As shown in one of the the east-west, k., 1s 0.5 md, tips should be spaced at least
(1,000/2) + 745 = 1,245 ft previous examples, if a verti- while the permeability along 762 ft apart.
b = half minor axis of an cal well drains 40 acres ettec- the north-south direction, ky. Thus, well spacing require-
ellipse = rev = 745 ft tively, 1,000 ft and 2,000 It is 4.5 md. An engineer pro- ments for vertical, as well as
Drainage area = '!Tab/ long horizontal wells would posed to drill a 2,000 ft long horizontal wells, are different
43 ,560 = 67 acres drain 80 and 120 acres, re- horizontal well along the in isotropic and anisotropic
Similarly for a 2,000 ft long spectively. east-west direction. Estimate reservoirs.
well, a = (l/2) + With 1,000 ft long wells, the drainage area and dimen-
745, = 1,745 ft the 360 acre lease could be sions of each drainage area ReferencH
b = 745 ft, and drainage developed using either four side. 1 Earlougher, R.C. Jr., "Advances In
Well Test Analysis." Soc of Pet·
area = rrab/43 ,560 = 94 horizontal wells and one ver· Let us assume that the ver- rol. Eng .. 1977.
acres . tical well or three horizontal tical well, Harris-1, drains a 2. Gringanen, A.C.. Ramey, H.J., Jr.,
The two methods give dif- wells and three vertical wells. rectangle area due to aniso- and Raghavan, A.. "Unsteady·
ferent answers for drainage The possible conftgurat1ons tropy. State Pressure Distribution Creal·
ad lly a Well with a Single tnf1n1te·
area. II average areas are are shown in Fig. 2. If the reservoir has a uni· Conduct1v1ty Vart1cal Fracture:
used the 1,000 ft well will Because a 2,000 ft long form permeability, then the Soc ol Petrol. Eng Journal, pp.
drain 71 acres, and a 2,000 ft horizontal well could drain well would drain a 40 acre 347~ . August 1974.

well will drain 101 acres. 120 acres. A 360 acre lease 3. Khan. A., "Pressure Behavior of a
square with each side being Vertically Fractured Well Localed
Thus, a 400-acre field can be also can be developed using at the Center of a Rectangular
drained by ten vertical wells, three 2,000 ft long horizontal 2x. ;:; 2y, ;:; / 40 x 43,560 Drainage Region: MS Tnes1s,
six 1,000 ft long wells , or lour wells. = 1,320 ft The University of Tulsa, 1978.

## Sept 17. 1990. Oil & Gas Jourm11 81

4. Mulalik. PM .. Godbole, SP .. and
Joshi. S.D .. "Ettect or Drainage
Area Shapes on the Productivity
of Horizontal Wells." paper
18301 , SPE 63rd Annual Technl·
cal Conference Houston. Oct. 2·5,
1988.
5. Daviau. F., Mouronval. G.. Bour-
darot. G .. and Curutcher. P.,
"Pressure Analysis for Horizontal
Wells.· SPE Formation Evalua·
tion, December 1988, pp. 716·24.
6. Goode, P.A.. and Thambyanya·
gam, R.K.M.. "Pressure Draw·
down and Buildup, Analysis of
Horizontal Wells in Anisotropic
Media.· SPE Formation Evalua·
tion. December 1987, pp. 683·97.
7. Onur. M. end Reynolds. A.C., "A
New Approach for Constructing
Derivative Type Curves for Well
Test Analysis," SPE Formation
Evaluation, March 1988, pp. 197·
206 .
6. Vongvuthipornchai. S .. and Aagha·
van. A., "A Note on the Duration
of the Transitional Period or Re·
sponses Influenced by Wellbore
Storage and Skin," SPE Forma-
tion Evaluation. March 1988. pp.
207·14.
9. Dake. L.P .. "Fundamentals of Res·
ervoir Engineering." Elsevier Sci·
entilic Publishing Co.. New York.
1978.

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Here is statistical informa- qu i
lion on all aspects of offshore ble
safety. It is an at-a-glance ref- eth
erence designed for anyone Me
engaged in offshore safety fee
and reliability, cost/benefit MT
analysis. and insurance. /.