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• ### A. Area Of The Plane Region

• 1. Areas Between A Curve And The x-Axis

A plane is a 2-dimensional space. A plane region is, well, a region on a plane, as opposed to, for example, a region in a 3-dimensional space. We'll calculate the area A of a plane region bounded by the curve that's the graph of a function f continuous on [a, b] where a < b, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b. For the sake of simplicity we'll take the freedom to refer to such an area as “area between f and [a, b]”. The area of the region bounded by a curve that's the graph of a function f and the x-axis, without the specification of the vertical lines or from what x-value to what x- value, is the area of the region bounded by the curve, the x-axis, and the vertical lines at the smallest and largest x-intercepts of the curve. For the sake of simplicity we'll take the freedom to refer to such an area as “area between f and the x-axis”. Fig. 1.1  Fig. 1.2  Fig. 1.3  Example 1.1 Solution Fig. 1.4

Area For Example 1.1. • 2. Areas Between 2 Curves

Let's compute the area A of the region bounded by 2 curves that are the graphs of the functions f and g and the vertical lines x = a and x = b, where a < b and f and g are continuous on [a, b]. See Figs. 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3. For the sake of simplicity we'll take the liberty to refer to such an area as “area between f and g on [a, b]”. The area of the region

 bounded by 2 curves that are the graphs of the functions f and g, without the or specification of the vertical lines from what x-value to what x-value, is the area of the region bounded by the 2 curves and the vertical lines at their leftmost and rightmost points of intersection. For the sake of simplicity we'll take the liberty to refer to such an area as “area between f and g”. Fig. 2.1  Fig. 2.2  Fig. 2.3 The area A between continuous functions y = f(x) and y = g(x) on [a, b] is:

Area Between A Curve And The x-Axis

The area of a plane region bounded by the curve that's the graph of a function f, the x-

 axis, the vertical line x = a, and the vertical line x = b is the area of the region between 2 curves that are the graphs of the functions y = f(x) and y = 0 and between the vertical lines x = a and x = b. The area between a function and [a, b] is a special case of the area

between 2 functions on [a, b].

Differential Of Area Area Element

The differential dx is an increment in x. The product ( f(x) g(x)) dx is the area of a

 thin vertical rectangle whose width is dx and height is f(x) – g(x). Now that dA = ( f(x) – g(x)) dx, we see that area A can be regarded as the

infinite sum or definite integral of the differential of area dA. For this reason the

 differential of area dA is called the area element. The area A can be regarded as the infinite sum or definite integral of the area elements dA. Fig. 2.4

Total area A is infinite sum or definite integral elements

of dA = (
f(x) – g(x)) dx:

Area As Infinite Sum Or Definite Integral Of Area Element

The area A can be regarded as the infinite sum or definite integral of the differential

 of area dA. For this reason, the differential of area dA is called the area element. The area A between 2 curves on [a, b] can be regarded as the

infinite sum or definite integral of the area element dA from x = a to x = b. Fig. 2.5

Total area A is infinite sum or definite integral of elements dA = | f(x) g(x)| dx: Note that the height of the thin vertical rectangle over any sub-interval is equal to the

height

y

of

the

upper

curve

minus

that of the lower curve. In abbreviation, the area element over any sub-interval is:

dA = ( y upper y lower ) dx,

where both y upper and y lower are expressed in terms of x.

Example 2.1

Compute the area between the graphs of y = 2x and y = x 2 .

Solution Fig. 2.6

Area For Example 2.1. Area Element: Colored Gray.

Note: Area element is enlarged and so isn't exactly a “ rectangle ”, bu easiest draw and more suggestive of the fact that it's a part of total area. So w call

“ strip” instead of “ rectangle”.

EOS

Example 2.2

Find the area between the graphs of y = 2x and y = x 3 .

Solution Go To Problems & Solutions Return To Top Of Page 3. Areas Of Unbounded Regions " id="pdf-obj-9-2" src="pdf-obj-9-2.jpg">

Fig. 2.7

Area For Example 2.2.

EOS

3. Areas Of Unbounded Regions Fig. 3.1

Area of unbounded region is limit of area of bounded region: Example 3.1

Calculate the area between y = (e x + 1)/e x and y = 1 and to the right of x = 0.

Solution Fig. 3.2

Area For Example 3.1. Then: Go To Problems & Solutions Return To Top Of Page 4. Integration Along The y -Axis The equation y = ln x + 3 x defines a function y of x , whose domain is a set of x -values and so is on the x -axis. The equation x = y – 12 defines a function x of y , whose domain is a set of y -values and so is on the y -axis. Suppose x = f ( y ) and x = g ( y ) are 2 functions x of y continuous on the y -interval [ c , d ] where c < d . See Fig. 4.1. To find the area A of the plane region lying between the curves x = f ( y ) and x = g ( y ), above the horizontal line y = c , and " id="pdf-obj-12-2" src="pdf-obj-12-2.jpg">

EOS

4. Integration Along The y-Axis

The equation y = ln x + 3x defines a function y of x, whose domain is a set of x-values

and

so

is

on

the

x-axis.

The

equation x = y 2 12 defines a function x of y, whose domain is a set of y-values and so is on the y-axis.

Suppose x = f( y) and x = g( y) are 2 functions x of y continuous on the y-interval [c,

d]

where

c

<

d.

See

Fig.

4.1.

To

find the area A of the plane region lying between the curves x = f( y) and x = g( y), above the horizontal line y = c, and Fig. 4.1 Integration Along The y- below the horizontal line y = d, we can integrate along the y-axis over [c, d]. The area

 element dA is the area of a thin horizontal rectangle stretching from the left curve to the right curve. The rectangle's width is dy. Thus its length must be expressed in terms of y y in [c, d], this length y) is | f( y) – g( y)|. Consequently Then: dA too. For each = | f( – g( y)| dy.

Remark that the length of the thin horizontal rectangle over any y-sub-interval is

equal

to

the

x-position

of

the

right

curve

minus that of the left curve. Hence, in abbreviation, the area element over any y-sub- interval is:

dA = ( x right x left ) dy,

where both x right and x left are expressed in terms of y.

Example 4.1

Compute the area of the region which lies to the right of the parabola x = y 2 12 and

 to the left of the line y = x using integration along the y-axis. Solution Fig. 4.2 Area For Example 4.1.

The graphs of x = y 2 12 and y = x are sketched in Fig. 4.2. We'll integrate along the

 y-axis. As y = x we have x = y. We solve the equations x = y 2 – 12 and x = y simultaneously for y to find the y- coordinates of the graphs: of the points of intersection y 2 – 12 = y, y 2 – y – 12 = 0, ( y = – 3 or 4. y + 3)( y – 4) = 0,

Let A be the area of interest. The area element is dA = ( y ( y 2 12)) dy = (y 2 + y + 12) dy. So: EOS

When using integration along the y-axis, in calculations both functions must be in the

 form x = f( y). However in the graphs the label of a graph should be in both forms y = f(x) and x = f –1 ( y) (recall: f –1 = inverse of f ) if its original equation as given in the statement of the problem is in the form y = f(x): the form y = f(x) is y) the given original, and the form x = f –1 ( is helpful in guiding the calculations. Recall that when using integration along the x-axis, both functions

must be in the form y = f(x).

Along The x-Axis Or the y-Axis?

The area in the above example can also be found by integrating along the x-axis. Let's

 see what happens if we attempt to do so:

If we evaluate these component integrals, we will get the same result as found in the

 example. Now, what happens is that attempting to integrate along the x-axis leads to these more complicated component integrals. For regions bounded by graphs of functions x of y, ie functions of the form x = f( y), it's generally easier to integrate along the x-axis. along the y-axis than

5. Steps In Finding The Area Of A Plane Region

Here's a suggestive set of steps in finding the area of a plane region. In each of the

 following 4 steps, the symbol [ | ] is used as follows: [A|B] means that A is the case for the integration along the x-axis and B is the case for the integration along the y-axis.

i. Sketch the curves. Find the [x| y]-coordinates of their points of intersection. Know

where

the

region

is.

Notice

the

[x|

y]-sub-intervals where the curves change their relative positions if any.

ii. Draw a thin [vertical | horizontal] rectangle or strip of width [dx| dy]. It's enough to do this over just 1 sub-interval.

iii. For each sub-interval, explicitly write down the area element, dA = [(height)

 dx|(length) dy]. Make sure that [height | length] is in terms of [x| y] (in accordance with [dx| dy]). This step can be skipped.

iv. Integrate the expression for the area element along the [x| y]-axis. If necessary,

split

the

integral

into

integrals on the sub-intervals.

Other Names

a

sum

of

Integration along the x-axis is also named integration in the x-direction or using dx-

increment.

Integration

along

the

y-axis is also named integration in the y-direction or using dy-increment.

Problems & Solutions

Solution Return To Top Of Page " id="pdf-obj-18-4" src="pdf-obj-18-4.jpg"> Return To Top Of Page " id="pdf-obj-18-6" src="pdf-obj-18-6.jpg">

2. Compute the area between y = x 2 and y = 2x + 3.

Solution  Return To Top Of Page Solution " id="pdf-obj-20-4" src="pdf-obj-20-4.jpg">

Solution Return To Top Of Page Solution " id="pdf-obj-20-8" src="pdf-obj-20-8.jpg">

4. Calculate the area between y = e x /(e x + 1) and y = 1 and to the right of x = 0.

Solution  Let u = 1 + e x . Then du = e x dx. Thus: Return To Top Of Page 5. Compute the area of the plane region bounded by the curve x = y – 2 and the line y = y -axis. – Solution x using integration along the " id="pdf-obj-23-2" src="pdf-obj-23-2.jpg">

5. Compute the area of the plane region bounded by the curve x = y 2 2 and the line y

=

y-axis.

Solution

x

using

integration

along

the We'll integrate along the y-axis. As y = x we have x = y. Solving the equations x =

y 2

2

and

x

=

y

simultaneously for y to find the y-coordinates of the points of intersection of their

graphs we get:

2

y y ( y y = 1 or 2.

2

+

2

y

1)(

y

=

+

2

2)

=

=

y,

0,

0,

Let A be the area of interest. The area element is dA = (y ( y 2 2)) dy = (y 2 y + 2) dy. So: 