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Works Cited

“Deciding When to Give Your Child a Mobile Phone.” Popative, 24 May 2017,

“In Loco Parentis.” Education Law,

“Sleep in Adolescents.” Nationwide Children's Hospital,

Gaille, Brandon. “11 Cell Phone Use in School Statistics and Trends.”, 30 May 2017,

Homayoun, Ana. “Is Your Child a Phone 'Addict'?” The New York Times, The New York
Times, 17 Jan. 2018,

Kedmey, Dan. “Test Scores Rise After Cell Phones Banned From School.” Times, The
Times Magazine, 12 May 2015,

This popular article explores the results of what happened when schools posed strict
rules on phones and banned them. The number one find was that test scores rose 6% after
phones were strictly banned from schools. It claimed to be equivalent to 1 extra hour in school
with the absence of phones. The article was written for regular Times readers as well as people
interested in the influence of technology. Dan Kedmey is a journalist for The Times Magazine.

LaFata, Alexia. “Generation Notification: Why Our Brains Literally Love Notifications.”
Elite Daily, Elite Daily, 20 June 2018,

This popular articles is written to be posted on Elite Times. It talks about the biological
side of social media. It speaks about how human brains are wired to like social media via the
release of multiple chemicals, the major one being dopamine. LaFata continues to explain that
being addicted to phones will lead to social awkwardness as humans will be conditioned to
interact with their phones rather than humans. LaFata is the Senior Editor at Elite Times and a
graduate from Boston College.

LaMotte, Sandee. “Smartphone Addiction Could Be Changing Your Brain.” CNN, Cable
News Network, 1 Dec. 2017,

This popular article addresses the new form of phobia, “Nomophobia”, short for no
mobile phone phobia. LaMotte summarizes many researches done about phone addiction. The
main one being the brain's chemistry in a person who is already addicted (set by guidelines in a
nomophobia questionnaire). GABA in a person brain who is addicted are too high, and it slows
down neuron firing in the brain. Too much GABA and attention span will be shorter. LaMotte is a
journalist for CNN and the CEO of Health Trust Media, LLC.
Lenhart, Amanda. “Teens and Mobile Phones Over the Past Five Years: Pew Internet
Looks Back.” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, 19 Aug. 2009,

Lesgold, Alan, et al. Evaluating Educational Technology: Effective Research Designs for
Improving Learning. Teachers College Press, 2003.
This scholarly book focuses on seeing the effects of educational technology to students.
The chapter cited however, is “Detecting Technology’s Effects in Complex School
Environments”. This chapter talks about how students will simply just study for a test to pass it,
without understanding the concept or and depth of the subject. Lesgold proposed a maturity
model, an innovation that adapts to the user. His program has adaptability and will test students
based on how they do during the exam or program itself. He claims that it will improve outcomes
for lower-income households. Lesgold is the educational psychologist and dean for the
University of Pittsburgh School of Education.

Novotney, Amy. “Procrastination or 'Intentional Delay'?” Monitor on Psychology,

American Psychological Association,

Kelly, Makena. “France Bans Smartphone Use in Schools.” The Verge, The Verge, 1
Aug. 2018,

Kelly, Rhea. “Survey: 94% of Students Want to Use Their Cell Phones in Class.”
Campus Technology,
This popular article talks about the usage of cellphones in the class. Rhea has done her
research and found many statistics on the percentages of cellphone usage by teenagers in
class. This includes how many use their phone in class, if they use it for social media or class
work, to check in for class, etc. The article is targeted to the readers of campus technology as
well as those interested in the teenagers’ use of phones in the classroom. Kelly Rhea is the
executive editor at 1105 Media.

Poland, Ashley. “The Disadvantages of Internet Censorship.” Small Business -,, 21 Nov. 2017,

Rideout, Vicky. “The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens |
Common Sense Media.” Common Sense Media: Ratings, Reviews, and Advice, Common
Sense Media, 3 Nov. 2015.

The scholarly article and report talk about the research that Rideout has conducted and
the conclusions drawn from them. Most importantly, Rideout surveyed over 2,500 tweens and
teens (8-12) about what media they enjoyed using the most, and how they accessed it. This
directly relates to my questions as he addresses the issue in his key findings sections of the
paper. The article was published in 2017 and Rideout does research on a national scale for
children, technology, and low-income families. The audience would be other scholars in the
same research field and at the Northwestern University.

Rideout, Vicky. “Media Usage by Kids Age Zero to Eight.” VJR Consulting , 2017,
The article and report talks about the research done, which was the parents of kids
between 0-8 monitoring their child and documenting the amount of time in which the child was
engaged in media and what devices they used to access it. This includes watching TV, video
games, and virtual reality. This article was also published in 2017 at the Northwestern
University. Rideout is a professor at the university, and this article has been published to gain
the attention of scholars as well as many news outlets such as CNN and USA Today.

Tait, Amelia. “‘Both Hugely Uplifting and Depressing’: How Do Social Media Likes Affect
You?” New Statesman, 26 Jan. 2017,

This article did a research study on social media and likes and the happiness that comes
along with the user. They list out many statistics about how people value likes, how many
people want more likes, how many people get jealous of likes, etc. Written to the readers of
News Statesman, the article was written by Amelia Tait, the digital culture writer for News
Statesman's tech sector. This article provides a realization that much of the modern population
values likes and are somewhat attached to their social media and image.

Tsukayama, Hayley. “Teens Spend Nearly Nine Hours Every Day Consuming Media.”
The Washington Post, WP Company, 3 Nov. 2015,

This popular article talks about the research the Common Sense Media had done and its
analysis on it. Hayley Tsukayama talks about how the recent emergence of the phone and the
correlation is has with teenagers and screen time are negative effect on their behavior. She
emphasizes that addiction is a large part of the screen time. The intended audience are the
normal readers of The Washington Post as well as people who are interested in teenagers
screen time. Tsukayama is a reporter for The Washington Post that covers consumer

Walton, Alice G. “Phone Addiction Is Real -- And So Are Its Mental Health Risks.” Forbes,
Forbes Magazine, 27 Jan. 2018,