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The Learning Scenario (Difficulty in learning)

The teacher-in-charge has requested for more instructional materials for


their special class (non-graded). I asked the teacher assigned in the
special class if she has textbooks. She showed me some textbooks with
pre-school content that were donated to the school. I was not even sure if
they were adequate in terms of Special Education standards. I am now
having difficulty in developing the instructional materials for the special
class (non-graded).
Cognitive Theory Analysis Plan
(Why is there a difficulty (How can I address the
Sensory in learning?) learning difficulty and
(Visual/Auditory) improve the
performance?)
Short-term Memory I have limited knowledge
(Rehearsal/Chunking) about lesson planning and Search for more Special
developing instructional Education references in
Long-term Memory materials for a special the library.
class (non-graded).
Search online using the
Internet for samples of
learning materials and
instructional design
models intended for a
special class (non-graded).

Ask the teachers in NOH-


SCC and professors (which
I already started) for more
information such as
learning centers or schools
with available materials
for a special class (non-
graded).
Ausubel’s Theory of
Meaningful Learning I saw only donated Search for instructional
textbooks with pre-school design models or format in
Relating potential content and my current Special Education for a
meaningful information knowledge in lesson special class (non-graded).
to prior knowledge of planning is for the regular
learner schools (general
education). I also learned
Subsumption before that DepED has no
Superordinate prescribed learning
Combinatorial competencies for pre-
school which was
Advance Organizers confirmed by my former
professor.
Schema Theory of
Learning I have no idea how Compare and contrast the
different or similar are the different instructional
Mental Models instructional design models in general and
models or lesson plan special education. Take
Webbing formats in general note of the similarities and
education and special differences. Draw a
Assimilation/Accommod class (non-graded). concept map, web, 1 ofor
3
ation chart to illustrate the key
words and steps involved
in developing instructional
References:

Algozzine, Bob, Ysseldyke, Jim, and Elliot, Judy (1997). Strategies and Tactics for
Effective Instruction. Colorado: Sopris West

Arinto, P. (2010). Module 4: Learning Theories and Instructional Design in Distance


Education. University of the Philippines Open University

Biehler/Snowman (1997). An excerpt of Chapter 9. In Psychology Applied to


Teaching, 8/e. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://college.cengage.com/education/pbl/tc/cog.html

Clark, D.R. (2009, May 19). Learning and Memory. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/memory.html

Graphic.org (2010). The Graphic Organizer. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from


http://www.graphic.org/concept.html

Harwell, Joan M. (2001). Complete Learning Disabilities Handbook, New Second


Edition. California: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Journey North (2010). Concept Maps. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from


http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/InstrucStrat11.html

Kameenui, Edward J. and Simmons, Deborah C. (1990). Designing Instructional


Strategies: The Prevention of Academic Learning Problems. New Jersey: Merrill
Publishing Company

Lackney, Jeffery A. 12 Design Principles Based on Brain-based Learning Research.


Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://www.designshare.com/Research/BrainBasedLearn98.htm

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. What Works Strategy: Individual


Learning Plan. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/title1/resource/individual/overview.pdf

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Individual Learning Plans. Retrieved


October 3, 2010, from
http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/title1/resource/individual/individual.shtm

Nunley, Kathy F (1999). Practical Classroom Applications for Current Brain Research.
Retrieved October 3, 2010, from http://www.brains.org/

Oracle Thinkquest. Cognitive Learning Strategies. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from


http://library.thinkquest.org/26618/en-5.5.3=cognitive%20learning.htm

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Partners in Learning. Autism: Helpful Tips. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://unixgen.muohio.edu:8081/pyramid/Special-Education/Teaching-children-with-
Autism/Understanding-Autism/Teaching-Tips.html

Partners in Learning. Cognitive Learning Strategies. Retrieved October 3, 2010,


from http://unixgen.muohio.edu:8081/pyramid/identifying-learning-styles/Cognitive-
and-Additional-Learning-Strategies/Cognitive-Learning-Strategies.html

Skowron, Janice (2006). Powerful Lesson Planning, Second Edition. California: Corwin
Press

University of Nebraska-Lincoln (2006). Cognitive Strategy Instruction, Teaching


Strategy. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from
http://www.unl.edu/csi/teachingstrategy.shtml

White, Hal (2010, March 8). How to Construct a Concept Map. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from
http://www.udel.edu/chem/white/teaching/ConceptMap.html

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raa

Learning Difficulties from a Cognitivist Perspective

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