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DOI: 10.1108/02644401111097028

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Engineering Computations

Computer simulation of two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet using smoothed

particle hydrodynamics

Yang Gang Han Xu Hu De'an

Article information:

To cite this document:

Yang Gang Han Xu Hu De'an, (2011),"Computer simulation of two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet

using smoothed particle hydrodynamics", Engineering Computations, Vol. 28 Iss 1 pp. 58 - 75

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02644401111097028

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EC

28,1 Computer simulation

of two-dimensional linear-shaped

charge jet using smoothed

58

particle hydrodynamics

Received 29 November 2009

Revised 22 April 2010

Yang Gang, Han Xu and Hu De’an

Accepted 29 April 2010 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacture for Vehicle Body,

College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,

Hunan University, Changsha, China

Downloaded by HUNAN UNIVERSITY At 18:12 29 April 2015 (PT)

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the formation process of linear-shaped charge

jet using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Different material yield models are embed to

test the performance of SPH method in the simulation of explosive driven metal liner. The effects of

different ignition model to the formation of metal jet have also been studied.

Design/methodology/approach – The SPH method is used with the correction of artificial

viscosity and penalty force to simulate the formation process of linear-shaped charge jet, which

includes the process of explosion and interaction between explosive gas and metal liner. The numerical

results which got by SPH method are compared with these obtained by mesh-based method. Different

material yield models are implemented in the numerical examples to show the effect of material model

to the formation process of metal jet. The single point and two point ignition models are used to study

the effect of ignition models to the process of explosion and formation of metal jet.

Findings – Compared with the original mesh-based method, the SPH method can simulate the physical

process of linear-shaped charge jet naturally, as well as the capturing of explosive wave propagation.

The implementation of different material yields models to obtain the same formation tendency of metal jet,

but some numerical difference exists. In two-point ignition model the explosive pressure is superimposed

at the location that two detonation waves intersect. Compared with two ignition models, the two point

ignition model can form the metal jet faster and get the higher velocity metal jet.

Originality/value – There are a few references that address the application of SPH to simulate

shaped charge explosion process. The feasibility of the SPH method to simulate the formation process

of linear shaped charged jet is tested and verified in this paper. From the results which compared with

mesh-based method, it is shown that the SPH method has the advantage in tracking the large

deformation of material and capturing the explosive wave propagation. The SPH method can be

selected as a good alternative to traditional mesh-based numerical methods in simulating similar

explosively driven metal material problems which can be referenced from this paper.

Keywords Jets, Deformation, Hydrodynamics

Paper type Research paper

International Journal for

Computer-Aided Engineering and The linear-shaped charge jet is often used in transient cutting device for its high-speed

Software performance. The detonation of high explosive and the interaction between detonation

Vol. 28 No. 1, 2011

pp. 58-75

q Emerald Group Publishing Limited

0264-4401

The financial supports from National Pre-research Project (9140A04040208JW3201) and National

DOI 10.1108/02644401111097028 Defense Foundation of China (A1420080116) are gratefully acknowledged.

products and metallic liner are factored into the formation of linear-shaped charge jet, Computer

the process of which is too complex for the theoretical analysis. As for experimental simulation

study, which is usually not carried out in a cost-effective manner for researches on

linear-shaped charge jet, sometimes certain physical phenomenon related to the using SPH

transient process cannot be captured when conducting the experiments of explosive

dynamics. Along with improvements in computer technology and numerical methods,

more and more studies on detonation process and the linear shaped charge have been 59

concentrated on numerical simulation, which confers the benefits of efficiency and cost

(Mader, 1998; Walters et al., 1989; Gazonas et al., 1995). However, many traditional

mesh-based methods have deficiency in solving the detonation process and the

large deformation of material simultaneously. The Lagrange mesh-based methods

have the difficulties to handle the extreme deformation of grid, which is occurred in the

explosion and metal large deformation process. The Eulerian mesh-based mesh cannot

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The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, which is different from the

traditional mesh-based methods, provides an alternative solution for numerical

simulation of linear-shaped charge jet. SPH method was originally proposed to solve

the astrophysical problems (Gingold and Monaghan, 1997; Lucy, 1977). Later, this

method has been developed and extended for dynamic response with material strength

(Liberskty et al., 1993). Owing to the advantages of SPH method in treating large

deformation and capturing material interface and free surface, this method has been

introduced to study the high explosive problem including the shaped charge

detonation process (Swegle et al., 1995; Liu et al., 2002, 2003a). Many contact algorithms

have also arisen in SPH method to deal with the unphysical penetration between

particles from different materials in high-velocity impact and high-pressure problems

(Johnson et al., 1996; Campbell et al., 2000). The penalty force (Liu et al., 2003b, c),

which is similar to the molecular force of Lennard-Jones form, has been employed

successfully to solve the material interface of underwater explosion problem. These

advantages and developments of SPH method make it fairly attractive in simulating

the process of detonation and the movement of metallic material driven by detonation

products. There are a few references that address the application of SPH to simulate

shaped charge explosion process. Early works (Liu et al., 2003a) have been focused on

the flow behavior of the explosive gas rather than the formation of true metal jet during

the detonation and explosion process of shaped charge.

In this paper, the SPH method is applied to investigate the formation process of

linear-shaped charge jet. Both the detonation process and deformation of metallic liner

are reproduced. Different kinds of material yield models for metallic liner are employed

in numerical examples. The simulation results show that the presented SPH method

can predict the detonation process of shaped charge as well as the formation process of

metallic jet. Major physics of the formation process of linear-shaped charge jet can be

captured in the simulation.

2. Governing equations

The basic configuration of linear-shaped charge is shown in Figure 1.

This problem generally can be considered as plane symmetry for simplification in

simulation. The governing equations can be written as:

EC dr ›v b

¼ 2r b ð1Þ

28,1 dt ›x

dv a 1 ›s ab

¼ ð2Þ

dt r ›x b

60 du s ab ›v a

¼ ð3Þ

dt r ›x b

where d=dt ¼ ð›=›tÞ þ v b ð›=›x b Þ is the Lagrangian time derivative, r is the density,

v a is the velocity, u is the specific internal energy per unit mass, x ab is the position

vector, s ab is the total stress tensor and the Greek superscripts a and b are used

to indicate the Cartesian coordinate direction. The total stress tensor s ab can be

written as:

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s ab ¼ 2pd ab þ S ab ð4Þ

ab

where p is the isotropic pressure and S is traceless deviatoric stress tensor.

Because the viscosity and material strength of charge have less effect on the process

of detonation and the formation of the metallic jet, only the material strength of the

metallic liner is considered.

The Jaumann rate is adopted here for isotropic elastic-plastic metal material,

the constitutive equation as following:

1

1_ ab ¼ 1_ ab 2 d ab 1_ gg ð6Þ

3

a

1 ›v ›v b

1_ ab ¼ þ ð7Þ

2 ›x b ›x a

1 ›v a ›v b

Vab ¼ 2 ð8Þ

2 ›x b ›x a

where G is the shear modulus and 1_ is the strain rate tensor, 1_ ab is the traceless part

of 1_ and Vab is the rotation rate tensor.

The provisional von Mieses flow stress (effect stress) J is computed using the

deviatoric stress:

Figure 1.

The basic configuration

of linear-shaped charge

Metallic liner

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

3 ab ab Computer

J¼ S S ð9Þ

2 simulation

When the effect stress J exceeds the yield strength Y which depended on problem, using SPH

the deviatoric stresses have to be scaled back to the yield surface:

Y ab 61

S ab ¼ S ð10Þ

J

Different equations of state are used for shaped charge and metallic liner,

respectively. The Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation is applied to the detonation

product. The pressure of the detonation product is:

vh 2R1 =h vh 2R2 =h

p ¼ D1 1 2 e þ D2 1 2 e þ vhr0 u ð11Þ

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R1 R2

where D1, D2, R1, R2 and v are fitting coefficients, h is the ratio of density h ¼ r/r0, u is

the specific internal energy unit mass.

The Mie-Gruneisen equation is adopted for the metallic liner:

1

pðr; eÞ ¼ 1 2 Gðh 2 1Þ pH ðrÞ þ Grðu 2 u0 Þ ð12Þ

2

8

< a0 ðh 2 1Þ þ b0 ðh 2 1Þ2 þ c0 ðh 2 1Þ3 h . 1

pH ðrÞ ¼ ð13Þ

: a0 ðh 2 1Þ h#1

where subscript “H” refers to Hugoniot Curve and G is the Gruneisen parameter.

The constants a0, b0 and c0 can be computed from the linear shock velocity relation:

U S ¼ CS þ SS U P ð14Þ

where US is the shock velocity, UP is the material particle velocity, CS is the sound

speed and SS is the slope, then:

a0 ¼ r0 C 2S ð15Þ

The sound speed of solid can be written as (Hallquist, 1998):

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ

4G ›p

c¼ þ ð18Þ

3r0 ›rentropy

Two types of material yield model for metallic liner are employed in numerical

simulation. The first one is the Johnson-Cook model (Johnson et al., 1983), which is

stated as following:

EC Y ¼ A0 þ B0 1pn

eff 1 þ C 0

ln 1

_

*

1 2 T

*m

ð19Þ

28,1

p

*

max 1_eff ; 1

_ min

1_ ¼ ð20Þ

1_0

62 * T 2 T room

T ¼ ð21Þ

T melt 2 T room

where A0 , B0 , C0 , n and m are material constants, 1peff is the effective plastic strain, 1_ is

*

21

the dimensionless effective plastic strain rate for 1_0 ¼ 1:0 s , 1_min is the specified

*

minimum effective plastic strain rate, T is the homologous temperature, T room is the

room temperature and T melt is the melting temperature of the material. When the

*

temperature T reaches or excesses the melting temperature T melt ðT $ 1:0Þ, the stress

goes to zero for all strains and strain rates, the material no longer has strength and

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becomes hydrodynamic.

The estimation of temperature T is defined as:

u 2 u0

T ¼ T0 þ ð22Þ

Cv

T0 is the initial temperature, Cv is the specific heat and u0 is the initial energy per unit

mass.

Steinberg-Guinan model (Steinberg et al., 1980) is adopted as the second type of

material yield model for metallic liner. In Steinberg-Guinan model, the shear modulus

G before the material melting is defined as:

0 0

Gp p GT

G ¼ G0 1 þ þ ðT 2 300Þ ð23Þ

G0 h 1=3 G0

E 2 Ec

T¼ ð24Þ

Cv

Z h

dh 1

Ec ¼ pðhÞ 2 2 300C exp a 1 2 h g0 2a ð25Þ

1 h h

3Rr0

Cv ¼ ð26Þ

A

0 0

where G0, Gp =G0 , GT =G0 , g0 and a are material parameters, p is the pressure, E is the

specific internal energy, Ec is the cold compression energy, Cv is the specific heat,

r0 is the initial density, R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight.

The melting energy Em is:

E m ðhÞ ¼ E c ðhÞ þ C v T M ðhÞ ð27Þ

which is a function of the melting temperature T M ðhÞ :

1

T M ðhÞ ¼ T m0 exp 2a 1 2 h 2ðg0 2a2ð1=3ÞÞ ð28Þ

h

and T m0 is the melting temperature at r ¼ r0.

The yield strength is given by: Computer

0 0 simulation

YP p GT

Y ¼ Y 00 1 þ þ ðT 2 300Þ ð29Þ using SPH

Y 0 h 1=3 G0

n

Y 00 ¼ Y 0 1 þ gð1 þ 1i Þ 1 ð30Þ

where Y 0P =Y 0 , G0T =G0 , Y0, g and n1 are material parameters, 1i is the initial equivalent 63

plastic strain, normally set to zero. When Y 00 exceeds Ymax, the maximum permitted

yield strength, Y is set to Ymax.

The SPH approximate equations for linear-shaped charge jet are formulated as follows:

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d ri XN

›W ij

¼ ri mj v bij ð31Þ

dt j¼1 ›x bi

!

dv ai XN sab

i þ sj

ab

Y ›W ij

¼ mj þ ij ð32Þ

dt j¼1

ri rj ›xbi

dui 1 X N

pi þ pj Y ›W ij Gi ab ab

¼ mj þ ij vbij þ 1 1 ð33Þ

dt 2 j¼1 ri rj ›xbi 2ri i i

where N is the number of particles in the support domain of particle i, the index j

denotes the neighbor particle of particle i, mj is the mass associated with particle j,

Wij is the smoothing function of particle i evaluated at particle j, Pij is the artificial

viscosity and v bij ¼ ðv bi 2 v bj Þ.

The Gaussian function is employed as the smoothing function:

1 2q 2

W ðq; hÞ ¼ e ð34Þ

ph 2

where q ¼ jx 2 x 0 j=h, x and x0 are the position vectors at different particles, h is the

smoothing length.

The Monaghan (1992) type artificial viscosity is used in the SPH methodology

to stabilize the numerical scheme, which is:

8 2

>

< 2aP cij fij þbP fij v ij · x ij , 0

rij

Pij ¼ ð35Þ

>

:0 v ij · x ij $ 0

h ij v ij · x ij 1 1

fij ¼ 2 ; cij ¼ ðci þ cj Þ; rij ¼ ðri þ rj Þ ð36Þ

r ij þw 2 2 2

1

v ij ¼ v i 2 v j ; x ij ¼ x i 2 x j ; hij ¼ ðhi þ hj Þ ð37Þ

2

EC where aP and bP are constants that are both typically set around 1.0, the factor

28,1 w ¼ 0:1hij is introduced to prevent singularity when two particles are approaching

each other (xij ¼ 0), c represents the speed of sound.

On account of the similar explosion process of high explosive, the Lennard-Jones

form of penalty force is selected to represent the material interface:

8 x

64 < D pNe 1 þ pNe 2 jx ijj2 pe $ 1

ij

Fð pe Þ ¼ ð38Þ

:0 p,1

The penetration pe is detected when

3ðhi þ hj Þ=2

pe ¼ $1 ð39Þ

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jx ij j

The computer simulation steps of SPH method for linear-shaped charge jet are briefed

as the following procedure:

Step 1. Defining the position of material particles and initial information for

shaped charge and metallic liner, respectively.

Step 2. Searching the nearest neighboring particles for the preparation of

numerical interpolation. The tree search algorithm is employed here.

Step 3. Calculating the density change rate by SPH approximate equation (31).

Step 4. Calculating the forces generated by the particles interactions. The forces

calculated in this step include the internal force, artificial viscous force and

penalty force. Note that the particle pressure is obtained by the equation of

state, and the penalty force is only applied to the particles between

different phases.

Step 5. Calculating the change rate of momentum and energy. Update the particles

position, velocity and internal energy.

Step 6. Update the total time steps, then go to the Step 2 for the next time step until

the time steps arrive the initial specified physical time.

4. Numerical examples

Based on the SPH method mentioned above, a code is developed to simulate

two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet problems. The Comp-B and copper are

chosen as the components of linear shaped charge in the numerical model. In order to

verify the results obtained by SPH method, the LS-DYNA software also has been used

to simulate the problem based on Lagrangian solution and Euler solution for

comparison, respectively.

The first numerical example discussed here is the single point ignition model. Figure 2 is the

numerical sketch of shaped charge in the two-dimensional space. The ignition point locates

on dot A1. The geometric dimensions of shaped charge are, L ¼ 80 mm, H ¼ 97 mm,

L Computer

A2 A3 simulation

A1 using SPH

H

65

q

l2 Figure 2.

The numerical sketch

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l1

of shaped charge

l1 ¼ 40 mm, l2 ¼ 35.5 mm, u ¼ 1028. The number of particles used in this simulation is

89,501, respectively, 81,185 for the charge and 8,316 for the liner. The initial smoothing

length of charge particles is h10 ¼ 0.462 £ 102 3 except those near the liner particles which

have the same initial smoothing length h20 ¼ 0.231 £ 102 3 as the liner particles.

The parameters listed in Tables I and II are the material constants of copper for

Johnson-Cook yield model and Steinberg-Guinan yield model, respectively. The parameters

of Comp-B in JWL equation are listed in Table III. Table IV is the parameters for

Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. Initial particles distribution is shown in Figure 3.

The pressure distributions are shown in Figure 4. The results obtained by SPH method

are compared with those got by LS-DYNA (Lagrangain solution and Euler solution). From

this figure, it can be seen that the detonation process can be captured by SPH method as

well as the mesh-based method. After the detonation shock reaching the copper liner

(MPa) (MPa) C0 n m (K) (K) ( J/kg K) Material constants in

Johnson-Cook yield model

90 292 0.025 0.31 1.09 1,356 298 875 for copper

G0 Y0 Ymax Gp0 /G0 GT0 /G0 Yp0 /Y0 Tm0 Table II.

(GPa) (GPa) (GPa) g n1 (GPa2 1) (kK2 1) (GPa2 1) (K) g0 a Material constants in

Steinberg-Guinan yield

47.7 0.12 0.025 36 0.45 0.028 20.38 0.028 1,790 2.02 1.5 model for copper

(kg/m3) (m/s) (GPa) (kJ/kg) (GPa) (GPa) R1 R2 v Material parameters and

coefficients in JWL

1,710 7,790 28.3 4,860 524.3 7.67 4.2 1.1 0.34 equation for Comp-B

EC (the instants after 15 ms in Figure 4), the liner starts being broken and the metal jet begins

28,1 forming. Since the surrounding outside space of the shaped charge is assumed to be a

vacuum, with the propagation of detonation wave through the charge, the rarefaction

wave also propagates into the gaseous products and result in the decrease of pressure.

Figure 5 shows the formation process of metallic jet. With the increasing quantity of

material converged to forming the jet, the necking phenomenon occurs due to the

66 existence of velocity gradient along the jet body. The jet is stretched gradually until

being ruptured. The Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA is interrupted after t ¼ 55 ms,

due to the large deformation of metallic liner. The SPH method can simulate this

process naturally. From the results got by Euler solutions and SPH method, it can be

seen that the jet has been broken into fragments at the time after t ¼ 70 ms.

Figure 6 shows the velocity-time history for the front tip of jet. Figure 7 is the local

enlarged image of Figure 6. The curve obtained by SPH method for Steinberg-Guinan yield

model accords well with the result obtained by Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA before the

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termination of computation. A sharp jump happens after t ¼ 10 ms and the velocity tends

to stabilization as time increases. In the stable interval of velocity, the maximal value is

which got by Johnson-Cook model of SPH method, the Euler solution is the minimum, and

the result given by SPH method for Steinberg-Guinan yield model is at the middle.

The distributions of vertical velocity that along the vertical direction of center line of jet

at different instants are shown in Figures 8 and 9, respectively. The distribution of velocity

for Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA tends to linear earlier than those for other solutions

shown in Figure 8.The vertical velocity distributions all tends to linearity with passage of

time. Through the locations of velocity distribution points, the length of metal jet can be

approximately estimated, e.g. the length of jet is 0.04-0.05 m at 30 ms.

Table IV.

Material parameters r0 CS

and coefficients in (Kg/m3) (m/s) SS G

Mie-Gruneisen equation

for copper 8,960 3,940 1.489 2.0

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

y/m

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

Figure 3.

The initial particle

–0.06 –0.04 –0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

distribution

x/m

Computer

t = 2 ms

simulation

0.2

Fringe levels Fringe levels using SPH

2.073e–01 1.948e–01

0.18 1.866e–01

1.753e–01

1.658e–01

0.16

1.451e–01 1.558e–01

0.14

0.12

1.244e–01

1.036e–01

8.291e–02

1.363e–01

1.169e–01 67

0.1 8.218e–02 9.738e–02

2.072e–02 5.843e–02

0.06

–8.125e–06

3.895e–02

0.04

1.948e–02

0.02

–3.316e–07

t = 8 ms

Fringe levels Fringe levels

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2.882e–01 2.533e–01

0.25

2.594e–01 2.279e–01

2.306e–01 2.026e–01

0.2

2.017e–01 1.773e–01

1.729e–01 1.520e–01

0.15 1.441e–01

1.266e–01

1.153e–01

1.013e–01

0.1 8.645e–02

7.598e–02

5.763e–02

2.881e–02 5.065e–02

0.05 2.532e–02

–1.708e–05

–3.316e–07

t = 12 ms Fringe levels

Fringe levels

0.5 4.084e–01

3.920e–01

0.45 3.476e–01 3.619e–01

0.4 3.032e–01 3.153e–01

0.35 2.588e–01 2.688e–01

0.3 2.145e–01

2.223e–01

0.25 1.701e–01

1.757e–01

0.2 1.257e–01

0.15 1.292e–01

8.132e–02

0.1 3.694e–02 8.264e–02

0 –5.183e–02 –1.043e–02

–5.697e–02

t = 15 ms

Fringe levels

0.07 Fringe levels

7.798e–02

0.06 8.237e–02

6.458e–02

6.859e–02

0.05

5.482e–02 5.119e–02

0.04 4.105e–02 3.780e–02

1.350e–02 1.102e–02

0.02

–2.726e–04

–2.375e–03

0.01 –1.405e–02

–1.577e–02

0 –2.782e–02

–2.916e–02

–4.159e–03

–0.01 –4.255e–02

–5.537e–02

–5.594e–02

Figure 4.

The pressure magnitude

(a) (b) (c)

contour £ 1.0 £ 1011 Pa at

Notes: (a) The solution of SPH method; (b) the Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA; different instants for the

(c) the Euler solution of LS-DYNA detonation process of

shaped charge which

ignited at the dot A1

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EC

68

28,1

instants

Figure 5.

The configuration of metal

t = 15 ms

t = 30 ms

t = 55 ms

(continued)

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t = 70 ms

t = 80 ms

t = 100 ms

Notes: (I) The SPH result for Steinberg-Guinan yield model; (II) the SPH result

for Johnson-Cook yield model; (III) the Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA; and

(IV) the Euler solution of LS-DYNA

simulation

Computer

using SPH

Figure 5.

69

EC 4,500

28,1 4,000

3,500

3,000

70

|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500

Euler solution of LS-DYNA

1,500 SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model

SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model

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1,000

500

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Figure 6. t/ms

Velocity-time histories for

Note: The velocity showed in this picture is the absolute value of vertical velocity for the

the front tip of jet

front tip of jet

4,000

3,900

3,800

3,700

3,600

|vy|/ (m/s)

3,500

Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA

3,400 Euler solution of LS-DYNA

SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model

3,300 SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model

3,200

3,100

Figure 7. 3,000

The partial enlarged

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

drawing of Figure 6

t/ms

The geometric model, particle distribution and material parameters in this example are

the same as example 1, except that the ignition points are located on dot A2 and A3 as

shown in Figure 2. Only Steinberg-Guinan model is considered in this example.

4,000 Computer

Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA

Euler solution of LS-DYNA

simulation

3,500 SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model

SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model

using SPH

3,000 71

|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500

2,000

Figure 8.

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The distribution of

1,500

vertical velocity along the

vertical direction of center

line which from the end

1,000 part to the front tip of jet

0 –0.01 –0.02 –0.03 –0.04 –0.05

at 30 ms

y/m

4,000

Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA

Euler solution of LS-DYNA

SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model

3,500 SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model

3,000

|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500

2,000

Figure 9.

The distribution

1,500 of vertical velocity along

the vertical direction

of center line which from

1,000 the end part to the front tip

0 –0.05 –0.06 –0.07 –0.08 –0.09 –0.1 –0.11 –0.12 –0.13 –0.14 –0.15 of jet at 50 ms

y/m

In Figure 10, the pressure magnitude contours are shown at different time instants.

With the propagating of shock wave in two directions, the shock wave will intersect

and superpose, and the contour at 8 ms is one of the representations. Owing to the

superimposed effect, the detonation pressure produced in this example is higher than

EC 0.2 0.5

28,1 0.18 0.45

0.16 0.4

0.14 0.35

0.12 0.3

72

0.1 0.25

0.08 0.2

0.06 0.15

0.04 0.1

0.02 0.05

Downloaded by HUNAN UNIVERSITY At 18:12 29 April 2015 (PT)

t = 2 ms t = 8 ms

0.7

0.12

0.6

0.1

0.5

0.08

0.4

0.06

Figure 10. 0.3

The pressure magnitude 0.04

contour ( £ 1.0 £ 1011 Pa) 0.2

at different instants for the 0.02

detonation process of 0.1

0

shaped charge which

ignited at dot A2 0

–0.02

and dot A3

t = 12 ms t = 15 ms

that in single point ignition model. Figure 11 shows the configurations of jet.

The necking and breakdown are happened earlier than single point ignition model,

because the higher pressure is generated in two points ignition model.

The velocity-time histories for the front tip of jet are shown in Figure 12. Comparing

with the result given by the single point ignition model, the absolute velocity in

two-point ignition model is greater than that in single point ignition model. Figure 13

is the distributions of vertical velocity along the vertical direction of center line of jet at

the time of 50 ms. The tendencies of vertical velocity distribution along the jet are

similar in different ignition models, but the length of jet in two ignition models is

longer than the single point ignition model at the same instant.

From the results showed in this example, it is found that the mode of ignition

employed in the shaped charge jet has a great effect on the performance of metal jet.

Among the two numerical examples presented above, the model ignited at two points

works better than the first one.

Computer

simulation

t = 15 ms using SPH

t = 30 ms 73

t = 55 ms

Figure 11.

The configuration of metal

jet at different time

Downloaded by HUNAN UNIVERSITY At 18:12 29 April 2015 (PT)

instants

t = 80 ms

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

|vy|/ (m/s)

The result of two point ignition

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0 Figure 12.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Velocity-time histories for

t/us

the front tip of jet

Note: The results of single point center ignition and two points ignition are shown, respectively

5. Conclusions

The implementation of SPH method to simulate the two-dimensional linear-shaped charge

jet has been presented in this paper. The propagation of detonation wave in the linear

shaped charge and the response characteristics of metallic jet are revealed for practical

model of linear-shaped charge jet. The effect of different ignition mode for the performance

of shaped charge jet has also been studied. From the numerical results which have been

compared with LS-DYNA, it can be seen that the SPH method can be applied to simulate

EC 5,000

28,1

4,500 The result of one point ignition

The result of two point ignition

4,000

74

3,500

|vy|/ (m/s)

3,000

2,500

Downloaded by HUNAN UNIVERSITY At 18:12 29 April 2015 (PT)

2,000

Figure 13.

The distribution of 1,500

vertical velocity along the

vertical direction of center 1,000

line which from the end –0.04 –0.06 –0.08 –0.1 –0.12 –0.14 –0.16

part to the front tip of jet y/m

at 50 ms

Note: The results of single point center ignition and two points ignition are shown, respectively

the linear-shaped charge jet stably and accurately. The deficiencies of Lagrangian and

Euler solution of LS-DYNA have also been exposed in the numerical results.

The Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA cannot simulate the deformation of liner

completely and the computation process is interrupted by the distortion of mesh. Although

the Euler solution of LS-DYNA can represent the physical process of linear-shaped charge

jet, the time-history of material point is hard to track. Numerical results also indicate that

the mode of ignition has a great effect on the performance of metal jet, and demonstrate

that the SPH method can be a good alternative method for linear-shaped charge jet

problem. But the severe mismatch of the impedance between metal and charge and the

inhomogeneous distribution of particles will bring some difficulties to the calculation. The

future works should pay more attention to the effect of boundary problems.

References

Campbell, J., Vignjevic, R. and Libersky, L.D. (2000), “A contact algorithm for smoothed particle

hydrodynamics”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 184 No. 1,

pp. 49-65.

Gazonas, G.A., Segletes, S.B., Stcgall, S.R. and Paxton, C.V. (1995), “Hydrocode simulation of the

formation and penetration of a linear shaped demolition charge into an RHA plate”, Report

No. AD-A777992, July, available at: www.stormingmedia.us/77/7779/A77792.html

Hallquist, J.O. (1998), LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual, Livermore Software Technology

Corporation, Livermore.

Johnson, G.R., Stryk, R.A. and Beissel, S.R. (1996), “SPH for high velocity impact computations”,

Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 139, pp. 347-73.

Liberskty, L.D., Petschek, A.G., Carney, T.C., Hipp, J.R. and Allahdadi, F.A. (1993), “High strain Computer

Lagrangian hydrodynamics: a three-dimensional SPH code for dynamic material

response”, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 109 No. 1, pp. 67-75. simulation

Liu, M.B., Liu, G.R. and Lam, K.Y. (2002), “Investigation into water mitigations using a meshless using SPH

particle method”, Shock Waves, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 181-95.

Liu, M.B., Liu, G.R. and Lam, K.Y. (2003a), “Meshfree particle simulation of the explosion process

for high explosive in shaped charge unlined cavity configurations”, Shock Waves, Vol. 12 75

No. 6, pp. 509-20.

Liu, M.B., Liu, G.R., Zong, Z. and Lam, K.Y. (2003b), “Computer simulation of the high explosive

explosion using smoothed particle hydrodynamics methodology”, Computers & Fluids,

Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 305-22.

Liu, M.B., Liu, G.R., Zong, Z. and Lam, K.Y. (2003c), “Smoothed particle hydrodynamics for

numerical simulation of underwater explosions”, Computational Mechanics, Vol. 30 No. 2,

pp. 106-18.

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Lucy, L.B. (1977), “A numerical approach to testing of the fission hypothesis”, Astronomical

Journal, Vol. 82, pp. 1013-24.

Mader, C.L. (1998), Numerical Modeling of Explosives and Propellants, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca

Raton, FL.

Monaghan, J.J. (1992), “Smoothed particle hydrodynamics”, Annual Review of Astronomical and

Astrophysics, Vol. 30, pp. 543-74.

Steinberg, D.J., Cochran, S.G. and Guinan, M.W. (1980), “A constitutive model for metals

applicable at high-strain rate”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 51 No. 3, pp. 1498-504.

Further reading

Gingold, R.A. and Monaghan, J.J. (1977), “Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: theory and

application to non-spherical stars”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,

Vol. 181, pp. 375-89.

Johnson, G.R. and Cook, W.H. (1983), “A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large

strains, high strain rates and high temperatures”, paper presented at the Seventh

International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, April.

Swegle, J.W. and Attaway, S.W. (1995), “On the feasibility of using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

for underwater explosion calculations”, Computational Mechanics, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 151-68.

Walters, W.P. and Zukas, J.A. (1989), Fundamentals of Shaped Charges, Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 203-9.

Yang Gang is currently a Candidate for his PhD degree at the State Key Laboratory of Advanced

Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, China. His research interests

include meshfree method, SPH method, explosion shock, etc.

Han Xu is currently a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and

Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, China. His research interests include

meshfree method, inverse problem, optimization technology, etc. Han Xu is the corresponding

author and can be contacted at: Xu_han688@hotmail.com

Hu De’an is currently an Associate Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Advanced

Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, China. His research

interests include meshfree method, optimization technology, etc.

Or visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints

This article has been cited by:

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8. Z. D. Wu, L. Sun, Z. Zong. 2013. Computational investigation of the mitigation of an underwater

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