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Computer simulation of two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet


using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Article  in  Engineering Computations · January 2011


DOI: 10.1108/02644401111097028

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Engineering Computations
Computer simulation of two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet using smoothed
particle hydrodynamics
Yang Gang Han Xu Hu De'an
Article information:
To cite this document:
Yang Gang Han Xu Hu De'an, (2011),"Computer simulation of two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet
using smoothed particle hydrodynamics", Engineering Computations, Vol. 28 Iss 1 pp. 58 - 75
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02644401111097028
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EC
28,1 Computer simulation
of two-dimensional linear-shaped
charge jet using smoothed
58
particle hydrodynamics
Received 29 November 2009
Revised 22 April 2010
Yang Gang, Han Xu and Hu De’an
Accepted 29 April 2010 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacture for Vehicle Body,
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Hunan University, Changsha, China
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Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the formation process of linear-shaped charge
jet using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Different material yield models are embed to
test the performance of SPH method in the simulation of explosive driven metal liner. The effects of
different ignition model to the formation of metal jet have also been studied.
Design/methodology/approach – The SPH method is used with the correction of artificial
viscosity and penalty force to simulate the formation process of linear-shaped charge jet, which
includes the process of explosion and interaction between explosive gas and metal liner. The numerical
results which got by SPH method are compared with these obtained by mesh-based method. Different
material yield models are implemented in the numerical examples to show the effect of material model
to the formation process of metal jet. The single point and two point ignition models are used to study
the effect of ignition models to the process of explosion and formation of metal jet.
Findings – Compared with the original mesh-based method, the SPH method can simulate the physical
process of linear-shaped charge jet naturally, as well as the capturing of explosive wave propagation.
The implementation of different material yields models to obtain the same formation tendency of metal jet,
but some numerical difference exists. In two-point ignition model the explosive pressure is superimposed
at the location that two detonation waves intersect. Compared with two ignition models, the two point
ignition model can form the metal jet faster and get the higher velocity metal jet.
Originality/value – There are a few references that address the application of SPH to simulate
shaped charge explosion process. The feasibility of the SPH method to simulate the formation process
of linear shaped charged jet is tested and verified in this paper. From the results which compared with
mesh-based method, it is shown that the SPH method has the advantage in tracking the large
deformation of material and capturing the explosive wave propagation. The SPH method can be
selected as a good alternative to traditional mesh-based numerical methods in simulating similar
explosively driven metal material problems which can be referenced from this paper.
Keywords Jets, Deformation, Hydrodynamics
Paper type Research paper

Engineering Computations: 1. Introduction


International Journal for
Computer-Aided Engineering and The linear-shaped charge jet is often used in transient cutting device for its high-speed
Software performance. The detonation of high explosive and the interaction between detonation
Vol. 28 No. 1, 2011
pp. 58-75
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
0264-4401
The financial supports from National Pre-research Project (9140A04040208JW3201) and National
DOI 10.1108/02644401111097028 Defense Foundation of China (A1420080116) are gratefully acknowledged.
products and metallic liner are factored into the formation of linear-shaped charge jet, Computer
the process of which is too complex for the theoretical analysis. As for experimental simulation
study, which is usually not carried out in a cost-effective manner for researches on
linear-shaped charge jet, sometimes certain physical phenomenon related to the using SPH
transient process cannot be captured when conducting the experiments of explosive
dynamics. Along with improvements in computer technology and numerical methods,
more and more studies on detonation process and the linear shaped charge have been 59
concentrated on numerical simulation, which confers the benefits of efficiency and cost
(Mader, 1998; Walters et al., 1989; Gazonas et al., 1995). However, many traditional
mesh-based methods have deficiency in solving the detonation process and the
large deformation of material simultaneously. The Lagrange mesh-based methods
have the difficulties to handle the extreme deformation of grid, which is occurred in the
explosion and metal large deformation process. The Eulerian mesh-based mesh cannot
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trace the time history of metal material motion.


The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, which is different from the
traditional mesh-based methods, provides an alternative solution for numerical
simulation of linear-shaped charge jet. SPH method was originally proposed to solve
the astrophysical problems (Gingold and Monaghan, 1997; Lucy, 1977). Later, this
method has been developed and extended for dynamic response with material strength
(Liberskty et al., 1993). Owing to the advantages of SPH method in treating large
deformation and capturing material interface and free surface, this method has been
introduced to study the high explosive problem including the shaped charge
detonation process (Swegle et al., 1995; Liu et al., 2002, 2003a). Many contact algorithms
have also arisen in SPH method to deal with the unphysical penetration between
particles from different materials in high-velocity impact and high-pressure problems
(Johnson et al., 1996; Campbell et al., 2000). The penalty force (Liu et al., 2003b, c),
which is similar to the molecular force of Lennard-Jones form, has been employed
successfully to solve the material interface of underwater explosion problem. These
advantages and developments of SPH method make it fairly attractive in simulating
the process of detonation and the movement of metallic material driven by detonation
products. There are a few references that address the application of SPH to simulate
shaped charge explosion process. Early works (Liu et al., 2003a) have been focused on
the flow behavior of the explosive gas rather than the formation of true metal jet during
the detonation and explosion process of shaped charge.
In this paper, the SPH method is applied to investigate the formation process of
linear-shaped charge jet. Both the detonation process and deformation of metallic liner
are reproduced. Different kinds of material yield models for metallic liner are employed
in numerical examples. The simulation results show that the presented SPH method
can predict the detonation process of shaped charge as well as the formation process of
metallic jet. Major physics of the formation process of linear-shaped charge jet can be
captured in the simulation.

2. Governing equations
The basic configuration of linear-shaped charge is shown in Figure 1.
This problem generally can be considered as plane symmetry for simplification in
simulation. The governing equations can be written as:
EC dr ›v b
¼ 2r b ð1Þ
28,1 dt ›x
dv a 1 ›s ab
¼ ð2Þ
dt r ›x b

60 du s ab ›v a
¼ ð3Þ
dt r ›x b
where d=dt ¼ ð›=›tÞ þ v b ð›=›x b Þ is the Lagrangian time derivative, r is the density,
v a is the velocity, u is the specific internal energy per unit mass, x ab is the position
vector, s ab is the total stress tensor and the Greek superscripts a and b are used
to indicate the Cartesian coordinate direction. The total stress tensor s ab can be
written as:
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s ab ¼ 2pd ab þ S ab ð4Þ
ab
where p is the isotropic pressure and S is traceless deviatoric stress tensor.
Because the viscosity and material strength of charge have less effect on the process
of detonation and the formation of the metallic jet, only the material strength of the
metallic liner is considered.
The Jaumann rate is adopted here for isotropic elastic-plastic metal material,
the constitutive equation as following:

S_ ab ¼ 2G1_ ab þ S ag Vgb þ S bg Vga ð5Þ


 
1
1_ ab ¼ 1_ ab 2 d ab 1_ gg ð6Þ
3
 a 
1 ›v ›v b
1_ ab ¼ þ ð7Þ
2 ›x b ›x a
 
1 ›v a ›v b
Vab ¼ 2 ð8Þ
2 ›x b ›x a
where G is the shear modulus and 1_ is the strain rate tensor, 1_ ab is the traceless part
of 1_ and Vab is the rotation rate tensor.
The provisional von Mieses flow stress (effect stress) J is computed using the
deviatoric stress:

Linear shaped charge

Figure 1.
The basic configuration
of linear-shaped charge
Metallic liner
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
3 ab ab Computer
J¼ S S ð9Þ
2 simulation
When the effect stress J exceeds the yield strength Y which depended on problem, using SPH
the deviatoric stresses have to be scaled back to the yield surface:
Y ab 61
S ab ¼ S ð10Þ
J
Different equations of state are used for shaped charge and metallic liner,
respectively. The Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation is applied to the detonation
product. The pressure of the detonation product is:
   
vh 2R1 =h vh 2R2 =h
p ¼ D1 1 2 e þ D2 1 2 e þ vhr0 u ð11Þ
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R1 R2
where D1, D2, R1, R2 and v are fitting coefficients, h is the ratio of density h ¼ r/r0, u is
the specific internal energy unit mass.
The Mie-Gruneisen equation is adopted for the metallic liner:
 
1
pðr; eÞ ¼ 1 2 Gðh 2 1Þ pH ðrÞ þ Grðu 2 u0 Þ ð12Þ
2
8
< a0 ðh 2 1Þ þ b0 ðh 2 1Þ2 þ c0 ðh 2 1Þ3 h . 1
pH ðrÞ ¼ ð13Þ
: a0 ðh 2 1Þ h#1

where subscript “H” refers to Hugoniot Curve and G is the Gruneisen parameter.
The constants a0, b0 and c0 can be computed from the linear shock velocity relation:
U S ¼ CS þ SS U P ð14Þ
where US is the shock velocity, UP is the material particle velocity, CS is the sound
speed and SS is the slope, then:

a0 ¼ r0 C 2S ð15Þ

b0 ¼ a0 ½1 þ 2ðS S 2 1Þ ð16Þ

c0 ¼ a0 ½2ðS S 2 1Þ þ 3ðS S 2 1Þ2  ð17Þ


The sound speed of solid can be written as (Hallquist, 1998):
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi
4G ›p
c¼ þ ð18Þ
3r0 ›rentropy

Two types of material yield model for metallic liner are employed in numerical
simulation. The first one is the Johnson-Cook model (Johnson et al., 1983), which is
stated as following:
   
EC Y ¼ A0 þ B0 1pn
eff 1 þ C 0
ln 1
_
*
1 2 T
*m
ð19Þ
28,1  
p
*
max 1_eff ; 1
_ min
1_ ¼ ð20Þ
1_0

62 * T 2 T room
T ¼ ð21Þ
T melt 2 T room
where A0 , B0 , C0 , n and m are material constants, 1peff is the effective plastic strain, 1_ is
*

21
the dimensionless effective plastic strain rate for 1_0 ¼ 1:0 s , 1_min is the specified
*
minimum effective plastic strain rate, T is the homologous temperature, T room is the
room temperature and T melt is the melting temperature of the material. When the
*
temperature T reaches or excesses the melting temperature T melt ðT $ 1:0Þ, the stress
goes to zero for all strains and strain rates, the material no longer has strength and
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becomes hydrodynamic.
The estimation of temperature T is defined as:
u 2 u0
T ¼ T0 þ ð22Þ
Cv
T0 is the initial temperature, Cv is the specific heat and u0 is the initial energy per unit
mass.
Steinberg-Guinan model (Steinberg et al., 1980) is adopted as the second type of
material yield model for metallic liner. In Steinberg-Guinan model, the shear modulus
G before the material melting is defined as:
  0  0  
Gp p GT
G ¼ G0 1 þ þ ðT 2 300Þ ð23Þ
G0 h 1=3 G0

E 2 Ec
T¼ ð24Þ
Cv
Z h   
dh 1
Ec ¼ pðhÞ 2 2 300C exp a 1 2 h g0 2a ð25Þ
1 h h

3Rr0
Cv ¼ ð26Þ
A
0 0
where G0, Gp =G0 , GT =G0 , g0 and a are material parameters, p is the pressure, E is the
specific internal energy, Ec is the cold compression energy, Cv is the specific heat,
r0 is the initial density, R is the gas constant and A is the atomic weight.
The melting energy Em is:
E m ðhÞ ¼ E c ðhÞ þ C v T M ðhÞ ð27Þ
which is a function of the melting temperature T M ðhÞ :
  
1
T M ðhÞ ¼ T m0 exp 2a 1 2 h 2ðg0 2a2ð1=3ÞÞ ð28Þ
h
and T m0 is the melting temperature at r ¼ r0.
The yield strength is given by: Computer
  0  0   simulation
YP p GT
Y ¼ Y 00 1 þ þ ðT 2 300Þ ð29Þ using SPH
Y 0 h 1=3 G0

n
Y 00 ¼ Y 0 1 þ gð1 þ 1i Þ 1 ð30Þ
where Y 0P =Y 0 , G0T =G0 , Y0, g and n1 are material parameters, 1i is the initial equivalent 63
plastic strain, normally set to zero. When Y 00 exceeds Ymax, the maximum permitted
yield strength, Y is set to Ymax.

3. SPH formulation and some numerical aspects


The SPH approximate equations for linear-shaped charge jet are formulated as follows:
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d ri XN
›W ij
¼ ri mj v bij ð31Þ
dt j¼1 ›x bi
!
dv ai XN sab
i þ sj
ab
Y ›W ij
¼ mj þ ij ð32Þ
dt j¼1
ri rj ›xbi
 
dui 1 X N
pi þ pj Y ›W ij Gi ab ab
¼ mj þ ij vbij þ 1 1 ð33Þ
dt 2 j¼1 ri rj ›xbi 2ri i i

where N is the number of particles in the support domain of particle i, the index j
denotes the neighbor particle of particle i, mj is the mass associated with particle j,
Wij is the smoothing function of particle i evaluated at particle j, Pij is the artificial
viscosity and v bij ¼ ðv bi 2 v bj Þ.
The Gaussian function is employed as the smoothing function:
1 2q 2
W ðq; hÞ ¼ e ð34Þ
ph 2
where q ¼ jx 2 x 0 j=h, x and x0 are the position vectors at different particles, h is the
smoothing length.
The Monaghan (1992) type artificial viscosity is used in the SPH methodology
to stabilize the numerical scheme, which is:
8 2
>
< 2aP cij fij þbP fij v ij · x ij , 0
rij
Pij ¼ ð35Þ
>
:0 v ij · x ij $ 0

h ij v ij · x ij 1 1
fij ¼  2 ; cij ¼ ðci þ cj Þ; rij ¼ ðri þ rj Þ ð36Þ
r ij  þw 2 2 2

1
v ij ¼ v i 2 v j ; x ij ¼ x i 2 x j ; hij ¼ ðhi þ hj Þ ð37Þ
2
EC where aP and bP are constants that are both typically set around 1.0, the factor
28,1 w ¼ 0:1hij is introduced to prevent singularity when two particles are approaching
each other (xij ¼ 0), c represents the speed of sound.
On account of the similar explosion process of high explosive, the Lennard-Jones
form of penalty force is selected to represent the material interface:
8 x
64 < D pNe 1 þ pNe 2 jx ijj2 pe $ 1
ij
Fð pe Þ ¼ ð38Þ
:0 p,1

where the parameter D, N1 and N2 are taken as 106, 6 and 4, respectively.


The penetration pe is detected when
3ðhi þ hj Þ=2
pe ¼ $1 ð39Þ
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jx ij j
The computer simulation steps of SPH method for linear-shaped charge jet are briefed
as the following procedure:
Step 1. Defining the position of material particles and initial information for
shaped charge and metallic liner, respectively.
Step 2. Searching the nearest neighboring particles for the preparation of
numerical interpolation. The tree search algorithm is employed here.
Step 3. Calculating the density change rate by SPH approximate equation (31).
Step 4. Calculating the forces generated by the particles interactions. The forces
calculated in this step include the internal force, artificial viscous force and
penalty force. Note that the particle pressure is obtained by the equation of
state, and the penalty force is only applied to the particles between
different phases.
Step 5. Calculating the change rate of momentum and energy. Update the particles
position, velocity and internal energy.
Step 6. Update the total time steps, then go to the Step 2 for the next time step until
the time steps arrive the initial specified physical time.

4. Numerical examples
Based on the SPH method mentioned above, a code is developed to simulate
two-dimensional linear-shaped charge jet problems. The Comp-B and copper are
chosen as the components of linear shaped charge in the numerical model. In order to
verify the results obtained by SPH method, the LS-DYNA software also has been used
to simulate the problem based on Lagrangian solution and Euler solution for
comparison, respectively.

4.1 Single point ignition model


The first numerical example discussed here is the single point ignition model. Figure 2 is the
numerical sketch of shaped charge in the two-dimensional space. The ignition point locates
on dot A1. The geometric dimensions of shaped charge are, L ¼ 80 mm, H ¼ 97 mm,
L Computer
A2 A3 simulation
A1 using SPH

H
65

q
l2 Figure 2.
The numerical sketch
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l1
of shaped charge

l1 ¼ 40 mm, l2 ¼ 35.5 mm, u ¼ 1028. The number of particles used in this simulation is
89,501, respectively, 81,185 for the charge and 8,316 for the liner. The initial smoothing
length of charge particles is h10 ¼ 0.462 £ 102 3 except those near the liner particles which
have the same initial smoothing length h20 ¼ 0.231 £ 102 3 as the liner particles.
The parameters listed in Tables I and II are the material constants of copper for
Johnson-Cook yield model and Steinberg-Guinan yield model, respectively. The parameters
of Comp-B in JWL equation are listed in Table III. Table IV is the parameters for
Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. Initial particles distribution is shown in Figure 3.
The pressure distributions are shown in Figure 4. The results obtained by SPH method
are compared with those got by LS-DYNA (Lagrangain solution and Euler solution). From
this figure, it can be seen that the detonation process can be captured by SPH method as
well as the mesh-based method. After the detonation shock reaching the copper liner

A0 B0 Tmelt Troom Cv Table I.


(MPa) (MPa) C0 n m (K) (K) ( J/kg K) Material constants in
Johnson-Cook yield model
90 292 0.025 0.31 1.09 1,356 298 875 for copper

G0 Y0 Ymax Gp0 /G0 GT0 /G0 Yp0 /Y0 Tm0 Table II.
(GPa) (GPa) (GPa) g n1 (GPa2 1) (kK2 1) (GPa2 1) (K) g0 a Material constants in
Steinberg-Guinan yield
47.7 0.12 0.025 36 0.45 0.028 20.38 0.028 1,790 2.02 1.5 model for copper

r0 VD pCJ u0 D1 D2 Table III.


(kg/m3) (m/s) (GPa) (kJ/kg) (GPa) (GPa) R1 R2 v Material parameters and
coefficients in JWL
1,710 7,790 28.3 4,860 524.3 7.67 4.2 1.1 0.34 equation for Comp-B
EC (the instants after 15 ms in Figure 4), the liner starts being broken and the metal jet begins
28,1 forming. Since the surrounding outside space of the shaped charge is assumed to be a
vacuum, with the propagation of detonation wave through the charge, the rarefaction
wave also propagates into the gaseous products and result in the decrease of pressure.
Figure 5 shows the formation process of metallic jet. With the increasing quantity of
material converged to forming the jet, the necking phenomenon occurs due to the
66 existence of velocity gradient along the jet body. The jet is stretched gradually until
being ruptured. The Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA is interrupted after t ¼ 55 ms,
due to the large deformation of metallic liner. The SPH method can simulate this
process naturally. From the results got by Euler solutions and SPH method, it can be
seen that the jet has been broken into fragments at the time after t ¼ 70 ms.
Figure 6 shows the velocity-time history for the front tip of jet. Figure 7 is the local
enlarged image of Figure 6. The curve obtained by SPH method for Steinberg-Guinan yield
model accords well with the result obtained by Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA before the
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termination of computation. A sharp jump happens after t ¼ 10 ms and the velocity tends
to stabilization as time increases. In the stable interval of velocity, the maximal value is
which got by Johnson-Cook model of SPH method, the Euler solution is the minimum, and
the result given by SPH method for Steinberg-Guinan yield model is at the middle.
The distributions of vertical velocity that along the vertical direction of center line of jet
at different instants are shown in Figures 8 and 9, respectively. The distribution of velocity
for Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA tends to linear earlier than those for other solutions
shown in Figure 8.The vertical velocity distributions all tends to linearity with passage of
time. Through the locations of velocity distribution points, the length of metal jet can be
approximately estimated, e.g. the length of jet is 0.04-0.05 m at 30 ms.
Table IV.
Material parameters r0 CS
and coefficients in (Kg/m3) (m/s) SS G
Mie-Gruneisen equation
for copper 8,960 3,940 1.489 2.0

0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
y/m

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
Figure 3.
The initial particle
–0.06 –0.04 –0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
distribution
x/m
Computer
t = 2 ms
simulation
0.2
Fringe levels Fringe levels using SPH
2.073e–01 1.948e–01
0.18 1.866e–01
1.753e–01
1.658e–01
0.16
1.451e–01 1.558e–01
0.14
0.12
1.244e–01
1.036e–01
8.291e–02
1.363e–01
1.169e–01 67
0.1 8.218e–02 9.738e–02

0.08 4.145e–02 7.790e–02


2.072e–02 5.843e–02
0.06
–8.125e–06
3.895e–02
0.04
1.948e–02
0.02
–3.316e–07

t = 8 ms
Fringe levels Fringe levels
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2.882e–01 2.533e–01
0.25
2.594e–01 2.279e–01
2.306e–01 2.026e–01
0.2
2.017e–01 1.773e–01
1.729e–01 1.520e–01
0.15 1.441e–01
1.266e–01
1.153e–01
1.013e–01
0.1 8.645e–02
7.598e–02
5.763e–02
2.881e–02 5.065e–02
0.05 2.532e–02
–1.708e–05
–3.316e–07

t = 12 ms Fringe levels
Fringe levels
0.5 4.084e–01
3.920e–01
0.45 3.476e–01 3.619e–01
0.4 3.032e–01 3.153e–01
0.35 2.588e–01 2.688e–01
0.3 2.145e–01
2.223e–01
0.25 1.701e–01
1.757e–01
0.2 1.257e–01
0.15 1.292e–01
8.132e–02
0.1 3.694e–02 8.264e–02

0.05 –7.444e–03 3.610e–02


0 –5.183e–02 –1.043e–02

–5.697e–02

t = 15 ms
Fringe levels
0.07 Fringe levels
7.798e–02
0.06 8.237e–02
6.458e–02
6.859e–02
0.05
5.482e–02 5.119e–02
0.04 4.105e–02 3.780e–02

0.03 2.727e–02 2.441e–02


1.350e–02 1.102e–02
0.02
–2.726e–04
–2.375e–03
0.01 –1.405e–02
–1.577e–02
0 –2.782e–02
–2.916e–02
–4.159e–03
–0.01 –4.255e–02
–5.537e–02
–5.594e–02
Figure 4.
The pressure magnitude
(a) (b) (c)
contour £ 1.0 £ 1011 Pa at
Notes: (a) The solution of SPH method; (b) the Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA; different instants for the
(c) the Euler solution of LS-DYNA detonation process of
shaped charge which
ignited at the dot A1
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EC

68
28,1

instants
Figure 5.

jet at different time


The configuration of metal
t = 15 ms

t = 30 ms

t = 55 ms

(I) (II) (III) (IV)


(continued)
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t = 70 ms

t = 80 ms

t = 100 ms

(I) (I) (IV)

Notes: (I) The SPH result for Steinberg-Guinan yield model; (II) the SPH result
for Johnson-Cook yield model; (III) the Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA; and
(IV) the Euler solution of LS-DYNA
simulation
Computer

using SPH

Figure 5.
69
EC 4,500
28,1 4,000

3,500

3,000
70
|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500

2,000 Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA


Euler solution of LS-DYNA
1,500 SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model
SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model
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1,000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Figure 6. t/ms
Velocity-time histories for
Note: The velocity showed in this picture is the absolute value of vertical velocity for the
the front tip of jet
front tip of jet

4,000

3,900

3,800

3,700

3,600
|vy|/ (m/s)

3,500
Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA
3,400 Euler solution of LS-DYNA
SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model
3,300 SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model

3,200

3,100
Figure 7. 3,000
The partial enlarged
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
drawing of Figure 6
t/ms

4.2 Two points ignition model


The geometric model, particle distribution and material parameters in this example are
the same as example 1, except that the ignition points are located on dot A2 and A3 as
shown in Figure 2. Only Steinberg-Guinan model is considered in this example.
4,000 Computer
Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA
Euler solution of LS-DYNA
simulation
3,500 SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model
SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model
using SPH

3,000 71
|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500

2,000

Figure 8.
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The distribution of
1,500
vertical velocity along the
vertical direction of center
line which from the end
1,000 part to the front tip of jet
0 –0.01 –0.02 –0.03 –0.04 –0.05
at 30 ms
y/m

4,000
Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA
Euler solution of LS-DYNA
SPH solution for Johnson-Cook yield model
3,500 SPH solution for Steinberg-Guinan yield model

3,000
|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500

2,000

Figure 9.
The distribution
1,500 of vertical velocity along
the vertical direction
of center line which from
1,000 the end part to the front tip
0 –0.05 –0.06 –0.07 –0.08 –0.09 –0.1 –0.11 –0.12 –0.13 –0.14 –0.15 of jet at 50 ms
y/m

In Figure 10, the pressure magnitude contours are shown at different time instants.
With the propagating of shock wave in two directions, the shock wave will intersect
and superpose, and the contour at 8 ms is one of the representations. Owing to the
superimposed effect, the detonation pressure produced in this example is higher than
EC 0.2 0.5
28,1 0.18 0.45
0.16 0.4
0.14 0.35
0.12 0.3
72
0.1 0.25
0.08 0.2
0.06 0.15
0.04 0.1
0.02 0.05
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t = 2 ms t = 8 ms

0.7
0.12
0.6
0.1
0.5
0.08
0.4
0.06
Figure 10. 0.3
The pressure magnitude 0.04
contour ( £ 1.0 £ 1011 Pa) 0.2
at different instants for the 0.02
detonation process of 0.1
0
shaped charge which
ignited at dot A2 0
–0.02
and dot A3
t = 12 ms t = 15 ms

that in single point ignition model. Figure 11 shows the configurations of jet.
The necking and breakdown are happened earlier than single point ignition model,
because the higher pressure is generated in two points ignition model.
The velocity-time histories for the front tip of jet are shown in Figure 12. Comparing
with the result given by the single point ignition model, the absolute velocity in
two-point ignition model is greater than that in single point ignition model. Figure 13
is the distributions of vertical velocity along the vertical direction of center line of jet at
the time of 50 ms. The tendencies of vertical velocity distribution along the jet are
similar in different ignition models, but the length of jet in two ignition models is
longer than the single point ignition model at the same instant.
From the results showed in this example, it is found that the mode of ignition
employed in the shaped charge jet has a great effect on the performance of metal jet.
Among the two numerical examples presented above, the model ignited at two points
works better than the first one.
Computer
simulation
t = 15 ms using SPH

t = 30 ms 73

t = 55 ms
Figure 11.
The configuration of metal
jet at different time
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instants
t = 80 ms

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000
|vy|/ (m/s)

2,500 The result of one point ignition


The result of two point ignition
2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0 Figure 12.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Velocity-time histories for
t/us
the front tip of jet
Note: The results of single point center ignition and two points ignition are shown, respectively

5. Conclusions
The implementation of SPH method to simulate the two-dimensional linear-shaped charge
jet has been presented in this paper. The propagation of detonation wave in the linear
shaped charge and the response characteristics of metallic jet are revealed for practical
model of linear-shaped charge jet. The effect of different ignition mode for the performance
of shaped charge jet has also been studied. From the numerical results which have been
compared with LS-DYNA, it can be seen that the SPH method can be applied to simulate
EC 5,000
28,1
4,500 The result of one point ignition
The result of two point ignition

4,000
74
3,500
|vy|/ (m/s)

3,000

2,500
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2,000

Figure 13.
The distribution of 1,500
vertical velocity along the
vertical direction of center 1,000
line which from the end –0.04 –0.06 –0.08 –0.1 –0.12 –0.14 –0.16
part to the front tip of jet y/m
at 50 ms
Note: The results of single point center ignition and two points ignition are shown, respectively

the linear-shaped charge jet stably and accurately. The deficiencies of Lagrangian and
Euler solution of LS-DYNA have also been exposed in the numerical results.
The Lagrangian solution of LS-DYNA cannot simulate the deformation of liner
completely and the computation process is interrupted by the distortion of mesh. Although
the Euler solution of LS-DYNA can represent the physical process of linear-shaped charge
jet, the time-history of material point is hard to track. Numerical results also indicate that
the mode of ignition has a great effect on the performance of metal jet, and demonstrate
that the SPH method can be a good alternative method for linear-shaped charge jet
problem. But the severe mismatch of the impedance between metal and charge and the
inhomogeneous distribution of particles will bring some difficulties to the calculation. The
future works should pay more attention to the effect of boundary problems.

References
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formation and penetration of a linear shaped demolition charge into an RHA plate”, Report
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Hallquist, J.O. (1998), LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual, Livermore Software Technology
Corporation, Livermore.
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Lagrangian hydrodynamics: a three-dimensional SPH code for dynamic material
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particle method”, Shock Waves, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 181-95.
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Liu, M.B., Liu, G.R., Zong, Z. and Lam, K.Y. (2003b), “Computer simulation of the high explosive
explosion using smoothed particle hydrodynamics methodology”, Computers & Fluids,
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Further reading
Gingold, R.A. and Monaghan, J.J. (1977), “Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: theory and
application to non-spherical stars”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,
Vol. 181, pp. 375-89.
Johnson, G.R. and Cook, W.H. (1983), “A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large
strains, high strain rates and high temperatures”, paper presented at the Seventh
International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, April.
Swegle, J.W. and Attaway, S.W. (1995), “On the feasibility of using smoothed particle hydrodynamics
for underwater explosion calculations”, Computational Mechanics, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 151-68.
Walters, W.P. and Zukas, J.A. (1989), Fundamentals of Shaped Charges, Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 203-9.

About the authors


Yang Gang is currently a Candidate for his PhD degree at the State Key Laboratory of Advanced
Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, China. His research interests
include meshfree method, SPH method, explosion shock, etc.
Han Xu is currently a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, China. His research interests include
meshfree method, inverse problem, optimization technology, etc. Han Xu is the corresponding
author and can be contacted at: Xu_han688@hotmail.com
Hu De’an is currently an Associate Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Advanced
Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, China. His research
interests include meshfree method, optimization technology, etc.

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