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ICEP-IAAC 2018 Proceedings TB4-4

Design and fabrication of photo-sensitive


thin-film transistors with IGZO and
organic photo-absorber
Zhaogui Wang1, Yongfeng Zheng1, Xuhong Cao1, Hang Zhou2, Chuan Liu1
1
State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies and the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Display
Material and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
Shenzhen Key Lab of Thin Film Transistor and Advanced Display, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University,
Shenzhen, 518055, China

Abstract—This paper presents theoretical design


and experimental results of photo-sensitive
thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on an InGaZnO
layer covered with an organic or perovskite
photo-absorber layer. The photo-absorbing layer is
of a narrow bandgap and efficiently improves
spectral response characteristics in visible light.

Keywords—photo-sensitive; thin-film transistor;


IGZO; perovskite; solution-processed

I. Introduction
The amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide
(InGaZnO) film affords TFTs with large on-off
ratio and good field-effect mobility over 10
cm2/Vs[1]. But the wide band-gap material is
almost transparent and have low responsivity to
visible light, nearly half of the amount of solar
radiation[2]. In comparison, many organic or
perovskite semiconductors have narrow
band-gap[2][3][4][5] but their TFTs exhibit low
on-off ratio. Fig. 1 shows the energy-band Fig. 1. Schematic energy-band diagram of IGZO, PSK,
diagram of several materials. To combine the TIPS-Pentacene and C8-BTBT without contact, and the
molecular structural formula is shown as insert.
advantages of the two materials, this paper
provides a structure to fabricate TFTs with
moderate on-off ratio as well as good
II. Device simulation
responsivity to visible light.
Theoretical calculations were performed by In this paper, all simulations are based on
TCAD-assisted device simulation, where TFTs ATLAS which is a two-dimensional device
are in the structure of IGZO with perovskite simulator made by SILVACO company. For
(PSK) material, which can be defined with simulating the optical properties of the devices,
different bandgaps to afford carrier transfer at the refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)
interface. In the experiments, bi-layer TFTs with of IGZO and perovskite were used as shown in
IGZO with C8-BTBT, TIPS-pentacene, or Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the used device structures
CH3NH3PbI3 were fabricated and measured. for simulation of single-layer IGZO TFTs and
IGZO/PSK bilayer TFTs, respectively. Among
them, the thickness of the IGZO layer was set as

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20 nm, 40 nm for the PSK layer. III. Experiment details


To fabricate the bottom IGZO TFT, a 40 nm
thick IGZO film was deposited on a clean
n+-doped Si wafer coated with 100 nm SiO2 film
by using a sol-gel solution process[8]. Aluminum
used as source/drain electrodes was deposited by
thermal evaporation in 50 nm thick through a
shadow mask. Then, the photo-absorbing layer
was deposited on the IGZO layer by spin-coating.
For organic semiconductor material C8-BTBT
and TIPS-pentacene, the 1.5 wt. % solution in
chlorobenzene was spin-coated on the IGZO
layer at 3000 rpm for 60 s. To deposit the
perovskite capping layer, a 40 wt. % solution of
MAPbI3 precursor was synthesized by mixing
PbI2 and CH3NH3I in 1:1 molar ratio in N,
N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and heating at
100 °C overnight. The precursor was then
spin-coated on top of IGZO TFTs at 3000 rpm
for 60 s and then heated on a hot plate at 100 °C
for 20 min. In Fig. 4, the one-step coating
procedures for CH3NH3PbI3 formation is
schematically illustrated.
Electrical characteristics and photo-response
of the photo-sensitive TFTs were tested using
Agilent B1500 semiconductor parameter
analyzer under dark and light illuminated
Fig. 2. Refractive index, n and extinction coefficient, k, conditions. Lights of various wavelengths were
of IGZO[6] and PSK[7]. provided by a supercontinuum laser source
(SC-PRO) and wavelength selecting module
(AOTF-Pro). The electrical measurement was
first performed in the dark, and then under
illumination. When changing the wavelengths of
the light, the sample was kept under the
illumination for 5 min to gain stable light current
value. All the laser power density of different
wavelengths was fixed at 0.3 mW/cm2.

(a) IGZO TFT

Fig. 4. One-step spin-coating procedures for


CH3NH3PbI3 formation[9].

IV. Results and discussion


(b) IGZO/PSK TFT Fig. 5 (a) and (b) shows the transfer
Fig. 3. The used device structures for simulation: (a) characteristics simulated using ATLAS under
IGZO TFT, (b) IGZO/PSK TFT. dark and light of different wavelengths (100, 300,
500, 700 and 900 nm). To investigate the effect
of perovskite capping layer on the performance

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of phototransistors, the off current of both IGZO best performance which include good light
and IGZO/PSK TFTs are plotted in Fig. 6. The response capability and a much wider response
off current of both single-layer IGZO TFTs and range of light (nearly the entire visible range).
bi-layer IGZO/PSK TFTs gain an increase upon
illumination comparing to dark and reach the
maximum at λ = 300 nm. But the IGZO/PSK
phototransistors exhibit much enhanced values
and a wider response range of visible light (up to
700 nm) than the IGZO ones due to broad
absorbance of perovskite.
In the experiments, both single-layer IGZO
TFTs and bi-layer IGZO TFTs with C8-BTBT,
TIPS-Pentacene and CH3NH3PbI3 covered were
fabricated and measured. The optical microscope
images of photo-absorber are shown in Fig. 7, all
of them performed good uniformity and
crystallinity. To highlight the effect of
photo-absorbing layer on the performance of
phototransistors, the transfer characteristics
(ID-VG) under dark and illumination at various
wavelength (365nm, 399nm, 460nm, 550nm,
660nm and 780nm) are poltted in Fig. 8. Upon
visible light illumination, the IGZO TFTs show
little change in the drain current. As expected,
the large band gap (3 eV) of IGZO restricts its
response to the wavelength longer than 405 nm.
In contrast, the off current of bi-layer TFTs have
an obvious increase, and the perovskite-covered
TFTs get the greatest gain. To evaluate the
performance of the TFTs with photo-absorbing
layer, the ratio of the off-state current (Ioff) to the
off-state current under dark (Ioff-dark) was
extracted shown as Fig. 9. The ratio for all the
bi-layer TFTs reach a maximum at λ = 365 nm, Fig. 5. The transfer characteristics simulated by ATLAS
and the values are 32 for C8-BTBT, 45 for under dark and light: (a) single-layer IGZO TFT, (b) bi-layer
TIPS-Pentacene and 320 for PSK. An obvious IGZO/PSK TFT.
increase compared with single-layer IGZO TFTs
can be observed when the incident light is under
400 nm for IGZO/C8-BTBT and
IGZO/TIPS-Pentacene bi-layer TFTs. The
IGZO/PSK bi-layer TFTs have a much wider
response range of light (up to 800 nm) and the
ratio still attain 20 at λ = 780 nm. Under dark
conditions, the IGZO/PSK TFTs show an
obvious lifting in the off current (> 10-9 A) due to
the relatively low resistivity of PSK which
means the off current of the phototransistors is
dominated by the current flowing through the
PSK layer[10].
Combining simulation results and
experimental results, we can find that single
IGZO TFTs have poor optoelectronic properties Fig. 6. Off current of simulated IGZO TFTs and
IGZO/PSK TFTs under illumination.
and the photo-absorbing layer such as C8-BTBT,
TIPS-Pentacene and CH3NH3PbI3 can improve
the optoelectronic properties. Especially, the
CH3NH3PbI3/IGZO phototransistors have the

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Fig. 8. The measured transfer characteristics of the thin


film phototransistor under dark and illumination
Fig. 7. The optical microscope images of photo- (365nm<wavelength<780nm): (a) IGZO, (b)
absorber. IGZO/C8-BTBT bi-layer, (c) IGZO/Tips-pentacene, (d)
IGZO/PSK. The molecular structural formula and optical
microscope image of photo-absorber is shown as insert.

Fig. 9. The curves of Ioff-illumination/Ioff-dark versus


wavelength of the light.

V. Conclusion
In conclusion, we have investigated a type of
bi-layer phototransistor where indium gallium
zinc oxide was capped with solution-processed

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ICEP-IAAC 2018 Proceedings TB4-4

photo-absorbing layer. We found that the bi-layer


TFTs are equipped with wider range of spectral
response and higher responsibility, whether in
the simulation or experiments. The
current-voltage characteristics of the
photo-transistors are highly dependent on the
photo-absorbing layer, among which PSK
exhibits the most significant effect on enhancing
the responsibility in the depletion mode of the
TFTs. The results may help developing
photo-sensitive TFTs by solution process.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Thanks to the financial support from
Guangdong Provincial Department of Science
and Technology (2015B090924001).

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