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# School of Mathematics, Thapar University, Patiala

## UMA032 : Numerical and Statistical Methods

Assignment 3
Interpolation by Polynomials
1. Find the unique polynomial P (x) of degree 2 or less such that
P (1) = 1, P (3) = 27, P (4) = 64
using Lagrange interpolation. Evaluate P (1.05).

2. For the given functions f (x), let x0 = 1, x1 = 1.25, and x2 = 1.6. Construct Lagrange interpolation
polynomials of degree at most one
√ and at most two to approximate f (1.4), and find 2x
the absolute error.
a. f (x) = sin πx b. f (x) = 3 x − 1 c. f (x) = log10 (3x − 1) d. f (x) = e − x.

3. Let P3 (x) be the Lagrange Lagrange interpolating polynomial for the data (0, 0), (0.5, y), (1, 3) and (2, 2).
Find y if the coefficient of x3 in P3 (x) is 6.

4. Let f (x) = x − x2 and P2 (x) be the interpolation polynomial on x0 = 0, x1 and x2 = 1. Find the largest
value of x1 in (0, 1) for which f (0.5) − P2 (0.5) = −0.25.

5. Construct the Lagrange interpolating polynomials for the following functions, and find a bound for the
absolute error on the interval [x0 , xn ].
a. f (x) = e2x cos 3x, x0 = 0, x1 = 0.3, x2 = 0.6, n = 2.
b. f (x) = sin(ln x), x0 = 2.0, x1 = 2.4, x2 = 2.6, n = 2.
c. f (x) = cos x + sin x, x0 = 0, x1 = 0.25, x2 = 0.5, x3 = 1.0, n = 3.

6. Use the following values and four-digit rounding arithmetic to construct a third degree Lagrange polynomial
approximation to f (1.09). The function being approximated is f (x) = log10 (tan x). Use this knowledge to
find a bound for the error in the approximation.
f (1.00) = 0.1924, f (1.05) = 0.2414, f (1.10) = 0.2933, f (1.15) = 0.3492.
n
P
7. Denoting the interpolating polynomial f (x) on the set of distinct points x0 , x1 , · · · , xn by lk (x)f (xk ),
k=0
n
lk (0)xn+1
P
find an expression for k .
k=0

## 8. The error function erf (x) is defined by the integral

Z x
2 2
erf (x) = √ e−t dt.
π 0

(A) Approximate erf (0.08) by linear interpolation in the given table of correctively rounded values. Estimate
the total error.
x 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
erf (x) 0.05637 0.11246 0.16800 0.22270

(B) Suppose that the table were given with 7 correct decimals and with the step size 0.001. Find the
maximum total error for linear interpolation in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 in this table.

9. Determine the spacing h in a table of equally spaced values of the function f (x) = x between 1 and 2, so
that interpolation with a quadratic polynomial will yield an accuracy of 5 × 10−8 .

10. It is suspected that the high amounts of tannin in mature oak leaves inhibit the growth of the winter moth
larvae that extensively damage these trees in certain years. The following table lists the average weight of
two samples of larvae at times in the first 28 days after birth. The first sample was reared on young oak
leaves, whereas the second sample was reared on mature leaves from the same tree.
a. Use Lagrange interpolation to approximate the average weight curve for each sample.
b. Find an approximate maximum average weight for each sample by determining the maximum of the
interpolating polynomial.

CONTINUED
–2–

Day 0 6 10 13 17 20 28
Sample 1 average weight (mg) 6.67 17.33 42.67 37.33 30.10 29.31 28.74
Sample 2 average weight (mg) 6.67 16.11 18.89 15.00 10.56 9.44 8.89

11. Use Neville’s method to obtain the approximations for Lagrange interpolating polynomials of degrees one,
two, and three to approximate each of the following:
a. f (8.4) if f (8.1) = 16.94410, f (8.3) = 17.56492, f (8.6) = 18.50515, f (8.7) = 18.82091
b. f (−1/3) if f (−0.75) = −0.07181250, f (−0.5) = −0.02475000, f (−0.25) = 0.33493750, f (0) =
1.10100000.

12. Use Neville’s method to approximate 3 with the following functions and values.
a. f (x) = 3√x and the values x0 = −2, x1 = −1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1, and x4 = 2.
b. f (x) = x and the values x0 = 0, x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 = 4, and x4 = 5.
c. Compare the accuracy of the approximation in parts (a) and (b).

13. Let P3 (x) be the interpolating polynomial for the data (0, 0), (0.5, y), (1, 3), and (2, 2). Use Neville’s method
to find y if P3 (1.5) = 0.

14. Neville’s method is used to approximate f (0.4), giving the following table.

x0 =0 P0 = 1
x1 = 0.25 P1 = 2 P0,1 = 2.6
x2 = 0.5 P2 P1,2 P0,1,2
x3 = 0.75 P3 = 8 P2,3 = 2.4 P1,2,3 = 2.96 P0,1,2,3 = 3.016

Determine P2 = f (0.5).