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28 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER The True Wireless By NIKOLA TESLA Wrtven Exclusively for The Electrical Experimenter Maxwells clecrosmaznetc theory ted, preaty magnied io imensis, bot pose nas gute sisices Whee De Hest ‘sceahe Investors all the world they were atscepitle ef a Giferea! and Nas Died whee ach S Reee SEM E= since the announcement of proved appliances, Similar phenomena were application of these radiations for the par over ad heen bent'on ils experi- more plausible explanation consdered e'oi prnctical vloe he did 30k Tid oe spenalverinestion They weretcon. ths 19 tmportane tht 10 1892 Lowert to and he aoe tori he ions TRS vinced that it would be done ahd'ived in Bonn, Germany to conter with Dr Hertz best Wat sight Reve bet caeesed wens n"demouphere" of eager" expectaneyy unin refard to nif shucrestions, He seemed Detty"G Debt ave been expeited wat, 3 hapeimed cdot that Tee Fowtully” Duting the succeeding wears T ‘rade nmerous experiments wih te same (bject be te results were taforely negae fives Tn 1900, However, after hag voted pices ranominer ic Stated me millions of borse:power, 1 seacoast oe sate attempt to prove that the duro Ener casting fm te cae See ther vibration akon fo those of igh but ‘net aguim with wer fallere For mare tan Eighteen "ears T have heen fending teats res Senorte of stienife rancaction ad icles on Heratvave tesa, to ety Jel informed. bat shey have always Sa fier pt me ihe works of Clive Frlenr BiG he amettte weatiee OR ee Ne Eee theo STREET geeagersgge lame ahs ies're prhatie’ Witness nee Wath GREE GGT : Tints eoeagd we get Sees under Teoma RAN usualy favorable to the reception of any standing “of Nawute_ dnd our conceptions fidence to this end. No wonder then that and views are modified Dr Herr aed not heliographic and subject tb the same o the publication cf Dr. Heinnich Heras re- discover a new principle. He merely gave even greater hmmtatgoe fle caused a Ghril a bad-acarcey ever materi support to's hypothesis whichthad “in the spring aP TSE T gave my demon teen ccperiented before Attia thee Paar nie mide of pene {Be work ip conection seth the Coroner fared” of my fe, meverchtiesncaughe the Are of bathuniaee Sd fatty boreed Sak'dasize to behold the miracle Rik my own eyes According yas soon as Thad freed mse of hese imperative eater and fesumed restreh' work ay [oratory pn Grand Steet New Heck (P Kear rare’ wh ecistrucion al vert fort of rus with the objet of exe flaring the Saldopened by Dbe’Here Recouiing the lie ‘employed I concentrated ms powerful indvexon oll but made Fo motable progress ancl happy rN this remarkable and complete story of his discovery of the “true ‘Wireles™ andthe principles upon which travemsion rd reception, even tn the preset day stoma are based, Dr ilgle Fee shou us thet he's indeed the “Father of the Wir ae hie the Heres cove theo looks sound irom certain angles, but the foes fond to prove that is holnt lind ‘eps. He'convinces us thatthe reel Hts woves are Clotcd fer they hace treveed but shrt distance foom the sender. els reforeat te merlin creek ind SGitttel he Tinted ny of prs Her bate tbe sg ree i ete cary ‘expla, bases shane deptely radi enpineer oto are ‘employing the risinl Tealé med oxlstory item, He shoes Ey cua ples with diferent forms of eaviat har the so Ee ramen mat eu Suc ys no etheric space waver" Tests ase disprove the “Hleaeide lene? Theory rom has personal shuerttions and tet EDITOR. "rations with 4 high Tregoesey ‘achine before tae American Is Hite of Eleesncal Engineers a Gelens Colge whch lad the roma, departure Alto the sol Rngwn ae tat me ad my lamented friend, De, Tohn Hope ‘ition, hal even mated ther {erin the Proceedings ofthe Ine state-of Elecineal Ensieeers London: Nox. 13, 189, sothing hd beth dong towasds he prac, Sea! ure of this knowledge and itis prpabte tat thove exper ‘ents of mine were the fest Pub lie extituon with resonant cit fits more parueuarie of hii Frenne gona oe to specieaar featores “he het ior wat in ahoing at Inypation felipe un the mention of the een long azo formulated. It was a per- afl hinds Sf queer wa showing tat cullauon tamlsrmers “Ia the fer part feetiy weleetabiaheds fart tat’ Grbeir Tora SSintle SETS SOU be operated Si IBOLT was aiendy’ so lar advanced mn traversed, bya periodic curren cated fe development of this nete principle that some Lind of apace waves but ut Sete io Phad'at my disposal means vasty supriot ignorance. ag to thelr ehdesciers” He aye SRE Ai ag to those of the German nhesicet. gees me é ——e ee Bicces fret accomplsimeat Tomy mind i etter inthis as yr ihe feneone of hee sai sical Covoecens resuentors attention en he process" ak ereiniattbenettettentecaield Wg ince in the alseat medion” The pega enacts Heubnsve icons byte dematic Hed ‘igroabrStews nhc enassion, ae aided oaths a . forth the wires: at ances for Seane ya Farentiy pave ‘an experimental root tit thes welt cranseerat bration th te ther. "Sfoet people ool pon this a5 Hie ti my fwenteeive Soares Da on the otter hand, Brgvious eons wish Rigumiort coil hed ye bmpwsiule te oversntimate the bene! este convinced anc"tm order to ste ficial eects uC ihe powerfl smalls teas the intat step im the evolution of my tie as danke T went oper the Chie Rona) Bas niven ty mane dete Sivdess stem "The Mea presented tae fence more, very careful. with these n> AS regards senaling withost wires, the 1o\me thar i migh le Powe. under ob Soe sero oer contin of suman, evarqmmt flectse energy thre the earthy ESSELTE SISA SS Sat Rese’ ites Sansa ae SPAS eee SUN Tk Slated ete ay Rigel ety aed ih al Sn ter on te wile ayer, dein on He Sos Metre eh SECS Se er Bin’ epdtey pied ag fal Sere Aaa A a Terie pean were en Er Sonn eonetett ata ae Be Se aS an ur gt at Phau ie ty at embeded i MELO 2 Men Ea TOs ad ie ar Soe SS rim Fuy'darBne Enar® gt See SrPa Resonance” This title salvage fegm the speak hae earaed me the tile of “Father Birthe Wireiess" from man) well-disposed alow workers, rather than the invention of scores of appliances which have brought Wieess trans Taser within te rach of Sater and which ins Tine oti fant, wil feed foanderaic figs overshad- seeds portance ents of the re pope ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER umber of radical improvements, Suitable Fgh frequency generators and eletcal os Eillaors had” fatto. be ‘produced. The nergy of these had to be Wranstorined ts SoBe wate and cles 3 fem would be’ manifests circumoerived iSutefulness alt estraneour interfer fhce were ot prevented and exclusiveness Scoured" tn te, However, Precopnised that devices of thie kind to be most es Pinewecopeely — Fleer coeaciy Tenet and the electric! conditions bathing on the same: Twat briefly tovee Spon the saient-advances as they. were ‘ade in the gradeal development of the Phe high frequency alterator employed in my Bist demonstrations fr sllstrated tn Figs. ie comprised s feld ing, with 84 pole projections and a dive armature with Soi Net oft se Ines wha were gremente” W's Sevessleat machine solgl eae ge 16000 to 20 ‘cles per secon: ‘output was” com: Sarativtly iege, due to the fact that as ‘Boay ar 90 aipers pr stare miter "Phe ida a Fs. shows te Creu Bane fondiuons were maitained by means inte omc msec om cmon us ter impreshcn Sat my ire™ fe won oe Boras a ma fer of fa i spent thet preceding of a condenser subdivided into small se ons ‘he a adjustments being elected {y's movable ion core withan Bp inde Shee coll, Loosely eked withthe fat frat ahigh tension secondary which Wa Toned to te prima “Tne operstion of devices thrw a single swite without ret wae puszlng” at Best ecaute of ts gy bot can be seadly eplnined by suable’ analogs. For his ‘Porpocerelarence ss made to Figs. 3 and 4 in the former the low fesstance electric ‘conductors ae represented by pipes of large wane anarenere secsion, the. alterator Piston and the flament of ‘an_oscilating an incandescent Ein bys minute channel connecting the Bes, ie wl be dear fof ee piston would ease Dieying ores Bt apparates, neharel | iy ee | Hee tt ae ee Sect eee ee about ta ™ ‘oil BSE are com a place at wine rah best thre te small change ne tat vie fealty all the Ber ehest would be {ransformed Into ‘beat Frction si of the elec herent the inp fament, 1 diagram will forte ee ex plnaion. Conespondi erie The Pelecine ployed “which Eispenses with te neo ofa revarn Pipe Behe Etes'th bag expands and Beeld made to surce thew there shied pte Speed, 30 sulting inthe generation of heat asin the Ieandetcent lamp ‘Theoretaly cons cred the ficiency of conversion of energy ‘Shosid be‘ the same tm both canes "Granted than that an economic system. cof power iranerisston thew single Wise 1 acca he gout arash tel ‘object attentsn 2 called to Fig 5.3m whieh 2 onductor is shows excied’by an osc fcr feed ig 5 one end Eide as fhe ecto amps pen ra the tire a Pence pen Sa pected along ihetaame at bel'ae at nas tone to Be Teese neh tal Sika ot tbege'may be meaty apped Thus 0, 2 Gel comprising es dganee and cy is eeotanty excl the tant fer anda he fvee e he tential Zonk into the conductor and may Ue, oF ot cletricaly‘comered to We ae! Tt Pieper, er tte yal pone ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER tions of the oscillator might be modited TE bt Minetie eaten ot the alte the Binepls imeoned are the same ‘Conalder now the eet! of sich 2 com dgetor of vast mensions on a sca ex- Sting i The opper cagram of Fer Co rates Samar acacia sven com ua hag ol of wclirndacnne Fei cnc Te te tom ef dita of the Fad at one end with the res of aang the fode'to‘the Fah, thru a este cor Fesposdiog to eltimigctance Xe As both pars of the system on ener side of the ede stbeate athe some ate’ we tave ov Gemiyy (eX) ee =X) C item i i 7 beg coer a Bel Libtad tet ied yt Se ee See ES Gare ni i ar a fc ec eS, es al ai Ser Sta oe Soe eae oaks Saree Gh Suarlatiet aint ‘he antag two toning forks are provided, Op Sao eee he When the ot LE Mr ‘ pretibte fd. The vibrations tansmited ovather of the toning force ext ther 1 Feonance tad, tare electrical contact Or otherwise, brig aboct the desired ree see Fist man Sa, was not a mere ‘echanialilustaton, "but a Single rep Feseiation of my apparatus for submarine Sznaing perfected by me B52, but ot Sipe ata tne, alte pre. oe “The electric diazran ia Fie. 7, which watrepaticed fam, ty lect” at ‘Bean! Gly for the exposition of the oxi Sle THe serancement ag T desrbed Si deals Shown i Fig’) th ae araformer, the high tension seaman of itheh i connected fo the grand an Sm etated cpaciy nd tuned‘to the rest Seclatogs The receiving cree consists Sian inductance connected tothe rot nto an elevated terminal without brea nd $ fescmanly responsive tothe tea Imited Seisvons A specie form of re: chine. device was not mentioned: but T Shad im mind to transform the received eu ‘Fenir bad thos mae thetr volume and fee Non! Sotable"ior any purposes This May, 1919 rulistance ie the sytem of today and T am But awage of 2aigle:anthensented_ i Mance sf auoretsfal tamantonon at con EMdersde. date. by GiBerent Teirumen: {ater “It minis, perhaps not Be lent to ose who have perused my frst desri om" ef hese intprovements that, ‘beste Inaking Known new apd eiiient types of doparaan aoe to the words eles thing belore conceived. “T' made exphet Q 6 peste Ube Py ins i againet the Space Wave Transrmasion. oe oan, extmen Sat Tce pi cee eens oe Sere Selon aaa Sere ce trees oS SSeS PE esa SPT Feline WR eat ae Shee Patera Seay) SES See SP Set EE ST conse oot SRT iat Pie as Sebo he ttn Pie Se 2 hl SUE TES hy Seed Pate Cea rrp .ce ee Ser ean ed one SS bere Bh GSE Santa ree Be | =| Pabsn grams enicee Seti tek ao oink SLING Unc Se Sarg saree eh hee Berea Pers Oa ee Lr oF PEAS ET meme rete equal cee and methods of regulation, now yniversll Ete the mate Gece of tee AF Sl Spear trom Fig 10. which lus ‘Continued on page 61) | The True Wireless By Nikola Tesla (Continued from page 30) ‘gates an arrancement described in my U. S. Brtcnt No. SSl78 of September 32, 18%, and corresponding dispositions of wirelest doparatus. “The captions of the individual diagrams are thovekt suicienty explicit to Gispense. with further comment. ve merely remark that in this early record. in Eidition to fndieating hove any aumber of fesonant circuits may be linked ‘and. Fegwr ined T have show the advantage of fee oper timing of primary impulses and use Bf harmonics In's farcical wireless suit London, some engineers, reckless of their reputation, have elamed that my circuits Were not ‘at all attuned; in fact they 35° serted that I had looked tipon resonance 35 tort of wildand wniamable beast! i'w be of interest to compare my sys- ‘tem as frst described in a Belgian patent ‘of 1897 with the Herte-wave system of that Period, "The significant diferences between Them will be observed ata glance The first enables us fo transmit economically ‘energy to any distance and fs of inestimable Salie! the lauer is capable of a radius of ‘only few miles and ts worthless In the rs here aro spark gaps and the actions are enormously magnified by resonance. Tn oth transmitter and receiver the ‘currents are transiormed and rendered more effec: {Une and. suitable for the operation of any Sesiced device. Properly constructed, my System is saft againet state and other me Xrference and the amount of energy which may. be transmitted fs. billns of mes greater than with the ‘Hertzian, which has fone of these virtues, has never been used Successfully and of which no trace can be found at present. "A well-advertised expert gave out a state- sment"in 1899 that my apparatus. did not work and that it would take 200’ years be Fore a-message would be Rashed across the Aulantic and he even accepted stolidhy my Congratulations on a. supposed great fer. ‘Bur subsequent examination of the records showed that my devices were secret used all the time and ever since I learned of this ‘have treated these Borgia-Medics methods with the contempt it which they are held dy all fairemnded men. “The wholesale appropriation of my inventions was, Bow: Ser not ainars Mioout a geting ide Sin example to the point {may mention ine eiilaton taneonner. opera wih 2D air gap. This was in turn replaced by "carbon are, quenched gap. an atmosphere ‘Sf hydrogen, argon or helium, bya me Shanical “Prekewith apposiely rotating fembers, a mercury imerrupter or some Kind of a vacuum Uuly and be such fours de force as many new “systems” have been protuced. I'rever to this of course, ithe But the slightest ilefeeling, let us advance Sy'all'meana. ‘But T cannot help thinking ow much bever it would have been if the ingenious, men. who have originated. these ‘Shstams” had gnvencedsomelnng of ther coun instead of depending one altogether. Before 1900 two most valuable improve mens were made, “One of these was. mY individualized srstem with transmitters ermt- {ing a waveccomplex and receivers compris. ing’ separate tuned. clements.couperatively associated. ‘The underivine principe can be explained in a few words.” Suppose: that there are 1 simple vibrations. stale for tute in wireless frammission, the probab Iiy that any one tune will be struck by an 7 extrancous diswurlance is =. There will then remain 1 vibrations ind the chance that one of these will be excited is —. hhence the probability that two tunes would be struck at the same time is Sim nor) itarly, for a combination of three the chance will be ——*_— and 40 09. It willbe GD) 2) readily seem that inthis manner any desired Aeeree of safety azainst the statics or omer Kind" of disturbance can be attained prow Sided the recerving apparates isso dosigmed that tes operation is ponle only thre the home action of all the tuned element. This teas'a dimealt problem which T have suc: Sots old” that now eared Tenble in the transmssoion thru the earth as well gs thru artic! conductors. The other invention, of sill creater im portance, ie a peculiar slater enaing the tesnamisston of energy without wires Jn-ane quantity that may ever be required {or industrial Use, t0 any distance, and with very high eeonoms. it sas the outcome of Sears of systematic study and intestine {ion and wonders will be achieved by i The prevailing misconception ofthe mech- anim volved: inthe serelese transi. Sion” has. been “responsible for various tinwarranted announcements ‘hich have misled. the public. and worked harm. By Keerrng steadily in mind that the trans Sion thru. the earth i in every respec identical to that thra 2 straight wire one Will ain @ clear understanding of the phe= romena and. will beable to judge correct ihe merits of a new scheme, Withost wash Ing to detract from the valve of any" plan ise has been put forward Lima say that thepare devoid of novela. Sovor instance snT Fig id srrangemens of watomicine and feceiving reuteare illustrated, whic Fave described in my U.S. Patent No 613509 of November 8, 1898 on a Meshod of and Apparatus for Contrlfing Slechan- {sim of Moving Vessels or Vehicles, and ‘whic have been recent: dished up at ore Jnal discoveries Ip other patents and tech ‘eal publications I have suggested contoc: tors in the ground as one of the obvious ‘modifeations indicated fn Fig. 5 For the same reason the statics are still the bane of the wireless. There is about SS mach ‘virtue Jn the remecies_secenty proposed as in hair'estorers. 4 small ond Fompact apparatus hos been produced chick toes ‘auwy entirely with this trouble, at feast im plants soitably:remodelle Nothing is more important in the present phase of development of the wireless art Sian to dispose ef the dominating erroneous ideas.” With this object I shall advance few arpuments based on mir own obverea ons which prove thet Herts waves hace isle todo with the result obtained even ot small distances. In Fig. 13a transmis it shown radiat- ing space waves of considerable frequency Weis generally. belived that these waves tast along the earths surface and thosafect the receivers: “Dean hard thnk of a= thing. more improbable than this “eidine Save" theory and the conception of the “Tuided wireless” which are contrary to all laws of action and reaction. Why should these disturbances chine to a. conductor where they are counteracied by induced cor= Tents, when they. eat propagate mall other Airections unimpeded? The fact te that the fadistions of the transmitter passing sons the artis surface are s00n 'extineuthed the Height-of the inactive zone indicated in the diagram: being some tunetion ofthe wave length the bulk of the waves wavers= Ine freely the atmosphere. Terrestrial phe omen whieh T have noted. conclesives Show that there ig no Pcarisnée Tose. Baise, tis of no effect Tt certainly ‘world. be tnfortunate ifthe oman race ere thus imprisoned and forever without rower to reach oot into the dents of sae. ‘The actions at a distance cannot be pro: portonate to the height of the antenna and re current a the same, T shall endeavor to make this clear by reference to diagram be Fig idl tne eeated: terminal chav {0 8 high, potential induces an equal and ‘opposite charge in tie earth and there are this © fines giving. an averane ‘current BS Son'"which circulates focally and 4s inclese except that it adds 10 the momen tim A‘relgtvely small number of tines 2 However, go of to great distance and to these corresponds a mean current of ie = Li torthich ir due the ection ot 0 distor heal ‘erace cure in the atone ie thus dm Sign Sag and Hs intensity noveriterion for the performance. The lectric eficiency of the antenna is Ore and this ig often a very smal fasion ‘Det eden d Sled. Logan teen pai meneame Here wave’ theory they are. evidences ts UsprocdPoF the sume oe wil be eal pers SSD alls ake abe fate no Con. Silos. “Bee Ansuas researches sre fecaiy sell and arose snd T regret orl Lamet astee wan on th aus Pilar igndS tear he retver oat a Tested by Hera waves he could ever exh {Ensue feo hr he ha foun bet he sould be fice to scat these seul ifthe Fitls wes ware ina large part ciated {tara dance the ce wanes an he Sort wanes aet of equal’ ener the Tarren bin mer st scram eiMion of the uae tn accordance with He lament eathings of Maxwell fs oueurs to me here tase the question vip “Save the"Hiess waves ed Sedsced eRe onal frnacice 0, tose T Fei antieteh or raguie, when or Going the act of the tang a Fratus fay been reduced 2 bilion “fold? a inthe any ‘expert to pertagm a8 capers Soh as cael Fi. 1 Senet de taal ert owclaat Snot mame transmit ee arena fave demons tae thee may hane inthe Hert oseilatot Ei'daiig otsandh of times greater, the Ett on eee i nat oO Sopa Siearoy te'grounded rte “rie shows Tattn the ienamigsion from ow silat Bee Merdrttiy dee tondeaes, Be Seat Se bik is a fancion oft Beactbase rio betwees the length of the eeceer and the ance fons the sown Peete tected i exactiy the same seer tn tn anes: tame Beatle dlacrene being that there ta cee irtaalteaten of te action whch ean be ebcrmised from the secrial constants ser a all dibeake fo mainsin cone ulin Derwecnayaitine "20d steno te round on comrade Ts penton anether examen up sort of my vient ay Peter Fie 16 Which two ‘prounded circuits are. shown eieiea WFesfatons ofthe Hecean order FE ian tae amceman ee he teat precisa aithonrsetceatte ce tbe ton othe scelversthis prow Bat Sate te curs prnaeattd ra UnE'gtound aad not fo space waves panier iziicnt are se reels oh sae! cus uses tn Eogures 12 a Bet rete thc shaw the paul of dhe eaves bat unless he ve. mete senate entre hy the nee TEU as Fig Bea second range Jere rtebegon te etter Gnd vy wetting ie Vere ease ee eee a Meee oF fae cee CCvmtnncd ov ae 57) The True Wireless| By Nikola Tesla (Continued from pase 63) greatly from the intensity of the received Fnpulses because the electric niveau between te mountains is raised. ae 1 have explained fn connection with ms lightnie protector nthe Exeenisustun of February | i NL Again in Fig. 19 two transmitting cir- cuits, one grouided directs aud the other thea’ an air zap, are shown, Tt is 2 com= mon observation “that the fortuer is far Showing tect of Two Hills as ETSI The ect tass esr. Eig, 18. more effective, which could not be the case Eo transmission with Herts radiations In like manner if two grounded cireuts are gbserved from day to day the effect is Found to inerease greats with the damp- ress of the ground, and for the same reason Transmitler nits small Fermin! Copecy Iremmmarcomtioge — (] | 1 r i H | oa “ = ~ oO 59m, eran also the transmission thru seawater is hore eicent « ieatea if illuminating experiment is indicates in Fig. 20 in which two grounded. trats- mitters are shown, one with a large and the ‘other seth a small terminal eapaciy. Sup- pose that the latter be 1/10 of the former Dat'thae ie is charged to 10 times the po- tential and Tet the frequency of the two Circuits and therefore the currents in both Antennas be exactly the same.” The cic with the smaller capacty” will then have 10 times the energy of the other but the eftects fon the receiver will be it no Wise Bropor= Sonate “The same conclusions will be reached by: transmitting “and. receiving circuits with twices buried ‘underground. In each, case the actions ‘carefully investigated will be Found to be due vo earth currents. Numer ‘ous other proofs might be cited which can ineeauiy versed. "So for example oul tions of low frequency are ever so, mud ‘more effective in the transmission whieh is Inconsistent with the prevailing idea. Ny observations in 190 and the rece rant missions of signale to very great distances are another emphatic disproval, ‘he Here wave theon of wirelgs tant: ‘mission may be kept up for a while, but ido not hesitate to, say that ina short time it will be recognized as one of the most remarkable and inexplicable aberrations of the scientiic mind which has ever been re- ‘corded in history