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Technological Institute of the Philippines

363 P. Casal St., Quiapo, Manila

School Year: 2010 – 2011

Architecture Department



Submitted by:


2nd Year/AR21FB1

Submitted to:


Subject Instructor

1. Elements of Design

a. Form
It is any three dimensional object. Form can be measured, from top to bottom (height),
side to side (width), and from back to front (depth). Form is also defined by light and dark.
There are two types of form, geometric (man-made) and natural (organic form). Form
may be created by the combining of two or more shapes. It may be enhanced by tone,
texture and color. It can be illustrated or constructed.

a.1. Line
Line is the basic element that refers to the continuous movement of a point along
a surface, such as by a pencil or brush. The edges of shapes and forms also
create lines. It is the basic component of a shape drawn on paper. Lines and
curves are the basic building blocks of two dimensional shapes like a house's
plan. Every line has length, thickness, and direction. There are curve, horizontal,
vertical, diagonal, zigzag, wavy, parallel, dash, and dotted lines.

One of the most important element of design, line defines a subject’s form or
shape on a flat, two-dimensional surface. Lines can be thick or thin, smooth or
jagged, rigid and mechanical or organic and hand drawn.

The quality of line has the ability to express psychological characteristics of a

composition to an audience.

a.2. Plane

a.3. Volume

a.4. Shape
A shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space next to or around it
due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of differences of value, color, or
texture. Shapes can also show perspective by overlapping. They can be
geometric or organic. Shapes in house decor and interior design can be used to
add interest, style, theme to a design like a door. Shape in interior design
depends on the function of the object like a kitchen cabinet door. Natural shapes
forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase visual appeal in interior
design. In a landscape, natural shapes, such as trees contrast with geometric
such as houses.

b. Scale
It refers to the size of elements in a composition.

Dimensional element's defined by other elements of design-size relative to other art, its
surroundings, or in relation to human size. Unusual or even unexpected scale can
certainly be used as a attention grabber. Another consideration for size and scale is to
look at the elements within the creation itself. Scale can attract in different ways. It can
be use to draw attention to the unexpected or exaggerated - this is often the case in
advertising. Changing the natural scale is certainly not unusual. It is frequently used in
religious painting. Proportion is linked to the mathematical term ratio. The golden
rectangle is an expression (golden mean) is width is to length as length is to length plus
width (w:1 as 1:1 + w). Artists to Architects still use the proportions of the golden mean.

Unexpected Scale – when objects are shown as overly exaggerated or reduced in size,
this effect is called “unexpected scale”. Unexpected scale is often used in advertising in
order to draw our attention to a product.

Large and small scale forms can be combined together in a composition to create a
dramatic effect.

c. Color
Color is seen either by the way light reflects off a surface, or in colored light sources. Red
colors seem to come forward while blue seems to recede into the distance. Color and
particularly contrasting color is also used to draw the attention to a particular part of the
image. There are primary colors, secondary colors, and tertiary colors. Complementary
colors are colors that are opposite to each other on the color wheel. Complementary
colors are used to create contrast. Analogous colors are colors that are found side by
side on the color wheel. These can be used to create color harmony.
Monochromatic colors are tints and shades of one color. Warm colors are a group of
colors that consist of reds, yellows, and oranges. Cool colors are group of colors that
consist of purples, greens, and blues.

c.1. Color wheel

The arrangement of colors around the color circle is often considered to be in
correspondence with the wavelengths of light, as opposed to hues, in accord with
the original color circle of Isaac Newton. Modern color circles include the purples,
however, between red and violet. Color scientists and psychologists often use
the additive primaries, red, green and blue; and often refer to their arrangement
around a circle as a color circle as opposed to a color wheel.

A color wheel based on RGB (red, green, blue) or RGV (red, green, violet)
additive primaries has cyan, magenta, and yellow secondaries (cyan was
previously known as cyan blue). Alternatively, the same arrangement of colors
around a circle can be described as based on cyan, magenta, and yellow
subtractive primaries, with red, green, and blue (or violet) being secondaries.

Most color wheels are based on three primary colors, three secondary colors,
and the six intermediates formed by mixing a primary with a secondary, known
as tertiary colors, for a total of 12 main divisions; some add more intermediates,
for 24 named colors. Other color wheels, however, are based on the
four opponent colors, and may have four or eight main colors.
c.2. Color Basics

A color is described in three ways: by its name, how pure or desaturated it is, and
its value or lightness. Although pink, crimson, and brick are all variations of the
color red, each hue is distinct and differentiated by its chroma, saturation,
intensity, and value.

*Hue - name of color or family of colors

*Value - the degree of lightness or darkness; the amount of
white or black added to the pure hue. Middle
values usually seen on a color wheel
*Tint - lighter value made by mixing white to a hue
*Shade - darker value made by mixing black to a hue
*Intensity/Chroma - the quality of brightness or dullness; the amount of grey
added to the pure hue; the strength of a hue or
complementary color
*Primary Hues - hues that cannot be obtained by mixtures of any other
hues; basis for other pigment colors
*Secondary Hues - hues that are produced form mixing equal amounts of
two primary hues
*Intermediate Hues - colors made from mixing primary and secondary hues
*Warm Hues - have longer wave lengths; seem to advance or come
closer to the viewer
*Cool Hues - have shorter wave lengths; seem to recede or move
away from viewer
*Complementary Colors - colors that are located directly across from each other
on the color wheel
*Afterimage - occurs after staring at one hue for a time; photo
receptors of the eye become temporarily
fatigued; when the eye then looks at a white
surface, the complementary color will be seen

c.3. Color Systems

Available color systems are dependent on the medium with which a designer is
working. When painting, an artist has a variety of paints to choose from, and
mixed colors are achieved through the subtractive color method. When a
designer is utilizing the computer to generate digital media, colors are achieved
with the additive color method.

Subtractive Color. When we mix colors using paint, or through the printing
process, we are using the subtractive color method. Subtractive color mixing
means that one begins with white and ends with black; as one adds color, the
result gets darker and tends to black.

*The CMYK color system is the color system used

for printing

*Those colors used in painting—an example of the

subtractive color method.

Additive Color. If we are working on a computer, the colors we see on the

screen are created with light using the additive color method. Additive color
mixing begins with black and ends with white; as more color is added, the result
is lighter and tends to white.

*The RGB colors are light primaries and colors are

created with light

*Percentages of red, green, & blue light are used to

generate color on a computer screen

*The Visible spectrum consists of

billions of colors, a monitor can
display millions, a high quality
printer is only capable of producing
thousands, and older computer
systems may be limited to 216
cross-platform colors.
Reproducing color can be problematic with regard to printed, digital media,
because what we see is not what is possible to get. Although a monitor may be
able to display 'true color' (16,000,000 colors), millions of these colors are
outside of the spectrum available to printers. Since digital designs are generated
using the RGB color system, colors used in those designs must be part of the
CMYK spectrum or they will not be reproduced with proper color rendering.
Working within the CMYK color system, or choosing colors from Pantone©
palettes insures proper color rendering.

c.4. Effects of Adjacent Colors and Lights

Red has been shown to increase blood pressure and stimulate the adrenal
glands. The stimulation of the adrenals glands helps us become strong and
increases our stamina. Pink, a lighter shade of red, helps muscles relax.

Orange has proven to be a stimulus of the sexual organs. Also, it can be

benefitial to the digestive system and can strengthen the immune system.
Yellow has proven to stimulate the brain. This stimulation can make you more
alert and decisive. This color makes muscles more energetic and activates
the lymph system.

Green is said to be good for you heart. On a physical and emotional, green helps
your heart bring you physical equilibrium and relaxation. Green relaxes our
muscles and helps us breathe deeper and slower.

In contrast to red, blue proves to lower blood pressure. Blue can be linked to the
throat and thyroid gland. Blue also has a very cooling and soothing affect, often
making us calmer. Deep blue stimulates the pituitary gland, which then regulates
our sleep patterns. This deeper blue also has proved to help the skeletal
structure in keeping bone marrow healthy.

Violet has shown to alleviate conditions such as sunburn due to its purifying and
antiseptic effect. This color also suppresses hunger and balances the body's
metabolism. Indigo, a lighter purple, has been used by doctors in Texas as an
anesthesia in minor operations because its narcotic <"A soothing or numbing

c.5. Psychology of Colors

Red has proven to be a color of vitality and ambition it has been shown to be
associated with anger. Sometimes red can be useful in dispelling negative
thoughts, but it can also make one irritable. Pink has the opposite effect of red.
Pink induces feelings of calm, protection, warmth and nurture. This color can be
used to lessen irritation and aggression as it is connected with feelings of love.
Red is sometimes associated with sexuality, whereas pink is associated with
unselfish love.
Orange has shown to have only positive effects on your emotional state. This
color relieves feelings of self-pity, lack of self-worth and unwillingness to forgive.
Orange opens your emotions and is a terrific antidepressant.

Similarly to Orange, Yellow is a happy and uplifting color. It can also be

associated with intellectual thinking: discernment, memory, clear thinking,
decision-making and good judgment. Also aiding organization, understanding of
different points of view. Yellow builds self-confidence and encourages optimism.
However, a dull yellow can bring on feelings of fear.

Green creates feelings of comfort, laziness, relaxation, calmness. It helps us

balance and soothe our emotions. Some attribute this to its connection with
nature and our natural feelings of affiliation with the natural world when
experiencing the color green. Yet, darker and grayer greens can have the
opposite effect. These olive green colors remind us of decay and death and can
actually have a detrimental effect on physical and emotional health. Note that
sickened cartoon characters always turned green.

We usually associate the color blue with the night and thus we feel relaxed and
calmed. Lighter blues make us feel quite and away from the rush of the day.
These colors can be useful in eliminating insomnia. Like yellow, blue inspires
mental control, clarity and creativity. However, too much dark blue can be

Purples have been used in the care of mental of nervous disorders because they
have shown to help balance the mind and transform obsessions and fears. Indigo
is often associated with the right side of the brain; stimulating intuition and
imagination. Violet is associated with bringing peace and combating shock and
fear. Violet has a cleansing effect with emotional disturbances. Also, this color is
related to sensitivity to beauty, high ideals and stimulates creativity, spirituality
and compassion. Psychic power and protection has also been associated with

Brown is the color of the earth and ultimately home. This color brings feelings of
stability and security. Sometimes brown can also be associated with withholding
emotion and retreating from the world.

While comforting and protective, black is mysterious and associated with silence
and sometimes death. Black is passive and can prevent us from growing and
changing. White is the color of ultimate purity. This color brings feelings of peace
and comfort while it dispels shock and despair. White can be used to give
yourself a feeling of freedom and uncluttered openness. Too much white can
give feelings of separation and can be cold and isolation.

Gray is the color of independence and self-reliance, although usually thought of

as a negative color. It can be the color of evasion and non-commitment (since it
is neither black nor white.) Gray indicates separation, lack of involvement and
ultimately loneliness.
c.6. Effects of Colors on Spatial Perception

A spatial color displays recession and binocular disparity indicating unequal

distance from the viewer; or specular reflections, the direction of cast shadows
and spatial variation in the illumination intensity define the direction and relative
intensity of one or more light sources.

The color vision literature often refers to the spatial properties of an image, but
often as not this actually refers to its two dimensional structure. I use the
term spatial exclusively to describe an image interpreted as a three dimensional
space, and use the terms spatial frequency, pattern or image to denote the two
dimensional structure.

Perception of an unrelated color strips away nearly all the cues that normally
define color judgments in the real world. Even so, color vision always responds to
or "recognizes" this primitive stimulus situation in three ways (diagram at right):

• a trichromatic response to the color area as a stimulus of specific brightness

and chromaticity

• a luminance adaptation to the photometric intensity of the entire visual field on

the retina, which acts to shift the apparent brightness (B) toward the middle of an
open ended brightness range; and

• a chromatic adaptation that reduces the saturation or chromatic intensity of

the color in view by shifting the neutral point (N) of a chromatic range toward the
dominant color — in the example, toward the color orange.

These three color processes — a conscious "color" response, equivalent to

naming or describing the color — and involuntary chromatic and luminance
adaptations —continually adjust color vision to the viewing context.

c.7. Color Scheme

According to color theory, harmonious color combinations use any two colors opposite
each other on the color wheel, any three colors equally spaced around the color wheel
forming a triangle, or any four colors forming a rectangle (actually, two pairs of colors
opposite each other). The harmonious color combinations are called color schemes –
sometimes the term 'color harmonies' is also used. Color schemes remain harmonious
regardless of the rotation angle.
Classic color schemes supported by Color Wheel Pro:

Monochromatic Color Scheme

The monochromatic color scheme uses variations in lightness

and saturation of a single color. This scheme looks clean and
elegant. Monochromatic colors go well together, producing a
soothing effect. The monochromatic scheme is very easy on the
eyes, especially with blue or green hues.

Analogous Color Scheme

The analogous color scheme uses colors that are adjacent to

each other on the color wheel. One color is used as a dominant
color while others are used to enrich the scheme. The analogous
scheme is similar to the monochromatic, but offers more nuances.

Complementary Color Scheme

The complementary color scheme consists of two colors that are

opposite each other on the color wheel. This scheme looks best
when you place a warm color against a cool color, for example, red
versus green-blue. This scheme is intrinsically high-contrast.

Split Complementary Color Scheme

The split complementary scheme is a variation of the standard

complementary scheme. It uses a color and the two colors adjacent
to its complementary. This provides high contrast without the strong
tension of the complementary scheme.

Triadic Color Scheme

The triadic color scheme uses three colors equally spaced around
the color wheel. This scheme is popular among artists because it
offers strong visual contrast while retaining harmony and color
richness. The triadic scheme is not as contrasting as the
complementary scheme, but it looks more balanced and
Tetradic (Double Complementary) Color Scheme

The tetradic (double complementary) scheme is the most varied

because it uses two complementary color pairs. This scheme is
hard to harmonize; if all four hues are used in equal amounts, the
scheme may look unbalanced, so you should choose a color to be
dominant or subdue the colors.

Color theory does not analyze tints, shades, and tones

Color theory analyzes only the relationships of pure colors; it does not take color
lightness and saturation into account. While your color scheme can use any tints,
shades, and tones, color theory pays attention only to the hue component.

d. Texture
Texture is perceived surface quality. In art, there are two types of texture: tactile and
implied. Tactile texture (real texture) is the way the surface of an object actual feels.
Examples of this include sandpaper, cotton balls, tree bark, puppy fur, etc. Implied
texture is the way the surface on an object looks like it feels. The texture may look rough,
fizzy, gritty, but cannot actually be felt. This type of texture is used by artist when drawing
or painting.

It is the tactile quality of a surface. It can be actual or implied in 2 dimensional form,

Texture can be rough or smooth, solid or porous, coarse or polished.

e. Pattern
It is often associated with printed fabrics, such as plaids, polka dots, and floral. Pattern is
defined as a repetitive design, with the same motif appearing over and over again.

f. Light
Light coloration is important to setting the mood in a photograph or work of visual art.
Using various types of lights can denote specific mood changes. For example, a red-light
may be used to denote an alert of some sort in the form of a beacon. Differences in
lighting can affect the mood as well. Halogen lamps and fluorescents can give a cooler
feel to visual design works. These can be replicated through psychological studies. In
digital mediums, lighting can be applied through a variety of filters. For example, filtering
out noise and changing hues in a subtle manner can give a simple but tolerable logo feel
to a red-alert beacon.


1. Balance and Gravitational Curves

Balance can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. Balance also refers to a sense that
dominant focal points don't give a feeling of being pulled too much to any specific part of the
artwork. Balance can be achieved by the location of objects, volume or sizes of objects, and by
color. It can also be achieved by balancing lighter colors with darker colors, or bold colors with
light neutral colors.

Balance in design is similar to balance in physics. A large shape close to the center can be
balanced by a small shape close to the edge. A large light toned shape will be balanced by a
small toned shape (the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be).

Gravitational – natural tendency toward some point or object of influence. The gravitation of
people towards suburbs.

Balance or Equalization…Equilibrium – in the temperate zone, the climatic changes tend to

balance each other. However, nature is variable. If there is marked lack of rain, a drought results.
3 Types of Balance in the study of Composition:

(a) Symmetrical Balance

It occurs if you have slight changes on either side of an image. Both sides of the image
are almost the same. Gerald Squires' lithographic print of Newfoundland poet, Al Pittman,
is approximately symmetrical, being almost a mirror image of itself if it was split down its
vertical axis:

(b) Asymmetrical Balance

Also known as "informal balance", involves no set pattern and things are not similar on
either side of an image. However, the arrangement of items (sizes, colours, etc.) still
gives a balanced feeling. Take a look at this cartoon involving Buddy Wassisname and
the Other Fellers for a busy example of asymmetrical balance:

(c) Radial Balance

Involves items in a picture being arranged using the notion of a circle or wheel (a "round"
balance). Think "radial" in "radial tires"...."tires = round"....OK? This painting,
suggesting an overhead view of a pool of water surrounded with grass, by Peter Bell has
a composition making use of radial balance:

2. Harmony and Unity (Hierarchy)

Harmony is achieved through the sensitive balance of variety and unity. Color harmony may be
achieved using complementary or analogous colors. Harmony in design is similarity of
components or objects looking like these belong together. Harmony may be visually pleasing and
harmony is when some of the objects like drapes and couches share a common trait. A common
trait between objects could be: color(s), shape(s), texture, pattern(s), material, theme, style, size,
or functionality.

7 ways of producing an effect of unity in a design:

(1) There must be central motif, a theme, or a center of interest. The attention of the observer
must be drawn to this focal point.

(2) The major masses of the building should dominate the less important ones.

(3) All the units should together form a compact and coherent ensemble.

(4) The element of emphasis must be introduced. It may b secured by the size, position, or
treatment of a particular motif which is to give the building.

(5) By limiting the amount of treatment seen at one time.

(6) By selecting details, materials, colors etc. in harmony with the basic idea.

(7) By selecting styles, furniture and furnishings in harmony with the surroundings.

3. Rhythm
The recurrence of elements within a piece: colors, lines, shapes, values, etc. Any element that
occurs is generally echoed, often with some variation to maintain interest. Rhythm in interior
design also may be used to reduce randomness.

2 kinds of rhythm:

(a) Unaccented Rhythm

If equally spaced windows are introduced on the unbroken wall, then regular repetition is

(b) Accented Rhythm

If the openings or details are arranged in such a manner that some are more important
than others, then the eye grasps the significance of this relationship and pauses longer in
contemplating the larger elements.

Rhythm may be one of the ff:

(a) Rhythmic use of color – movement of the eye across a painting from spot to spot of
similar color.

(b) Rhythmic use of line – repetition of a similar type of line in a piece of sculpture

(c) Rhythmic of motion – the movement of dancers

(d) Rhythmic of direction – continuity of a series of arches forming an arcade.

4. Emphasis and Focus

Emphasis refers to areas of interest that guides the eye into and out of the image through the use
of sequence of various levels of focal points, primary focal point, secondary, tertiary, etc.
Emphasis hierarchymay give direction and organization to a design, and avoid subconscious
confusion to sometimes improve the design's visual appeal and style. Emphasis hierarchy or
focus is not giving each object in a project equal dominance within a piece of work. Emphasis or
dominance of an object can be increased by making the object larger, more sophisticated, more
ornate, by placing it in the foreground, or standout visually more than other objects in a project.
The primary focus point or area receives the largest emphasis in a room.

5. Contrast and Variety

Contrast is the occurrence of differing elements, such as color, value, size, etc. It creates interest
and pulls the attention toward the focal point.

The use of dissimilar elements, which creates interest and uniqueness. Variety like a painting or
some reflective wood panels added on a plain wall may be used to reduce monotony. Helps
infuse color to a house decor to attempt to increase design beauty.

Our physical impressions are made possible through contrast. We can hear because of the
contrast between silence and sound, because of the difference between the lengths of the sound
waves. We can feel because of the contrast between the quality of objects. The nerves in our
finger tips tell us that some things are cold and smooth whereas others are warm and rough. We
can see a building because of the contrast in the shapes and textures of the surfaces which
enclose space to make architecture.

Typical Contrast:
a. Contrast of form
b. Contrast of line
c. Contrast of size
d. Contrast of tone

Contrast in architectural subject:

a. Contrast of mass
b. Contrast of direction
c. Contrast of character
d. Contrast of treatment

6. Proportion
Proportion involves the relationship of size between objects. Proportion is also relative sizes of
surface areas of different colors. Proportion also depends on functionality of object. Art painting
can be given the correct size in relation to room to make it an effective decorating component or
source of color.

Proportion is a correspondence among the measures of the members of an entire work, and of
the whole to a certain part selected as standard. From this result the principles of symmetry.
Without symmetry and proportion there can be no principles in the design of any temple; that is, if
there is no precise relation between its members as in the case of those of a well shaped man.

Proportion is largely a matter of relationships. It is evident by a comparison which the eye makes
between the size, shape and tone of various objects or parts of a composition. These are certain
geometrical forms which have very definite proportions.


1. Anthropometrics

Humans interact with their environments based on their physical dimensions, capabilities and
limits. The field of anthropometrics (human measurement) has unanswered questions, but it's still
true that human physical characteristics are fairly predictable and objectively measurable.
Buildings scaled to human physical capabilities have steps, doorways, railings, work surfaces,
seating, shelves, fixtures, walking distances, and other features that fit well to the average

Humans also interact with their environments based on their sensory capabilities. The fields of
human perception systems, like perceptual psychology and cognitive psychology, are not exact
sciences, because human information processing is not a purely physical act, and because
perception is affected by cultural factors, personal preferences, experiences, and expectations.
So human scale in architecture can also describe buildings with sightlines, acoustic properties,
task lighting, ambient lighting, and spatial grammar that fit well with human senses. However, one
important caveat is that human perceptions are always going to be less predictable and less
measurable than physical dimensions.

Human scale in architecture is deliberately violated:

 for monumental effect. Buildings, statues, and memorials are constructed in a scale larger than
life as a social/cultural signal that the subject matter is also larger than life. The extreme example
is the Rodina (Motherland) statue in Volgograd (Stalingrad).
 for aesthetic effect. Many architects, particularly in the Modernist movement, design buildings that
prioritize structural purity and clarity of form over concessions to human scale. This became the
dominant American architectural style for decades. Some notable examples among many
are Henry Cobb's John Hancock Tower in Boston, much of I. M. Pei's work including the Dallas
City Hall, and Mies van der Rohe'sNeue Nationalgalerie in Berlin.

 to serve automotive scale. Commercial buildings that are designed to be legible from roadways
assume a radically different shape. The human eye can distinguish about 3 objects or features
per second. A pedestrian steadily walking along a 100-foot (30-meter) length of department store
can perceive about 68 features; a driver passing the same frontage at 30 mph (13 m/s or 44 ft/s)
can perceive about six or seven features. Auto-scale buildings tend to be smooth and shallow,
readable at a glance, simplified, presented outward, and with signage with bigger letters and
fewer words. This urban form is traceable back to the innovations of developer A. W. Ross
along Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles in 1920.

The savant Alphonse Bertillon gave his name in 1883 to a system of identification depending on the
unchanging character of certain measurements of parts of the human frame. He found by patient inquiry
that several measures of physical features, along with dimensions of certain bones, boners or bony
structures in the body, remain fairly constant throughout adult life.
He concluded that when these measurements were made and recorded systematically every single
individual would be found to be perfectly distinguishable from others. The system was soon adapted to
police methods when crime fighters found value in being able to fix a person's identity. It prevented false
impersonation and brought home, to any one charged with an offense, a person's responsibility for a
wrongdoing. After its introduction in France in 1883 "Bertillonage," as it was called, became widely
popular, and credited with producing highly gratifying results. Many countries followed suit in the adoption
of the method, integrating it within their justice systems.
However it was almost a decade before England followed suit when in 1894 a special committee was sent
to Paris for an investigation of the methods used and results obtained with them. It reported back
favorably, especially on the use of measurements for primary classification, but also recommended the
adoption, in part, of the system of "finger prints" as suggested by Francis Galton, and in practice at that
time in Bengal, India.
A chart from Bertillon's Identification anthropométrique (1893), demonstrating how to take measurements
for his identification system.
There were eleven measurements:
1. Height
2. Stretch: Length of body from left shoulder to right middle finger when arm is raised
3. Bust: Length of torso from head to seat, taken when seated
4. Length of head: Crown to forehead
5. Width of head: Temple to temple
6. Length of right ear
7. Length of left foot
8. Length of left middle finger
9. Length of left cubit: Elbow to tip of middle finger
10. Width of cheeks
From this great mass of details, soon represented in Paris by the collection of some 100,000 cards, it was
possible, proceeding by exhaustion, to sift and sort down the cards till a small bundle of half a dozen
produced the combined facts of the measurements of the individual last sought.
The whole of the information is easily contained in one cabinet of very ordinary dimensions, and most
ingeniously contrived so as to make the most of the space and facilitate the search. The whole of the
record is independent of names, and the final identification is by means of the photograph which lies with
the individual's card of measurements.

Anthropometry demonstrated in an exhibit from a 1921 eugenics conference.

Anthropometrics was first used in the 19th and early 20th century in criminalistics, to identifying criminals
by facial characteristics. Francis Galton was a key contributor as well, and it was in showing the
redundancy of Bertillon's measurements that he developed the statistical concept of correlation.
Bertillon's system originally measured variables he thought were independent - such as forearm length
and leg length - but Galton had realized that both were the result of a single causal variable (in this case,
stature). Bertillon's goal was to use anthropometry as a way of identifying recidivists—what we would
today call "repeat-offense" criminals. Previously, police could only record general descriptions and
names, and criminals often used alternative identities or aliases.
As such, it was a difficult job to identify whether or not certain individuals arrested were "first offenders" or
life-long criminals. Photography of criminals had become commonplace but it had proven ungainly, as
there was no coherent way to arrange visually the many thousands of photographs in a fashion which
would allow easy use (an officer would have to sort through them all with the hope of finding one).
Bertillon's hope was that through the use of measurements of the body, all information about the
individual criminal could be reduced to a set of identifying numbers which could be entered into a large
filing system.
Bertillon also envisioned the system as being organized in such a way that even if the number of
measurements was limited the system could drastically reduce the number of potential matches, through
an easy system of body parts and characteristics being labeled as "small", "medium", or "large". For
example, if the length of the arm was measured and judged to be within the "medium" range, and the size
of the foot was known, this would drastically reduce the number of potential records to compare against.
With more measurements of hopefully independent variables, a more precise identification could be
achieved, which could then be matched against photographic evidence. Certain aspects of this
philosophy would also go into Galton's development of fingerprint identification as well.
Anthropometry, however, gradually fell into disfavor, and it has been generally supplanted by the superior
system of finger prints. Bertillonage exhibited certain defects which were first brought to light in Bengal.
The objections raised were:
1. the costliness of the instruments employed and their liability to become out of order;
2. the need for specially instructed measurers, men of superior education;
3. the errors that frequently crept in when carrying out the processes and were all but
Measures inaccurately taken, or incorrectly read off, could seldom, if ever, be corrected, and these
persistent errors defeated all chance of successful search. The process was slow, as it was necessary to
repeat it three times so as to arrive at a mean result. In Bengal, measurements were already abandoned
by 1897, when the finger print system was adopted throughout British India. Three years later England
followed suit; and as the result of a fresh inquiry ordered by the Home Office, finger prints were alone
relied upon for identification.

2. Ergonomics
Egonomics is the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace to fit the worker.
Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop
over time and can lead to long-term disability.
The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows:
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of
interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies
theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall
system performance.
Ergonomics is employed to fulfill the two goals of health and productivity. It is relevant in the
design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines.

Architectural Theories of Design by George S. Salvan

Architectural Graphic Standards by Ramsey
Architectural Graphics (Fifth Edition) by Francis DK Ching
Interior Design Reference Manual by David Kent Ballast