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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt.

25

PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STAND- 25.233 Directional stability and control.


25.235 Taxiing condition.
ARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY 25.237 Wind velocities.
AIRPLANES 25.239 Spray characteristics, control, and
stability on water.
SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS
SFAR NO. 13 MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS
25.251 Vibration and buffeting.
Subpart A—General 25.253 High-speed characteristics.
25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics.
Sec.
25.1 Applicability. Subpart C—Structure
25.2 Special retroactive requirements.
GENERAL
Subpart B—Flight
25.301 Loads.
GENERAL 25.303 Factor of safety.
25.305 Strength and deformation.
25.21 Proof of compliance.
25.307 Proof of structure.
25.23 Load distribution limits.
25.25 Weight limits. FLIGHT LOADS
25.27 Center of gravity limits.
25.29 Empty weight and corresponding cen- 25.321 General.
ter of gravity.
FLIGHT MANEUVER AND GUST CONDITIONS
25.31 Removable ballast.
25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.331 Symmetric maneuvering conditions.
25.333 Flight maneuvering envelope.
PERFORMANCE 25.335 Design airspeeds.
25.101 General. 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors.
25.103 Stalling speed. 25.341 Gust and turbulence loads.
25.105 Takeoff. 25.343 Design fuel and oil loads.
25.107 Takeoff speeds. 25.345 High lift devices.
25.109 Accelerate-stop distance. 25.349 Rolling conditions.
25.111 Takeoff path. 25.351 Yaw maneuver conditions.
25.113 Takeoff distance and takeoff run.
25.115 Takeoff flight path. SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS
25.117 Climb: general. 25.361 Engine torque.
25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-operating. 25.363 Side load on engine and auxiliary
25.121 Climb: One-engine-inoperative. power unit mounts.
25.123 En route flight paths. 25.365 Pressurized compartment loads.
25.125 Landing. 25.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to engine
failure.
CONTROLLABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY
25.371 Gyroscopic loads.
25.143 General. 25.373 Speed control devices.
25.145 Longitudinal control.
25.147 Directional and lateral control. CONTROL SURFACE AND SYSTEM LOADS
25.149 Minimum control speed. 25.391 Control surface loads; general.
TRIM 25.393 Loads parallel to hinge line.
25.395 Control system.
25.161 Trim. 25.397 Control system loads.
25.399 Dual control system.
STABILITY
25.405 Secondary control system.
25.171 General. 25.407 Trim tab effects.
25.173 Static longitudinal stability. 25.409 Tabs.
25.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal 25.415 Ground gust conditions.
stability. 25.427 Unsymmetrical loads.
25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. 25.445 Auxilliary aerodynamic surfaces.
25.181 Dynamic stability. 25.457 Wing flaps.
25.459 Special devices.
STALLS
25.201 Stall demonstration. GROUND LOADS
25.203 Stall characteristics. 25.471 General.
25.207 Stall warning. 25.473 Landing load conditions and assump-
tions.
GROUND AND WATER HANDLING
25.477 Landing gear arrangement.
CHARACTERISTICS
25.479 Level landing conditions.
25.231 Longitudinal stability and control. 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions.

325
Pt. 25 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)
25.483 One-gear landing conditions. CONTROL SYSTEMS
25.485 Side load conditions.
25.671 General.
25.487 Rebound landing condition.
25.672 Stability augmentation and auto-
25.489 Ground handling conditions.
matic and power-operated systems.
25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.
25.675 Stops.
25.493 Braked roll conditions.
25.677 Trim systems.
25.495 Turning.
25.679 Control system gust locks.
25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. 25.681 Limit load static tests.
25.499 Nose-wheel yaw and steering. 25.683 Operation tests.
25.503 Pivoting. 25.685 Control system details.
25.507 Reversed braking. 25.689 Cable systems.
25.509 Towing loads. 25.693 Joints.
25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls.
multiple-wheel units. 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator.
25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.701 Flap and slat interconnection.
25.703 Takeoff warning system.
WATER LOADS
25.521 General. LANDING GEAR
25.523 Design weights and center of gravity 25.721 General.
positions. 25.723 Shock absorption tests.
25.525 Application of loads. 25.725 Limit drop tests.
25.527 Hull and main float load factors. 25.727 Reserve energy absorption drop tests.
25.529 Hull and main float landing condi- 25.729 Retracting mechanism.
tions. 25.731 Wheels.
25.531 Hull and main float takeoff condi- 25.733 Tires.
tion. 25.735 Brakes.
25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25.737 Skis.
25.535 Auxiliary float loads.
25.537 Seawing loads. FLOATS AND HULLS
25.751 Main float buoyancy.
EMERGENCY LANDING CONDITIONS
25.753 Main float design.
25.561 General. 25.755 Hulls.
25.562 Emergency landing dynamic condi-
tions. PERSONNEL AND CARGO ACCOMMODATIONS
25.563 Structural ditching provisions. 25.771 Pilot compartment.
25.772 Pilot compartment doors.
FATIGUE EVALUATION 25.773 Pilot compartment view.
25.571 Damage—tolerance and fatigue eval- 25.775 Windshields and windows.
uation of structure. 25.777 Cockpit controls.
25.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
LIGHTNING PROTECTION 25.781 Cockpit control knob shape.
25.783 Doors.
25.581 Lightning protection.
25.785 Seats, berths, safety belts, and har-
nesses.
Subpart D—Design and Construction 25.787 Stowage compartments.
GENERAL 25.789 Retention of items of mass in pas-
senger and crew compartments and gal-
25.601 General. leys.
25.603 Materials. 25.791 Passenger information signs and plac-
25.605 Fabrication methods. ards.
25.607 Fasteners. 25.793 Floor surfaces.
25.609 Protection of structure.
25.611 Accessibility provisions. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
25.613 Material strength properties and de- 25.801 Ditching.
sign values. 25.803 Emergency evacuation.
25.619 Special factors. 25.807 Emergency exits.
25.621 Casting factors. 25.809 Emergency exit arrangement.
25.623 Bearing factors. 25.810 Emergency egress assist means and
25.625 Fitting factors. escape routes.
25.629 Aeroelastic stability requirements. 25.811 Emergency exit marking.
25.631 Bird strike damage. 25.812 Emergency lighting.
25.813 Emergency exit access.
CONTROL SURFACES
25.815 Width of aisle.
25.651 Proof of strength. 25.817 Maximum number of seats abreast.
25.655 Installation. 25.819 Lower deck surface compartments
25.657 Hinges. (including galleys).

326
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 25
VENTILATION AND HEATING 25.971 Fuel tank sump.
25.973 Fuel tank filler connection.
25.831 Ventilation.
25.832 Cabin ozone concentration. 25.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor
25.833 Combustion heating systems. vents.
25.977 Fuel tank outlet.
PRESSURIZATION 25.979 Pressure fueling system.
25.981 Fuel tank temperature.
25.841 Pressurized cabins.
25.843 Tests for pressurized cabins. FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
FIRE PROTECTION 25.991 Fuel pumps.
25.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
25.851 Fire extinguishers.
25.853 Compartment interiors. 25.994 Fuel system components.
25.854 Lavatory fire protection. 25.995 Fuel valves.
25.855 Cargo or baggage compartments. 25.997 Fuel strainer or filter.
25.857 Cargo compartment classification. 25.999 Fuel system drains.
25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment 25.1001 Fuel jettisoning system.
smoke or fire detection systems.
OIL SYSTEM
25.859 Combustion heater fire protection.
25.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.1011 General.
25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, en- 25.1013 Oil tanks.
gine mounts, and other flight structure. 25.1015 Oil tank tests.
25.867 Fire protection: other components. 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings.
25.869 Fire protection: systems. 25.1019 Oil strainer or filter.
25.1021 Oil system drains.
MISCELLANEOUS
25.1023 Oil radiators.
25.871 Leveling means. 25.1025 Oil valves.
25.875 Reinforcement near propellers. 25.1027 Propeller feathering system.

Subpart E—Powerplant COOLING


25.1041 General.
GENERAL
25.1043 Cooling tests.
25.901 Installation. 25.1045 Cooling test procedures.
25.903 Engines.
25.904 Automatic takeoff thrust control sys- INDUCTION SYSTEM
tem (ATTCS). 25.1091 Air induction.
25.905 Propellers. 25.1093 Induction system icing protection.
25.907 Propeller vibration. 25.1101 Carburetor air preheater design.
25.925 Propeller clearance.
25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct
25.929 Propeller deicing.
systems.
25.933 Reversing systems.
25.1105 Induction system screens.
25.934 Turbojet engine thrust reverser sys-
25.1107 Inter-coolers and after-coolers.
tem tests.
25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting sys- EXHAUST SYSTEM
tems.
25.939 Turbine engine operating characteris- 25.1121 General.
tics. 25.1123 Exhaust piping.
25.941 Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibil- 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers.
ity. 25.1127 Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers.
25.943 Negative acceleration.
25.945 Thrust or power augmentation sys- POWERPLANT CONTROLS AND ACCESSORIES
tem. 25.1141 Powerplant controls: general.
25.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls.
FUEL SYSTEM 25.1143 Engine controls.
25.951 General. 25.1145 Ignition switches.
25.952 Fuel system analysis and test. 25.1147 Mixture controls.
25.953 Fuel system independence. 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls.
25.954 Fuel system lightning protection. 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls.
25.955 Fuel flow. 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller pitch
25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. settings below the flight regime.
25.959 Unusable fuel supply. 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls.
25.961 Fuel system hot weather operation. 25.1159 Supercharger controls.
25.963 Fuel tanks: general. 25.1161 Fuel jettisoning system controls.
25.965 Fuel tank tests. 25.1163 Powerplant accessories.
25.967 Fuel tank installations. 25.1165 Engine ignition systems.
25.969 Fuel tank expansion space. 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes.

327
Pt. 25 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)
POWERPLANT FIRE PROTECTION 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical
plane of forward and rear position lights.
25.1181 Designated fire zones; regions in-
25.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping
cluded.
beams of forward and rear position
25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and
lights.
engine pod attaching structures contain-
25.1397 Color specifications.
ing flammable fluid lines.
25.1399 Riding light.
25.1183 Flammable fluid-carrying compo-
25.1401 Anticollision light system.
nents.
25.1403 Wing icing detection lights.
25.1185 Flammable fluids.
25.1187 Drainage and ventilation of fire SAFETY EQUIPMENT
zones.
25.1189 Shutoff means. 25.1411 General.
25.1191 Firewalls. 25.1415 Ditching equipment.
25.1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1419 Ice protection.
25.1193 Cowling and nacelle skin. 25.1421 Megaphones.
25.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. 25.1423 Public address system.
25.1197 Fire extinguishing agents.
25.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. 25.1431 Electronic equipment.
25.1203 Fire detector system. 25.1433 Vacuum systems.
25.1207 Compliance. 25.1435 Hydraulic systems.
25.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic sys-
Subpart F—Equipment tems.
25.1439 Protective breathing equipment.
GENERAL
25.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply.
25.1301 Function and installation. 25.1443 Minimum mass flow of supplemental
25.1303 Flight and navigation instruments. oxygen.
25.1305 Powerplant instruments. 25.1445 Equipment standards for the oxygen
25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. distributing system.
25.1309 Equipment, systems, and installa- 25.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dis-
tions. pensing units.
25.1316 System lightning protection. 25.1449 Means for determining use of oxy-
gen.
INSTRUMENTS: INSTALLATION 25.1450 Chemical oxygen generators.
25.1321 Arrangement and visibility. 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment
25.1322 Warning, caution, and advisory from rupture.
lights. 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freez-
25.1323 Airspeed indicating system. ing.
25.1325 Static pressure systems. 25.1457 Cockpit voice recorders.
25.1326 Pitot heat indication systems. 25.1459 Flight recorders.
25.1327 Magnetic direction indicator. 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy
25.1329 Automatic pilot system. rotors.
25.1331 Instruments using a power supply.
25.1333 Instrument systems. Subpart G—Operating Limitations and
25.1335 Flight director systems. Information
25.1337 Powerplant instruments.
25.1501 General.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
25.1351 General.
25.1353 Electrical equipment and installa- 25.1503 Airspeed limitations: general.
tions. 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed.
25.1355 Distribution system. 25.1507 Maneuvering speed.
25.1357 Circuit protective devices. 25.1511 Flap extended speed.
25.1363 Electrical system tests. 25.1513 Minimum control speed.
25.1515 Landing gear speeds.
LIGHTS 25.1517 Rough air speed, VRA.
25.1381 Instrument lights. 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and
25.1383 Landing lights. weight distribution.
25.1385 Position light system installation. 25.1521 Powerplant limitations.
25.1387 Position light system dihedral an- 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations.
gles. 25.1523 Minimum flight crew.
25.1389 Position light distribution and in- 25.1525 Kinds of operation.
tensities. 25.1527 Maximum operating altitude.
25.1391 Minimum intensities in the hori- 25.1529 Instructions for Continued Air-
zontal plane of forward and rear position worthiness.
lights. 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors.

328
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 25, SFAR No. 13
25.1533 Additional operating limitations. the rules of either Part 4a or Part 4b in ef-
fect on September 1, 1953, which are applica-
MARKINGS AND PLACARDS ble to the modification being made: Provided,
25.1541 General. That an applicant may elect to accomplish a
25.1543 Instrument markings: general. modification in accordance with the rules of
25.1545 Airspeed limitation information. Part 4b in effect on the date of application
25.1547 Magnetic direction indicator. for the modification in lieu of Part 4a or
25.1549 Powerplant and auxiliary power unit Part 4b as in effect on September 1, 1953: And
instruments. provided further, That each specific modifica-
25.1551 Oil quantity indication. tion must be accomplished in accordance
25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. with all of the provisions contained in the
25.1555 Control markings. elected rules relating to the particular modi-
25.1557 Miscellaneous markings and plac- fication.
ards. 3. Specific conditions for approval. An appli-
25.1561 Safety equipment. cant for any approval of the following spe-
25.1563 Airspeed placard. cific changes shall comply with section 2 of
this regulation as modified by the applicable
AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL provisions of this section.
25.1581 General. (a) Increase in take-off power limitation—
25.1583 Operating limitations. 1,200 to 1,350 horsepower. The engine take-off
25.1585 Operating procedures. power limitation for the airplane may be in-
25.1587 Performance information. creased to more than 1,200 horsepower but
not to more than 1,350 horsepower per engine
APPENDIX A TO PART 25 if the increase in power does not adversely
APPENDIX B TO PART 25 affect the flight characteristics of the air-
APPENDIX C TO PART 25 plane.
APPENDIX D TO PART 25 (b) Increase in take-off power limitation to
APPENDIX E TO PART 25 more than 1,350 horsepower. The engine take-
APPENDIX F TO PART 25
off power limitation for the airplane may be
APPENDIX G TO PART 25—CONTINUOUS GUST
increased to more than 1,350 horsepower per
DESIGN CRITERIA engine if compliance is shown with the flight
APPENDIX H TO PART 25—INSTRUCTIONS FOR characteristics and ground handling require-
CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS ments of Part 4b.
APPENDIX I TO PART 25—INSTALLATION OF AN (c) Installation of engines of not more than
AUTOMATIC TAKEOFF THRUST CONTROL 1,830 cubic inches displacement and not having
SYSTEM (ATTCS) a certificated take-off rating of more than 1,350
APPENDIX J TO PART 25—EMERGENCY EVACU- horsepower. Engines of not more than 1,830
ATION
cubic inches displacement and not having a
AUTHORITY: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, certificated take-off rating of more than
44702 and 44704. 1,350 horsepower which necessitate a major
modification of redesign of the engine instal-
SOURCE: Docket No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. lation may be installed, if the engine fire
24, 1964, unless otherwise noted. prevention and fire protection are equivalent
to that on the prior engine installation.
SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION (d) Installation of engines of more than 1,830
REGULATIONS SFAR NO. 13 cubic inches displacement or having certificated
take-off rating of more than 1,350 horsepower.
1. Applicability. Contrary provisions of the
Engines of more than 1,830 cubic inches dis-
Civil Air Regulations regarding certification
placement or having certificated take-off
notwithstanding,1 this regulation shall pro-
rating of more than 1,350 horsepower may be
vide the basis for approval by the Adminis-
installed if compliance is shown with the en-
trator of modifications of individual Douglas
gine installation requirements of Part 4b:
DC–3 and Lockheed L–18 airplanes subse-
Provided, That where literal compliance with
quent to the effective date of this regulation.
the engine installation requirements of Part
2. General modifications. Except as modified
4b is extremely difficult to accomplish and
in sections 3 and 4 of this regulation, an ap-
would not contribute materially to the ob-
plicant for approval of modifications to a
jective sought, and the Administrator finds
DC–3 or L–18 airplane which result in
that the experience with the DC–3 or L–18
changes in design or in changes to approved
airplanes justifies it, he is authorized to ac-
limitations shall show that the modifica-
cept such measures of compliance as he finds
tions were accomplished in accordance with
will effectively accomplish the basic objec-
tive.
1 It is not intended to waive compliance 4. Establishment of new maximum certificated
with such airworthiness requirements as are weights. An applicant for approval of new
included in the operating parts of the Civil maximum certificated weights shall apply
Air Regulations for specific types of oper- for an amendment of the airworthiness cer-
ation. tificate of the airplane and shall show that

329
§ 25.1 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)
the weights sought have been established, fective until superseded or rescinded by the
and the appropriate manual material ob- Board.
tained, as provided in this section.
[19 FR 5039, Aug. 11, 1954. Redesignated at 29
NOTE: Transport category performance re-
FR 19099, Dec. 30, 1964]
quirements result in the establishment of
maximum certificated weights for various
altitudes. Subpart A—General
(a) Weights–25,200 to 26,900 for the DC–3 and
18,500 to 19,500 for the L–18. New maximum § 25.1 Applicability.
certificated weights of more than 25,200 but
(a) This part prescribes airworthiness
not more than 26,900 pounds for DC–3 and
more than 18,500 but not more than 19,500
standards for the issue of type certifi-
pounds for L–18 airplanes may be established cates, and changes to those certifi-
in accordance with the transport category cates, for transport category airplanes.
performance requirements of either Part 4a (b) Each person who applies under
or Part 4b, if the airplane at the new maxi- Part 21 for such a certificate or change
mum weights can meet the structural re- must show compliance with the appli-
quirements of the elected part. cable requirements in this part.
(b) Weights of more than 26,900 for the DC–3
and 19,500 for the L–18. New maximum certifi- § 25.2 Special retroactive require-
cated weights of more than 26,900 pounds for ments.
DC–3 and 19,500 pounds for L–18 airplanes
shall be established in accordance with the The following special retroactive re-
structural performance, flight characteris- quirements are applicable to an air-
tics, and ground handling requirements of plane for which the regulations ref-
Part 4b: Provided, That where literal compli- erenced in the type certificate predate
ance with the structural requirements of the sections specified below—
Part 4b is extremely difficult to accomplish (a) Irrespective of the date of applica-
and would not contribute materially to the tion, each applicant for a supplemental
objective sought, and the Administrator type certificate (or an amendment to a
finds that the experience with the DC–3 or L–
type certificate) involving an increase
18 airplanes justifies it, he is authorized to
accept such measures of compliance as he in passenger seating capacity to a total
finds will effectively accomplish the basic greater than that for which the air-
objective. plane has been type certificated must
(c) Airplane flight manual-performance oper- show that the airplane concerned
ating information. An approved airplane flight meets the requirements of:
manual shall be provided for each DC–3 and (1) Sections 25.721(d), 25.783(g),
L–18 airplane which has had new maximum 25.785(c), 25.803(c)(2) through (9), 25.803
certificated weights established under this (d) and (e), 25.807 (a), (c), and (d), 25.809
section. The airplane flight manual shall (f) and (h), 25.811, 25.812, 25.813 (a), (b),
contain the applicable performance informa-
and (c), 25.815, 25.817, 25.853 (a) and (b),
tion prescribed in that part of the regula-
tions under which the new certificated 25.855(a), 25.993(f), and 25.1359(c) in ef-
weights were established and such additional fect on October 24, 1967, and
information as may be necessary to enable (2) Sections 25.803(b) and 25.803(c)(1)
the application of the take-off, en route, and in effect on April 23, 1969.
landing limitations prescribed for transport (b) Irrespective of the date of applica-
category airplanes in the operating parts of tion, each applicant for a supplemental
the Civil Air Regulations. type certificate (or an amendment to a
(d) Performance operating limitations. Each type certificate) for an airplane manu-
airplane for which new maximum certifi-
factured after October 16, 1987, must
cated weights are established in accordance
with paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section show that the airplane meets the re-
shall be considered a transport category air- quirements of § 25.807(c)(7) in effect on
plane for the purpose of complying with the July 24, 1989.
performance operating limitations applica- (c) Compliance with subsequent revi-
ble to the operations in which it is utilized. sions to the sections specified in para-
5. Reference. Unless otherwise provided, all graph (a) or (b) above may be elected in
references in this regulation to Part 4a and accordance with § 21.101(a)(2) of this
Part 4b are those parts of the Civil Air Regu- chapter or may be required in accord-
lations in effect on September 1, 1953. ance with § 21.101(b) of this chapter.
This regulation supersedes Special Civil
Air Regulation SR–398 and shall remain ef- [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29773, July 20, 1990]

330
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.25

Subpart B—Flight spanwise) that could be inadvertently


exceeded, these limits and the cor-
GENERAL responding weight and center of grav-
ity combinations must be established.
§ 25.21 Proof of compliance. (b) The load distribution limits may
(a) Each requirement of this subpart not exceed—
must be met at each appropriate com- (1) The selected limits;
bination of weight and center of grav- (2) The limits at which the structure
ity within the range of loading condi- is proven; or
tions for which certification is re- (3) The limits at which compliance
quested. This must be shown— with each applicable flight require-
(1) By tests upon an airplane of the
ment of this subpart is shown.
type for which certification is re-
quested, or by calculations based on, § 25.25 Weight limits.
and equal in accuracy to, the results of
testing; and (a) Maximum weights. Maximum
(2) By systematic investigation of weights corresponding to the airplane
each probable combination of weight operating conditions (such as ramp,
and center of gravity, if compliance ground or water taxi, takeoff, en route,
cannot be reasonably inferred from and landing), environmental conditions
combinations investigated. (such as altitude and temperature), and
(b) [Reserved] loading conditions (such as zero fuel
(c) The controllability, stability, weight, center of gravity position and
trim, and stalling characteristics of weight distribution) must be estab-
the airplane must be shown for each al- lished so that they are not more than—
titude up to the maximum expected in (1) The highest weight selected by
operation. the applicant for the particular condi-
(d) Parameters critical for the test tions; or
being conducted, such as weight, load- (2) The highest weight at which com-
ing (center of gravity and inertia), air- pliance with each applicable structural
speed, power, and wind, must be main- loading and flight requirement is
tained within acceptable tolerances of shown, except that for airplanes
the critical values during flight test- equipped with standby power rocket
ing. engines the maximum weight must not
(e) If compliance with the flight be more than the highest weight estab-
characteristics requirements is depend- lished in accordance with appendix E of
ent upon a stability augmentation sys- this part; or
tem or upon any other automatic or (3) The highest weight at which com-
power-operated system, compliance pliance is shown with the certification
must be shown with §§ 25.671 and 25.672. requirements of Part 36 of this chapter.
(f) In meeting the requirements of
(b) Minimum weight. The minimum
§§ 25.105(d), 25.125, 25.233, and 25.237, the
weight (the lowest weight at which
wind velocity must be measured at a
compliance with each applicable re-
height of 10 meters above the surface,
quirement of this part is shown) must
or corrected for the difference between
be established so that it is not less
the height at which the wind velocity
than—
is measured and the 10-meter height.
(1) The lowest weight selected by the
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as applicant;
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8,
(2) The design minimum weight (the
1970; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2320, Jan. 16, 1978;
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990] lowest weight at which compliance
with each structural loading condition
§ 25.23 Load distribution limits. of this part is shown); or
(a) Ranges of weights and centers of (3) The lowest weight at which com-
gravity within which the airplane may pliance with each applicable flight re-
be safely operated must be established. quirement is shown.
If a weight and center of gravity com- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
bination is allowable only within cer- amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8,
tain load distribution limits (such as 1970; Amdt. 25–63, 53 FR 16365, May 6, 1988]

331
§ 25.27 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.27 Center of gravity limits. (c) The means used to limit the low
pitch position of the propeller blades
The extreme forward and the extreme
must be set so that the engine does not
aft center of gravity limitations must
exceed 103 percent of the maximum al-
be established for each practicably sep-
lowable engine rpm or 99 percent of an
arable operating condition. No such
approved maximum overspeed, which-
limit may lie beyond—
ever is greater, with—
(a) The extremes selected by the ap-
(1) The propeller blades at the low
plicant;
pitch limit and governor inoperative;
(b) The extremes within which the
(2) The airplane stationary under
structure is proven; or
standard atmospheric conditions with
(c) The extremes within which com-
no wind; and
pliance with each applicable flight re- (3) The engines operating at the take-
quirement is shown. off manifold pressure limit for recip-
§ 25.29 Empty weight and correspond- rocating engine powered airplanes or
ing center of gravity. the maximum takeoff torque limit for
turbopropeller engine-powered air-
(a) The empty weight and cor- planes.
responding center of gravity must be
determined by weighing the airplane [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
with— amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23,
(1) Fixed ballast; 1984; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990]
(2) Unusable fuel determined under PERFORMANCE
§ 25.959; and
(3) Full operating fluids, including— § 25.101 General.
(i) Oil; (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, air-
(ii) Hydraulic fluid; and planes must meet the applicable per-
(iii) Other fluids required for normal formance requirements of this subpart
operation of airplane systems, except for ambient atmospheric conditions
potable water, lavatory precharge and still air.
water, and fluids intended for injection (b) The performance, as affected by
in the engine. engine power or thrust, must be based
(b) The condition of the airplane at on the following relative humidities;
the time of determining empty weight (1) For turbine engine powered air-
must be one that is well defined and planes, a relative humidity of—
can be easily repeated. (i) 80 percent, at and below standard
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as temperatures; and
amended by Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2320, Jan. 16, (ii) 34 percent, at and above standard
1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990] temperatures plus 50° F.
Between these two temperatures, the
§ 25.31 Removable ballast.
relative humidity must vary linearly.
Removable ballast may be used on (2) For reciprocating engine powered
showing compliance with the flight re- airplanes, a relative humidity of 80 per-
quirements of this subpart. cent in a standard atmosphere. Engine
power corrections for vapor pressure
§ 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch lim- must be made in accordance with the
its. following table:
(a) The propeller speed and pitch
Specific hu-
must be limited to values that will en- Altitude H Vapor pres- midity w (Lb. Density ratio ρ/
sure e (In.
sure– (ft.) moisture per σ=0.0023769
Hg.) lb. dry air)
(1) Safe operation under normal oper-
ating conditions; and 0 0.403 0.00849 0.99508
(2) Compliance with the performance 1,000 .354 .00773 .96672
2,000 .311 .00703 .93895
requirements of §§ 25.101 through 25.125. 3,000 .272 .00638 .91178
(b) There must be a propeller speed 4,000 .238 .00578 .88514
limiting means at the governor. It 5,000 .207 .00523 .85910
6,000 .1805 .00472 .83361
must limit the maximum possible gov- 7,000 .1566 .00425 .80870
erned engine speed to a value not ex- 8,000 .1356 .00382 .78434
ceeding the maximum allowable r.p.m. 9,000 .1172 .00343 .76053

332
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.105

Vapor pres- Specific hu- dures, that may reasonably be expected


Altitude H midity w (Lb. Density ratio ρ/ in service.
sure e (In.
(ft.) moisture per σ=0.0023769
Hg.) lb. dry air) (i) The accelerate-stop and landing
10,000 .1010 .00307 .73722
distances prescribed in §§ 25.109 and
15,000 .0463 .001710 .62868 25.125, respectively, must be deter-
20,000 .01978 .000896 .53263 mined with all the airplane wheel
25,000 .00778 .000436 .44806 brake assemblies at the fully worn
limit of their allowable wear range.
(c) The performance must correspond [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
to the propulsive thrust available amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20,
under the particular ambient atmos- 1976; Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8318, Feb. 18, 1998]
pheric conditions, the particular flight
condition, and the relative humidity § 25.103 Stalling speed.
specified in paragraph (b) of this sec- (a) VS is the calibrated stalling speed,
tion. The available propulsive thrust or the minimum steady flight speed, in
must correspond to engine power or knots, at which the airplane is control-
thrust, not exceeding the approved lable, with—
power or thrust less—
(1) Zero thrust at the stalling speed,
(1) Installation losses; and or, if the resultant thrust has no appre-
(2) The power or equivalent thrust ciable effect on the stalling speed, with
absorbed by the accessories and serv- engines idling and throttles closed;
ices appropriate to the particular am- (2) Propeller pitch controls (if appli-
bient atmospheric conditions and the cable) in the position necessary for
particular flight condition. compliance with paragraph (a)(1) of
(d) Unless otherwise prescribed, the this section and the airplane in other
applicant must select the takeoff, en respects (such as flaps and landing
route, approach, and landing configura- gear) in the condition existing in the
tions for the airplane. test in which VS is being used;
(e) The airplane configurations may (3) The weight used when VS is being
vary with weight, altitude, and tem- used as a factor to determine compli-
perature, to the extent they are com- ance with a required performance
patible with the operating procedures standard; and
required by paragraph (f) of this sec- (4) The most unfavorable center of
tion. gravity allowable.
(f) Unless otherwise prescribed, in de- (b) The stalling speed VS is the mini-
termining the accelerate-stop dis- mum speed obtained as follows:
tances, takeoff flight paths, takeoff (1) Trim the airplane for straight
distances, and landing distances, flight at any speed not less than 1.2 VS
changes in the airplane’s configura- or more than 1.4 VS At a speed suffi-
tion, speed, power, and thrust, must be ciently above the stall speed to ensure
made in accordance with procedures es- steady conditions, apply the elevator
tablished by the applicant for oper- control at a rate so that the airplane
ation in service. speed reduction does not exceed one
(g) Procedures for the execution of knot per second.
balked landings and missed approaches (2) Meet the flight characteristics
associated with the conditions pre- provisions of § 25.203.
scribed in §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) must be
established. § 25.105 Takeoff.
(h) The procedures established under (a) The takeoff speeds described in
paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section § 25.107, the accelerate-stop distance de-
must— scribed in § 25.109, the takeoff path de-
(1) Be able to be consistently exe- scribed in § 25.111, and the takeoff dis-
cuted in service by crews of average tance and takeoff run described in
skill; § 25.113, must be determined—
(2) Use methods or devices that are (1) At each weight, altitude, and am-
safe and reliable; and bient temperature within the oper-
(3) Include allowance for any time ational limits selected by the appli-
delays, in the execution of the proce- cant; and

333
§ 25.107 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(2) In the selected configuration for (i) Two-engine and three-engine tur-
takeoff. bopropeller and reciprocating engine
(b) No takeoff made to determine the powered airplanes; and
data required by this section may re- (ii) Turbojet powered airplanes with-
quire exceptional piloting skill or out provisions for obtaining a signifi-
alertness. cant reduction in the one-engine-inop-
(c) The takeoff data must be based erative power-on stalling speed;
on— (2) 1.15 VS for—
(1) In the case of land planes and am- (i) Turbopropeller and reciprocating
phibians: engine powered airplanes with more
(i) Smooth, dry and wet, hard-sur- than three engines; and
faced runways; and (ii) Turbojet powered airplanes with
(ii) At the option of the applicant, provisions for obtaining a significant
grooved or porous friction course wet, reduction in the one-engine-inoper-
hard-surfaced runways. ative power-on stalling speed; and
(2) Smooth water, in the case of sea- (3) 1.10 times VMC established under
planes and amphibians; and § 25.149.
(3) Smooth, dry snow, in the case of (c) V2, in terms of calibrated air-
skiplanes. speed, must be selected by the appli-
(d) The takeoff data must include, cant to provide at least the gradient of
within the established operational lim- climb required by § 25.121(b) but may
its of the airplane, the following oper- not be less than—
ational correction factors: (1) V2MIN, and
(1) Not more than 50 percent of nomi- (2) VR plus the speed increment at-
nal wind components along the takeoff tained (in accordance with § 25.111(c)(2))
path opposite to the direction of take- before reaching a height of 35 feet
off, and not less than 150 percent of above the takeoff surface.
nominal wind components along the (d) VMU is the calibrated airspeed at
takeoff path in the direction of takeoff. and above which the airplane can safe-
(2) Effective runway gradients. ly lift off the ground, and con- tinue
the takeoff. VMU speeds must be se-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as lected by the applicant throughout the
amended by Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8318, Feb. 18, range of thrust-to-weight ratios to be
1998] certificated. These speeds may be es-
tablished from free air data if these
§ 25.107 Takeoff speeds.
data are verified by ground takeoff
(a) V1 must be established in relation tests.
to VEF as follows: (e) VR, in terms of calibrated air-
(1) VEF is the calibrated airspeed at speed, must be selected in accordance
which the critical engine is assumed to with the conditions of paragraphs (e)(1)
fail. VEF must be selected by the appli- through (4) of this section:
cant, but may not be less than VMCG (1) VR may not be less than—
determined under § 25.149(e). (i) V1;
(2) V1, in terms of calibrated airspeed, (ii) 105 percent of VMC;
is selected by the applicant; however, (iii) The speed (determined in accord-
V1 may not be less than VEF plus the ance with § 25.111(c)(2)) that allows
speed gained with critical engine inop- reaching V2 before reaching a height of
erative during the time interval be- 35 feet above the takeoff surface; or
tween the instant at which the critical (iv) A speed that, if the airplane is
engine is failed, and the instant at rotated at its maximum practicable
which the pilot recognizes and reacts rate, will result in a VLOF of not less
to the engine failure, as indicated by than 110 percent of VMU in the all-en-
the pilot’s initiation of the first action gines-operating condition and not less
(e.g., applying brakes, reducing thrust, than 105 percent of VMU determined at
deploying speed brakes) to stop the air- the thrust-to-weight ratio correspond-
plane during accelerate-stop tests. ing to the one-engine-inoperative con-
(b) V2MIN, in terms of calibrated air- dition.
speed, may not be less than— (2) For any given set of conditions
(1) 1.2 VS for— (such as weight, configuration, and

334
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.109

temperature), a single value of VR, ob- (iv) A distance equivalent to 2 sec-


tained in accordance with this para- onds at the V1 for takeoff from a dry
graph, must be used to show compli- runway.
ance with both the one-engine-inoper- (2) The sum of the distances nec-
ative and the all-engines-operating essary to—
takeoff provisions. (i) Accelerate the airplane from a
(3) It must be shown that the one-en- standing start with all engines operat-
gine-inoperative takeoff distance, ing to the highest speed reached during
using a rotation speed of 5 knots less the rejected takeoff, assuming the
than VR established in accordance with pilot takes the first action to reject
paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section, the takeoff at the V1 for takeoff from a
does not exceed the corresponding one- dry runway; and
engine-inoperative takeoff distance (ii) With all engines still operating,
using the established VR. The takeoff come to a full stop on dry runway from
distances must be determined in ac- the speed reached as prescribed in para-
cordance with § 25.113(a)(1). graph (a)(2)(i) of this section; plus
(4) Reasonably expected variations in (iii) A distance equivalent to 2 sec-
service from the established takeoff onds at the V1 for takeoff from a dry
procedures for the operation of the air- runway.
plane (such as over-rotation of the air- (b) The accelerate-stop distance on a
plane and out-of-trim conditions) may wet runway is the greater of the fol-
not result in unsafe flight characteris- lowing distances:
tics or in marked increases in the (1) The accelerate-stop distance on a
scheduled takeoff distances established dry runway determined in accordance
in accordance with § 25.113(a). with paragraph (a) of this section; or
(f) VLOF is the calibrated airspeed at (2) The accelerate-stop distance de-
which the airplane first becomes air- termined in accordance with paragraph
borne. (a) of this section, except that the run-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as way is wet and the corresponding wet
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20, runway values of VEF and V1 are used.
1976; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2320, Jan. 16, 1978; In determining the wet runway acceler-
Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8318, Feb. 18, 1998; Amdt. ate-stop distance, the stopping force
25–94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998] from the wheel brakes may never ex-
ceed:
§ 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance. (i) The wheel brakes stopping force
(a) The accelerate-stop distance on a determined in meeting the require-
dry runway is the greater of the follow- ments of § 25.101(i) and paragraph (a) of
ing distances: this section; and
(1) The sum of the distances nec- (ii) The force resulting from the wet
essary to— runway braking coefficient of friction
(i) Accelerate the airplane from a determined in accordance with para-
standing start with all engines operat- graphs (c) or (d) of this section, as ap-
ing to VEF for takeoff from a dry run- plicable, taking into account the dis-
way; tribution of the normal load between
(ii) Allow the airplane to accelerate braked and unbraked wheels at the
from VEF to the highest speed reached most adverse center-of-gravity position
during the rejected takeoff, assuming approved for takeoff.
the critical engine fails at VEF and the (c) The wet runway braking coeffi-
pilot takes the first action to reject cient of friction for a smooth wet run-
the takeoff at the V1 for takeoff from a way is defined as a curve of friction co-
dry runway; and efficient versus ground speed and must
(iii) Come to a full stop on a dry run- be computed as follows:
way from the speed reached as pre- (1) The maximum tire-to-ground wet
scribed in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this runway braking coefficient of friction
section; plus is defined as:

335
§ 25.109 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

Where— Effi-
Type of anti-skid system ciency
Tire Pressure=maximum airplane oper- value
ating tire pressure (psi);
µt/gMAX=maximum tire-to-ground brak- On-Off ........................................................................ 0.30
Quasi-Modulating ....................................................... 0.50
ing coefficient;
Fully Modulating ......................................................... 0.80
V=airplane true ground speed (knots);
and
(d) At the option of the applicant, a
Linear interpolation may be used for
tire pressures other than those list- higher wet runway braking coefficient
ed. of friction may be used for runway sur-
faces that have been grooved or treated
(2) The maximum tire-to-ground wet
with a porous friction course material.
runway braking coefficient of friction
For grooved and porous friction course
must be adjusted to take into account
runways, the wet runway braking
the efficiency of the anti-skid system
on a wet runway. Anti-skid system op- coefficent of friction is defined as ei-
eration must be demonstrated by flight ther:
testing on a smooth wet runway, and (1) 70 percent of the dry runway brak-
its efficiency must be determined. Un- ing coefficient of friction used to deter-
less a specific anti-skid system effi- mine the dry runway accelerate-stop
ciency is determined from a quan- distance; or
titative analysis of the flight testing (2) The wet runway braking coeffi-
on a smooth wet runway, the maxi- cient defined in paragraph (c) of this
mum tire-to-ground wet runway brak- section, except that a specific anti-skid
ing coefficient of friction determined system efficiency, if determined, is ap-
in paragraph (c)(1) of this section must propriate for a grooved or porous fric-
be multiplied by the efficiency value tion course wet runway, and the maxi-
associated with the type of anti-skid mum tire-to-ground wet runway brak-
system installed on the airplane: ing coefficient of friction is defined as:

336
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.111

Where— factors for the accelerate-stop dis-


Tire Pressure=maximum airplane oper- tance. The correction factors must ac-
ating tire pressure (psi); count for the particular surface charac-
µt/gMAX=maximum tire-to-ground brak- teristics of the stopway and the vari-
ing coefficient; ations in these characteristics with
V=airplane true ground speed (knots); seasonal weather conditions (such as
and temperature, rain, snow, and ice) with-
Linear interpolation may be used for in the established operational limits.
tire pressures other than those list- (i) A flight test demonstration of the
ed. maximum brake kinetic energy accel-
(e) Except as provided in paragraph erate-stop distance must be conducted
(f)(1) of this section, means other than with not more than 10 percent of the
wheel brakes may be used to determine allowable brake wear range remaining
the accelerate-stop distance if that on each of the airplane wheel brakes.
means— [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(1) Is safe and reliable; amended by Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2321, Jan. 16,
(2) Is used so that consistent results 1978; Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8318, Feb. 18, 1998]
can be expected under normal operat-
ing conditions; and § 25.111 Takeoff path.
(3) Is such that exceptional skill is (a) The takeoff path extends from a
not required to control the airplane. standing start to a point in the takeoff
(f) The effects of available reverse at which the airplane is 1,500 feet above
thrust— the takeoff surface, or at which the
(1) Shall not be included as an addi-
transition from the takeoff to the en
tional means of deceleration when de-
route configuration is completed and a
termining the accelerate-stop distance
speed is reached at which compliance
on a dry runway; and
with § 25.121(c) is shown, whichever
(2) May be included as an additional
point is higher. In addition—
means of deceleration using rec-
ommended reverse thrust procedures (1) The takeoff path must be based on
when determining the accelerate-stop the procedures prescribed in § 25.101(f);
distance on a wet runway, provided the (2) The airplane must be accelerated
requirements of paragraph (e) of this on the ground to VEF, at which point
section are met. the critical engine must be made inop-
(g) The landing gear must remain ex- erative and remain inoperative for the
tended throughout the accelerate-stop rest of the takeoff; and
distance. (3) After reaching VEF, the airplane
(h) If the accelerate-stop distance in- must be accelerated to V2.
cludes a stopway with surface charac- (b) During the acceleration to speed
teristics substantially different from V2, the nose gear may be raised off the
those of the runway, the takeoff data ground at a speed not less than VR.
must include operational correction However, landing gear retraction may

337
§ 25.113 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

not be begun until the airplane is air- The airplane is considered to be out of
borne. the ground effect when it reaches a
(c) During the takeoff path deter- height equal to its wing span.
mination in accordance with para- (e) For airplanes equipped with
graphs (a) and (b) of this section— standby power rocket engines, the
(1) The slope of the airborne part of takeoff path may be determined in ac-
the takeoff path must be positive at cordance with section II of appendix E.
each point; [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(2) The airplane must reach V2 before amended by Amdt. 25–6, 30 FR 8468, July 2,
it is 35 feet above the takeoff surface 1965; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2321, Jan. 16, 1978;
and must continue at a speed as close Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60172, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt.
as practical to, but not less than V2, 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25–94,
until it is 400 feet above the takeoff 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998]
surface;
§ 25.113 Takeoff distance and takeoff
(3) At each point along the takeoff run.
path, starting at the point at which the
airplane reaches 400 feet above the (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway
takeoff surface, the available gradient is the greater of—
of climb may not be less than— (1) The horizontal distance along the
(i) 1.2 percent for two-engine air- takeoff path from the start of the take-
planes; off to the point at which the airplane is
35 feet above the takeoff surface, deter-
(ii) 1.5 percent for three-engine air-
mined under § 25.111 for a dry runway;
planes; and
or
(iii) 1.7 percent for four-engine air-
(2) 115 percent of the horizontal dis-
planes; and
tance along the takeoff path, with all
(4) Except for gear retraction and engines operating, from the start of the
propeller feathering, the airplane con- takeoff to the point at which the air-
figuration may not be changed, and no plane is 35 feet above the takeoff sur-
change in power or thrust that requires face, as determined by a procedure con-
action by the pilot may be made, until sistent with § 25.111.
the airplane is 400 feet above the take- (b) Takeoff distance on a wet runway
off surface. is the greater of—
(d) The takeoff path must be deter- (1) The takeoff distance on a dry run-
mined by a continuous demonstrated way determined in accordance with
takeoff or by synthesis from segments. paragraph (a) of this section; or
If the takeoff path is determined by the (2) The horizontal distance along the
segmental method— takeoff path from the start of the take-
(1) The segments must be clearly de- off to the point at which the airplane is
fined and must be related to the dis- 15 feet above the takeoff surface,
tinct changes in the configuration, achieved in a manner consistent with
power or thrust, and speed; the achievement of V2 before reaching
(2) The weight of the airplane, the 35 feet above the takeoff surface, deter-
configuration, and the power or thrust mined under § 25.111 for a wet runway.
must be constant throughout each seg- (c) If the takeoff distance does not in-
ment and must correspond to the most clude a clearway, the takeoff run is
critical condition prevailing in the seg- equal to the takeoff distance. If the
ment; takeoff distance includes a clearway—
(3) The flight path must be based on (1) The takeoff run on a dry runway
the airplane’s performance without is the greater of—
ground effect; and (i) The horizontal distance along the
(4) The takeoff path data must be takeoff path from the start of the take-
checked by continuous demonstrated off to a point equidistant between the
takeoffs up to the point at which the point at which VLOF is reached and the
airplane is out of ground effect and its point at which the airplane is 35 feet
speed is stabilized, to ensure that the above the takeoff surface, as deter-
path is conservative relative to the mined under § 25.111 for a dry runway;
continous path. or

338
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.121

(ii) 115 percent of the horizontal dis- which the airplane is accelerated in
tance along the takeoff path, with all level flight.
engines operating, from the start of the [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
takeoff to a point equidistant between amended by Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8320, Feb. 18,
the point at which VLOF is reached and 1998]
the point at which the airplane is 35
feet above the takeoff surface, deter- § 25.117 Climb: general.
mined by a procedure consistent with Compliance with the requirements of
§ 25.111. §§ 25.119 and 25.121 must be shown at
(2) The takeoff run on a wet runway each weight, altitude, and ambient
is the greater of— temperature within the operational
(i) The horizontal distance along the limits established for the airplane and
takeoff path from the start of the take- with the most unfavorable center of
off to the point at which the airplane is gravity for each configuration.
15 feet above the takeoff surface,
achieved in a manner consistent with § 25.119 Landing climb: All-engines-op-
the achievement of V2 before reaching erating.
35 feet above the takeoff surface, as de- In the landing configuration, the
termined under § 25.111 for a wet run- steady gradient of climb may not be
way; or less than 3.2 percent, with—
(ii) 115 percent of the horizontal dis- (a) The engines at the power or
tance along the takeoff path, with all thrust that is available eight seconds
engines operating, from the start of the after initiation of movement of the
takeoff to a point equidistant between power or thrust controls from the min-
the point at which VLOF is reached and imum flight idle to the go-around
the point at which the airplane is 35 power or thrust setting; and
feet above the takeoff surface, deter- (b) A climb speed of not more than 1.3
mined by a procedure consistent with VS.
§ 25.111. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30749, June 9,
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8, 1995]
1970; Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8320, Feb. 18, 1998]
§ 25.121 Climb: One-engine-inoper-
§ 25.115 Takeoff flight path. ative.

(a) The takeoff flight path shall be (a) Takeoff; landing gear extended. In
considered to begin 35 feet above the the critical takeoff configuration exist-
ing along the flight path (between the
takeoff surface at the end of the take-
points at which the airplane reaches
off distance determined in accordance
VLOF and at which the landing gear is
with § 25.113(a) or (b), as appropriate for
fully retracted) and in the configura-
the runway surface condition.
tion used in § 25.111 but without ground
(b) The net takeoff flight path data effect, the steady gradient of climb
must be determined so that they rep- must be positive for two-engine air-
resent the actual takeoff flight paths planes, and not less than 0.3 percent for
(determined in accordance with § 25.111 three-engine airplanes or 0.5 percent
and with paragraph (a) of this section) for four-engine airplanes, at VLOF and
reduced at each point by a gradient of with—
climb equal to— (1) The critical engine inoperative
(1) 0.8 percent for two-engine air- and the remaining engines at the power
planes; or thrust available when retraction of
(2) 0.9 percent for three-engine air- the landing gear is begun in accordance
planes; and with § 25.111 unless there is a more crit-
(3) 1.0 percent for four-engine air- ical power operating condition existing
planes. later along the flight path but before
(c) The prescribed reduction in climb the point at which the landing gear is
gradient may be applied as an equiva- fully retracted; and
lent reduction in acceleration along (2) The weight equal to the weight
that part of the takeoff flight path at existing when retraction of the landing

339
§ 25.123 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

gear is begun, determined under (3) A climb speed established in con-


§ 25.111. nection with normal landing proce-
(b) Takeoff; landing gear retracted. In dures, but not exceeding 1.5 VS.
the takeoff configuration existing at [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
the point of the flight path at which amended by Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30749, June 9,
the landing gear is fully retracted, and 1995]
in the configuration used in § 25.111 but
without ground effect, the steady gra- § 25.123 En route flight paths.
dient of climb may not be less than 2.4 (a) For the en route configuration,
percent for two-engine airplanes, 2.7 the flight paths prescribed in para-
percent for three-engine airplanes, and graphs (b) and (c) of this section must
3.0 percent for four-engine airplanes, at be determined at each weight, altitude,
V2 and with— and ambient temperature, within the
(1) The critical engine inoperative, operating limits established for the
the remaining engines at the takeoff airplane. The variation of weight along
power or thrust available at the time the flight path, accounting for the pro-
the landing gear is fully retracted, de- gressive consumption of fuel and oil by
termined under § 25.111, unless there is the operating engines, may be included
a more critical power operating condi- in the computation. The flight paths
tion existing later along the flight path must be determined at any selected
but before the point where the airplane speed, with—
reaches a height of 400 feet above the (1) The most unfavorable center of
takeoff surface; and gravity;
(2) The weight equal to the weight (2) The critical engines inoperative;
existing when the airplane’s landing (3) The remaining engines at the
gear is fully retracted, determined available maximum continuous power
under § 25.111. or thrust; and
(c) Final takeoff. In the en route con- (4) The means for controlling the en-
figuration at the end of the takeoff gine-cooling air supply in the position
path determined in accordance with that provides adequate cooling in the
§ 25.111, the steady gradient of climb hot-day condition.
may not be less than 1.2 percent for (b) The one-engine-inoperative net
two-engine airplanes, 1.5 percent for flight path data must represent the ac-
three-engine airplanes, and 1.7 percent tual climb performance diminished by
for four-engine airplanes, at not less a gradient of climb of 1.1 percent for
than 1.25 VS and with— two-engine airplanes, 1.4 percent for
(1) The critical engine inoperative three-engine airplanes, and 1.6 percent
and the remaining engines at the avail- for four-engine airplanes.
able maximum continuous power or (c) For three- or four-engine air-
thrust; and planes, the two-engine-inoperative net
(2) The weight equal to the weight flight path data must represent the ac-
existing at the end of the takeoff path, tual climb performance diminished by
determined under § 25.111. a gradient of climb of 0.3 percent for
(d) Approach. In the approach con- three-engine airplanes and 0.5 percent
figuration corresponding to the normal for four-engine airplanes.
all-engines-operating procedure in
which VS for this configuration does § 25.125 Landing.
not exceed 110 percent of the VS for the (a) The horizontal distance necessary
related landing configuration, the to land and to come to a complete stop
steady gradient of climb may not be (or to a speed of approximately 3 knots
less than 2.1 percent for two-engine air- for water landings) from a point 50 feet
planes, 2.4 percent for three-engine air- above the landing surface must be de-
planes, and 2.7 percent for four-engine termined (for standard temperatures,
airplanes, with— at each weight, altitude, and wind
(1) The critical engine inoperative, within the operational limits estab-
the remaining engines at the go-around lished by the applicant for the air-
power or thrust setting; plane) as follows:
(2) The maximum landing weight; (1) The airplane must be in the land-
and ing configuration.

340
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.143

(2) A stabilized approach, with a cali- CONTROLLABILITY AND


brated airspeed of not less than 1.3 VS MANEUVERABILITY
or VMCL, whichever is greater, must be
maintained down to the 50 foot height. § 25.143 General.
(3) Changes in configuration, power (a) The airplane must be safely con-
or thrust, and speed, must be made in trollable and maneuverable during—
accordance with the established proce- (1) Takeoff;
dures for service operation. (2) Climb;
(4) The landing must be made with- (3) Level flight;
out excessive vertical acceleration, (4) Descent; and
tendency to bounce, nose over, ground (5) Landing.
loop, porpoise, or water loop. (b) It must be possible to make a
(5) The landings may not require ex- smooth transition from one flight con-
ceptional piloting skill or alertness. dition to any other flight condition
(b) For landplanes and amphibians, without exceptional piloting skill,
the landing distance on land must be alertness, or strength, and without
determined on a level, smooth, dry, danger of exceeding the airplane limit-
hard-surfaced runway. In addition— load factor under any probable operat-
(1) The pressures on the wheel brak- ing conditions, including—
ing systems may not exceed those spec- (1) The sudden failure of the critical
ified by the brake manufacturer; engine;
(2) The brakes may not be used so as (2) For airplanes with three or more
to cause excessive wear of brakes or engines, the sudden failure of the sec-
tires; and ond critical engine when the airplane is
(3) Means other than wheel brakes in the en route, approach, or landing
may be used if that means— configuration and is trimmed with the
(i) Is safe and reliable; critical engine inoperative; and
(ii) Is used so that consistent results (3) Configuration changes, including
can be expected in service; and deployment or retraction of decelera-
tion devices.
(iii) Is such that exceptional skill is
(c) The following table prescribes, for
not required to control the airplane.
conventional wheel type controls, the
(c) For seaplanes and amphibians, the
maximum control forces permitted
landing distance on water must be de-
during the testing required by para-
termined on smooth water.
graphs (a) and (b) of this section:
(d) For skiplanes, the landing dis-
tance on snow must be determined on Force, in pounds, applied to the Pitch Roll Yaw
smooth, dry, snow. control wheel or rudder pedals

(e) The landing distance data must For short term application for
include correction factors for not more pitch and roll control—two
than 50 percent of the nominal wind hands available for control ..... 75 50 ............
For short term application for
components along the landing path op- pitch and roll control—one
posite to the direction of landing, and hand available for control ....... 50 25 ............
not less than 150 percent of the nomi- For short term application for
yaw control ............................. ............ ............ 150
nal wind components along the landing For long term application ........... 10 5 20
path in the direction of landing.
(f) If any device is used that depends (d) Approved operating procedures or
on the operation of any engine, and if conventional operating practices must
the landing distance would be notice- be followed when demonstrating com-
ably increased when a landing is made pliance with the control force limita-
with that engine inoperative, the land- tions for short term application that
ing distance must be determined with are prescribed in paragraph (c) of this
that engine inoperative unless the use section. The airplane must be in trim,
of compensating means will result in a or as near to being in trim as practical,
landing distance not more than that in the immediately preceding steady
with each engine operating. flight condition. For the takeoff condi-
Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as tion, the airplane must be trimmed ac-
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, cording to the approved operating pro-
1990; Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30749, June 9, 1995] cedures.

341
§ 25.145 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(e) When demonstrating compliance (3) Repeat paragraph (b)(2), except at


with the control force limitations for the go-around power or thrust setting.
long term application that are pre- (4) With power off, flaps retracted,
scribed in paragraph (c) of this section, and the airplane trimmed at 1.4 VSI,
the airplane must be in trim, or as near rapidly set go-around power or thrust
to being in trim as practical. while maintaining the same airspeed.
(f) When maneuvering at a constant (5) Repeat paragraph (b)(4) except
airspeed or Mach number (up to VFC/ with flaps extended.
MFC), the stick forces and the gradient (6) With power off, flaps extended,
of the stick force versus maneuvering and the airplane trimmed at 1.4 VS1, ob-
load factor must lie within satisfactory tain and maintain airspeeds between
limits. The stick forces must not be so 1.1 VS1, and either 1.7 VS1, or VFE,
great as to make excessive demands on whichever is lower.
the pilot’s strength when maneuvering (c) Is must be possible, without ex-
the airplane, and must not be so low ceptional piloting skill, to prevent loss
that the airplane can easily be over- of altitude when complete retraction of
stressed inadvertently. Changes of gra- the high lift devices from any position
dient that occur with changes of load is begun during steady, straight, level
factor must not cause undue difficulty flight at 1.1 VS1 for propeller powered
in maintaining control of the airplane, airplanes, or 1.2 VS1 for turbojet pow-
and local gradients must not be so low ered airplanes, with—
as to result in a danger of overcontrol- (1) Simultaneous movement of the
ling. power or thrust controls to the go-
around power or thrust setting;
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as (2) The landing gear extended; and
amended by Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2321, Jan. 16, (3) The critical combinations of land-
1978; Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30749, June 9, 1995]
ing weights and altitudes.
§ 25.145 Longitudinal control. If gated high-lift device control posi-
tions are provided, retraction must be
(a) It must be possible at any speed shown from any position from the max-
between the trim speed prescribed in imum landing position to the first
§ 25.103(b)(1) and Vs, to pitch the nose gated position, between gated posi-
downward so that the acceleration to
tions, and from the last gated position
this selected trim speed is prompt
to the full retraction position. In addi-
with—
tion, the first gated control position
(1) The airplane trimmed at the trim from the landing position must cor-
speed prescribed in § 25.103(b)(1). respond with the high-lift devices con-
(2) The landing gear extended; figuration used to establish the go-
(3) The wing flaps (i) retracted and around procedure from the landing con-
(ii) extended; and figuration. Each gated control position
(4) Power (i) off and (ii) at maximum must require a separate and distinct
continuous power on the engines. motion of the control to pass through
(b) With the landing gear extended, the gated position and must have fea-
no change in trim control, or exertion tures to prevent inadvertent movement
of more than 50 pounds control force of the control through the gated posi-
(representative of the maximum short tion.
term force that can be applied readily
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
by one hand) may be required for the amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8,
following maneuvers: 1970; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990;
(1) With power off, flaps retracted, Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30749, June 9, 1995]
and the airplane trimmed at 1.4 VS1, ex-
tend the flaps as rapidly as possible § 25.147 Directional and lateral con-
while maintaining the airspeed at ap- trol.
proximately 40 percent above the stall- (a) Directional control; general. It must
ing speed existing at each instant be possible, with the wings level, to
throughout the maneuver. yaw into the operative engine and to
(2) Repeat paragraph (b)(1) except ini- safely make a reasonably sudden
tially extend the flaps and then retract change in heading of up to 15 degrees in
them as rapidly as possible. the direction of the critical inoperative

342
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.149

engine. This must be shown at 1.4Vs1 (such as recovery from upsets produced
for heading changes up to 15 degrees by gusts and the initiation of evasive
(except that the heading change at maneuvers). There must be enough ex-
which the rudder pedal force is 150 cess lateral control in sideslips (up to
pounds need not be exceeded), and sideslip angles that might be required
with— in normal operation), to allow a lim-
(1) The critical engine inoperative ited amount of maneuvering and to
and its propeller in the minimum drag correct for gusts. Lateral control must
position; be enough at any speed up to VFC/MFC
(2) The power required for level flight to provide a peak roll rate necessary
at 1.4 VS1, but not more than maximum for safety, without excessive control
continuous power; forces or travel.
(3) The most unfavorable center of
gravity; [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2321, Jan. 16,
(4) Landing gear retracted;
1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990]
(5) Flaps in the approach position;
and § 25.149 Minimum control speed.
(6) Maximum landing weight.
(b) Directional control; airplanes with (a) In establishing the minimum con-
four or more engines. Airplanes with trol speeds required by this section, the
four or more engines must meet the re- method used to simulate critical en-
quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec- gine failure must represent the most
tion except that— critical mode of powerplant failure
(1) The two critical engines must be with respect to controllability ex-
inoperative with their propellers (if ap- pected in service.
plicable) in the minimum drag posi- (b) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at
tion; which, when the critical engine is sud-
(2) [Reserved] denly made inoperative, it is possible
(3) The flaps must be in the most fa- to maintain control of the airplane
vorable climb position. with that engine still inoperative and
(c) Lateral control; general. It must be maintain straight flight with an angle
possible to make 20° banked turns, with of bank of not more than 5 degrees.
and against the inoperative engine, (c) VMC may not exceed 1.2 VS with—
from steady flight at a speed equal to (1) Maximum available takeoff power
1.4 VS1, with— or thrust on the engines;
(1) The critical engine inoperative (2) The most unfavorable center of
and its propeller (if applicable) in the gravity;
minimum drag position; (3) The airplane trimmed for takeoff;
(2) The remaining engines at maxi- (4) The maximum sea level takeoff
mum continuous power; weight (or any lesser weight necessary
(3) The most unfavorable center of
to show VMC);
gravity;
(5) The airplane in the most critical
(4) Landing gear (i) retracted and (ii)
takeoff configuration existing along
extended;
the flight path after the airplane be-
(5) Flaps in the most favorable climb
comes airborne, except with the land-
position; and
ing gear retracted;
(6) Maximum takeoff weight.
(d) Lateral control; airplanes with four (6) The airplane airborne and the
or more engines. Airplanes with four or ground effect negligible; and
more engines must be able to make 20° (7) If applicable, the propeller of the
banked turns, with and against the in- inoperative engine—
operative engines, from steady flight at (i) Windmilling;
a speed equal to 1.4 VS1, with maximum (ii) In the most probable position for
continuous power, and with the air- the specific design of the propeller con-
plane in the configuration prescribed trol; or
by paragraph (b) of this section. (iii) Feathered, if the airplane has an
(e) Lateral control; all engines operat- automatic feathering device acceptable
ing. With the engines operating, roll re- for showing compliance with the climb
sponse must allow normal maneuvers requirements of § 25.121.

343
§ 25.149 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(d) The rudder forces required to applicant, each configuration) for ap-
maintain control at VMC may not ex- proach and landing with all engines op-
ceed 150 pounds nor may it be nec- erating;
essary to reduce power or thrust of the (2) The most unfavorable center of
operative engines. During recovery, the gravity;
airplane may not assume any dan- (3) The airplane trimmed for ap-
gerous attitude or require exceptional proach with all engines operating;
piloting skill, alertness, or strength to (4) The most favorable weight, or, at
prevent a heading change of more than the option of the applicant, as a func-
20 degrees. tion of weight;
(e) VMCG, the minimum control speed
(5) For propeller airplanes, the pro-
on the ground, is the calibrated air-
peller of the inoperative engine in the
speed during the takeoff run at which,
position it achieves without pilot ac-
when the critical engine is suddenly
tion, assuming the engine fails while at
made inoperative, it is possible to
maintain control of the airplane using the power or thrust necessary to main-
the rudder control alone (without the tain a three degree approach path
use of nosewheel steering), as limited angle; and
by 150 pounds of force, and the lateral (6) Go-around power or thrust setting
control to the extent of keeping the on the operating engine(s).
wings level to enable the takeoff to be (g) For airplanes with three or more
safely continued using normal piloting engines, VMCL-2, the minimum control
skill. In the determination of VMCG, as- speed during approach and landing
suming that the path of the airplane with one critical engine inoperative, is
accelerating with all engines operating the calibrated airspeed at which, when
is along the centerline of the runway, a second critical engine is suddenly
its path from the point at which the made inoperative, it is possible to
critical engine is made inoperative to maintain control of the airplane with
the point at which recovery to a direc- both engines still inoperative, and
tion parallel to the centerline is com- maintain straight flight with an angle
pleted may not deviate more than 30 of bank of not more than 5 degrees.
feet laterally from the centerline at VMCL-2 must be established with—
any point. VMCG must be established (1) The airplane in the most critical
with— configuration (or, at the option of the
(1) The airplane in each takeoff con- applicant, each configuration) for ap-
figuration or, at the option of the ap- proach and landing with one critical
plicant, in the most critical takeoff engine inoperative;
configuration; (2) The most unfavorable center of
(2) Maximum available takeoff power gravity;
or thrust on the operating engines; (3) The airplane trimmed for ap-
(3) The most unfavorable center of
proach with one critical engine inoper-
gravity;
ative;
(4) The airplane trimmed for takeoff;
and (4) The most unfavorable weight, or,
(5) The most unfavorable weight in at the option of the applicant, as a
the range of takeoff weights. function of weight;
(f) VMCL, the minimum control speed (5) For propeller airplanes, the pro-
during approach and landing with all peller of the more critical inoperative
engines operating, is the calibrated air- engine in the position it achieves with-
speed at which, when the critical en- out pilot action, assuming the engine
gine is suddenly made inoperative, it is fails while at the power or thrust nec-
possible to maintain control of the air- essary to maintain a three degree ap-
plane with that engine still inoper- proach path angle, and the propeller of
ative, and maintain straight flight the other inoperative engine feathered;
with an angle of bank of not more than (6) The power or thrust on the operat-
5 degrees. VMCL must be established ing engine(s) necessary to maintain an
with— approach path angle of three degrees
(1) The airplane in the most critical when one critical engine is inoperative;
configuration (or, at the option of the and

344
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.171

(7) The power or thrust on the operat- (1) A climb with maximum continu-
ing engine(s) rapidly changed, imme- ous power at a speed not more than 1.4
diately after the second critical engine VS1, with the landing gear retracted,
is made inoperative, from the power or and the flaps (i) retracted and (ii) in
thrust prescribed in paragraph (g)(6) of the takeoff position;
this section to— (2) A glide with power off at a speed
(i) Minimum power or thrust; and not more than 1.4 VS1, with the landing
(ii) Go-around power or thrust set- gear extended, the wing flaps (i) re-
ting. tracted and (ii) extended, the most un-
favorable center of gravity position ap-
(h) In demonstrations of VMCL and
proved for landing with the maximum
VMCL-2—
landing weight, and with the most un-
(1) The rudder force may not exceed favorable center of gravity position ap-
150 pounds; proved for landing regardless of weight;
(2) The airplane may not exhibit haz- and
ardous flight characteristics or require (3) Level flight at any speed from 1.4
exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or VS1, to VMO/MMO, with the landing gear
strength; and flaps retracted, and from 1.4 VS1 to
(3) Lateral control must be sufficient VLE with the landing gear extended.
to roll the airplane, from an initial (d) Longitudinal, directional, and lat-
condition of steady flight, through an eral trim. The airplane must maintain
angle of 20 degrees in the direction nec- longitudinal, directional, and lateral
essary to initiate a turn away from the trim (and for the lateral trim, the
inoperative engine(s), in not more than angle of bank may not exceed five de-
5 seconds; and grees) at 1.4 VS1 during climbing flight
(4) For propeller airplanes, hazardous with—
flight characteristics must not be ex- (1) The critical engine inoperative;
hibited due to any propeller position (2) The remaining engines at maxi-
achieved when the engine fails or dur- mum continuous power; and
ing any likely subsequent movements (3) The landing gear and flaps re-
of the engine or propeller controls. tracted.
(e) Airplanes with four or more engines.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as Each airplane with four or more en-
amended by Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2321, Jan. 16, gines must maintain trim in rectilin-
1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990; 55
FR 37607, Sept. 12, 1990; Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR
ear flight—
30749, June 9, 1995] (1) At the climb speed, configuration,
and power required by § 25.123(a) for the
TRIM purpose of establishing the rate of
climb;
§ 25.161 Trim. (2) With the most unfavorable center
(a) General. Each airplane must meet of gravity position; and
the trim requirements of this section (3) At the weight at which the two-
after being trimmed, and without fur- engine-inoperative climb is equal to at
ther pressure upon, or movement of, ei- least 0.013 VS02 at an altitude of 5,000
ther the primary controls or their cor- feet.
responding trim controls by the pilot [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
or the automatic pilot. amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8,
(b) Lateral and directional trim. The 1970; Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20, 1976]
airplane must maintain lateral and di-
rectional trim with the most adverse STABILITY
lateral displacement of the center of
gravity within the relevant operating § 25.171 General.
limitations, during normally expected The airplane must be longitudinally,
conditions of operation (including op- directionally, and laterally stable in
eration at any speed from 1.4 VS1 to accordance with the provisions of
VMO/MMO). §§ 25.173 through 25.177. In addition,
(c) Longitudinal trim. The airplane suitable stability and control feel
must maintain longitudinal trim dur- (static stability) is required in any con-
ing— dition normally encountered in service,

345
§ 25.173 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

if flight tests show it is necessary for (iii) Maximum takeoff weight; and
safe operation. (iv) 75 percent of maximum continu-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as ous power for reciprocating engines or
amended by Amdt. 25–7, 30 FR 13117, Oct. 15, the maximum power or thrust selected
1965] by the applicant as an operating limi-
tation for use during climb for turbine
§ 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. engines; and
Under the conditions specified in (2) Is trimmed at the speed for best
§ 25.175, the characteristics of the eleva- rate-of-climb except that the speed
tor control forces (including friction) need not be less than 1.4 VS1.
must be as follows: (b) Cruise. Static longitudinal stabil-
(a) A pull must be required to obtain ity must be shown in the cruise condi-
and maintain speeds below the speci- tion as follows:
fied trim speed, and a push must be re- (1) With the landing gear retracted at
quired to obtain and maintain speeds high speed, the stick force curve must
above the specified trim speed. This have a stable slope at all speeds within
must be shown at any speed that can be a range which is the greater of 15 per-
obtained except speeds higher than the cent of the trim speed plus the result-
landing gear or wing flap operating ing free return speed range, or 50 knots
limit speeds or VFC/MFC, whichever is plus the resulting free return speed
appropriate, or lower than the mini- range, above and below the trim speed
mum speed for steady unstalled flight. (except that the speed range need not
(b) The airspeed must return to with- include speeds less than 1.4 VS1, nor
in 10 percent of the original trim speed speeds greater than VFC/MFC, nor
for the climb, approach, and landing
speeds that require a stick force of
conditions specified in § 25.175 (a), (c),
more than 50 pounds), with—
and (d), and must return to within 7.5
percent of the original trim speed for (i) The wing flaps retracted;
the cruising condition specified in (ii) The center of gravity in the most
§ 25.175(b), when the control force is adverse position (see § 25.27);
slowly released from any speed within (iii) The most critical weight be-
the range specified in paragraph (a) of tween the maximum takeoff and maxi-
this section. mum landing weights;
(c) The average gradient of the stable (iv) 75 percent of maximum continu-
slope of the stick force versus speed ous power for reciprocating engines or
curve may not be less than 1 pound for for turbine engines, the maximum
each 6 knots. cruising power selected by the appli-
(d) Within the free return speed range cant as an operating limitation (see
specified in paragraph (b) of this sec- § 25.1521), except that the power need
tion, it is permissible for the airplane, not exceed that required at VMO/MMO;
without control forces, to stabilize on and
speeds above or below the desired trim (v) The airplane trimmed for level
speeds if exceptional attention on the flight with the power required in para-
part of the pilot is not required to re- graph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.
turn to and maintain the desired trim (2) With the landing gear retracted at
speed and altitude. low speed, the stick force curve must
[Amdt. 25–7, 30 FR 13117, Oct. 15, 1965] have a stable slope at all speeds within
a range which is the greater of 15 per-
§ 25.175 Demonstration of static longi- cent of the trim speed plus the result-
tudinal stability. ing free return speed range, or 50 knots
Static longitudinal stability must be plus the resulting free return speed
shown as follows: range, above and below the trim speed
(a) Climb. The stick force curve must (except that the speed range need not
have a stable slope at speeds between include speeds less than 1.4 VS1, nor
85 and 115 percent of the speed at which speeds greater than the minimum
the airplane— speed of the applicable speed range pre-
(1) Is trimmed, with— scribed in paragraph (b)(1), nor speeds
(i) Wing flaps retracted; that require a stick force of more than
(ii) Landing gear retracted; 50 pounds), with—

346
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.181

(i) Wing flaps, center of gravity posi- § 25.177 Static lateral-directional sta-
tion, and weight as specified in para- bility.
graph (b)(1) of this section; (a)–(b) [Reserved]
(ii) Power required for level flight at
(c) In straight, steady sideslips, the
a speed equal to VMO + 1.4 VS1/2; and
(iii) The airplane trimmed for level aileron and rudder control movements
flight with the power required in para- and forces must be substantially pro-
graph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. portional to the angle of sideslip in a
(3) With the landing gear extended, stable sense; and the factor of propor-
the stick force curve must have a sta- tionality must lie between limits found
ble slope at all speeds within a range necessary for safe operation through-
which is the greater of 15 percent of the out the range of sideslip angles appro-
trim speed plus the resulting free re- priate to the operation of the airplane.
turn speed range, or 50 knots plus the At greater angles, up to the angle at
resulting free return speed range, which full rudder is used or a rudder
above and below the trim speed (except force of 180 pounds is obtained, the rud-
that the speed range need not include der pedal forces may not reverse; and
speeds less than 1.4 VS1, nor speeds increased rudder deflection must be
greater than VLE, nor speeds that re- needed for increased angles of sideslip.
quire a stick force of more than 50 Compliance with this paragraph must
pounds), with— be demonstrated for all landing gear
(i) Wing flap, center of gravity posi- and flap positions and symmetrical
tion, and weight as specified in para- power conditions at speeds from 1.2 VS1
graph (b)(1) of this section; to VFE, VLE, or VFC/MFC, as appropriate.
(ii) 75 percent of maximum continu- (d) The rudder gradients must meet
ous power for reciprocating engines or, the requirements of paragraph (c) at
for turbine engines, the maximum speeds between VMO/MMO and VFC/MFC
cruising power selected by the appli- except that the dihedral effect (aileron
cant as an operating limitation, except deflection opposite the corresponding
that the power need not exceed that re- rudder input) may be negative provided
quired for level flight at VLE; and the divergence is gradual, easily recog-
(iii) The aircraft trimmed for level nized, and easily controlled by the
flight with the power required in para- pilot.
graph (b)(3)(ii) of this section. [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990; 55 FR
(c) Approach. The stick force curve 37607, Sept. 12, 1990]
must have a stable slope at speeds be-
tween 1.1 VS1 and 1.8 VS1, with— § 25.181 Dynamic stability.
(1) Wing flaps in the approach posi-
(a) Any short period oscillation, not
tion;
including combined lateral-directional
(2) Landing gear retracted;
oscillations, occurring between 1.2 VS
(3) Maximum landing weight; and
(4) The airplane trimmed at 1.4 VS1 and maximum allowable speed appro-
with enough power to maintain level priate to the configuration of the air-
flight at this speed. plane must be heavily damped with the
(d) Landing. The stick force curve primary controls—
must have a stable slope, and the stick (1) Free; and
force may not exceed 80 pounds, at (2) In a fixed position.
speeds between 1.1 VS0 and 1.3 VS0 (b) Any combined lateral-directional
with— oscillations (‘‘Dutch roll’’) occurring
(1) Wing flaps in the landing position; between 1.2 VS and maximum allowable
(2) Landing gear extended; speed appropriate to the configuration
(3) Maximum landing weight; of the airplane must be positively
(4) Power or thrust off on the en- damped with controls free, and must be
gines; and controllable with normal use of the pri-
(5) The airplane trimmed at 1.4 VS0 mary controls without requiring excep-
with power or thrust off. tional pilot skill.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as [Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2322, Jan. 16, 1978, as
amended by Amdt. 25–7, 30 FR 13117, Oct. 15, amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29775, July 20,
1965] 1990; 55 FR 37607, Sept. 12, 1990]

347
§ 25.201 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

STALLS held full aft for a short time before re-


covery is initiated.
§ 25.201 Stall demonstration.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(a) Stalls must be shown in straight amended by Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30750, June 9,
flight and in 30 degree banked turns 1995]
with—
(1) Power off; and § 25.203 Stall characteristics.
(2) The power necessary to maintain (a) It must be possible to produce and
level flight at 1.6 VS1 (where VS1 cor- to correct roll and yaw by unreversed
responds to the stalling speed with use of the aileron and rudder controls,
flaps in the approach position, the up to the time the airplane is stalled.
landing gear retracted, and maximum No abnormal nose-up pitching may
landing weight). occur. The longitudinal control force
(b) In each condition required by must be positive up to and throughout
paragraph (a) of this section, it must the stall. In addition, it must be pos-
be possible to meet the applicable re- sible to promptly prevent stalling and
quirements of § 25.203 with— to recover from a stall by normal use
(1) Flaps, landing gear, and decelera- of the controls.
tion devices in any likely combination (b) For level wing stalls, the roll oc-
of positions approved for operation; curring between the stall and the com-
(2) Representative weights within the pletion of the recovery may not exceed
range for which certification is re- approximately 20 degrees.
(c) For turning flight stalls, the ac-
quested;
tion of the airplane after the stall may
(3) The most adverse center of grav-
not be so violent or extreme as to
ity for recovery; and
make it difficult, with normal piloting
(4) The airplane trimmed for straight skill, to effect a prompt recovery and
flight at the speed prescribed in to regain control of the airplane. The
§ 25.103(b)(1). maximum bank angle that occurs dur-
(c) The following procedures must be ing the recovery may not exceed—
used to show compliance with § 25.203; (1) Approximately 60 degrees in the
(1) Starting at a speed sufficiently original direction of the turn, or 30 de-
above the stalling speed to ensure that grees in the opposite direction, for de-
a steady rate of speed reduction can be celeration rates up to 1 knot per sec-
established, apply the longitudinal ond; and
control so that the speed reduction (2) Approximately 90 degrees in the
does not exceed one knot per second original direction of the turn, or 60 de-
until the airplane is stalled. grees in the opposite direction, for de-
(2) In addition, for turning flight celeration rates in excess of 1 knot per
stalls, apply the longitudinal control second.
to achieve airspeed deceleration rates
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
up to 3 knots per second. amended by Amdt. 25–84, 60 FR 30750, June 9,
(3) As soon as the airplane is stalled, 1995]
recover by normal recovery techniques.
(d) The airplane is considered stalled § 25.207 Stall warning.
when the behavior of the airplane gives (a) Stall warning with sufficient mar-
the pilot a clear and distinctive indica- gin to prevent inadvertent stalling
tion of an acceptable nature that the with the flaps and landing gear in any
airplane is stalled. Acceptable indica- normal position must be clear and dis-
tions of a stall, occurring either indi- tinctive to the pilot in straight and
vidually or in combination, are— turning flight.
(1) A nose-down pitch that cannot be (b) The warning may be furnished ei-
readily arrested; ther through the inherent aerodynamic
(2) Buffeting, of a magnitude and se- qualities of the airplane or by a device
verity that is a strong and effective de- that will give clearly distinguishable
terrent to further speed reduction; or indications under expected conditions
(3) The pitch control reaches the aft of flight. However, a visual stall warn-
stop and no further increase in pitch ing device that requires the attention
attitude occurs when the control is of the crew within the cockpit is not

348
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.239

acceptable by itself. If a warning de- using brakes or engine power to main-


vice is used, it must provide a warning tain a straight path. This may be
in each of the airplane configuations shown during power-off landings made
prescribed in paragraph (a) of this sec- in conjunction with other tests.
tion at the speed prescribed in para- (c) The airplane must have adequate
graph (c) of this section. directional control during taxiing. This
(c) The stall warning must begin at a may be shown during taxiing prior to
speed exceeding the stalling speed (i.e., takeoffs made in conjunction with
the speed at which the airplane stalls other tests.
or the minimum speed demonstrated,
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
whichever is applicable under the pro- amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8,
visions of § 25.201(d)) by seven percent 1970; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2322, Jan. 16, 1978;
or at any lesser margin if the stall Amdt. 25–94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998]
warning has enough clarity, duration,
distinctiveness, or similar properties. § 25.235 Taxiing condition.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as The shock absorbing mechanism may
amended by Amdt. 25–7, 30 FR 13118, Oct. 15, not damage the structure of the air-
1965; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2322, Jan. 16, 1978] plane when the airplane is taxied on
the roughest ground that may reason-
GROUND AND WATER HANDLING ably be expected in normal operation.
CHARACTERISTICS
§ 25.237 Wind velocities.
§ 25.231 Longitudinal stability and
control. (a) For landplanes and amphibians, a
90-degree cross component of wind ve-
(a) Landplanes may have no uncon-
locity, demonstrated to be safe for
trollable tendency to nose over in any
takeoff and landing, must be estab-
reasonably expected operating condi-
lished for dry runways and must be at
tion or when rebound occurs during
least 20 knots or 0.2 VS0, whichever is
landing or takeoff. In addition—
greater, except that it need not exceed
(1) Wheel brakes must operate
25 knots.
smoothly and may not cause any undue
(b) For seaplanes and amphibians,
tendency to nose over; and
the following applies:
(2) If a tail-wheel landing gear is
(1) A 90-degree cross component of
used, it must be possible, during the
wind velocity, up to which takeoff and
takeoff ground run on concrete, to
landing is safe under all water condi-
maintain any altitude up to thrust line
tions that may reasonably be expected
level, at 80 percent of VS1.
in normal operation, must be estab-
(b) For seaplanes and amphibians,
lished and must be at least 20 knots or
the most adverse water conditions safe
0.2 Vs0, whichever is greater, except
for takeoff, taxiing, and landing, must
that it need not exceed 25 knots.
be established.
(2) A wind velocity, for which taxiing
§ 25.233 Directional stability and con- is safe in any direction under all water
trol. conditions that may reasonably be ex-
pected in normal operation, must be es-
(a) There may be no uncontrollable
tablished and must be at least 20 knots
ground-looping tendency in 90° cross
or 0.2 VS0, whichever is greater, except
winds, up to a wind velocity of 20 knots
that it need not exceed 25 knots.
or 0.2 VS0, whichever is greater, except
that the wind velocity need not exceed [Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2322, Jan. 16, 1978]
25 knots at any speed at which the air-
plane may be expected to be operated § 25.239 Spray characteristics, control,
on the ground. This may be shown and stability on water.
while establishing the 90° cross compo- (a) For seaplanes and amphibians,
nent of wind velocity required by during takeoff, taxiing, and landing,
§ 25.237. and in the conditions set forth in para-
(b) Landplanes must be satisfactorily graph (b) of this section, there may be
controllable, without exceptional pilot- no—
ing skill or alertness, in power-off land- (1) Spray characteristics that would
ings at normal landing speed, without impair the pilot’s view, cause damage,

349
§ 25.251 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

or result in the taking in of an undue structural damage. Stall warning buf-


quantity of water; feting within these limits is allowable.
(2) Dangerously uncontrollable (d) There may be no perceptible buf-
porpoising, bounding, or swinging tend- feting condition in the cruise configu-
ency; or ration in straight flight at any speed
(3) Immersion of auxiliary floats or up to VMO/MMO, except that stall warn-
sponsons, wing tips, propeller blades, ing buffeting is allowable.
or other parts not designed to with- (e) For an airplane with MD greater
stand the resulting water loads. than .6 or with a maximum operating
(b) Compliance with the require- altitude greater than 25,000 feet, the
ments of paragraph (a) of this section positive maneuvering load factors at
must be shown— which the onset of perceptible buffet-
(1) In water conditions, from smooth ing occurs must be determined with
to the most adverse condition estab- the airplane in the cruise configuration
lished in accordance with § 25.231; for the ranges of airspeed or Mach
(2) In wind and cross-wind velocities, number, weight, and altitude for which
water currents, and associated waves the airplane is to be certificated. The
and swells that may reasonably be ex-
envelopes of load factor, speed, alti-
pected in operation on water;
tude, and weight must provide a suffi-
(3) At speeds that may reasonably be
cient range of speeds and load factors
expected in operation on water;
for normal operations. Probable inad-
(4) With sudden failure of the critical
vertent excursions beyond the bound-
engine at any time while on water; and
aries of the buffet onset envelopes may
(5) At each weight and center of grav-
ity position, relevant to each operating not result in unsafe conditions.
condition, within the range of loading [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
conditions for which certification is re- amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8,
quested. 1970; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29775, July 20, 1990;
(c) In the water conditions of para- Amdt. 25–77, 57 FR 28949, June 29, 1992]
graph (b) of this section, and in the
corresponding wind conditions, the sea- § 25.253 High-speed characteristics.
plane or amphibian must be able to (a) Speed increase and recovery charac-
drift for five minutes with engines in- teristics. The following speed increase
operative, aided, if necessary, by a sea and recovery characteristics must be
anchor. met:
(1) Operating conditions and charac-
MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS
teristics likely to cause inadvertent
§ 25.251 Vibration and buffeting. speed increases (including upsets in
pitch and roll) must be simulated with
(a) The airplane must be dem-
the airplane trimmed at any likely
onstrated in flight to be free from any
cruise speed up to VMO/MMO. These con-
vibration and buffeting that would pre-
ditions and characteristics include gust
vent continued safe flight in any likely
upsets, inadvertent control move-
operating condition.
ments, low stick force gradient in rela-
(b) Each part of the airplane must be
tion to control friction, passenger
demonstrated in flight to be free from
excessive vibration under any appro- movement, leveling off from climb, and
priate speed and power conditions up to descent from Mach to airspeed limit al-
VDF/MDF. The maximum speeds shown titudes.
must be used in establishing the oper- (2) Allowing for pilot reaction time
ating limitations of the airplane in ac- after effective inherent or artificial
cordance with § 25.1505. speed warning occurs, it must be shown
(c) Except as provided in paragraph that the airplane can be recovered to a
(d) of this section, there may be no buf- normal attitude and its speed reduced
feting condition, in normal flight, in- to VMO/MMO, without–
cluding configuration changes during (i) Exceptional piloting strength or
cruise, severe enough to interfere with skill;
the control of the airplane, to cause ex- (ii) Exceeding VD/MD, VDF/MDF, or the
cessive fatigue to the crew, or to cause structural limitations; and

350
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.255

(iii) Buffeting that would impair the maintaining level flight in the high
pilot’s ability to read the instruments speed cruising condition.
or control the airplane for recovery. (b) In the out-of-trim condition speci-
(3) With the airplane trimmed at any fied in paragraph (a) of this section,
speed up to VMO /MMO, there must be no when the normal acceleration is varied
reversal of the response to control from +1 g to the positive and negative
input about any axis at any speed up to values specified in paragraph (c) of this
VDF/MDF. Any tendency to pitch, roll, section—
or yaw must be mild and readily con- (1) The stick force vs. g curve must
trollable, using normal piloting tech- have a positive slope at any speed up to
niques. When the airplane is trimmed and including VFC/MFC; and
at VMO/MMO, the slope of the elevator (2) At speeds between VFC/MFC and
control force versus speed curve need
VDF/MDF the direction of the primary
not be stable at speeds greater than
longitudinal control force may not re-
VFC/MFC, but there must be a push force
verse.
at all speeds up to VDF/MDF and there
must be no sudden or excessive reduc- (c) Except as provided in paragraphs
tion of elevator control force as VDF/ (d) and (e) of this section, compliance
MDF is reached. with the provisions of paragraph (a) of
(b) Maximum speed for stability charac- this section must be demonstrated in
teristics, VFC/MFC. VFC/MFC is the maxi- flight over the acceleration range—
mum speed at which the requirements (1) ¥1 g to +2.5 g; or
of §§ 25.143(f), 25.147(e), 25.175(b)(1), (2) 0 g to 2.0 g, and extrapolating by
25.177, and 25.181 must be met with an acceptable method to ¥1 g and +2.5
flaps and landing gear retracted. It g.
may not be less than a speed midway (d) If the procedure set forth in para-
between VMO/MMO and VDF/MDF, except graph (c)(2) of this section is used to
that for altitudes where Mach number demonstrate compliance and marginal
is the limiting factor, MFC need not ex- conditions exist during flight test with
ceed the Mach number at which effec- regard to reversal of primary longitu-
tive speed warning occurs. dinal control force, flight tests must be
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as accomplished from the normal accel-
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5671, Apr. 8, eration at which a marginal condition
1970; Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60172, Sept. 11, 1980; is found to exist to the applicable limit
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29775, July 20, 1990; Amdt. specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
25–84, 60 FR 30750, June 9, 1995] tion.
(e) During flight tests required by
§ 25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics.
paragraph (a) of this section, the limit
(a) From an initial condition with maneuvering load factors prescribed in
the airplane trimmed at cruise speeds §§ 25.333(b) and 25.337, and the maneu-
up to VMO/MMO, the airplane must have vering load factors associated with
satisfactory maneuvering stability and probable inadvertent excursions be-
controllability with the degree of out- yond the boundaries of the buffet onset
of-trim in both the airplane nose-up envelopes determined under § 25.251(e),
and nose-down directions, which re-
need not be exceeded. In addition, the
sults from the greater of—
entry speeds for flight test demonstra-
(1) A three-second movement of the
tions at normal acceleration values
longitudinal trim system at its normal
less than 1 g must be limited to the ex-
rate for the particular flight condition
tent necessary to accomplish a recov-
with no aerodynamic load (or an equiv-
alent degree of trim for airplanes that ery without exceeding VDF/MDF.
do not have a power-operated trim sys- (f) In the out-of-trim condition speci-
tem), except as limited by stops in the fied in paragraph (a) of this section, it
trim system, including those required must be possible from an overspeed
by § 25.655(b) for adjustable stabilizers; condition at VDF/MDF to produce at
or least 1.5 g for recovery by applying not
(2) The maximum mistrim that can more than 125 pounds of longitudinal
be sustained by the autopilot while control force using either the primary

351
§ 25.301 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

longitudinal control alone or the pri- § 25.303 Factor of safety.


mary longitudinal control and the lon-
Unless otherwise specified, a factor of
gitudinal trim system. If the longitu- safety of 1.5 must be applied to the pre-
dinal trim is used to assist in produc- scribed limit load which are considered
ing the required load factor, it must be external loads on the structure. When a
shown at VDF/MDF that the longitu- loading condition is prescribed in
dinal trim can be actuated in the air- terms of ultimate loads, a factor of
plane nose-up direction with the pri- safety need not be applied unless other-
mary surface loaded to correspond to wise specified.
the least of the following airplane
nose-up control forces: [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8, 1970]
(1) The maximum control forces ex- § 25.305 Strength and deformation.
pected in service as specified in §§ 25.301
and 25.397. (a) The structure must be able to
(2) The control force required to support limit loads without detrimen-
produce 1.5 g. tal permanent deformation. At any
load up to limit loads, the deformation
(3) The control force corresponding to
may not interfere with safe operation.
buffeting or other phenomena of such
(b) The structure must be able to
intensity that it is a strong deterrent
support ultimate loads without failure
to further application of primary longi-
for at least 3 seconds. However, when
tudinal control force. proof of strength is shown by dynamic
[Amdt. No. 25–42, 43 FR 2322, Jan. 16, 1978] tests simulating actual load condi-
tions, the 3-second limit does not
Subpart C—Structure apply. Static tests conducted to ulti-
mate load must include the ultimate
GENERAL deflections and ultimate deformation
induced by the loading. When analyt-
§ 25.301 Loads. ical methods are used to show compli-
ance with the ultimate load strength
(a) Strength requirements are speci- requirements, it must be shown that—
fied in terms of limit loads (the maxi-
(1) The effects of deformation are not
mum loads to be expected in service) significant;
and ultimate loads (limit loads multi-
(2) The deformations involved are
plied by prescribed factors of safety). fully accounted for in the analysis; or
Unless otherwise provided, prescribed
(3) The methods and assumptions
loads are limit loads. used are sufficient to cover the effects
(b) Unless otherwise provided, the of these deformations.
specified air, ground, and water loads (c) Where structural flexibility is
must be placed in equilibrium with in- such that any rate of load application
ertia forces, considering each item of likely to occur in the operating condi-
mass in the airplane. These loads must tions might produce transient stresses
be distributed to conservatively ap- appreciably higher than those cor-
proximate or closely represent actual responding to static loads, the effects
conditions. Methods used to determine of this rate of application must be con-
load intensities and distribution must sidered.
be validated by flight load measure- (d) [Reserved]
ment unless the methods used for de- (e) The airplane must be designed to
termining those loading conditions are withstand any vibration and buffeting
shown to be reliable. that might occur in any likely operat-
(c) If deflections under load would ing condition up to VD/MD, including
significantly change the distribution of stall and probable inadvertent excur-
external or internal loads, this redis- sions beyond the boundaries of the buf-
tribution must be taken into account. fet onset envelope. This must be shown
by analysis, flight tests, or other tests
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as found necessary by the Administrator.
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
(f) Unless shown to be extremely im-
1970]
probable, the airplane must be designed

352
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.331

to withstand any forced structural vi- (2) At each weight from the design
bration resulting from any failure, minimum weight to the design maxi-
malfunction or adverse condition in mum weight appropriate to each par-
the flight control system. These must ticular flight load condition; and
be considered limit loads and must be (3) For each required altitude and
investigated at airspeeds up to VC/MC. weight, for any practicable distribution
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as of disposable load within the operating
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8, limitations recorded in the Airplane
1970; Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60172, Sept. 11, 1980; Flight Manual.
Amdt. 25–77, 57 FR 28949, June 29, 1992; Amdt. (c) Enough points on and within the
25–86, 61 FR 5220, Feb. 9, 1996]
boundaries of the design envelope must
§ 25.307 Proof of structure. be investigated to ensure that the max-
imum load for each part of the airplane
(a) Compliance with the strength and
deformation requirements of this sub- structure is obtained.
part must be shown for each critical (d) The significant forces acting on
loading condition. Structural analysis the airplane must be placed in equi-
may be used only if the structure con- librium in a rational or conservative
forms to that for which experience has manner. The linear inertia forces must
shown this method to be reliable. The be considered in equilibrium with the
Administrator may require ultimate thrust and all aerodynamic loads,
load tests in cases where limit load while the angular (pitching) inertia
tests may be inadequate. forces must be considered in equi-
(b)–(c) [Reserved] librium with thrust and all aero-
(d) When static or dynamic tests are dynamic moments, including moments
used to show compliance with the re- due to loads on components such as
quirements of § 25.305(b) for flight tail surfaces and nacelles. Critical
structures, appropriate material cor- thrust values in the range from zero to
rection factors must be applied to the maximum continuous thrust must be
test results, unless the structure, or considered.
part thereof, being tested has features
such that a number of elements con- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
tribute to the total strength of the amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
structure and the failure of one ele- 1970; Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5220, Feb. 9, 1996]
ment results in the redistribution of
the load through alternate load paths. FLIGHT MANEUVER AND GUST
CONDITIONS
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8, § 25.331 Symmetric maneuvering con-
1970; Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60172, Sept. 11, 1980; ditions.
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29775, July 20, 1990]
(a) Procedure. For the analysis of the
FLIGHT LOADS maneuvering flight conditions specified
in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this sec-
§ 25.321 General. tion, the following provisions apply:
(a) Flight load factors represent the (1) Where sudden displacement of a
ratio of the aerodynamic force compo- control is specified, the assumed rate
nent (acting normal to the assumed of control surface displacement may
longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the not be less than the rate that could be
weight of the airplane. A positive load applied by the pilot through the con-
factor is one in which the aerodynamic trol system.
force acts upward with respect to the (2) In determining elevator angles
airplane.
and chordwise load distribution in the
(b) Considering compressibility ef-
maneuvering conditions of paragraphs
fects at each speed, compliance with
the flight load requirements of this (b) and (c) of this section, the effect of
subpart must be shown— corresponding pitching velocities must
(1) At each critical altitude within be taken into account. The in-trim and
the range of altitudes selected by the out-of-trim flight conditions specified
applicant; in § 25.255 must be considered.

353
§ 25.333 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(b) Maneuvering balanced conditions. currently with the airplane load factor
Assuming the airplane to be in equi- of 1.0 (Points A1 to D1, § 25.333(b)). The
librium with zero pitching accelera- positive acceleration must be equal to
tion, the maneuvering conditions A at least
through I on the maneuvering envelope
in § 25.333(b) must be investigated.
(c) Pitch maneuver conditions. The
39n
v
(
( n − 1.5), Radians/sec.2 )
conditions specified in paragraphs
(c)(1) and (2) of this section must be in- where—
vestigated. The movement of the pitch n is the positive load factor at the speed
control surfaces may be adjusted to under consideration, and V is the air-
plane equivalent speed in knots.
take into account limitations imposed
by the maximum pilot effort specified (ii) A negative pitching acceleration
by § 25.397(b), control system stops and (nose down) is assumed to be reached
any indirect effect imposed by limita- concurrently with the positive maneu-
tions in the output side of the control vering load factor (points A2 to D2,
system (for example, stalling torque or § 25.333(b)). This negative pitching ac-
maximum rate obtainable by a power celeration must be equal to at least
control system.)
−26n
( )
(1) Maximum pitch control displacement
at VA. The airplane is assumed to be ( n − 1.5), Radians/sec.2
flying in steady level flight (point A1, v
§ 25.333(b)) and the cockpit pitch con- where—
trol is suddenly moved to obtain ex- n is the positive load factor at the speed
treme nose up pitching acceleration. In under consideration; and V is the air-
defining the tail load, the response of plane equivalent speed in knots.
the airplane must be taken into ac- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
count. Airplane loads that occur subse- amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
quent to the time when normal accel- 1970; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50594, Oct. 30, 1978; 43
eration at the c.g. exceeds the positive FR 52495, Nov. 13, 1978; 43 FR 54082, Nov. 20,
limit maneuvering load factor (at point 1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29775, July 20, 1990; 55
A2 in § 25.333(b)), or the resulting FR 37607, Sept. 12, 1990; Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR
tailplane normal load reaches its maxi- 5220, Feb. 9, 1996; Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40704,
July 29, 1997]
mum, whichever occurs first, need not
be considered. § 25.333 Flight maneuvering envelope.
(2) Specified control displacement. A
checked maneuver, based on a rational (a) General. The strength require-
pitching control motion vs. time pro- ments must be met at each combina-
file, must be established in which the tion of airspeed and load factor on and
design limit load factor specified in within the boundaries of the represent-
§ 25.337 will not be exceeded. Unless ative maneuvering envelope (V-n dia-
lesser values cannot be exceeded, the gram) of paragraph (b) of this section.
airplane response must result in pitch- This envelope must also be used in de-
ing accelerations not less than the fol- termining the airplane structural oper-
lowing: ating limitations as specified in
(i) A positive pitching acceleration § 25.1501.
(nose up) is assumed to be reached con- (b) Maneuvering envelope.

354
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.335

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as VD/MD is the greater of the following
amended by Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5220, Feb. 9, values:
1996]
(1) From an initial condition of sta-
§ 25.335 Design airspeeds. bilized flight at VC/MC, the airplane is
upset, flown for 20 seconds along a
The selected design airspeeds are flight path 7.5° below the initial path,
equivalent airspeeds (EAS). Estimated and then pulled up at a load factor of
values of VS0 and VS1 must be conserv-
1.5 g (0.5 g acceleration increment). The
ative.
speed increase occurring in this maneu-
(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC,
ver may be calculated if reliable or
the following apply:
conservative aerodynamic data is used.
(1) The minimum value of VC must be
Power as specified in § 25.175(b)(1)(iv) is
sufficiently greater than VB to provide
for inadvertent speed increases likely assumed until the pullup is initiated,
to occur as a result of severe atmos- at which time power reduction and the
pheric turbulence. use of pilot controlled drag devices
(2) Except as provided in § 25.335(d)(2), may be assumed;
VC may not be less than VB + 1.32 U REF (2) The minimum speed margin must
(with UREF as specified in be enough to provide for atmospheric
§ 25.341(a)(5)(i)). However VC need not variations (such as horizontal gusts,
exceed the maximum speed in level and penetration of jet streams and cold
flight at maximum continuous power fronts) and for instrument errors and
for the corresponding altitude. airframe production variations. These
(3) At altitudes where VD is limited factors may be considered on a prob-
by Mach number, VC may be limited to ability basis. The margin at altitude
a selected Mach number. where MC is limited by compressibility
(b) Design dive speed, VD. VD must be effects must not less than 0.07M unless
selected so that VC/MC is not greater a lower margin is determined using a
than 0.8 VD/MD, or so that the mini- rational analysis that includes the ef-
mum speed margin between VC/MC and fects of any automatic systems. In any

355
§ 25.337 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

case, the margin may not be reduced to (e) Design flap speeds, VF. For VF, the
less than 0.05M. following apply:
(c) Design maneuvering speed VA. For (1) The design flap speed for each flap
VA, the following apply: position (established in accordance
(1) VA may not be less than VS1 √n with § 25.697(a)) must be sufficiently
where— greater than the operating speed rec-
(i) n is the limit positive maneuver- ommended for the corresponding stage
ing load factor at VC; and of flight (including balked landings) to
(ii) VS1 is the stalling speed with allow for probable variations in control
flaps retracted. of airspeed and for transition from one
(2) VA and VS must be evaluated at flap position to another.
the design weight and altitude under (2) If an automatic flap positioning or
consideration. load limiting device is used, the speeds
(3) VA need not be more than VC or and corresponding flap positions pro-
the speed at which the positive CN max grammed or allowed by the device may
curve intersects the positive maneuver be used.
load factor line, whichever is less. (3) VF may not be less than—
(d) Design speed for maximum gust in- (i) 1.6 VS1 with the flaps in takeoff po-
tensity, VB. sition at maximum takeoff weight;
(ii) 1.8 VS1 with the flaps in approach
(1) VB may not be less than
position at maximum landing weight,
12 and
 K g U ref Vc a  (iii) 1.8 VS0 with the flaps in landing
VS1 1 +  position at maximum landing weight.
 498w  (f) Design drag device speeds, VDD. The
where— selected design speed for each drag de-
VS1=the 1-g stalling speed based on vice must be sufficiently greater than
CNAmax with the flaps retracted at the speed recommended for the oper-
the particular weight under consid- ation of the device to allow for prob-
eration; able variations in speed control. For
Vc=design cruise speed (knots equiva- drag devices intended for use in high
lent airspeed); speed descents, VDD may not be less
Uref=the reference gust velocity (feet than VD. When an automatic drag de-
per second equivalent airspeed) vice positioning or load limiting means
from § 25.341(a)(5)(i); is used, the speeds and corresponding
w=average wing loading (pounds per drag device positions programmed or
square foot) at the particular allowed by the automatic means must
weight under consideration. be used for design.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
.88 µ amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
Kg = 1970; Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5220, Feb. 9, 1996;
5.3 + µ Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40704, July 29, 1997]

2w § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load fac-


µ= tors.
ρcag (a) Except where limited by maxi-
mum (static) lift coefficients, the air-
ρ=density of air (slugs/ft3);
plane is assumed to be subjected to
c=mean geometric chord of the wing symmetrical maneuvers resulting in
(feet); the limit maneuvering load factors pre-
g=acceleration due to gravity (ft/sec2); scribed in this section. Pitching veloci-
a=slope of the airplane normal force ties appropriate to the corresponding
coefficient curve, CNA per radian; pull-up and steady turn maneuvers
(2) At altitudes where VC is limited must be taken into account.
by Mach number— (b) The positive limit maneuvering
(i) VB may be chosen to provide an load factor ‘‘n’’ for any speed up to Vn
optimum margin between low and high may not be less than 2.1+24,000/ (W
speed buffet boundaries; and, +10,000) except that ‘‘n’’ may not be
(ii) VB need not be greater than VC. less than 2.5 and need not be greater

356
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.341

than 3.8—where ‘‘W’’ is the design max- Uref=the reference gust velocity in
imum takeoff weight. equivalent airspeed defined in para-
(c) The negative limit maneuvering graph (a)(5) of this section.
load factor— Fg=the flight profile alleviation factor
(1) May not be less than ¥1.0 at defined in paragraph (a)(6) of this
speeds up to VC; and section.
(2) Must vary linearly with speed (5) The following reference gust ve-
from the value at VC to zero at VD. locities apply:
(d) Maneuvering load factors lower (i) At the airplane design speed VC™
than those specified in this section Positive and negative gusts with ref-
may be used if the airplane has design erence gust velocities of 56.0 ft/sec EAS
features that make it impossible to ex- must be considered at sea level. The
ceed these values in flight. reference gust velocity may be reduced
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as linearly from 56.0 ft/sec EAS at sea
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8, level to 44.0 ft/sec EAS at 15000 feet.
1970] The reference gust velocity may be fur-
ther reduced linearly from 44.0 ft/sec
§ 25.341 Gust and turbulence loads. EAS at 15000 feet to 26.0 ft/sec EAS at
(a) Discrete Gust Design Criteria. The 50000 feet.
airplane is assumed to be subjected to (ii) At the airplane design speed VD™
symmetrical vertical and lateral gusts The reference gust velocity must be 0.5
in level flight. Limit gust loads must times the value obtained under
be determined in accordance with the § 25.341(a)(5)(i).
provisions: (6) The flight profile alleviation fac-
(1) Loads on each part of the struc- tor, Fg, must be increased linearly from
ture must be determined by dynamic the sea level value to a value of 1.0 at
analysis. The analysis must take into the maximum operating altitude de-
account unsteady aerodynamic charac- fined in § 25.1527. At sea level, the flight
teristics and all significant structural profile alleviation factor is determined
degrees of freedom including rigid body by the following equation:

( )
motions.
(2) The shape of the gust must be: Fg = 0.5 Fgz + Fgm
U ds   πs   Where:
U= 1- Cos  
2   H  Z mo
for 0 ≤ s ≤ 2H Fgz = 1 − ;
where— 250000
s=distance penetrated into the gust
πR1 
(feet);
Fgm = R 2 Tan  4;
Uds=the design gust velocity in equiva- 
lent airspeed specified in paragraph
(a)(4) of this section; and Maximum Landing Weight
H=the gust gradient which is the dis- R1 = ;
tance (feet) parallel to the air- Maximum Take-off Weight
plane’s flight path for the gust to
reach its peak velocity. Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
(3) A sufficient number of gust gra- R2 = ;
dient distances in the range 30 feet to Maximum Take-off Weight
350 feet must be investigated to find Zmo=Maximum operating altitude de-
the critical response for each load fined in § 25.1527.
quantity. (7) When a stability augmentation
(4) The design gust velocity must be: system is included in the analysis, the

( )
16 effect of any significant system non-
U ds = U ref Fg H 350 linearities should be accounted for
when deriving limit loads from limit
where— gust conditions.

357
§ 25.343 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(b) Continuous Gust Design Criteria. (1) Maneuvering to a positive limit


The dynamic response of the airplane load factor of 2.0; and
to vertical and lateral continuous tur- (2) Positive and negative gusts of 25
bulence must be taken into account. ft/sec EAS acting normal to the flight
The continuous gust design criteria of path in level flight. Gust loads result-
appendix G of this part must be used to ing on each part of the structure must
establish the dynamic response unless be determined by rational analysis.
more rational criteria are shown. The analysis must take into account
the unsteady aerodynamic characteris-
[Doc. No. 27902, 61 FR 5221, Feb. 9, 1996; 61 FR
9533, Mar. 8, 1996] tics and rigid body motions of the air-
craft. The shape of the gust must be as
§ 25.343 Design fuel and oil loads. described in § 25.341(a)(2) except that—
(a) The disposable load combinations Uds=25 ft/sec EAS;
must include each fuel and oil load in H=12.5 c; and
the range from zero fuel and oil to the c=mean geometric chord of the wing
selected maximum fuel and oil load. A (feet).
structural reserve fuel condition, not (b) The airplane must be designed for
exceeding 45 minutes of fuel under the the conditions prescribed in paragraph
operating conditions in § 25.1001(e) and (a) of this section, except that the air-
(f), as applicable, may be selected. plane load factor need not exceed 1.0,
(b) If a structural reserve fuel condi- taking into account, as separate condi-
tion is selected, it must be used as the tions, the effects of—
minimum fuel weight condition for (1) Propeller slipstream correspond-
showing compliance with the flight ing to maximum continuous power at
load requirements as prescribed in this the design flap speeds VF, and with
subpart. In addition— takeoff power at not less than 1.4 times
(1) The structure must be designed the stalling speed for the particular
for a condition of zero fuel and oil in flap position and associated maximum
the wing at limit loads corresponding weight; and
to— (2) A head-on gust of 25 feet per sec-
(i) A maneuvering load factor of ond velocity (EAS).
+2.25; and (c) If flaps or other high lift devices
(ii) The gust conditions of § 25.341(a) are to be used in en route conditions,
but assuming 85% of the design veloci- and with flaps in the appropriate posi-
ties prescribed in § 25.341(a)(4). tion at speeds up to the flap design
(2) Fatigue evaluation of the struc- speed chosen for these conditions, the
ture must account for any increase in airplane is assumed to be subjected to
operating stresses resulting from the symmetrical maneuvers and gusts
design condition of paragraph (b)(1) of within the range determined by—
this section; and (1) Maneuvering to a positive limit
(3) The flutter, deformation, and vi- load factor as prescribed in § 25.337(b);
bration requirements must also be met and
with zero fuel. (2) The discrete vertical gust criteria
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as in § 25.341(a).
amended by Amdt. 25–18, 33 FR 12226, Aug. 30, (d) The airplane must be designed for
1968; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 37607, Sept. 12, 1990; a maneuvering load factor of 1.5 g at
Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5221, Feb. 9, 1996] the maximum take-off weight with the
wing-flaps and similar high lift devices
§ 25.345 High lift devices. in the landing configurations.
(a) If wing flaps are to be used during [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
takeoff, approach, or landing, at the amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30,
design flap speeds established for these 1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 37607, Sept. 17, 1990;
stages of flight under § 25.335(e) and Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5221, Feb. 9, 1996; Amdt.
with the wing flaps in the correspond- 25–91, 62 FR 40704, July 29, 1997]
ing positions, the airplane is assumed
to be subjected to symmetrical maneu- § 25.349 Rolling conditions.
vers and gusts. The resulting limit The airplane must be designed for
loads must correspond to the condi- loads resulting from the rolling condi-
tions determined as follows: tions specified in paragraphs (a) and (b)

358
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.361

of this section. Unbalanced aero- § 25.351 Yaw maneuver conditions.


dynamic moments about the center of The airplane must be designed for
gravity must be reacted in a rational loads resulting from the yaw maneuver
or conservative manner, considering conditions specified in paragraphs (a)
the principal masses furnishing the re- through (d) of this section at speeds
acting inertia forces. from VMC to VD. Unbalanced aero-
(a) Maneuvering. The following condi- dynamic moments about the center of
tions, speeds, and aileron deflections gravity must be reacted in a rational
(except as the deflections may be lim- or conservative manner considering the
ited by pilot effort) must be considered airplane inertia forces. In computing
in combination with an airplane load the tail loads the yawing velocity may
factor of zero and of two-thirds of the be assumed to be zero.
positive maneuvering factor used in de- (a) With the airplane in unacceler-
sign. In determining the required aile- ated flight at zero yaw, it is assumed
ron deflections, the torsional flexibil- that the cockpit rudder control is sud-
ity of the wing must be considered in denly displaced to achieve the result-
accordance with § 25.301(b): ing rudder deflection, as limited by:
(1) Conditions corresponding to (1) The control system on control
steady rolling velocities must be inves- surface stops; or
tigated. In addition, conditions cor- (2) A limit pilot force of 300 pounds
responding to maximum angular accel- from VMC to VA and 200 pounds from VC/
eration must be investigated for air- MC to VD/MD, with a linear variation
planes with engines or other weight between VA and VC/MC.
concentrations outboard of the fuse- (b) With the cockpit rudder control
lage. For the angular acceleration con- deflected so as always to maintain the
ditions, zero rolling velocity may be maximum rudder deflection available
assumed in the absence of a rational within the limitations specified in
time history investigation of the ma- paragraph (a) of this section, it is as-
neuver. sumed that the airplane yaws to the
overswing sideslip angle.
(2) At VA, a sudden deflection of the
(c) With the airplane yawed to the
aileron to the stop is assumed.
static equilibrium sideslip angle, it is
(3) At VC, the aileron deflection must
assumed that the cockpit rudder con-
be that required to produce a rate of trol is held so as to achieve the maxi-
roll not less than that obtained in mum rudder deflection available with-
paragraph (a)(2) of this section. in the limitations specified in para-
(4) At VD, the aileron deflection must graph (a) of this section.
be that required to produce a rate of (d) With the airplane yawed to the
roll not less than one-third of that in static equilibrium sideslip angle of
paragraph (a)(2) of this section. paragraph (c) of this section, it is as-
(b) Unsymmetrical gusts. The airplane sumed that the cockpit rudder control
is assumed to be subjected to unsym- is suddenly returned to neutral.
metrical vertical gusts in level flight.
[Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40704, July 29, 1997]
The resulting limit loads must be de-
termined from either the wing maxi- SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS
mum airload derived directly from
§ 25.341(a), or the wing maximum air- § 25.361 Engine torque.
load derived indirectly from the verti- (a) Each engine mount and its sup-
cal load factor calculated from porting structure must be designed for
§ 25.341(a). It must be assumed that 100 the effects of—
percent of the wing air load acts on one (1) A limit engine torque correspond-
side of the airplane and 80 percent of ing to takeoff power and propeller
the wing air load acts on the other speed acting simultaneously with 75
side. percent of the limit loads from flight
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as condition A of § 25.333(b);
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8, (2) A limit torque corresponding to
1970; Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9, 1996; the maximum continuous power and
Amdt. 25–94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998] propeller speed, acting simultaneously

359
§ 25.363 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

with the limit loads from flight condi- sumed to be independent of other flight
tion A of § 25.333(b); and conditions.
(3) For turbopropeller installations, [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
in addition to the conditions specified amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this sec- 1970; Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40704, July 29, 1997]
tion, a limit engine torque correspond-
ing to takeoff power and propeller § 25.365 Pressurized compartment
speed, multiplied by a factor account- loads.
ing for propeller control system mal- For airplanes with one or more pres-
function, including quick feathering, surized compartments the following
acting simultaneously with 1g level apply:
flight loads. In the absence of a ration- (a) The airplane structure must be
al analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be strong enough to withstand the flight
used. loads combined with pressure differen-
(b) For turbine engine installations, tial loads from zero up to the maxi-
the engine mounts and supporting mum relief valve setting.
structure must be designed to with- (b) The external pressure distribution
stand each of the following: in flight, and stress concentrations and
(1) A limit engine torque load im- fatigue effects must be accounted for.
posed by sudden engine stoppage due to (c) If landings may be made with the
malfunction or structural failure (such compartment pressurized, landing
as compressor jamming). loads must be combined with pressure
(2) A limit engine torque load im- differential loads from zero up to the
posed by the maximum acceleration of maximum allowed during landing.
the engine. (d) The airplane structure must be
(c) The limit engine torque to be con- designed to be able to withstand the
sidered under paragraph (a) of this sec- pressure differential loads correspond-
tion must be obtained by multiplying ing to the maximum relief valve set-
mean torque for the specified power ting multiplied by a factor of 1.33 for
and speed by a factor of— airplanes to be approved for operation
(1) 1.25 for turbopropeller installa- to 45,000 feet or by a factor of 1.67 for
tions; airplanes to be approved for operation
(2) 1.33 for reciprocating engines with above 45,000 feet, omitting other loads.
five or more cylinders; or (e) Any structure, component or part,
(3) Two, three, or four, for engines inside or outside a pressurized com-
with four, three, or two cylinders, re- partment, the failure of which could
spectively. interfere with continued safe flight and
landing, must be designed to withstand
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
the effects of a sudden release of pres-
1970; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978; sure through an opening in any com-
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, 1990] partment at any operating altitude re-
sulting from each of the following con-
§ 25.363 Side load on engine and auxil- ditions:
iary power unit mounts. (1) The penetration of the compart-
(a) Each engine and auxiliary power ment by a portion of an engine follow-
unit mount and its supporting struc- ing an engine disintegration;
ture must be designed for a limit load (2) Any opening in any pressurized
factor in lateral direction, for the side compartment up to the size Ho in
load on the engine and auxiliary power square feet; however, small compart-
unit mount, at least equal to the maxi- ments may be combined with an adja-
mum load factor obtained in the yaw- cent pressurized compartment and both
ing conditions but not less than— considered as a single compartment for
(1) 1.33; or openings that cannot reasonably be ex-
(2) One-third of the limit load factor pected to be confined to the small com-
for flight condition A as prescribed in partment. The size Ho must be com-
§ 25.333(b). puted by the following formula:
(b) The side load prescribed in para- Ho=PAs
graph (a) of this section may be as- where,

360
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.371
Ho=Maximum opening in square feet, need considering the probable pilot correc-
not exceed 20 square feet. tive action on the flight controls:
(1) At speeds between VMC and VD,
As
P= +.024 the loads resulting from power failure
6240 because of fuel flow interruption are
considered to be limit loads.
As=Maximum cross-sectional area of the (2) At speeds between VMC and VC,
pressurized shell normal to the longitudinal the loads resulting from the disconnec-
axis, in square feet; and tion of the engine compressor from the
(3) The maximum opening caused by turbine or from loss of the turbine
airplane or equipment failures not blades are considered to be ultimate
shown to be extremely improbable. loads.
(f) In complying with paragraph (e) of (3) The time history of the thrust
this section, the fail-safe features of decay and drag build-up occurring as a
the design may be considered in deter- result of the prescribed engine failures
mining the probability of failure or must be substantiated by test or other
penetration and probable size of open- data applicable to the particular en-
ings, provided that possible improper gine-propeller combination.
operation of closure devices and inad- (4) The timing and magnitude of the
vertent door openings are also consid- probable pilot corrective action must
ered. Furthermore, the resulting dif- be conservatively estimated, consider-
ferential pressure loads must be com- ing the characteristics of the particu-
bined in a rational and conservative lar engine-propeller-airplane combina-
manner with 1–g level flight loads and tion.
any loads arising from emergency de- (b) Pilot corrective action may be as-
pressurization conditions. These loads sumed to be initiated at the time maxi-
may be considered as ultimate condi- mum yawing velocity is reached, but
tions; however, any deformations asso-
not earlier than two seconds after the
ciated with these conditions must not
engine failure. The magnitude of the
interfere with continued safe flight and
corrective action may be based on the
landing. The pressure relief provided by
intercompartment venting may also be control forces specified in § 25.397(b) ex-
considered. cept that lower forces may be assumed
(g) Bulkheads, floors, and partitions where it is shown by anaylsis or test
in pressurized compartments for occu- that these forces can control the yaw
pants must be designed to withstand and roll resulting from the prescribed
the conditions specified in paragraph engine failure conditions.
(e) of this section. In addition, reason-
able design precautions must be taken § 25.371 Gyroscopic loads.
to minimize the probability of parts The structure supporting any engine
becoming detached and injuring occu- or auxiliary power unit must be de-
pants while in their seats. signed for the loads including the gyro-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
scopic loads arising from the condi-
amended by Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60172, Sept. tions specified in §§ 25.331, 25.341(a),
11, 1980; Amdt. 25–71, 55 FR 13477, Apr. 10, 25.349, 25.351, 25.473, 25.479, and 25.481,
1990; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, 1990; with the engine or auxiliary power unit
Amdt. 25–87, 61 FR 28695, June 5, 1996] at the maximum rpm appropriate to
the condition. For the purposes of com-
§ 25.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to
engine failure. pliance with this section, the pitch ma-
neuver in § 25.331(c)(1) must be carried
(a) The airplane must be designed for out until the positive limit maneuver-
the unsymmetrical loads resulting ing load factor (point A2 in § 25.333(b))
from the failure of the critical engine. is reached.
Turbopropeller airplanes must be de-
signed for the following conditions in [Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40704, July 29, 1997]
combination with a single malfunction
of the propeller drag limiting system,

361
§ 25.373 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.373 Speed control devices. § 25.395 Control system.


If speed control devices (such as (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional,
spoilers and drag flaps) are installed and drag control system and their sup-
for use in en route conditions— porting structures must be designed for
(a) The airplane must be designed for loads corresponding to 125 percent of
the symmetrical maneuvers prescribed the computed hinge moments of the
in § 25.333 and § 25.337, the yawing ma- movable control surface in the condi-
neuvers prescribed in § 25.351, and the tions prescribed in § 25.391.
vertical and later gust conditions pre- (b) The system limit loads, except
the loads resulting from ground gusts,
scribed in § 25.341(a), at each setting
need not exceed the loads that can be
and the maximum speed associated
produced by the pilot (or pilots) and by
with that setting; and automatic or power devices operating
(b) If the device has automatic oper- the controls.
ating or load limiting features, the air- (c) The loads must not be less than
plane must be designed for the maneu- those resulting from application of the
ver and gust conditions prescribed in minimum forces prescribed in
paragraph (a) of this section, at the § 25.397(c).
speeds and corresponding device posi-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
tions that the mechanism allows.
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5672, Apr. 8,
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as 1970; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, 1990]
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20,
1990; Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9, 1996] § 25.397 Control system loads.
(a) General. The maximum and mini-
CONTROL SURFACE AND SYSTEM LOADS mum pilot forces, specified in para-
graph (c) of this section, are assumed
§ 25.391 Control surface loads: general. to act at the appropriate control grips
The control surfaces must be de- or pads (in a manner simulating flight
signed for the limit loads resulting conditions) and to be reacted at the at-
from the flight conditions in §§ 25.331, tachment of the control system to the
25.341(a), 25.349 and 25.351 and the control surface horn.
ground gust conditions in § 25.415, con- (b) Pilot effort effects. In the control
sidering the requirements for— surface flight loading condition, the air
(a) Loads parallel to hinge line, in loads on movable surfaces and the cor-
§ 25.393; responding deflections need not exceed
(b) Pilot effort effects, in § 25.397; those that would result in flight from
the application of any pilot force with-
(c) Trim tab effects, in § 25.407;
in the ranges specified in paragraph (c)
(d) Unsymmetrical loads, in § 25.427; of this section. Two-thirds of the maxi-
and mum values specified for the aileron
(e) Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces, and elevator may be used if control
in § 25.445. surface hinge moments are based on re-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as liable data. In applying this criterion,
amended by Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9, the effects of servo mechanisms, tabs,
1996] and automatic pilot systems, must be
considered.
§ 25.393 Loads parallel to hinge line. (c) Limit pilot forces and torques. The
(a) Control surfaces and supporting limit pilot forces and torques are as
hinge brackets must be designed for in- follows:
ertia loads acting parallel to the hinge Maximum Minimum
line. Control forces or forces or
torques torques
(b) In the absence of more rational
data, the inertia loads may be assumed Aileron:
Stick ............................... 100 lbs ............ 40 lbs.
to be equal to KW, where— Wheel 1 .......................... 80 D in.-lbs 2 ... 40 D in.-lbs.
Elevator:
(1) K=24 for vertical surfaces; Stick ............................... 250 lbs ............ 100 lbs.
(2) K=12 for horizontal surfaces; and Wheel (symmetrical) ..... 300 lbs ............ 100 lbs.
(3) W= weight of the movable surfaces. Wheel (unsymmetrical) 3 ......................... 100 lbs.

362
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.415

Maximum Minimum sidered to be deflected in the direction


Control forces or forces or that would assist the pilot, and the de-
torques torques
flections are—
Rudder .............................. 300 lbs ............ 130 lbs. (a) For elevator trim tabs, those re-
1 The critical parts of the aileron control system must be de- quired to trim the airplane at any
signed for a single tangential force with a limit value equal to point within the positive portion of the
1.25 times the couple force determined from these criteria.
2 D= wheel diameter (inches). pertinent flight envelope in § 25.333(b),
3 The unsymmetrical forces must be applied at one of the
except as limited by the stops; and
normal handgrip points on the periphery of the control wheel.
(b) For aileron and rudder trim tabs,
[Doc. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as those required to trim the airplane in
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20, the critical unsymmetrical power and
1976; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, 1990] loading conditions, with appropriate
allowance for rigging tolerances.
§ 25.399 Dual control system.
(a) Each dual control system must be § 25.409 Tabs.
designed for the pilots operating in op- (a) Trim tabs. Trim tabs must be de-
position, using individual pilot forces signed to withstand loads arising from
not less than— all likely combinations of tab setting,
(1) 0.75 times those obtained under primary control position, and airplane
§ 25.395; or speed (obtainable without exceeding
(2) The minimum forces specified in the flight load conditions prescribed
§ 25.397(c). for the airplane as a whole), when the
(b) The control system must be de- effect of the tab is opposed by pilot ef-
signed for pilot forces applied in the fort forces up to those specified in
same direction, using individual pilot § 25.397(b).
forces not less than 0.75 times those ob- (b) Balancing tabs. Balancing tabs
tained under § 25.395. must be designed for deflections con-
sistent with the primary control sur-
§ 25.405 Secondary control system. face loading conditions.
Secondary controls, such as wheel (c) Servo tabs. Servo tabs must be de-
brake, spoiler, and tab controls, must signed for deflections consistent with
be designed for the maximum forces the primary control surface loading
that a pilot is likely to apply to those conditions obtainable within the pilot
controls. The following values may be maneuvering effort, considering pos-
used: sible opposition from the trim tabs.
§ 25.415 Ground gust conditions.
PILOT CONTROL FORCE LIMITS (SECONDARY (a) The control system must be de-
CONTROLS) signed as follows for control surface
loads due to ground gusts and taxiing
Control Limit pilot forces downwind:
(1) The control system between the
Miscellaneous: 1+R stops nearest the surfaces and the
*Crank, wheel, or )———* × 50 lbs., but
lever. 3 cockpit controls must be designed for
loads corresponding to the limit hinge
not less than 50 lbs. nor more moments H of paragraph (a)(2) of this
than 150 lbs. (R=radius). (Ap- section. These loads need not exceed—
plicable to any angle within
20° of plane of control).
(i) The loads corresponding to the
Twist .................................. 133 in.–lbs. maximum pilot loads in § 25.397(c) for
Push–pull ........................... To be chosen by applicant. each pilot alone; or
*Limited to flap, tab, stabilizer, spoiler, and landing gear op- (ii) 0.75 times these maximum loads
eration controls. for each pilot when the pilot forces are
applied in the same direction.
§ 25.407 Trim tab effects. (2) The control system stops nearest
The effects of trim tabs on the con- the surfaces, the control system locks,
trol surface design conditions must be and the parts of the systems (if any)
accounted for only where the surface between these stops and locks and the
loads are limited by maximum pilot ef- control surface horns, must be designed
fort. In these cases, the tabs are con- for limit hinge moments H, in foot

363
§ 25.427 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

pounds, obtained from the formula, (d) Unsymmetrical loading on the


H=.0034KV2cS, where— empennage arising from buffet condi-
tions of § 25.305(e) must be taken into
V=65 (wind speed in knots)
K=limit hinge moment factor for ground
account.
gusts derived in paragraph (b) of this sec- [Doc. No. 27902, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9, 1996]
tion.
c=mean chord of the control surface aft of § 25.445 Auxiliary aerodynamic sur-
the hinge line (ft); faces.
S=area of the control surface aft of the hinge
line (sq ft); (a) When significant, the aero-
(b) The limit hinge moment factor K dynamic influence between auxiliary
for ground gusts must be derived as fol- aerodynamic surfaces, such as out-
lows: board fins and winglets, and their sup-
porting aerodynamic surfaces, must be
Surface K Position of controls taken into account for all loading con-
ditions including pitch, roll, and yaw
(a) Aileron ..................... 0.75 Control column locked
or lashed in mid-posi- maneuvers, and gusts as specified in
tion. § 25.341(a) acting at any orientation at
1 1 ±0.50
(b) ......do ....................... Ailerons at full throw. right angles to the flight path.
(c) Elevator .................... 1 1 ±0.75 (c) Elevator full down.
1 1 ±0.75
(b) To provide for unsymmetrical
(d) ......do ....................... (d) Elevator full up.
(e) Rudder ..................... 0.75 (e) Rudder in neutral. loading when outboard fins extend
(f) ......do ........................ 0.75 (f) Rudder at full throw. above and below the horizontal surface,
1 A positive value of K indicates a moment tending to de- the critical vertical surface loading
press the surface, while a negative value of K indicates a mo- (load per unit area) determined under
ment tending to raise the surface. § 25.391 must also be applied as follows:
(1) 100 percent to the area of the ver-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, tical surfaces above (or below) the hor-
1990; Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997] izontal surface.
(2) 80 percent to the area below (or
§ 25.427 Unsymmetrical loads. above) the horizontal surface.
(a) In designing the airplane for lat- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
eral gust, yaw maneuver and roll ma- amended by Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9,
neuver conditions, account must be 1996]
taken of unsymmetrical loads on the
empennage arising from effects such as § 25.457 Wing flaps.
slipstream and aerodynamic inter- Wing flaps, their operating mecha-
ference with the wing, vertical fin and nisms, and their supporting structures
other aerodynamic surfaces. must be designed for critical loads oc-
(b) The horizontal tail must be as- curring in the conditions prescribed in
sumed to be subjected to unsymmet- § 25.345, accounting for the loads occur-
rical loading conditions determined as ring during transition from one flap po-
follows: sition and airspeed to another.
(1) 100 percent of the maximum load-
ing from the symmetrical maneuver § 25.459 Special devices.
conditions of § 25.331 and the vertical The loading for special devices using
gust conditions of § 25.341(a) acting sep- aerodynamic surfaces (such as slots,
arately on the surface on one side of slats and spoilers) must be determined
the plane of symmetry; and from test data.
(2) 80 percent of these loadings acting [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
on the other side. amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20,
(c) For empennage arrangements 1990]
where the horizontal tail surfaces have
dihedral angles greater than plus or GROUND LOADS
minus 10 degrees, or are supported by
the vertical tail surfaces, the surfaces § 25.471 General.
and the supporting structure must be (a) Loads and equilibrium. For limit
designed for gust velocities specified in ground loads—
§ 25.341(a) acting in any orientation at (1) Limit ground loads obtained
right angles to the flight path. under this subpart are considered to be

364
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.479

external forces applied to the airplane airplane has design features that make
structure; and it impossible to develop these veloci-
(2) In each specified ground load con- ties.
dition, the external loads must be (b) Airplane lift, not exceeding air-
placed in equilibrium with the linear plane weight, may be assumed unless
and angular inertia loads in a rational the presence of systems or procedures
or conservative manner. significantly affects the lift.
(b) Critical centers of gravity. The crit- (c) The method of analysis of air-
ical centers of gravity within the range plane and landing gear loads must take
for which certification is requested into account at least the following ele-
must be selected so that the maximum ments:
design loads are obtained in each land- (1) Landing gear dynamic character-
ing gear element. Fore and aft, verti- istics.
cal, and lateral airplane centers of (2) Spin-up and springback.
gravity must be considered. Lateral (3) Rigid body response.
displacements of the c.g. from the air- (4) Structural dynamic response of
plane centerline which would result in the airframe, if significant.
main gear loads not greater than 103 (d) The limit inertia load factors cor-
percent of the critical design load for
responding to the required limit de-
symmetrical loading conditions may be
scent velocities must be validated by
selected without considering the ef-
tests as defined in § 25.723(a).
fects of these lateral c.g. displacements
(e) The coefficient of friction between
on the loading of the main gear ele-
the tires and the ground may be estab-
ments, or on the airplane structure
lished by considering the effects of
provided—
skidding velocity and tire pressure.
(1) The lateral displacement of the
However, this coefficient of friction
c.g. results from random passenger or
need not be more than 0.8.
cargo disposition within the fuselage or
from random unsymmetrical fuel load- [Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997; Amdt.
ing or fuel usage; and 25–91, 62 FR 45481, Aug. 27, 1997]
(2) Appropriate loading instructions
for random disposable loads are in- § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement.
cluded under the provisions of Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply
§ 25.1583(c)(1) to ensure that the lateral to airplanes with conventional ar-
displacement of the center of gravity is rangements of main and nose gears, or
maintained within these limits. main and tail gears, when normal oper-
(c) Landing gear dimension data. Fig- ating techniques are used.
ure 1 of appendix A contains the basic
landing gear dimension data. § 25.479 Level landing conditions.
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970] (a) In the level attitude, the airplane
is assumed to contact the ground at
§ 25.473 Landing load conditions and forward velocity components, ranging
assumptions. from VL1 to 1.25 VL2 parallel to the
(a) For the landing conditions speci- ground under the conditions prescribed
fied in § 25.479 to § 25.485 the airplane is in § 25.473 with—
assumed to contact the ground— (1) VL1 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the ap-
(1) In the attitudes defined in § 25.479 propriate landing weight and in stand-
and § 25.481; ard sea level conditions; and
(2) With a limit descent velocity of 10 (2) VL2 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the ap-
fps at the design landing weight (the propriate landing weight and altitudes
maximum weight for landing condi- in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees
tions at maximum descent velocity); F. above standard.
and (3) The effects of increased contact
(3) With a limit descent velocity of 6 speed must be investigated if approval
fps at the design take-off weight (the of downwind landings exceeding 10
maximum weight for landing condi- knots is requested.
tions at a reduced descent velocity). (b) For the level landing attitude for
(4) The prescribed descent velocities airplanes with tail wheels, the condi-
may be modified if it is shown that the tions specified in this section must be

365
§ 25.481 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

investigated with the airplane hori- ing from VL1 to VL2 parallel to the
zontal reference line horizontal in ac- ground under the conditions prescribed
cordance with Figure 2 of Appendix A in § 25.473 with—
of this part. (1) VL1 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the ap-
(c) For the level landing attitude for propriate landing weight and in stand-
airplanes with nose wheels, shown in ard sea level conditions; and
Figure 2 of Appendix A of this part, the (2) VL2 equal to VS0 (TAS) at the ap-
conditions specified in this section propriate landing weight and altitudes
must be investigated assuming the fol- in a hot day temperature of 41 degrees
lowing attitudes: F. above standard.
(1) An attitude in which the main (3) The combination of vertical and
wheels are assumed to contact the drag components considered to be act-
ground with the nose wheel just clear ing at the main wheel axle centerline.
of the ground; and (b) For the tail-down landing condi-
(2) If reasonably attainable at the tion for airplanes with tail wheels, the
specified descent and forward veloci- main and tail wheels are assumed to
ties, an attitude in which the nose and contact the ground simultaneously, in
main wheels are assumed to contact accordance with figure 3 of appendix A.
the ground simultaneously. Ground reaction conditions on the tail
(d) In addition to the loading condi- wheel are assumed to act—
tions prescribed in paragraph (a) of this (1) Vertically; and
section, but with maximum vertical (2) Up and aft through the axle at 45
ground reactions calculated from para- degrees to the ground line.
graph (a), the following apply: (c) For the tail-down landing condi-
(1) The landing gear and directly af- tion for airplanes with nose wheels, the
fected attaching structure must be de- airplane is assumed to be at an atti-
signed for the maximum vertical tude corresponding to either the stall-
ground reaction combined with an aft ing angle or the maximum angle allow-
acting drag component of not less than ing clearance with the ground by each
25% of this maximum vertical ground part of the airplane other than the
reaction. main wheels, in accordance with figure
(2) The most severe combination of 3 of appendix A, whichever is less.
loads that are likely to arise during a [Docket No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
lateral drift landing must be taken amended by Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29,
into account. In absence of a more ra- 1997; Amdt. 25–94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998]
tional analysis of this condition, the
following must be investigated: § 25.483 One-gear landing conditions.
(i) A vertical load equal to 75% of the For the one-gear landing conditions,
maximum ground reaction of § 25.473 the airplane is assumed to be in the
must be considered in combination level attitude and to contact the
with a drag and side load of 40% and ground on one main landing gear, in
25% respectively of that vertical load. accordance with Figure 4 of Appendix
(ii) The shock absorber and tire de- A of this part. In this attitude—
flections must be assumed to be 75% of (a) The ground reactions must be the
the deflection corresponding to the same as those obtained on that side
maximum ground reaction of under § 25.479(d)(1), and
§ 25.473(a)(2). This load case need not be (b) Each unbalanced external load
considered in combination with flat must be reacted by airplane inertia in
tires. a rational or conservative manner.
(3) The combination of vertical and
[Docket No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
drag components is considered to be amended by Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29,
acting at the wheel axle centerline. 1997]
[Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997; Amdt.
25–91, 62 FR 45481, Aug. 27, 1997] § 25.485 Side load conditions.
In addition to § 25.479(d)(2) the follow-
§ 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions. ing conditions must be considered:
(a) In the tail-down attitude, the air- (a) For the side load condition, the
plane is assumed to contact the ground airplane is assumed to be in the level
at forward velocity components, rang- attitude with only the main wheels

366
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.493

contacting the ground, in accordance § 25.493 Braked roll conditions.


with figure 5 of appendix A. (a) An airplane with a tail wheel is
(b) Side loads of 0.8 of the vertical re- assumed to be in the level attitude
action (on one side) acting inward and with the load on the main wheels, in
0.6 of the vertical reaction (on the accordance with figure 6 of appendix A.
other side) acting outward must be The limit vertical load factor is 1.2 at
combined with one-half of the maxi- the design landing weight and 1.0 at
mum vertical ground reactions ob- the design ramp weight. A drag reac-
tained in the level landing conditions. tion equal to the vertical reaction mul-
These loads are assumed to be applied tiplied by a coefficient of friction of
at the ground contact point and to be 0.8, must be combined with the vertical
resisted by the inertia of the airplane. ground reaction and applied at the
The drag loads may be assumed to be ground contact point.
zero. (b) For an airplane with a nose wheel
[Docket No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as the limit vertical load factor is 1.2 at
amended by Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, the design landing weight, and 1.0 at
1997] the design ramp weight. A drag reac-
tion equal to the vertical reaction,
§ 25.487 Rebound landing condition. multiplied by a coefficient of friction
(a) The landing gear and its support- of 0.8, must be combined with the verti-
ing structure must be investigated for cal reaction and applied at the ground
the loads occurring during rebound of contact point of each wheel with
the airplane from the landing surface. brakes. The following two attitudes, in
(b) With the landing gear fully ex- accordance with figure 6 of appendix A,
tended and not in contact with the must be considered:
ground, a load factor of 20.0 must act (1) The level attitude with the wheels
on the unsprung weights of the landing contacting the ground and the loads
gear. This load factor must act in the distributed between the main and nose
direction of motion of the unsprung gear. Zero pitching acceleration is as-
weights as they reach their limiting sumed.
positions in extending with relation to (2) The level attitude with only the
the sprung parts of the landing gear. main gear contacting the ground and
with the pitching moment resisted by
§ 25.489 Ground handling conditions. angular acceleration.
Unless otherwise prescribed, the (c) A drag reaction lower than that
landing gear and airplane structure prescribed in this section may be used
must be investigated for the conditions if it is substantiated that an effective
in §§ 25.491 through 25.509 with the air- drag force of 0.8 times the vertical re-
plane at the design ramp weight (the action cannot be attained under any
maximum weight for ground handling likely loading condition.
conditions). No wing lift may be con- (d) An airplane equipped with a nose
sidered. The shock absorbers and tires gear must be designed to withstand the
may be assumed to be in their static loads arising from the dynamic pitch-
position. ing motion of the airplane due to sud-
den application of maximum braking
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as force. The airplane is considered to be
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8,
at design takeoff weight with the nose
1970]
and main gears in contact with the
§ 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. ground, and with a steady-state verti-
cal load factor of 1.0. The steady-state
Within the range of appropriate
nose gear reaction must be combined
ground speeds and approved weights,
with the maximum incremental nose
the airplane structure and landing gear
gear vertical reaction caused by the
are assumed to be subjected to loads
sudden application of maximum brak-
not less than those obtained when the
ing force as described in paragraphs (b)
aircraft is operating over the roughest
and (c) of this section.
ground that may reasonably be ex- (e) In the absence of a more rational
pected in normal operation. analysis, the nose gear vertical reac-
[Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997] tion prescribed in paragraph (d) of this

367
§ 25.495 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

section must be calculated according plane longitudinal axis with the result-
to the following formula: ant load passing through the axle.
(c) If there is a lock, steering device,
WT  fµAE  or shimmy damper the tail wheel is
VN = B +  also assumed to be in the trailing posi-
A+B A + B + µE  tion with the side load acting at the
ground contact point.
Where:
VN=Nose gear vertical reaction. § 25.499 Nose-wheel yaw and steering.
WT=Design takeoff weight. (a) A vertical load factor of 1.0 at the
A=Horizontal distance between the c.g. airplane center of gravity, and a side
of the airplane and the nose wheel. component at the nose wheel ground
B=Horizontal distance between the c.g. contact equal to 0.8 of the vertical
of the airplane and the line joining
ground reaction at that point are as-
the centers of the main wheels.
sumed.
E=Vertical height of the c.g. of the air-
plane above the ground in the 1.0 g (b) With the airplane assumed to be
static condition. in static equilibrium with the loads re-
µ=Coefficient of friction of 0.80. sulting from the use of brakes on one
f=Dynamic response factor; 2.0 is to be side of the main landing gear, the nose
used unless a lower factor is sub- gear, its attaching structure, and the
stantiated. In the absence of other fuselage structure forward of the cen-
information, the dynamic response ter of gravity must be designed for the
factor f may be defined by the following loads:
equation: (1) A vertical load factor at the cen-
ter of gravity of 1.0.
 −πξ  (2) A forward acting load at the air-
f = 1 + exp 
plane center of gravity of 0.8 times the
 1− ξ2  vertical load on one main gear.
  (3) Side and vertical loads at the
Where: ground contact point on the nose gear
ξ is the effective critical damping ratio that are required for static equi-
of the rigid body pitching mode librium.
about the main landing gear effec- (4) A side load factor at the airplane
tive ground contact point. center of gravity of zero.
(c) If the loads prescribed in para-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
graph (b) of this section result in a
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8,
1970; Amdt. 25–97, 63 FR 29072, May 27, 1998] nose gear side load higher than 0.8
times the vertical nose gear load, the
§ 25.495 Turning. design nose gear side load may be lim-
In the static position, in accordance ited to 0.8 times the vertical load, with
with figure 7 of appendix A, the air- unbalanced yawing moments assumed
plane is assumed to execute a steady to be resisted by airplane inertia
turn by nose gear steering, or by appli- forces.
cation of sufficient differential power, (d) For other than the nose gear, its
so that the limit load factors applied at attaching structure, and the forward
the center of gravity are 1.0 vertically fuselage structure, the loading condi-
and 0.5 laterally. The side ground reac- tions are those prescribed in paragraph
tion of each wheel must be 0.5 of the (b) of this section, except that—
vertical reaction. (1) A lower drag reaction may be used
if an effective drag force of 0.8 times
§ 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. the vertical reaction cannot be reached
(a) A vertical ground reaction equal under any likely loading condition; and
to the static load on the tail wheel, in (2) The forward acting load at the
combination with a side component of center of gravity need not exceed the
equal magnitude, is assumed. maximum drag reaction on one main
(b) If there is a swivel, the tail wheel gear, determined in accordance with
is assumed to be swiveled 90° to the air- § 25.493(b).

368
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.509

(e) With the airplane at design ramp must be applied at the towing fittings
weight, and the nose gear in any steer- and must act parallel to the ground. In
able position, the combined application addition—
of full normal steering torque and ver- (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0
tical force equal to 1.33 times the maxi- must be considered acting at the center
mum static reaction on the nose gear of gravity;
must be considered in designing the (2) The shock struts and tires must
nose gear, its attaching structure, and be in their static positions; and
the forward fuselage structure. (3) With WT as the design ramp
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as weight, the towing load, FTOW, is—
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, (i) 0.3 WT for WT less than 30,000
1970; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978; pounds;
Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40705, July 29, 1997] (ii) (6WT+450,000)/7 for WT between
§ 25.503 Pivoting. 30,000 and 100,000 pounds; and
(iii) 0.15 WT for WT over 100,000
(a) The airplane is assumed to pivot pounds.
about one side of the main gear with
(b) For towing points not on the
the brakes on that side locked. The
landing gear but near the plane of sym-
limit vertical load factor must be 1.0
metry of the airplane, the drag and
and the coefficient of friction 0.8.
side tow load components specified for
(b) The airplane is assumed to be in
the auxiliary gear apply. For towing
static equilibrium, with the loads being
points located outboard of the main
applied at the ground contact points,
gear, the drag and side tow load compo-
in accordance with figure 8 of appendix
nents specified for the main gear apply.
A.
Where the specified angle of swivel
§ 25.507 Reversed braking. cannot be reached, the maximum ob-
tainable angle must be used.
(a) The airplane must be in a three
(c) The towing loads specified in
point static ground attitude. Hori-
zontal reactions parallel to the ground paragraph (d) of this section must be
and directed forward must be applied reacted as follows:
at the ground contact point of each (1) The side component of the towing
wheel with brakes. The limit loads load at the main gear must be reacted
must be equal to 0.55 times the vertical by a side force at the static ground line
load at each wheel or to the load devel- of the wheel to which the load is ap-
oped by 1.2 times the nominal maxi- plied.
mum static brake torque, whichever is (2) The towing loads at the auxiliary
less. gear and the drag components of the
(b) For airplanes with nose wheels, towing loads at the main gear must be
the pitching moment must be balanced reacted as follows:
by rotational inertia. (i) A reaction with a maximum value
(c) For airplanes with tail wheels, the equal to the vertical reaction must be
resultant of the ground reactions must applied at the axle of the wheel to
pass through the center of gravity of which the load is applied. Enough air-
the airplane. plane inertia to achieve equilibrium
must be applied.
§ 25.509 Towing loads. (ii) The loads must be reacted by air-
(a) The towing loads specified in plane inertia.
paragraph (d) of this section must be (d) The prescribed towing loads are as
considered separately. These loads follows:
Load
Tow point Position
Magnitude No. Direction

Main gear ............................. ................................................. 0.75 FTOW per main 1 Forward, parallel to drag axis.
gear unit. 2 Forward, at 30° to drag axis.
3 Aft, parallel to drag axis.
4 Aft, at 30° to drag axis.
Auxiliary gear ....................... Swiveled forward .................... 1.0 FTOW .................. 5 Forward.
6 Aft.

369
§ 25.511 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

Load
Tow point Position
Magnitude No. Direction

Swiveled aft ............................ ......do ........................ 7 Forward.


8 Aft.
Swiveled 45° from forward ..... 0.5 FTOW .................. 9 Forward, in plane of wheel.
10 Aft, in plane of wheel.
Swiveled 45° from aft ............. ......do ........................ 11 Forward, in plane of wheel.
12 Aft, in plane of wheel.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, 1970]

§ 25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical shape that may be approximated by a


loads on multiple-wheel units. slope of 11⁄2 percent with the hori-
(a) General. Multiple-wheel landing zontal. Runway crown effects must be
gear units are assumed to be subjected considered with the nose gear unit on
to the limit ground loads prescribed in either slope of the crown.
this subpart under paragraphs (b) (5) The airplane attitude.
(6) Any structural deflections.
through (f) of this section. In addi-
(c) Deflated tires. The effect of de-
tion—
flated tires on the structure must be
(1) A tandem strut gear arrangement
considered with respect to the loading
is a multiple-wheel unit; and
conditions specified in paragraphs (d)
(2) In determining the total load on a through (f) of this section, taking into
gear unit with respect to the provisions account the physical arrangement of
of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this the gear components. In addition—
section, the transverse shift in the load (1) The deflation of any one tire for
centroid, due to unsymmetrical load each multiple wheel landing gear unit,
distribution on the wheels, may be ne- and the deflation of any two critical
glected. tires for each landing gear unit using
(b) Distribution of limit loads to wheels; four or more wheels per unit, must be
tires inflated. The distribution of the considered; and
limit loads among the wheels of the (2) The ground reactions must be ap-
landing gear must be established for plied to the wheels with inflated tires
each landing, taxiing, and ground han- except that, for multiple-wheel gear
dling condition, taking into account units with more than one shock strut,
the effects of the following factors: a rational distribution of the ground
(1) The number of wheels and their reactions between the deflated and in-
physical arrangements. For truck type flated tires, accounting for the dif-
landing gear units, the effects of any ferences in shock strut extensions re-
seesaw motion of the truck during the sulting from a deflated tire, may be
landing impact must be considered in used.
determining the maximum design loads (d) Landing conditions. For one and
for the fore and aft wheel pairs. for two deflated tires, the applied load
(2) Any differentials in tire diameters to each gear unit is assumed to be 60
resulting from a combination of manu- percent and 50 percent, respectively, of
facturing tolerances, tire growth, and the limit load applied to each gear for
tire wear. A maximum tire-diameter each of the prescribed landing condi-
differential equal to 2⁄3 of the most un- tions. However, for the drift landing
favorable combination of diameter condition of § 25.485, 100 percent of the
variations that is obtained when tak- vertical load must be applied.
ing into account manufacturing toler- (e) Taxiing and ground handling condi-
ances, tire growth, and tire wear, may tions. For one and for two deflated
be assumed. tires—
(3) Any unequal tire inflation pres- (1) The applied side or drag load fac-
sure, assuming the maximum variation tor, or both factors, at the center of
to be ±5 percent of the nominal tire in- gravity must be the most critical value
flation pressure. up to 50 percent and 40 percent, respec-
(4) A runway crown of zero and a run- tively, of the limit side or drag load
way crown having a convex upward factors, or both factors, corresponding

370
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.525

to the most severe condition resulting action at each jacking point, acting
from consideration of the prescribed singly and in combination with a hori-
taxiing and ground handling condi- zontal load of 0.33 times the vertical
tions; static reaction applied in any direc-
(2) For the braked roll conditions of tion.
§ 25.493 (a) and (b)(2), the drag loads on (c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are
each inflated tire may not be less than provided, the main tie-down points and
those at each tire for the symmetrical local structure must withstand the
load distribution with no deflated tires; limit loads resulting from a 65-knot
(3) The vertical load factor at the horizontal wind from any direction.
center of gravity must be 60 percent [Doc. No. 26129, 59 FR 22102, Apr. 28, 1994]
and 50 percent, respectively, of the fac-
tor with no deflated tires, except that WATER LOADS
it may not be less than 1g; and
(4) Pivoting need not be considered. § 25.521 General.
(f) Towing conditions. For one and for (a) Seaplanes must be designed for
two deflated tires, the towing load, the water loads developed during take-
FTOW, must be 60 percent and 50 per- off and landing, with the seaplane in
cent, respectively, of the load pre- any attitude likely to occur in normal
scribed. operation, and at the appropriate for-
ward and sinking velocities under the
§ 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provi- most severe sea conditions likely to be
sions. encountered.
(a) General. The airplane must be de- (b) Unless a more rational analysis of
signed to withstand the limit load con- the water loads is made, or the stand-
ditions resulting from the static ards in ANC–3 are used, §§ 25.523
ground load conditions of paragraph (b) through 25.537 apply.
of this section and, if applicable, para- (c) The requirements of this section
graph (c) of this section at the most and §§ 25.523 through 25.537 apply also to
critical combinations of airplane amphibians.
weight and center of gravity. The max-
imum allowable load at each jack pad § 25.523 Design weights and center of
must be specified. gravity positions.
(b) Jacking. The airplane must have (a) Design weights. The water load re-
provisions for jacking and must with- quirements must be met at each oper-
stand the following limit loads when ating weight up to the design landing
the airplane is supported on jacks— weight except that, for the takeoff con-
(1) For jacking by the landing gear at dition prescribed in § 25.531, the design
the maximum ramp weight of the air- water takeoff weight (the maximum
plane, the airplane structure must be weight for water taxi and takeoff run)
designed for a vertical load of 1.33 must be used.
times the vertical static reaction at (b) Center of gravity positions. The
each jacking point acting singly and in critical centers of gravity within the
combination with a horizontal load of limits for which certification is re-
0.33 times the vertical static reaction quested must be considered to reach
applied in any direction. maximum design loads for each part of
(2) For jacking by other airplane the seaplane structure.
structure at maximum approved jack- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ing weight: amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8,
(i) The airplane structure must be de- 1970]
signed for a vertical load of 1.33 times
the vertical reaction at each jacking § 25.525 Application of loads.
point acting singly and in combination (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, the
with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the seaplane as a whole is assumed to be
vertical static reaction applied in any subjected to the loads corresponding to
direction. the load factors specified in § 25.527.
(ii) The jacking pads and local struc- (b) In applying the loads resulting
ture must be designed for a vertical from the load factors prescribed in
load of 2.0 times the vertical static re- § 25.527, the loads may be distributed

371
§ 25.527 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

over the hull or main float bottom (in center of gravity of the seaplane to the
order to avoid excessive local shear hull longitudinal station at which the
loads and bending moments at the lo- load factor is being computed to the ra-
cation of water load application) using dius of gyration in pitch of the sea-
pressures not less than those pre- plane, the hull reference axis being a
scribed in § 25.533(b). straight line, in the plane of symme-
(c) For twin float seaplanes, each try, tangential to the keel at the main
float must be treated as an equivalent step.
hull on a fictitious seaplane with a (c) For a twin float seaplane, because
weight equal to one-half the weight of of the effect of flexibility of the attach-
the twin float seaplane. ment of the floats to the seaplane, the
(d) Except in the takeoff condition of factor K1 may be reduced at the bow
§ 25.531, the aerodynamic lift on the and stern to 0.8 of the value shown in
seaplane during the impact is assumed figure 2 of appendix B. This reduction
to be 2⁄3 of the weight of the seaplane. applies only to the design of the carry-
through and seaplane structure.
§ 25.527 Hull and main float load fac-
tors. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8,
(a) Water reaction load factors nW 1970]
must be computed in the following
manner: § 25.529 Hull and main float landing
(1) For the step landing case conditions.
(a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern
C1VS 0 2 landing. For symmetrical step, bow,
nw = and stern landings, the limit water re-
 Tan 23 β  W 13 action load factors are those computed
  under § 25.527. In addition—
(2) For the bow and stern landing (1) For symmetrical step landings,
cases the resultant water load must be ap-
plied at the keel, through the center of
C1VS 0 2 K1 gravity, and must be directed per-
nw = 1 × 2
pendicularly to the keel line;
 Tan β  W
2 (2) For symmetrical bow landings,
(1 + rx )
3 3
3 2
  the resultant water load must be ap-
plied at the keel, one-fifth of the longi-
(b) The following values are used: tudinal distance from the bow to the
(1) nW=water reaction load factor step, and must be directed perpendicu-
(that is, the water reaction divided by larly to the keel line; and
seaplane weight). (3) For symmetrical stern landings,
(2) C1=empirical seaplane operations the resultant water load must be ap-
factor equal to 0.012 (except that this plied at the keel, at a point 85 percent
factor may not be less than that nec- of the longitudinal distance from the
essary to obtain the minimum value of step to the stern post, and must be di-
step load factor of 2.33). rected perpendicularly to the keel line.
(3) VS0=seaplane stalling speed in (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and
knots with flaps extended in the appro- single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical
priate landing position and with no step, bow, and stern landing conditions
slipstream effect. must be investigated. In addition—
(4) β=angle of dead rise at the longi- (1) The loading for each condition
tudinal station at which the load fac- consists of an upward component and a
tor is being determined in accordance side component equal, respectively, to
with figure 1 of appendix B. 0.75 and 0.25 tan β times the resultant
(5) W= seaplane design landing load in the corresponding symmetrical
weight in pounds. landing condition; and
(6) K1=empirical hull station weigh- (2) The point of application and di-
ing factor, in accordance with figure 2 rection of the upward component of the
of appendix B. load is the same as that in the sym-
(7) rx=ratio of distance, measured metrical condition, and the point of ap-
parallel to hull reference axis, from the plication of the side component is at

372
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.533

the same longitudinal station as the sure at the keel, and the pressures be-
upward component but is directed in- tween the keel and chine vary linearly,
ward perpendicularly to the plane of in accordance with figure 3 of appendix
symmetry at a point midway between B. The pressure at the keel (psi) is
the keel and chine lines. computed as follows:
(c) Unsymmetrical landing; twin float
seaplanes. The unsymmetrical loading K 2 VS12
consists of an upward load at the step Pk = C2 ×
of each float of 0.75 and a side load of tan β k
0.25 tan β at one float times the step where—
landing load reached under § 25.527. The Pk=pressure (p.s.i.) at the keel;
side load is directed inboard, per- C2=0.00213;
pendicularly to the plane of symmetry K2=hull station weighing factor, in accord-
midway between the keel and chine ance with figure 2 of appendix B;
lines of the float, at the same longitu- VS1=seaplane stalling speed (Knots) at the
dinal station as the upward load. design water takeoff weight with flaps
extended in the appropriate takeoff posi-
§ 25.531 Hull and main float takeoff tion; and
condition. βK=angle of dead rise at keel, in accordance
For the wing and its attachment to with figure 1 of appendix B.
the hull or main float— (2) For a flared bottom, the pressure
(a) The aerodynamic wing lift is as- at the beginning of the flare is the
sumed to be zero; and
same as that for an unflared bottom,
(b) A downward inertia load, cor-
and the pressure between the chine and
responding to a load factor computed
the beginning of the flare varies lin-
from the following formula, must be
early, in accordance with figure 3 of ap-
applied:
pendix B. The pressure distribution is
C TO VS12 the same as that prescribed in para-
n= graph (b)(1) of this section for an
 tan 23 β  W 13 unflared bottom except that the pres-
  sure at the chine is computed as fol-
lows:
where—
n= inertia load factor; K 2 VS12
CTO=empirical seaplane operations factor
Pch = C3 ×
equal to 0.004;
VS1=seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the de- tan β
sign takeoff weight with the flaps ex- where—
tended in the appropriate takeoff posi- Pch=pressure (p.s.i.) at the chine;
tion; C3=0.0016;
β=angle of dead rise at the main step (de- K2=hull station weighing factor, in accord-
grees); and
ance with figure 2 of appendix B;
W= design water takeoff weight in pounds.
VS1=seaplane stalling speed at the design
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as water takeoff weight with flaps extended
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, in the appropriate takeoff position; and
1970] β=angle of dead rise at appropriate station.
§ 25.533 Hull and main float bottom The area over which these pressures
pressures. are applied must simulate pressures oc-
(a) General. The hull and main float curring during high localized impacts
structure, including frames and bulk- on the hull or float, but need not ex-
heads, stringers, and bottom plating, tend over an area that would induce
must be designed under this section. critical stresses in the frames or in the
(b) Local pressures. For the design of overall structure.
the bottom plating and stringers and (c) Distributed pressures. For the de-
their attachments to the supporting sign of the frames, keel, and chine
structure, the following pressure dis- structure, the following pressure dis-
tributions must be applied: tributions apply:
(1) For an unflared bottom, the pres- (1) Symmetrical pressures are com-
sure at the chine is 0.75 times the pres- puted as follows:

373
§ 25.535 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)
the weight of the displaced water when
K 2 VS 0 2 the float is completely submerged:
P = C4 ×
tan β 2
where— C5 VS 2 W 3
P=pressure (p.s.i.); L = 0

( )
2 2
tan β s 1 + ry
C4 =0.078 C1(with C1 computed under § 25.527); 3 2 3
K2 =hull station weighing factor, determined
in accordance with figure 2 of appendix
where—
B;
L=limit load (lbs.);
VS0 =seaplane stalling speed (Knots) with
landing flaps extended in the appropriate C5 =0.0053;
position and with no slipstream effect; VS0 =seaplane stalling speed (knots) with
and landing flaps extended in the appropriate
VS0 =seaplane stalling speed with landing position and with no slipstream effect;
flaps extended in the appropriate posi- W=seaplane design landing weight in pounds;
tion and with no slipstream effect; and βS=angle of dead rise at a station 3⁄4 of the
β=angle of dead rise at appropriate sta- distance from the bow to the step, but
tion. need not be less than 15 degrees; and
ry=ratio of the lateral distance between the
(2) The unsymmetrical pressure dis- center of gravity and the plane of sym-
tribution consists of the pressures pre- metry of the float to the radius of gyra-
scribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this sec- tion in roll.
tion on one side of the hull or main
float centerline and one-half of that (c) Bow loading. The resultant limit
pressure on the other side of the hull or load must be applied in the plane of
main float centerline, in accordance symmetry of the float at a point one-
with figure 3 of appendix B. fourth of the distance from the bow to
These pressures are uniform and must the step and must be perpendicular to
be applied simultaneously over the en- the tangent to the keel line at that
tire hull or main float bottom. The point. The magnitude of the resultant
loads obtained must be carried into the load is that specified in paragraph (b)
sidewall structure of the hull proper, of this section.
but need not be transmitted in a fore (d) Unsymmetrical step loading. The re-
and aft direction as shear and bending sultant water load consists of a compo-
loads. nent equal to 0.75 times the load speci-
fied in paragraph (a) of this section and
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8,
a side component equal to 3.25 tan β
1970] times the load specified in paragraph
(b) of this section. The side load must
§ 25.535 Auxiliary float loads. be applied perpendicularly to the plane
of symmetry of the float at a point
(a) General. Auxiliary floats and their
midway between the keel and the
attachments and supporting structures
must be designed for the conditions chine.
prescribed in this section. In the cases (e) Unsymmetrical bow loading. The re-
specified in paragraphs (b) through (e) sultant water load consists of a compo-
of this section, the prescribed water nent equal to 0.75 times the load speci-
loads may be distributed over the float fied in paragraph (b) of this section and
bottom to avoid excessive local loads, a side component equal to 0.25 tan β
using bottom pressures not less than times the load specified in paragraph
those prescribed in paragraph (g) of (c) of this section. The side load must
this section. be applied perpendicularly to the plane
(b) Step loading. The resultant water of symmetry at a point midway be-
load must be applied in the plane of tween the keel and the chine.
symmetry of the float at a point three- (f) Immersed float condition. The re-
fourths of the distance from the bow to sultant load must be applied at the
the step and must be perpendicular to centroid of the cross section of the
the keel. The resultant limit load is float at a point one-third of the dis-
computed as follows, except that the tance from the bow to the step. The
value of L need not exceed three times limit load components are as follows:

374
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.562

(i) Upward, 3.0g


vertical= ρgV (ii) Forward, 9.0g
2 2 (iii) Sideward, 3.0g on the airframe;
aft = Cx 2ρ V  KVS  and 4.0g on the seats and their attach-
3
 0 
ments.
(iv) Downward, 6.0g
2 2
side = Cy 2ρ V  KVS 
3 (v) Rearward, 1.5g
 0 
(c) For equipment, cargo in the pas-
senger compartments and any other
where— large masses, the following apply:
ρ=mass density of water (slugs/ft.2); (1) Except as provided in paragraph
V=volume of float (ft.2);
Cx =coefficient of drag force, equal to 0.133; (c)(2) of this section, these items must
Cy =coefficient of side force, equal to 0.106; be positioned so that if they break
K=0.8, except that lower values may be used loose they will be unlikely to:
if it is shown that the floats are incapa- (i) Cause direct injury to occupants;
ble of submerging at a speed of 0.8 VS0 in (ii) Penetrate fuel tanks or lines or
normal operations; cause fire or explosion hazard by dam-
VS0 =seaplane stalling speed (knots) with
landing flaps extended in the appropriate
age to adjacent systems; or
position and with no slipstream effect; (iii) Nullify any of the escape facili-
and ties provided for use after an emer-
g=acceleration due to gravity (ft./sec.2). gency landing.
(g) Float bottom pressures. The float (2) When such positioning is not prac-
bottom pressures must be established tical (e.g. fuselage mounted engines or
under § 25.533, except that the value of auxiliary power units) each such item
K2 in the formulae may be taken as 1.0. of mass shall be restrained under all
The angle of dead rise to be used in de- loads up to those specified in paragraph
termining the float bottom pressures is (b)(3) of this section. The local attach-
set forth in paragraph (b) of this sec- ments for these items should be de-
tion. signed to withstand 1.33 times the spec-
ified loads if these items are subject to
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as severe wear and tear through frequent
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8, removal (e.g. quick change interior
1970]
items).
§ 25.537 Seawing loads. (d) Seats and items of mass (and
their supporting structure) must not
Seawing design loads must be based deform under any loads up to those
on applicable test data. specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this sec-
EMERGENCY LANDING CONDITIONS tion in any manner that would impede
subsequent rapid evacuation of occu-
§ 25.561 General. pants.
(a) The airplane, although it may be [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
damaged in emergency landing condi- amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5673, Apr. 8,
tions on land or water, must be de- 1970; Amdt. 25–64, 53 FR 17646, May 17, 1988;
signed as prescribed in this section to Amdt. 25–91, 62 FR 40706, July 29, 1997]
protect each occupant under those con-
ditions. § 25.562 Emergency landing dynamic
conditions.
(b) The structure must be designed to
give each occupant every reasonable (a) The seat and restraint system in
chance of escaping serious injury in a the airplane must be designed as pre-
minor crash landing when— scribed in this section to protect each
(1) Proper use is made of seats, belts, occupant during an emergency landing
and all other safety design provisions; condition when—
(2) The wheels are retracted (where (1) Proper use is made of seats, safety
applicable); and belts, and shoulder harnesses provided
(3) The occupant experiences the fol- for in the design; and
lowing ultimate inertia forces acting (2) The occupant is exposed to loads
separately relative to the surrounding resulting from the conditions pre-
structure: scribed in this section.

375
§ 25.562 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(b) Each seat type design approved devices to the test fixture, the rails or
for crew or passenger occupancy during fittings must be misaligned with re-
takeoff and landing must successfully spect to the adjacent set of rails or fit-
complete dynamic tests or be dem- tings by at least 10 degrees vertically
onstrated by rational analysis based on (i.e., out of Parallel) with one rolled 10
dynamic tests of a similar type seat, in degrees.
accordance with each of the following (c) The following performance meas-
emergency landing conditions. The ures must not be exceeded during the
tests must be conducted with an occu- dynamic tests conducted in accordance
pant simulated by a 170-pound with paragraph (b) of this section:
anthropomorphic test dummy, as de- (1) Where upper torso straps are used
fined by 49 CFR Part 572, Subpart B, or for crewmembers, tension loads in indi-
its equivalent, sitting in the normal vidual straps must not exceed 1,750
upright position. pounds. If dual straps are used for re-
(1) A change in downward vertical ve- straining the upper torso, the total
locity (∆ v) of not less than 35 feet per strap tension loads must not exceed
second, with the airplane’s longitu-
2,000 pounds.
dinal axis canted downward 30 degrees
with respect to the horizontal plane (2) The maximum compressive load
and with the wings level. Peak floor de- measured between the pelvis and the
celeration must occur in not more than lumbar column of the anthropomorphic
0.08 seconds after impact and must dummy must not exceed 1,500 pounds.
reach a minimum of 14g. (3) The upper torso restraint straps
(2) A change in forward longitudinal (where installed) must remain on the
velocity (∆ v) of not less than 44 feet occupant’s shoulder during the impact.
per second, with the airplane’s longitu- (4) The lap safety belt must remain
dinal axis horizontal and yawed 10 de- on the occupant’s pelvis during the im-
grees either right or left, whichever pact.
would cause the greatest likelihood of (5) Each occupant must be protected
the upper torso restraint system from serious head injury under the con-
(where installed) moving off the occu- ditions prescribed in paragraph (b) of
pant’s shoulder, and with the wings this section. Where head contact with
level. Peak floor deceleration must seats or other structure can occur, pro-
occur in not more than 0.09 seconds tection must be provided so that the
after impact and must reach a mini- head impact does not exceed a Head In-
mum of 16g. Where floor rails or floor jury Criterion (HIC) of 1,000 units. The
fittings are used to attach the seating level of HIC is defined by the equation:

  1  
2 .5

HIC = ( t 2 − t 1 )
t2
∫ a(t )dt  
 ( t 2 − t 1 ) t1
   max

Where: (7) The seat must remain attached at


t1 is the initial integration time, all points of attachment, although the
t2 is the final integration time, and structure may have yielded.
a(t) is the total acceleration vs. time curve (8) Seats must not yield under the
for the head strike, and where
tests specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and
(t) is in seconds, and (a) is in units of gravity
(g).
(b)(2) of this section to the extent they
would impede rapid evacuation of the
(6) Where leg injuries may result airplane occupants.
from contact with seats or other struc-
[Amdt. 25–64, 53 FR 17646, May 17, 1988]
ture, protection must be provided to
prevent axially compressive loads ex-
ceeding 2,250 pounds in each femur.

376
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.571

§ 25.563 Structural ditching provi- structions for Continued Airworthiness


sions. required by § 25.1529. Inspection thresh-
Structural strength considerations of olds for the following types of struc-
ditching provisions must be in accord- ture must be established based on
ance with § 25.801(e). crack growth analyses and/or tests, as-
suming the structure contains an ini-
FATIGUE EVALUATION tial flaw of the maximum probable size
that could exist as a result of manufac-
§ 25.571 Damage—tolerance and fa- turing or service-induced damage:
tigue evaluation of structure. (i) Single load path structure, and
(a) General. An evaluation of the (ii) Multiple load path ‘‘fail-safe’’
strength, detail design, and fabrication structure and crack arrest ‘‘fail-safe’’
must show that catastrophic failure structure, where it cannot be dem-
due to fatigue, corrosion, manufactur- onstrated that load path failure, par-
ing defects, or accidental damage, will tial failure, or crack arrest will be de-
be avoided throughout the operational tected and repaired during normal
life of the airplane. This evaluation maintenance, inspection, or operation
must be conducted in accordance with of an airplane prior to failure of the re-
the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (e) maining structure.
of this section, except as specified in (b) Damage-tolerance evaluation. The
paragraph (c) of this section, for each evaluation must include a determina-
part of the structure that could con- tion of the probable locations and
tribute to a catastrophic failure (such modes of damage due to fatigue, corro-
as wing, empennage, control surfaces sion, or accidental damage. Repeated
and their systems, the fuselage, engine load and static analyses supported by
mounting, landing gear, and their re- test evidence and (if available) service
lated primary attachments). For turbo- experience must also be incorporated
jet powered airplanes, those parts that in the evaluation. Special consider-
could contribute to a catastrophic fail- ation for widespread fatigue damage
ure must also be evaluated under para- must be included where the design is
graph (d) of this section. In addition, such that this type of damage could
the following apply: occur. It must be demonstrated with
(1) Each evaluation required by this sufficient full-scale fatigue test evi-
section must include— dence that widespread fatigue damage
(i) The typical loading spectra, tem- will not occur within the design service
peratures, and humidities expected in goal of the airplane. The type certifi-
service; cate may be issued prior to completion
(ii) The identification of principal of full-scale fatigue testing, provided
structural elements and detail design the Administrator has approved a plan
points, the failure of which could cause for completing the required tests, and
catastrophic failure of the airplane; the airworthiness limitations section
and of the instructions for continued air-
(iii) An analysis, supported by test worthiness required by § 25.1529 of this
evidence, of the principal structural part specifies that no airplane may be
elements and detail design points iden- operated beyond a number of cycles
tified in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this sec- equal to 1⁄2 the number of cycles accu-
tion. mulated on the fatigue test article,
(2) The service history of airplanes of until such testing is completed. The ex-
similar structural design, taking due tent of damage for residual strength
account of differences in operating con- evaluation at any time within the
ditions and procedures, may be used in operational life of the airplane must be
the evaluations required by this sec- consistent with the initial detect-
tion. ability and subsequent growth under
(3) Based on the evaluations required repeated loads. The residual strength
by this section, inspections or other evaluation must show that the remain-
procedures must be established, as nec- ing structure is able to withstand loads
essary, to prevent catastrophic failure, (considered as static ultimate loads)
and must be included in the Airworthi- corresponding to the following condi-
ness Limitations Section of the In- tions:

377
§ 25.581 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(1) The limit symmetrical maneuver- (1) Sonic fatigue cracks are not prob-
ing conditions specified in § 25.337 at all able in any part of the flight structure
speeds up to Vc and in § 25.345. subject to sonic excitation; or
(2) The limit gust conditions speci- (2) Catastrophic failure caused by
fied in § 25.341 at the specified speeds up sonic cracks is not probable assuming
to VC and in § 25.345. that the loads prescribed in paragraph
(3) The limit rolling conditions speci- (b) of this section are applied to all
fied in § 25.349 and the limit unsymmet- areas affected by those cracks.
rical conditions specified in §§ 25.367 (e) Damage-tolerance (discrete source)
and 25.427 (a) through (c), at speeds up evaluation. The airplane must be capa-
to VC. ble of successfully completing a flight
(4) The limit yaw maneuvering condi- during which likely structural damage
tions specified in § 25.351(a) at the spec- occurs as a result of—
ified speeds up to VC. (1) Impact with a 4-pound bird when
(5) For pressurized cabins, the follow- the velocity of the airplane relative to
ing conditions: the bird along the airplane’s flight
(i) The normal operating differential path is equal to Vc at sea level or 0.85Vc
pressure combined with the expected at 8,000 feet, whichever is more critical;
external aerodynamic pressures applied (2) Uncontained fan blade impact;
simultaneously with the flight loading (3) Uncontained engine failure; or
conditions specified in paragraphs (4) Uncontained high energy rotating
(b)(1) through (4) of this section, if they machinery failure.
have a significant effect. The damaged structure must be able to
(ii) The maximum value of normal withstand the static loads (considered
operating differential pressure (includ- as ultimate loads) which are reason-
ing the expected external aerodynamic ably expected to occur on the flight.
pressures during 1 g level flight) multi- Dynamic effects on these static loads
plied by a factor of 1.15, omitting other need not be considered. Corrective ac-
loads. tion to be taken by the pilot following
(6) For landing gear and directly-af- the incident, such as limiting maneu-
fected airframe structure, the limit vers, avoiding turbulence, and reducing
ground loading conditions specified in speed, must be considered. If signifi-
§§ 25.473, 25.491, and 25.493. cant changes in structural stiffness or
If significant changes in structural geometry, or both, follow from a struc-
stiffness or geometry, or both, follow tural failure or partial failure, the ef-
from a structural failure, or partial fect on damage tolerance must be fur-
failure, the effect on damage tolerance ther investigated.
must be further investigated. [Amdt. 25–45, 43 FR 46242, Oct. 5, 1978, as
(c) Fatigue (safe-life) evaluation. Com- amended by Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept.
pliance with the damage-tolerance re- 11, 1980; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20,
quirements of paragraph (b) of this sec- 1990; Amdt. 25–86, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9, 1996;
tion is not required if the applicant es- Amdt. 25–96, 63 FR 15714, Mar. 31, 1998; 63 FR
tablishes that their application for par- 23338, Apr. 28, 1998]
ticular structure is impractical. This
LIGHTNING PROTECTION
structure must be shown by analysis,
supported by test evidence, to be able § 25.581 Lightning protection.
to withstand the repeated loads of vari-
able magnitude expected during its (a) The airplane must be protected
service life without detectable cracks. against catastrophic effects from light-
Appropriate safe-life scatter factors ning.
must be applied. (b) For metallic components, compli-
(d) Sonic fatigue strength. It must be ance with paragraph (a) of this section
shown by analysis, supported by test may be shown by—
evidence, or by the service history of (1) Bonding the components properly
airplanes of similar structural design to the airframe; or
and sonic excitation environment, (2) Designing the components so that
that— a strike will not endanger the airplane.

378
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.611

(c) For nonmetallic components, (b) Each new aircraft fabrication


compliance with paragraph (a) of this method must be substantiated by a
section may be shown by— test program.
(1) Designing the components to min- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
imize the effect of a strike; or amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30,
(2) Incorporating acceptable means of 1978]
diverting the resulting electrical cur-
rent so as not to endanger the airplane. § 25.607 Fasteners.
(a) Each removable bolt, screw, nut,
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8, 1970]
pin, or other removable fastener must
incorporate two separate locking de-
Subpart D—Design and vices if—
Construction (1) Its loss could preclude continued
flight and landing within the design
GENERAL limitations of the airplane using nor-
mal pilot skill and strength; or
§ 25.601 General. (2) Its loss could result in reduction
The airplane may not have design in pitch, yaw, or roll control capability
features or details that experience has or response below that required by
shown to be hazardous or unreliable. Subpart B of this chapter.
The suitability of each questionable (b) The fasteners specified in para-
design detail and part must be estab- graph (a) of this section and their lock-
lished by tests. ing devices may not be adversely af-
fected by the environmental conditions
§ 25.603 Materials. associated with the particular installa-
tion.
The suitability and durability of ma- (c) No self-locking nut may be used
terials used for parts, the failure of on any bolt subject to rotation in oper-
which could adversely affect safety, ation unless a nonfriction locking de-
must— vice is used in addition to the self-lock-
(a) Be established on the basis of ex- ing device.
perience or tests;
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8, 1970]
(b) Conform to approved specifica-
tions (such as industry or military § 25.609 Protection of structure.
specifications, or Technical Standard Each part of the structure must—
Orders) that ensure their having the (a) Be suitably protected against de-
strength and other properties assumed terioration or loss of strength in serv-
in the design data; and ice due to any cause, including—
(c) Take into account the effects of (1) Weathering;
environmental conditions, such as tem- (2) Corrosion; and
perature and humidity, expected in (3) Abrasion; and
service. (b) Have provisions for ventilation
and drainage where necessary for pro-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20
tection.
1976; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978]
§ 25.611 Accessibility provisions.
§ 25.605 Fabrication methods. Means must be provided to allow in-
spection (including inspection of prin-
(a) The methods of fabrication used
cipal structural elements and control
must produce a consistently sound systems), replacement of parts nor-
structure. If a fabrication process (such mally requiring replacement, adjust-
as gluing, spot welding, or heat treat- ment, and lubrication as necessary for
ing) requires close control to reach this continued airworthiness. The inspec-
objective, the process must be per- tion means for each item must be prac-
formed under an approved process spec- ticable for the inspection interval for
ification. the item. Nondestructive inspection
aids may be used to inspect structural
elements where it is impracticable to

379
§ 25.613 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

provide means for direct visual inspec- § 25.619 Special factors.


tion if it is shown that the inspection
The factor of safety prescribed in
is effective and the inspection proce-
§ 25.303 must be multiplied by the high-
dures are specified in the maintenance
est pertinent special factor of safety
manual required by § 25.1529.
prescribed in §§ 25.621 through 25.625 for
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8, 1970] each part of the structure whose
strength is—
§ 25.613 Material strength properties (a) Uncertain;
and design values. (b) Likely to deteriorate in service
(a) Material strength properties must before normal replacement; or
be based on enough tests of material (c) Subject to appreciable variability
meeting approved specifications to es- because of uncertainties in manufac-
tablish design values on a statistical turing processes or inspection methods.
basis.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(b) Design values must be chosen to amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8,
minimize the probability of structural 1970]
failures due to material variability.
Except as provided in paragraph (e) of § 25.621 Casting factors.
this section, compliance with this (a) General. The factors, tests, and in-
paragraph must be shown by selecting spections specified in paragraphs (b)
design values which assure material through (d) of this section must be ap-
strength with the following prob- plied in addition to those necessary to
ability: establish foundry quality control. The
(1) Where applied loads are eventu- inspections must meet approved speci-
ally distributed through a single mem- fications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this
ber within an assembly, the failure of section apply to any structural cast-
which would result in loss of structural ings except castings that are pressure
integrity of the component, 99 percent tested as parts of hydraulic or other
probability with 95 percent confidence. fluid systems and do not support struc-
(2) For redundant structure, in which tural loads.
the failure of individual elements (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The
would result in applied loads being casting factors specified in paragraphs
safely distributed to other load carry- (c) and (d) of this section—
ing members, 90 percent probability (1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect
with 95 percent confidence. to bearing stresses regardless of the
(c) The effects of temperature on al- method of inspection used; and
lowable stresses used for design in an (2) Need not be used with respect to
essential component or structure must the bearing surfaces of a part whose
be considered where thermal effects are bearing factor is larger than the appli-
significant under normal operating cable casting factor.
conditions. (c) Critical castings. For each casting
(d) The strength, detail design, and whose failure would preclude continued
fabrication of the structure must mini- safe flight and landing of the airplane
mize the probability of disastrous fa- or result in serious injury to occu-
tigue failure, particularly at points of pants, the following apply:
stress concentration. (1) Each critical casting must—
(e) Greater design values may be used (i) Have a casting factor of not less
if a ‘‘premium selection’’ of the mate- than 1.25; and
rial is made in which a specimen of (ii) Receive 100 percent inspection by
each individual item is tested before visual, radiographic, and magnetic par-
use to determine that the actual ticle or penetrant inspection methods
strength properties of that particular or approved equivalent nondestructive
item will equal or exceed those used in inspection methods.
design. (2) For each critical casting with a
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as casting factor less than 1.50, three sam-
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, ple castings must be static tested and
1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, 1990] shown to meet—

380
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.629

(i) The strength requirements of for the effects of normal relative mo-
§ 25.305 at an ultimate load correspond- tion.
ing to a casting factor of 1.25; and (b) No bearing factor need be used for
(ii) The deformation requirements of a part for which any larger special fac-
§ 25.305 at a load of 1.15 times the limit tor is prescribed.
load.
(3) Examples of these castings are § 25.625 Fitting factors.
structural attachment fittings, parts of For each fitting (a part or terminal
flight control systems, control surface used to join one structural member to
hinges and balance weight attach- another), the following apply:
ments, seat, berth, safety belt, and fuel (a) For each fitting whose strength is
and oil tank supports and attachments, not proven by limit and ultimate load
and cabin pressure valves. tests in which actual stress conditions
(d) Noncritical castings. For each cast- are simulated in the fitting and sur-
ing other than those specified in para- rounding structures, a fitting factor of
graph (c) of this section, the following at least 1.15 must be applied to each
apply: part of—
(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (1) The fitting;
(d)(2) and (3) of this section, the casting (2) The means of attachment; and
factors and corresponding inspections (3) The bearing on the joined mem-
must meet the following table: bers.
(b) No fitting factor need be used—
Casting factor Inspection
(1) For joints made under approved
2.0 or more .................... 100 percent visual. practices and based on comprehensive
Less than 2.0 but more 100 percent visual, and magnetic test data (such as continuous joints in
than 1.5. particle or penetrant or equiva-
lent nondestructive inspection
metal plating, welded joints, and scarf
methods. joints in wood); or
1.25 through 1.50 .......... 100 percent visual, magnetic par- (2) With respect to any bearing sur-
ticle or penetrant, and radio- face for which a larger special factor is
graphic, or approved equivalent
nondestructive inspection meth- used.
ods. (c) For each integral fitting, the part
must be treated as a fitting up to the
(2) The percentage of castings in- point at which the section properties
spected by nonvisual methods may be become typical of the member.
reduced below that specified in para- (d) For each seat, berth, safety belt,
graph (d)(1) of this section when an ap- and harness, the fitting factor specified
proved quality control procedure is es- in § 25.785(f)(3) applies.
tablished. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(3) For castings procured to a speci- amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8,
fication that guarantees the mechani- 1970; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29776, July 20, 1990]
cal properties of the material in the
casting and provides for demonstration § 25.629 Aeroelastic stability require-
of these properties by test of coupons ments.
cut from the castings on a sampling (a) General. The aeroelastic stability
basis— evaluations required under this section
(i) A casting factor of 1.0 may be include flutter, divergence, control re-
used; and versal and any undue loss of stability
(ii) The castings must be inspected as and control as a result of structural de-
provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this sec- formation. The aeroelastic evaluation
tion for casting factors of ‘‘1.25 through must include whirl modes associated
1.50’’ and tested under paragraph (c)(2) with any propeller or rotating device
of this section. that contributes significant dynamic
forces. Compliance with this section
§ 25.623 Bearing factors. must be shown by analyses, wind tun-
(a) Except as provided in paragraph nel tests, ground vibration tests, flight
(b) of this section, each part that has tests, or other means found necessary
clearance (free fit), and that is subject by the Administrator.
to pounding or vibration, must have a (b) Aeroelastic stability envelopes. The
bearing factor large enough to provide airplane must be designed to be free

381
§ 25.629 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

from aeroelastic instability for all con- (4) Failure of any single element of
figurations and design conditions with- the structure supporting any engine,
in the aeroelastic stability envelopes independently mounted propeller shaft,
as follows: large auxiliary power unit, or large ex-
(1) For normal conditions without ternally mounted aerodynamic body
failures, malfunctions, or adverse con- (such as an external fuel tank).
ditions, all combinations of altitudes (5) For airplanes with engines that
and speeds encompassed by the VD/MD have propellers or large rotating de-
versus altitude envelope enlarged at all vices capable of significant dynamic
points by an increase of 15 percent in forces, any single failure of the engine
equivalent airspeed at both constant structure that would reduce the rigid-
Mach number and constant altitude. In ity of the rotational axis.
addition, a proper margin of stability (6) The absence of aerodynamic or gy-
must exist at all speeds up to VD/MD roscopic forces resulting from the most
and, there must be no large and rapid adverse combination of feathered pro-
reduction in stability as VD/MD is ap- pellers or other rotating devices capa-
proached. The enlarged envelope may ble of significant dynamic forces. In
be limited to Mach 1.0 when MD is less addition, the effect of a single feath-
than 1.0 at all design altitudes, and ered propeller or rotating device must
(2) For the conditions described in be coupled with the failures of para-
§ 25.629(d) below, for all approved alti- graphs (d)(4) and (d)(5) of this section.
tudes, any airspeed up to the greater (7) Any single propeller or rotating
airspeed defined by; device capable of significant dynamic
forces rotating at the highest likely
(i) The VD/MD envelope determined by
overspeed.
§ 25.335(b); or,
(8) Any damage or failure condition,
(ii) An altitude-airspeed envelope de- required or selected for investigation
fined by a 15 percent increase in equiv- by § 25.571. The single structural fail-
alent airspeed above VC at constant al- ures described in paragraphs (d)(4) and
titude, from sea level to the altitude of (d)(5) of this section need not be consid-
the intersection of 1.15 VC with the ex- ered in showing compliance with this
tension of the constant cruise Mach section if;
number line, MC, then a linear vari- (i) The structural element could not
ation in equivalent airspeed to MC+.05 fail due to discrete source damage re-
at the altitude of the lowest VC/MC sulting from the conditions described
intersection; then, at higher altitudes, in § 25.571(e), and
up to the maximum flight altitude, the (ii) A damage tolerance investigation
boundary defined by a .05 Mach in- in accordance with § 25.571(b) shows
crease in MC at constant altitude. that the maximum extent of damage
(c) Balance weights. If concentrated assumed for the purpose of residual
balance weights are used, their effec- strength evaluation does not involve
tiveness and strength, including sup- complete failure of the structural ele-
porting structure, must be substan- ment.
tiated. (9) Any damage, failure, or malfunc-
(d) Failures, malfunctions, and adverse tion considered under §§ 25.631, 25.671,
conditions. The failures, malfunctions, 25.672, and 25.1309.
and adverse conditions which must be (10) Any other combination of fail-
considered in showing compliance with ures, malfunctions, or adverse condi-
this section are: tions not shown to be extremely im-
(1) Any critical fuel loading condi- probable.
tions, not shown to be extremely im- (e) Flight flutter testing. Full scale
probable, which may result from mis- flight flutter tests at speeds up to VDF/
management of fuel. MDF must be conducted for new type
(2) Any single failure in any flutter designs and for modifications to a type
damper system. design unless the modifications have
(3) For airplanes not approved for op- been shown to have an insignificant ef-
eration in icing conditions, the maxi- fect on the aeroelastic stability. These
mum likely ice accumulation expected tests must demonstrate that the air-
as a result of an inadvertent encounter. plane has a proper margin of damping

382
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.671

at all speeds up to VDF/MDF, and that (b) If an adjustable stabilizer is used,


there is no large and rapid reduction in it must have stops that will limit its
damping as VDF/MDF, is approached. If a range of travel to the maximum for
failure, malfunction, or adverse condi- which the airplane is shown to meet
tion is simulated during flight test in the trim requirements of § 25.161.
showing compliance with paragraph (d)
of this section, the maximum speed in- § 25.657 Hinges.
vestigated need not exceed VFC/MFC if it (a) For control surface hinges, in-
is shown, by correlation of the flight cluding ball, roller, and self-lubricated
test data with other test data or analy- bearing hinges, the approved rating of
ses, that the airplane is free from any the bearing may not be exceeded. For
aeroelastic instability at all speeds nonstandard bearing hinge configura-
within the altitude-airspeed envelope tions, the rating must be established
described in paragraph (b)(2) of this on the basis of experience or tests and,
section. in the absence of a rational investiga-
tion, a factor of safety of not less than
[Doc. No. 26007, 57 FR 28949, June 29, 1992] 6.67 must be used with respect to the
ultimate bearing strength of the soft-
§ 25.631 Bird strike damage. est material used as a bearing.
The empennage structure must be de- (b) Hinges must have enough
signed to assure capability of contin- strength and rigidity for loads parallel
ued safe flight and landing of the air- to the hinge line.
plane after impact with an 8-pound bird [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8, 1970]
when the velocity of the airplane (rel-
ative to the bird along the airplane’s CONTROL SYSTEMS
flight path) is equal to VC at sea level,
selected under § 25.335(a). Compliance § 25.671 General.
with this section by provision of redun- (a) Each control and control system
dant structure and protected location must operate with the ease, smooth-
of control system elements or protec- ness, and positiveness appropriate to
tive devices such as splitter plates or its function.
energy absorbing material is accept- (b) Each element of each flight con-
able. Where compliance is shown by trol system must be designed, or dis-
analysis, tests, or both, use of data on tinctively and permanently marked, to
airplanes having similar structural de- minimize the probability of incorrect
sign is acceptable. assembly that could result in the mal-
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8, 1970]
functioning of the system.
(c) The airplane must be shown by
CONTROL SURFACES analysis, tests, or both, to be capable
of continued safe flight and landing
§ 25.651 Proof of strength. after any of the following failures or
jamming in the flight control system
(a) Limit load tests of control sur- and surfaces (including trim, lift, drag,
faces are required. These tests must in- and feel systems), within the normal
clude the horn or fitting to which the flight envelope, without requiring ex-
control system is attached. ceptional piloting skill or strength.
(b) Compliance with the special fac- Probable malfunctions must have only
tors requirements of §§ 25.619 through minor effects on control system oper-
25.625 and 25.657 for control surface ation and must be capable of being
hinges must be shown by analysis or readily counteracted by the pilot.
individual load tests. (1) Any single failure, excluding jam-
ming (for example, disconnection or
§ 25.655 Installation. failure of mechanical elements, or
(a) Movable tail surfaces must be in- structural failure of hydraulic compo-
stalled so that there is no interference nents, such as actuators, control spool
between any surfaces when one is held housing, and valves).
in its extreme position and the others (2) Any combination of failures not
are operated through their full angular shown to be extremely improbable, ex-
movement. cluding jamming (for example, dual

383
§ 25.672 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

electrical or hydraulic system failures, (1) The airplane is safely controllable


or any single failure in combination when the failure or malfunction occurs
with any probable hydraulic or elec- at any speed or altitude within the ap-
trical failure). proved operating limitations that is
(3) Any jam in a control position nor- critical for the type of failure being
mally encountered during takeoff, considered;
climb, cruise, normal turns, descent, (2) The controllability and maneuver-
and landing unless the jam is shown to ability requirements of this part are
be extremely improbable, or can be al- met within a practical operational
leviated. A runaway of a flight control flight envelope (for example, speed, al-
to an adverse position and jam must be titude, normal acceleration, and air-
accounted for if such runaway and sub- plane configurations) which is de-
sequent jamming is not extremely im-
scribed in the Airplane Flight Manual;
probable.
and
(d) The airplane must be designed so
that it is controllable if all engines (3) The trim, stability, and stall char-
fail. Compliance with this requirement acteristics are not impaired below a
may be shown by analysis where that level needed to permit continued safe
method has been shown to be reliable. flight and landing.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675 Apr. 8, 1970]
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5674, Apr. 8,
1970] § 25.675 Stops.
(a) Each control system must have
§ 25.672 Stability augmentation and
automatic and power-operated sys- stops that positively limit the range of
tems. motion of each movable aerodynamic
surface controlled by the system.
If the functioning of stability aug-
mentation or other automatic or (b) Each stop must be located so that
power-operated systems is necessary to wear, slackness, or take-up adjust-
show compliance with the flight char- ments will not adversely affect the
acteristics requirements of this part, control characteristics of the airplane
such systems must comply with § 25.671 because of a change in the range of sur-
and the following: face travel.
(a) A warning which is clearly distin- (c) Each stop must be able to with-
guishable to the pilot under expected stand any loads corresponding to the
flight conditions without requiring his design conditions for the control sys-
attention must be provided for any tem.
failure in the stability augmentation [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
system or in any other automatic or amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20,
power-operated system which could re- 1976]
sult in an unsafe condition if the pilot
were not aware of the failure. Warning § 25.677 Trim systems.
systems must not activate the control
(a) Trim controls must be designed to
systems.
prevent inadvertent or abrupt oper-
(b) The design of the stability aug-
mentation system or of any other auto- ation and to operate in the plane, and
matic or power-operated system must with the sense of motion, of the air-
permit initial counteraction of failures plane.
of the type specified in § 25.671(c) with- (b) There must be means adjacent to
out requiring exceptional pilot skill or the trim control to indicate the direc-
strength, by either the deactivation of tion of the control movement relative
the system, or a failed portion thereof, to the airplane motion. In addition,
or by overriding the failure by move- there must be clearly visible means to
ment of the flight controls in the nor- indicate the position of the trim device
mal sense. with respect to the range of adjust-
(c) It must be shown that after any ment.
single failure of the stability aug- (c) Trim control systems must be de-
mentation system or any other auto- signed to prevent creeping in flight.
matic or power-operated system— Trim tab controls must be irreversible

384
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.689

unless the tab is appropriately bal- (c) Excessive deflection.


anced and shown to be free from flut- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ter. amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8,
(d) If an irreversible tab control sys- 1970]
tem is used, the part from the tab to
the attachment of the irreversible unit § 25.685 Control system details.
to the airplane structure must consist (a) Each detail of each control sys-
of a rigid connection. tem must be designed and installed to
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as prevent jamming, chafing, and inter-
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8, ference from cargo, passengers, loose
1970] objects, or the freezing of moisture.
(b) There must be means in the cock-
§ 25.679 Control system gust locks. pit to prevent the entry of foreign ob-
(a) There must be a device to prevent jects into places where they would jam
damage to the control surfaces (includ- the system.
ing tabs), and to the control system, (c) There must be means to prevent
from gusts striking the airplane while the slapping of cables or tubes against
it is on the ground or water. If the de- other parts.
vice, when engaged, prevents normal (d) Sections 25.689 and 25.693 apply to
operation of the control surfaces by the cable systems and joints.
pilot, it must— [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(1) Automatically disengage when the amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20,
pilot operates the primary flight con- 1976]
trols in a normal manner; or
(2) Limit the operation of the air- § 25.689 Cable systems.
plane so that the pilot receives unmis- (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turn-
takable warning at the start of takeoff. buckle, splice, and pulley must be ap-
(b) The device must have means to proved. In addition—
preclude the possibility of it becoming (1) No cable smaller than 1⁄8 inch in
inadvertently engaged in flight. diameter may be used in the aileron,
elevator, or rudder systems; and
§ 25.681 Limit load static tests.
(2) Each cable system must be de-
(a) Compliance with the limit load signed so that there will be no hazard-
requirements of this Part must be ous change in cable tension throughout
shown by tests in which— the range of travel under operating
(1) The direction of the test loads conditions and temperature variations.
produces the most severe loading in the (b) Each kind and size of pulley must
control system; and correspond to the cable with which it is
(2) Each fitting, pulley, and bracket used. Pulleys and sprockets must have
used in attaching the system to the closely fitted guards to prevent the ca-
main structure is included. bles and chains from being displaced or
(b) Compliance must be shown (by fouled. Each pulley must lie in the
analyses or individual load tests) with plane passing through the cable so that
the special factor requirements for the cable does not rub against the pul-
control system joints subject to angu- ley flange.
lar motion. (c) Fairleads must be installed so
that they do not cause a change in
§ 25.683 Operation tests. cable direction of more than three de-
It must be shown by operation tests grees.
that when portions of the control sys- (d) Clevis pins subject to load or mo-
tem subject to pilot effort loads are tion and retained only by cotter pins
loaded to 80 percent of the limit load may not be used in the control system.
specified for the system and the pow- (e) Turnbuckles must be attached to
ered portions of the control system are parts having angular motion in a man-
loaded to the maximum load expected ner that will positively prevent binding
in normal operation, the system is free throughout the range of travel.
from— (f) There must be provisions for vis-
(a) Jamming; ual inspection of fairleads, pulleys, ter-
(b) Excessive friction; and minals, and turnbuckles.

385
§ 25.693 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.693 Joints. addition, an indication of unsymmet-


Control system joints (in push-pull rical operation or other malfunction in
systems) that are subject to angular the lift or drag device systems must be
motion, except those in ball and roller provided when such indication is nec-
bearing systems, must have a special essary to enable the pilots to prevent
factor of safety of not less than 3.33 or counteract an unsafe flight or
with respect to the ultimate bearing ground condition, considering the ef-
strength of the softest material used as fects on flight characteristics and per-
a bearing. This factor may be reduced formance.
to 2.0 for joints in cable control sys- (b) There must be means to indicate
tems. For ball or roller bearings, the to the pilots the takeoff, en route, ap-
approved ratings may not be exceeded. proach, and landing lift device posi-
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990]
tions.
(c) If any extension of the lift and
§ 25.697 Lift and drag devices, con- drag devices beyond the landing posi-
trols. tion is possible, the controls must be
(a) Each lift device control must be clearly marked to identify this range
designed so that the pilots can place of extension.
the device in any takeoff, en route, ap- [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8, 1970]
proach, or landing position established
under § 25.101(d). Lift and drag devices § 25.701 Flap and slat interconnection.
must maintain the selected positions,
except for movement produced by an (a) Unless the airplane has safe flight
automatic positioning or load limiting characteristics with the flaps or slats
device, without further attention by retracted on one side and extended on
the pilots. the other, the motion of flaps or slats
(b) Each lift and drag device control on opposite sides of the plane of sym-
must be designed and located to make metry must be synchronized by a me-
inadvertent operation improbable. Lift chanical interconnection or approved
and drag devices intended for ground equivalent means.
operation only must have means to (b) If a wing flap or slat interconnec-
prevent the inadvertant operation of tion or equivalent means is used, it
their controls in flight if that oper- must be designed to account for the ap-
ation could be hazardous. plicable unsymmetrical loads, includ-
(c) The rate of motion of the surfaces ing those resulting from flight with the
in response to the operation of the con- engines on one side of the plane of sym-
trol and the characteristics of the metry inoperative and the remaining
automatic positioning or load limiting engines at takeoff power.
device must give satisfactory flight (c) For airplanes with flaps or slats
and performance characteristics under that are not subjected to slipstream
steady or changing conditions of air- conditions, the structure must be de-
speed, engine power, and airplane atti- signed for the loads imposed when the
tude. wing flaps or slats on one side are car-
(d) The lift device control must be rying the most severe load occurring in
designed to retract the surfaces from the prescribed symmetrical conditions
the fully extended position, during and those on the other side are carry-
steady flight at maximum continuous
ing not more than 80 percent of that
engine power at any speed below VF
load.
+9.0 (knots).
(d) The interconnection must be de-
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8, 1970, as signed for the loads resulting when
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, interconnected flap or slat surfaces on
1978; Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984]
one side of the plane of symmetry are
§ 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator. jammed and immovable while the sur-
faces on the other side are free to move
(a) There must be means to indicate
and the full power of the surface actu-
to the pilots the position of each lift or
ating system is applied.
drag device having a separate control
in the cockpit to adjust its position. In [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990]

386
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.725

§ 25.703 Takeoff warning system. (b) Each airplane that has a pas-
senger seating configuration excluding
A takeoff warning system must be in-
pilots seats, of 10 seats or more must
stalled and must meet the following re-
be designed so that with the airplane
quirements:
under control it can be landed on a
(a) The system must provide to the
paved runway with any one or more
pilots an aural warning that is auto-
landing gear legs not extended without
matically activated during the initial
sustaining a structural component fail-
portion of the takeoff roll if the air-
ure that is likely to cause the spillage
plane is in a configuration, including
of enough fuel to constitute a fire haz-
any of the following, that would not
ard.
allow a safe takeoff:
(c) Compliance with the provisions of
(1) The wing flaps or leading edge de-
this section may be shown by analysis
vices are not within the approved range
or tests, or both.
of takeoff positions.
(2) Wing spoilers (except lateral con- [Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3969, Feb. 24, 1972]
trol spoilers meeting the requirements
of § 25.671), speed brakes, or longitu- § 25.723 Shock absorption tests.
dinal trim devices are in a position (a) It must be shown that the limit
that would not allow a safe takeoff. load factors selected for design in ac-
(b) The warning required by para- cordance with § 25.473 for takeoff and
graph (a) of this section must continue landing weights, respectively, will not
until— be exceeded. This must be shown by en-
(1) The configuration is changed to ergy absorption tests except that anal-
allow a safe takeoff; yses based on earlier tests conducted
(2) Action is taken by the pilot to on the same basic landing gear system
terminate the takeoff roll; which has similar energy absorption
(3) The airplane is rotated for take- characteristics may be used for in-
off; or creases in previously approved takeoff
(4) The warning is manually deacti- and landing weights.
vated by the pilot. (b) The landing gear may not fail in
(c) The means used to activate the a test, demonstrating its reserve en-
system must function properly ergy absorption capacity, simulating a
throughout the ranges of takeoff descent velocity of 12 f.p.s. at design
weights, altitudes, and temperatures landing weight, assuming airplane lift
for which certification is requested. not greater than the airplane weight
[Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978]
acting during the landing impact.
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8, 1970, as
LANDING GEAR amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30,
1978; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990]
§ 25.721 General.
(a) The main landing gear system § 25.725 Limit drop tests.
must be designed so that if it fails due (a) If compliance with § 25.723(a) is
to overloads during takeoff and landing shown by free drop tests, these tests
(assuming the overloads to act in the must be made on the complete air-
upward and aft directions), the failure plane, or on units consisting of a
mode is not likely to cause— wheel, tire, and shock absorber, in
(1) For airplanes that have passenger their proper positions, from free drop
seating configuration, excluding pilots heights not less than—
seats, of nine seats or less, the spillage (1) 18.7 inches for the design landing
of enough fuel from any fuel system in weight conditions; and
the fuselage to constitute a fire hazard; (2) 6.7 inches for the design takeoff
and weight conditions.
(2) For airplanes that have a pas- (b) If airplane lift is simulated by air
senger seating configuration, excluding cylinders or by other mechanical
pilots seats, of 10 seats or more, the means, the weight used for the drop
spillage of enough fuel from any part of must be equal to W. If the effect of air-
the fuel system to constitute a fire plane lift is represented in free drop
hazard. tests by an equivalent reduced mass,

387
§ 25.727 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

the landing gear must be dropped with used in the landing conditions in
an effective mass equal to § 25.473.

h + ( 1 − L )d
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
We = W × amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8,
h+d 1970]

where— § 25.727 Reserve energy absorption


We= the effective weight to be used in the drop tests.
drop test (lbs.);
(a) If compliance with the reserve en-
h =specified free drop height (inches);
ergy absorption condition specified in
d =deflection under impact of the tire (at the
§ 25.723(b) is shown by free drop tests,
approved inflation pressure) plus the ver-
tical component of the axle travel rel-
the drop height may not be less than 27
ative to the drop mass (inches); inches.
W=WM for main gear units (lbs.), equal to the (b) If airplane lift is simulated by air
static weight on that unit with the air- cylinders or by other mechanical
plane in the level attitude (with the nose means, the weight used for the drop
wheel clear in the case of nose wheel must be equal to W. If the effect of air-
type airplanes); plane lift is represented in free drop
W=WT for tail gear units (lbs.), equal to the tests by an equivalent reduced mass,
static weight on the tail unit with the the landing gear must be dropped with
airplane in the tail-down attitude; an effective mass,
W=WN for nose wheel units (lbs.), equal to
the vertical component of the static re- Wh
action that would exist at the nose We =
wheel, assuming that the mass of the air- h+d
plane acts at the center of gravity and where the symbols and other details
exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 are the same as in § 25.725(b).
g forward; and
L = ratio of the assumed airplane lift to the [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
airplane weight, but not more than 1.0. amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5675, Apr. 8,
1970]
(c) The drop test attitude of the land-
ing gear unit and the application of ap- § 25.729 Retracting mechanism.
propriate drag loads during the test (a) General. For airplanes with re-
must simulate the airplane landing tractable landing gear, the following
conditions in a manner consistent with apply:
the development of a rational or con- (1) The landing gear retracting mech-
servative limit load factor value. anism, wheel well doors, and support-
(d) The value of d used in the com- ing structure, must be designed for—
putation of We in paragraph (b) of this (i) The loads occurring in the flight
section may not exceed the value actu- conditions when the gear is in the re-
tracted position,
ally obtained in the drop test.
(ii) The combination of friction
(e) The limit inertia load factor n loads, inertia loads, brake torque loads,
must be determined from the free drop air loads, and gyroscopic loads result-
test in paragraph (b) of this section ac- ing from the wheels rotating at a pe-
cording to the following formula: ripheral speed equal to 1.3 Vs (with the
flaps in takeoff position at design take-
We
n = nj × +L off weight), occurring during retraction
W and extension at any airspeed up to 1.6
where— Vs1 (with the flaps in the approach posi-
nj =the load factor developed in the drop test tion at design landing weight), and
(that is, the acceleration dv/dt in g’s re- (iii) Any load factor up to those spec-
corded in the drop test) plus 1.0; and ified in § 25.345(a) for the flaps extended
We, W, and L are the same as in the drop test condition.
computation. (2) Unless there are other means to
decelerate the airplane in flight at this
(f) The value of n determined in para- speed, the landing gear, the retracting
graph (e) of this section may not be mechanism, and the airplane structure
more than the limit inertia load factor (including wheel well doors) must be

388
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.733

designed to withstand the flight loads paragraph (e)(2) of this section such
occurring with the landing gear in the that it could be operated instinctively,
extended position at any speed up to inadvertently, or by habitual reflexive
0.67 VC. action.
(3) Landing gear doors, their operat- (5) The system used to generate the
ing mechanism, and their supporting aural warning must be designed to
structures must be designed for the eliminate false or inappropriate alerts.
yawing maneuvers prescribed for the (6) Failures of systems used to in-
airplane in addition to the conditions hibit the landing gear aural warning,
of airspeed and load factor prescribed that would prevent the warning system
in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this sec- from operating, must be improbable.
tion. (f) Protection of equipment in wheel
(b) Landing gear lock. There must be wells. Equipment that is essential to
positive means to keep the landing safe operation of the airplane and that
gear extended, in flight and on the is located in wheel wells must be pro-
ground. tected from the damaging effects of—
(c) Emergency operation. There must (1) A bursting tire, unless it is shown
be an emergency means for extending that a tire cannot burst from overheat;
the landing gear in the event of— and
(1) Any reasonably probable failure in (2) A loose tire tread, unless it is
the normal retraction system; or shown that a loose tire tread cannot
(2) The failure of any single source of cause damage.
hydraulic, electric, or equivalent en- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ergy supply. amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8,
(d) Operation test. The proper func- 1970; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978;
tioning of the retracting mechanism Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990; Amdt.
must be shown by operation tests. 25–75, 56 FR 63762, Dec. 5, 1991]
(e) Position indicator and warning de-
§ 25.731 Wheels.
vice. If a retractable landing gear is
used, there must be a landing gear po- (a) Each main and nose wheel must
sition indicator (as well as necessary be approved.
switches to actuate the indicator) or (b) The maximum static load rating
other means to inform the pilot that of each wheel may not be less than the
the gear is secured in the extended (or corresponding static ground reaction
retracted) position. This means must with—
be designed as follows: (1) Design maximum weight; and
(1) If switches are used, they must be (2) Critical center of gravity.
located and coupled to the landing gear (c) The maximum limit load rating of
mechanical systems in a manner that each wheel must equal or exceed the
prevents an erroneous indication of maximum radial limit load determined
‘‘down and locked’’ if the landing gear under the applicable ground load re-
is not in a fully extended position, or of quirements of this part.
‘‘up and locked’’ if the landing gear is [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
not in the fully retracted position. The amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20,
switches may be located where they 1990]
are operated by the actual landing gear
locking latch or device. § 25.733 Tires.
(2) The flightcrew must be given an (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted
aural warning that functions continu- with a single wheel and tire assembly,
ously, or is periodically repeated, if a the wheel must be fitted with a suit-
landing is attempted when the landing able tire of proper fit with a speed rat-
gear is not locked down. ing approved by the Administrator
(3) The warning must be given in suf- that is not exceeded under critical con-
ficient time to allow the landing gear ditions and with a load rating approved
to be locked down or a go-around to be by the Administrator that is not ex-
made. ceeded under—
(4) There must not be a manual shut- (1) The loads on the main wheel tire,
off means readily available to the corresponding to the most critical
flightcrew for the warning required by combination of airplane weight (up to

389
§ 25.735 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

maximum weight) and center of grav- (1) The loads on each main wheel
ity position, and tire, corresponding to the most critical
(2) The loads corresponding to the combination of airplane weight (up to
ground reactions in paragraph (b) of maximum weight) and center of grav-
this section, on the nose wheel tire, ex- ity position, when multiplied by a fac-
cept as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) tor of 1.07; and
and (b)(3) of this section. (2) Loads specified in paragraphs
(b) The applicable ground reactions (a)(2), (b)(1), (b)(2), and (b)(3) of this
for nose wheel tires are as follows: section on each nose wheel tire.
(1) The static ground reaction for the (d) Each tire installed on a retract-
tire corresponding to the most critical able landing gear system must, at the
combination of airplane weight (up to maximum size of the tire type expected
maximum ramp weight) and center of in service, have a clearance to sur-
gravity position with a force of 1.0g rounding structure and systems that is
acting downward at the center of grav- adequate to prevent unintended con-
ity. This load may not exceed the load tact between the tire and any part of
rating of the tire. the structure or systems.
(2) The ground reaction of the tire (e) For an airplane with a maximum
corresponding to the most critical certificated takeoff weight of more
combination of airplane weight (up to than 75,000 pounds, tires mounted on
maximum landing weight) and center braked wheels must be inflated with
of gravity position combined with dry nitrogen or other gases shown to be
forces of 1.0g downward and 0.31g for- inert so that the gas mixture in the
ward acting at the center of gravity. tire does not contain oxygen in excess
The reactions in this case must be dis- of 5 percent by volume, unless it can be
tributed to the nose and main wheels shown that the tire liner material will
by the principles of statics with a drag not produce a volatile gas when heated
reaction equal to 0.31 times the verti- or that means are provided to prevent
cal load at each wheel with brakes ca- tire temperatures from reaching unsafe
pable of producing this ground reac- levels.
tion. This nose tire load may not ex- [Amdt. 25–48, 44 FR 68752, Nov. 29, 1979; Amdt.
ceed 1.5 times the load rating of the 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990, as amended
tire. by Amdt. 25–78, 58 FR 11781, Feb. 26, 1993]
(3) The ground reaction of the tire
corresponding to the most critical § 25.735 Brakes.
combination of airplane weight (up to (a) Each brake must be approved.
maximum ramp weight) and center of (b) The brake system and associated
gravity position combined with forces systems must be designed and con-
of 1.0g downward and 0.20g forward act- structed so that if any electrical, pneu-
ing at the center of gravity. The reac- matic, hydraulic, or mechanical con-
tions in this case must be distributed necting or transmitting element (ex-
to the nose and main wheels by the cluding the operating pedal or handle)
principles of statics with a drag reac- fails, or if any single source of hydrau-
tion equal to 0.20 times the vertical lic or other brake operating energy
load at each wheel with brakes capable supply is lost, it is possible to bring the
of producing this ground reaction. This airplane to rest under conditions speci-
nose tire load may not exceed 1.5 times fied in § 25.125, with a mean decelera-
the load rating of the tire. tion during the landing roll of at least
(c) When a landing gear axle is fitted 50 percent of that obtained in deter-
with more than one wheel and tire as- mining the landing distance as pre-
sembly, such as dual or dual-tandem, scribed in that section. Subcomponents
each wheel must be fitted with a suit- within the brake assembly, such as
able tire of proper fit with a speed rat- brake drum, shoes, and actuators (or
ing approved by the Administrator their equivalents), shall be considered
that is not exceeded under critical con- as connecting or transmitting ele-
ditions, and with a load rating ap- ments, unless it is shown that leakage
proved by the Administrator that is of hydraulic fluid resulting from fail-
not exceeded by— ure of the sealing elements in these

390
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.735

subcomponents within the brake as- ing speed of the airplane at sea
sembly would not reduce the braking level, at the design landing weight,
effectiveness below that specified in and in the landing configuration;
this paragraph. and
(c) Brake controls may not require N=Number of main wheels with brakes.
excessive control force in their oper- (g) The minimum stalling speed rat-
ation. ing of each main wheel-brake assembly
(d) The airplane must have a parking (that is, the initial speed used in the
control that, when set by the pilot, will dynamometer tests) may not be more
without further attention, prevent the than the V used in the determination
airplane from rolling on a paved, level of kinetic energy in accordance with
runway with takeoff power on the crit- paragraph (f) of this section, assuming
ical engine. that the test procedures for wheel-
(e) If antiskid devices are installed, brake assemblies involve a specified
the devices and associated systems rate of deceleration, and, therefore, for
must be designed so that no single the same amount of kinetic energy, the
probable malfunction will result in a rate of energy absorption (the power
hazardous loss of braking ability or di- absorbing ability of the brake) varies
rectional control of the airplane. inversely with the initial speed.
(f) The design landing brake kinetic (h) The rejected takeoff brake ki-
energy capacity rating of each main netic energy capacity rating of each
wheel-brake assembly shall be used main wheel-brake assembly that is at
during qualification testing of the the fully worn limit of its allowable
brake to the applicable Technical wear range shall be used during quali-
Standard Order (TSO) or an acceptable fication testing of the brake to the ap-
equivalent. This kinetic energy rating plicable Technical Standard Order
may not be less than the kinetic en- (TSO) or an acceptable equivalent.
ergy absorption requirements deter- This kinetic energy rating may not be
mined under either of the following less than the kinetic energy absorption
methods: requirements determined under either
(1) The brake kinetic energy absorp- of the following methods:
tion requirements must be based on a (1) The brake kinetic energy absorp-
rational analysis of the sequence of tion requirements must be based on a
events expected during operational rational analysis of the sequence of
landings at maximum landing weight. events expected during an accelerate-
This analysis must include conserv- stop maneuver. This analysis must in-
ative values of airplane speed at which clude conservative values of airplane
the brakes are applied, braking coeffi- speed at which the brakes are applied,
cient of friction between tires and run- braking coefficient of friction between
way, aerodynamic drag, propeller drag tires and runway, aerodynamic drag,
or power-plant forward thrust, and (if propeller drag or powerplant forward
more critical) the most adverse single thrust, and (if more critical) the most
engine or propeller malfunction. adverse single engine or propeller mal-
(2) Instead of a rational analysis, the function.
kinetic energy absorption require- (2) Instead of a rational analysis, the
ments for each main wheel-brake as- kinetic energy absorption require-
sembly may be derived from the follow- ments for each main wheel brake as-
ing formula, which must be modified in sembly may be derived from the follow-
cases of designed unequal braking dis- ing formula, which must be modified in
tributions. cases of designed unequal braking dis-
tributions:
0.0443WV 2
KE = 0.0443WV 2
N KE =
Where— N
KE=Kinetic energy per wheel (ft.-lb.); Where—
W=Design landing weight (lb.); KE=Kinetic energy per wheel (ft.-lb.);
V=Airplane speed in knots. V must not W=Airplane weight (lb.);
be less than VS0, the power off stall- V=Airplane speed (knots);

391
§ 25.737 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

N=Number of main wheels with brakes; to perform their duties without unrea-
and sonable concentration or fatigue.
W and V are the most critical combina- (b) The primary controls listed in
tion of takeoff weight and ground § 25.779(a), excluding cables and control
speed obtained in a rejected take- rods, must be located with respect to
off. the propellers so that no member of the
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as minimum flight crew (established
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, under § 25.1523), or part of the controls,
1970; Amdt. 25–48, 44 FR 68742, Nov. 29, 1979; lies in the region between the plane of
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990; Amdt. rotation of any inboard propeller and
25–92, 63 FR 8320, Feb. 18, 1998] the surface generated by a line passing
§ 25.737 Skis. through the center of the propeller hub
making an angle of five degrees for-
Each ski must be approved. The max- ward or aft of the plane of rotation of
imum limit load rating of each ski the propeller.
must equal or exceed the maximum (c) If provision is made for a second
limit load determined under the appli-
pilot, the airplane must be controllable
cable ground load requirements of this
with equal safety from either pilot
part.
seat.
FLOATS AND HULLS (d) The pilot compartment must be
constructed so that, when flying in
§ 25.751 Main float buoyancy. rain or snow, it will not leak in a man-
Each main float must have— ner that will distract the crew or harm
(a) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess the structure.
of that required to support the maxi- (e) Vibration and noise characteris-
mum weight of the seaplane or amphib- tics of cockpit equipment may not
ian in fresh water; and interfere with safe operation of the air-
(b) Not less than five watertight com- plane.
partments approximately equal in vol- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ume. amended by Amdt. 25–4, 30 FR 6113, Apr. 30,
1965]
§ 25.753 Main float design.
Each main float must be approved § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors.
and must meet the requirements of For an airplane that has a maximum
§ 25.521. passenger seating configuration of
§ 25.755 Hulls. more than 20 seats and that has a lock-
able door installed between the pilot
(a) Each hull must have enough wa- compartment and the passenger com-
tertight compartments so that, with partment:
any two adjacent compartments flood- (a) The emergency exit configuration
ed, the buoyancy of the hull and auxil-
must be designed so that neither crew-
iary floats (and wheel tires, if used)
members nor passengers need use that
provides a margin of positive stability
great enough to minimize the prob- door in order to reach the emergency
ability of capsizing in rough, fresh exits provided for them; and
water. (b) Means must be provided to enable
(b) Bulkheads with watertight doors flight crewmembers to directly enter
may be used for communication be- the passenger compartment from the
tween compartments. pilot compartment if the cockpit door
becomes jammed.
PERSONNEL AND CARGO
[Doc. No. 24344, 55 FR 29777, July 20, 1990]
ACCOMMODATIONS

§ 25.771 Pilot compartment. § 25.773 Pilot compartment view.

(a) Each pilot compartment and its (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For
equipment must allow the minimum nonprecipitation conditions, the fol-
flight crew (established under § 25.1523) lowing apply:

392
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.775

(1) Each pilot compartment must be (d) Fixed markers or other guides
arranged to give the pilots a suffi- must be installed at each pilot station
ciently extensive, clear, and undis- to enable the pilots to position them-
torted view, to enable them to safely selves in their seats for an optimum
perform any maneuvers within the op- combination of outside visibility and
erating limitations of the airplane, in- instrument scan. If lighted markers or
cluding taxiing takeoff, approach, and guides are used they must comply with
landing. the requirements specified in § 25.1381.
(2) Each pilot compartment must be [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
free of glare and reflection that could amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8,
interfere with the normal duties of the 1970; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50595, Oct. 30, 1978;
minimum flight crew (established Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29778, July 20, 1990]
under § 25.1523). This must be shown in
day and night flight tests under non- § 25.775 Windshields and windows.
precipitation conditions. (a) Internal panes must be made of
(b) Precipitation conditions. For pre- nonsplintering material.
cipitation conditions, the following (b) Windshield panes directly in front
apply: of the pilots in the normal conduct of
(1) The airplane must have a means their duties, and the supporting struc-
to maintain a clear portion of the tures for these panes, must withstand,
windshield, during precipitation condi- without penetration, the impact of a
tions, sufficient for both pilots to have four-pound bird when the velocity of
a sufficiently extensive view along the the airplane (relative to the bird along
flight path in normal flight attitudes the airplane’s flight path) is equal to
of the airplane. This means must be de- the value of VC, at sea level, selected
signed to function, without continuous under § 25.335(a).
attention on the part of the crew, in— (c) Unless it can be shown by analysis
or tests that the probability of occur-
(i) Heavy rain at speeds up to 1.6 Vs1
rence of a critical windshield frag-
with lift and drag devices retracted;
mentation condition is of a low order,
and
the airplane must have a means to
(ii) The icing conditions specified in
minimize the danger to the pilots from
§ 25.1419 if certification with ice protec-
flying windshield fragments due to bird
tion provisions is requested.
impact. This must be shown for each
(2) The first pilot must have— transparent pane in the cockpit that—
(i) A window that is openable under (1) Appears in the front view of the
the conditions prescribed in paragraph airplane;
(b)(1) of this section when the cabin is (2) Is inclined 15 degrees or more to
not pressurized, provides the view spec- the longitudinal axis of the airplane;
ified in that paragraph, and gives suffi- and
cient protection from the elements (3) Has any part of the pane located
against impairment of the pilot’s vi- where its fragmentation will constitute
sion; or a hazard to the pilots.
(ii) An alternate means to maintain a (d) The design of windshields and
clear view under the conditions speci- windows in pressurized airplanes must
fied in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, be based on factors peculiar to high al-
considering the probable damage due to titude operation, including the effects
a severe hail encounter. of continuous and cyclic pressurization
(c) Internal windshield and window loadings, the inherent characteristics
fogging. The airplane must have a of the material used, and the effects of
means to prevent fogging of the inter- temperatures and temperature dif-
nal portions of the windshield and win- ferentials. The windshield and window
dow panels over an area which would panels must be capable of withstanding
provide the visibility specified in para- the maximum cabin pressure differen-
graph (a) of this section under all in- tial loads combined with critical aero-
ternal and external ambient condi- dynamic pressure and temperature ef-
tions, including precipitation condi- fects after any single failure in the in-
tions, in which the airplane is intended stallation or associated systems. It
to be operated. may be assumed that, after a single

393
§ 25.777 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

failure that is obvious to the flight (f) The landing gear control must be
crew (established under § 25.1523), the located forward of the throttles and
cabin pressure differential is reduced must be operable by each pilot when
from the maximum, in accordance with seated with seat belt and shoulder har-
appropriate operating limitations, to ness (if provided) fastened.
allow continued safe flight of the air- (g) Control knobs must be shaped in
plane with a cabin pressure altitude of accordance with § 25.781. In addition,
not more than 15,000 feet. the knobs must be of the same color,
(e) The windshield panels in front of and this color must contrast with the
the pilots must be arranged so that, as- color of control knobs for other pur-
suming the loss of vision through any poses and the surrounding cockpit.
one panel, one or more panels remain (h) If a flight engineer is required as
available for use by a pilot seated at a part of the minimum flight crew (es-
pilot station to permit continued safe tablished under § 25.1523), the airplane
flight and landing. must have a flight engineer station lo-
cated and arranged so that the flight
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as crewmembers can perform their func-
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, tions efficiently and without interfer-
1970; Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20, 1976]
ing with each other.
§ 25.777 Cockpit controls. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50596, Oct. 30,
(a) Each cockpit control must be lo- 1978]
cated to provide convenient operation
and to prevent confusion and inadvert- § 25.779 Motion and effect of cockpit
ent operation. controls.
(b) The direction of movement of Cockpit controls must be designed so
cockpit controls must meet the re- that they operate in accordance with
quirements of § 25.779. Wherever prac- the following movement and actuation:
ticable, the sense of motion involved in (a) Aerodynamic controls:
the operation of other controls must (1) Primary.
correspond to the sense of the effect of
the operation upon the airplane or Controls Motion and effect
upon the part operated. Controls of a Aileron .......................... Right (clockwise) for right wing
variable nature using a rotary motion down.
must move clockwise from the off posi- Elevator ........................ Rearward for nose up.
Rudder ......................... Right pedal forward for nose right.
tion, through an increasing range, to
the full on position. (2) Secondary.
(c) The controls must be located and
arranged, with respect to the pilots’ Controls Motion and effect
seats, so that there is full and unre- Flaps (or auxiliary lift Forward for flaps up; rearward for
stricted movement of each control devices). flaps down.
without interference from the cockpit Trim tabs (or equiva- Rotate to produce similar rotation of
lent). the airplane about an axis par-
structure or the clothing of the mini- allel to the axis of the control.
mum flight crew (established under
§ 25.1523) when any member of this (b) Powerplant and auxiliary con-
flight crew, from 5′2″ to 6′3″ in height, trols:
is seated with the seat belt and shoul- (1) Powerplant.
der harness (if provided) fastened.
(d) Identical powerplant controls for Controls Motion and effect
each engine must be located to prevent Power or thrust ............ Forward to increase forward thrust
confusion as to the engines they con- and rearward to increase rear-
trol. ward thrust.
Propellers ..................... Forward to increase rpm.
(e) Wing flap controls and other aux- Mixture ......................... Forward or upward for rich.
iliary lift device controls must be lo- Carburetor air heat ...... Forward or upward for cold.
Supercharger ............... Forward or upward for low blower.
cated on top of the pedestal, aft of the For turbosuperchargers, forward,
throttles, centrally or to the right of upward, or clockwise, to increase
the pedestal centerline, and not less pressure.
than 10 inches aft of the landing gear
control. (2) Auxiliary.

394
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.781

Controls Motion and effect [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29778, July 20,
Landing gear ................ Down to extend. 1990]

§ 25.781 Cockpit control knob shape.


Cockpit control knobs must conform to the general shapes (but not necessarily
the exact sizes or specific proportions) in the following figure:

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29779, July 20, 1990]

395
§ 25.783 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.783 Doors. by safety analysis that inadvertent


(a) Each cabin must have at least one opening is extemely improbable.
easily accessible external door. (g) Cargo and service doors not suit-
(b) There must be a means to lock able for use as emergency exits need
and safeguard each external door only meet paragraphs (e) and (f) of this
against opening in flight (either inad- section and be safeguarded against
vertently by persons or as a result of opening in flight as a result of mechan-
mechanical failure or failure of a single ical failure or failure of a single struc-
structural element either during or tural element.
after closure). Each external door must (h) Each passenger entry door in the
be openable from both the inside and side of the fuselage must meet the ap-
the outside, even though persons may plicable requirements of §§ 25.807
be crowded against the door on the in- through 25.813 for a Type II or larger
side of the airplane. Inward opening passenger emergency exit.
doors may be used if there are means (i) If an integral stair is installed in
to prevent occupants from crowding a passenger entry door that is qualified
against the door to an extent that as a passenger emergency exit, the
would interfere with the opening of the stair must be designed so that under
door. The means of opening must be the following conditions the effective-
simple and obvious and must be ar- ness of passenger emergency egress will
ranged and marked so that it can be not be impaired:
readily located and operated, even in (1) The door, integral stair, and oper-
darkness. Auxiliary locking devices ating mechanism have been subjected
may be used. to the inertia forces specified in
(c) Each external door must be rea- § 25.561(b)(3), acting separately relative
sonably free from jamming as a result
to the surrounding structure.
of fuselage deformation in a minor
crash. (2) The airplane is in the normal
(d) Each external door must be lo- ground attitude and in each of the atti-
cated where persons using them will tudes corresponding to collapse of one
not be endangered by the propellers or more legs of the landing gear.
when appropriate operating procedures (j) All lavatory doors must be de-
are used. signed to preclude anyone from becom-
(e) There must be a provision for di- ing trapped inside the lavatory, and if
rect visual inspection of the locking a locking mechanism is installed, it be
mechanism to determine if external capable of being unlocked from the
doors, for which the initial opening outside without the aid of special tools.
movement is not inward (including pas- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
senger, crew, service, and cargo doors), amended by Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13262, Sept.
are fully closed and locked. The provi- 20, 1967; Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970;
sion must be discernible under oper- Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt.
ational lighting conditions by appro- 25–72, 55 FR 29780, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25–88,
priate crewmembers using a flashlight 61 FR 57956, Nov. 8, 1996]
or equivalent lighting source. In addi-
tion, there must be a visual warning § 25.785 Seats, berths, safety belts, and
harnesses.
means to signal the appropriate flight
crewmembers if any external door is (a) A seat (or berth for a nonambu-
not fully closed and locked. The means lant person) must be provided for each
must be designed such that any failure occupant who has reached his or her
or combination of failures that would second birthday.
result in an erroneous closed and (b) Each seat, berth, safety belt, har-
locked indication is improbable for ness, and adjacent part of the airplane
doors for which the initial opening at each station designated as occupi-
movement is not inward. able during takeoff and landing must
(f) External doors must have provi- be designed so that a person making
sions to prevent the initiation of pres- proper use of these facilities will not
surization of the airplane to an unsafe suffer serious injury in an emergency
level if the door is not fully closed and landing as a result of the inertia forces
locked. In addition, it must be shown specified in §§ 25.561 and 25.562.

396
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.785

(c) Each seat or berth must be ap- substantiated. The forward load factor
proved. need not be applied to safety belts for
(d) Each occupant of a seat that berths.
makes more than an 18-degree angle (2) Each pilot seat must be designed
with the vertical plane containing the for the reactions resulting from the ap-
airplane centerline must be protected plication of the pilot forces prescribed
from head injury by a safety belt and in § 25.395.
an energy absorbing rest that will sup- (3) The inertia forces specified in
port the arms, shoulders, head, and § 25.561 must be multiplied by a factor
spine, or by a safety belt and shoulder of 1.33 (instead of the fitting factor pre-
harness that will prevent the head scribed in § 25.625) in determining the
from contacting any injurious object. strength of the attachment of each
Each occupant of any other seat must seat to the structure and each belt or
be protected from head injury by a harness to the seat or structure.
safety belt and, as appropriate to the (g) Each seat at a flight deck station
type, location, and angle of facing of must have a restraint system consist-
each seat, by one or more of the follow- ing of a combined safety belt and
ing: shoulder harness with a single-point re-
(1) A shoulder harness that will pre- lease that permits the flight deck occu-
vent the head from contacting any in- pant, when seated with the restraint
jurious object. system fastened, to perform all of the
(2) The elimination of any injurious occupant’s necessary flight deck func-
object within striking radius of the tions. There must be a means to secure
head. each combined restraint system when
(3) An energy absorbing rest that will not in use to prevent interference with
support the arms, shoulders, head, and the operation of the airplane and with
spine. rapid egress in an emergency.
(e) Each berth must be designed so (h) Each seat located in the pas-
that the forward part has a padded end senger compartment and designated for
board, canvas diaphragm, or equivalent use during takeoff and landing by a
means, that can withstand the static flight attendant required by the oper-
load reaction of the occupant when ating rules of this chapter must be:
subjected to the forward inertia force (1) Near a required floor level emer-
specified in § 25.561. Berths must be free gency exit, except that another loca-
from corners and protuberances likely tion is acceptable if the emergency
to cause injury to a person occupying egress of passengers would be enhanced
the berth during emergency conditions. with that location. A flight attendant
(f) Each seat or berth, and its sup- seat must be located adjacent to each
porting structure, and each safety belt Type A or B emergency exit. Other
or harness and its anchorage must be flight attendant seats must be evenly
designed for an occupant weight of 170 distributed among the required floor-
pounds, considering the maximum load level emergency exits to the extent
factors, inertia forces, and reactions feasible.
among the occupant, seat, safety belt, (2) To the extent possible, without
and harness for each relevant flight compromising proximity to a required
and ground load condition (including floor level emergency exit, located to
the emergency landing conditions pre- provide a direct view of the cabin area
scribed in § 25.561). In addition— for which the flight attendant is re-
(1) The structural analysis and test- sponsible.
ing of the seats, berths, and their sup- (3) Positioned so that the seat will
porting structures may be determined not interfere with the use of a passage-
by assuming that the critical load in way or exit when the seat is not in use.
the forward, sideward, downward, up- (4) Located to minimize the prob-
ward, and rearward directions (as de- ability that occupants would suffer in-
termined from the prescribed flight, jury by being struck by items dislodged
ground, and emergency landing condi- from service areas, stowage compart-
tions) acts separately or using selected ments, or service equipment.
combinations of loads if the required (5) Either forward or rearward facing
strength in each specified direction is with an energy absorbing rest that is

397
§ 25.787 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

designed to support the arms, shoul- ments in the passenger and crew cabin,
ders, head, and spine. if the means used is a latched door, the
(6) Equipped with a restraint system design must take into consideration
consisting of a combined safety belt the wear and deterioration expected in
and shoulder harness unit with a single service.
point release. There must be means to (c) If cargo compartment lamps are
secure each restraint system when not installed, each lamp must be installed
in use to prevent interference with so as to prevent contact between lamp
rapid egress in an emergency. bulb and cargo.
(i) Each safety belt must be equipped
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
with a metal to metal latching device. amended by Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3969, Feb. 24,
(j) If the seat backs do not provide a 1972; Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20, 1976;
firm handhold, there must be a hand- Amdt. 25–51, 45 FR 7755, Feb. 4, 1980]
grip or rail along each aisle to enable
persons to steady themselves while § 25.789 Retention of items of mass in
using the aisles in moderately rough passenger and crew compartments
air. and galleys.
(k) Each projecting object that would (a) Means must be provided to pre-
injure persons seated or moving about vent each item of mass (that is part of
the airplane in normal flight must be the airplane type design) in a passenger
padded. or crew compartment or galley from
(l) Each forward observer’s seat re- becoming a hazard by shifting under
quired by the operating rules must be the appropriate maximum load factors
shown to be suitable for use in con- corresponding to the specified flight
ducting the necessary enroute inspec- and ground load conditions, and to the
tion. emergency landing conditions of
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29780, July 20, 1990, as § 25.561(b).
amended by Amdt. 25–88, 61 FR 57956, Nov. 8, (b) Each interphone restraint system
1996] must be designed so that when sub-
jected to the load factors specified in
§ 25.787 Stowage compartments. § 25.561(b)(3), the interphone will re-
(a) Each compartment for the stow- main in its stowed position.
age of cargo, baggage, carry-on arti- [Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3969, Feb. 24, 1972, as
cles, and equipment (such as life rafts), amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50596, Oct. 30,
and any other stowage compartment 1978]
must be designed for its placarded max-
imum weight of contents and for the § 25.791 Passenger information signs
critical load distribution at the appro- and placards.
priate maximum load factors cor- (a) If smoking is to be prohibited,
responding to the specified flight and there must be at least one placard so
ground load conditions, and to the stating that is legible to each person
emergency landing conditions of seated in the cabin. If smoking is to be
§ 25.561(b), except that the forces speci- allowed, and if the crew compartment
fied in the emergency landing condi- is separated from the passenger com-
tions need not be applied to compart- partment, there must be at least one
ments located below, or forward, of all sign notifying when smoking is prohib-
occupants in the airplane. If the air- ited. Signs which notify when smoking
plane has a passenger seating configu- is prohibited must be operable by a
ration, excluding pilots seats, of 10 member of the flightcrew and, when il-
seats or more, each stowage compart- luminated, must be legible under all
ment in the passenger cabin, except for probable conditions of cabin illumina-
underseat and overhead compartments tion to each person seated in the cabin.
for passenger convenience, must be (b) Signs that notify when seat belts
completely enclosed. should be fastened and that are in-
(b) There must be a means to prevent stalled to comply with the operating
the contents in the compartments from rules of this chapter must be operable
becoming a hazard by shifting, under by a member of the flightcrew and,
the loads specified in paragraph (a) of when illuminated, must be legible
this section. For stowage compart- under all probable conditions of cabin

398
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.807

illumination to each person seated in airplane has fuel tanks (with fuel jet-
the cabin. tisoning provisions) that can reason-
(c) A placard must be located on or ably be expected to withstand a ditch-
adjacent to the door of each receptacle ing without leakage, the jettisonable
used for the disposal of flammable volume of fuel may be considered as
waste materials to indicate that use of buoyancy volume.
the receptacle for disposal of ciga- (e) Unless the effects of the collapse
rettes, etc., is prohibited. of external doors and windows are ac-
(d) Lavatories must have ‘‘No Smok- counted for in the investigation of the
ing’’ or ‘‘No Smoking in Lavatory’’ probable behavior of the airplane in a
placards conspicuously located on or water landing (as prescribed in para-
adjacent to each side of the entry door. graphs (c) and (d) of this section), the
(e) Symbols that clearly express the external doors and windows must be
intent of the sign or placard may be designed to withstand the probable
used in lieu of letters. maximum local pressures.
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29780, July 20, 1990] [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29781, July 20,
§ 25.793 Floor surfaces. 1990]
The floor surface of all areas which § 25.803 Emergency evacuation.
are likely to become wet in service
must have slip resistant properties. (a) Each crew and passenger area
must have emergency means to allow
[Amdt. 25–51, 45 FR 7755, Feb. 4, 1980] rapid evacuation in crash landings,
with the landing gear extended as well
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
as with the landing gear retracted, con-
§ 25.801 Ditching. sidering the possibility of the airplane
being on fire.
(a) If certification with ditching pro- (b) [Reserved]
visions is requested, the airplane must (c) For airplanes having a seating ca-
meet the requirements of this section pacity of more than 44 passengers, it
and §§ 25.807(e), 25.1411, and 25.1415(a). must be shown that the maximum
(b) Each practicable design measure, seating capacity, including the number
compatible with the general character- of crewmembers required by the oper-
istics of the airplane, must be taken to ating rules for which certification is
minimize the probability that in an requested, can be evacuated from the
emergency landing on water, the be- airplane to the ground under simulated
havior of the airplane would cause im- emergency conditions within 90 sec-
mediate injury to the occupants or onds. Compliance with this require-
would make it impossible for them to ment must be shown by actual dem-
escape. onstration using the test criteria out-
(c) The probable behavior of the air- lined in appendix J of this part unless
plane in a water landing must be inves- the Administrator finds that a com-
tigated by model tests or by compari- bination of analysis and testing will
son with airplanes of similar configura- provide data equivalent to that which
tion for which the ditching characteris- would be obtained by actual dem-
tics are known. Scoops, flaps, projec- onstration.
tions, and any other factor likely to af- (d)–(e) [Reserved]
fect the hydrodynamic characteristics
of the airplane, must be considered. [Doc. No. 24344, 55 FR 29781, July 20, 1990]
(d) It must be shown that, under rea-
sonably probable water conditions, the § 25.807 Emergency exits.
flotation time and trim of the airplane (a) Type. For the purpose of this part,
will allow the occupants to leave the the types of exits are defined as fol-
airplane and enter the liferafts re- lows:
quired by § 25.1415. If compliance with (1) Type I. This type is a floor-level
this provision is shown by buoyancy exit with a rectangular opening of not
and trim computations, appropriate al- less than 24 inches wide by 48 inches
lowances must be made for probable high, with corner radii not greater
structural damage and leakage. If the than eight inches.

399
§ 25.807 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(2) Type II. This type is a rectangular (b) Step down distance. Step down dis-
opening of not less than 20 inches wide tance, as used in this section, means
by 44 inches high, with corner radii not the actual distance between the bot-
greater than seven inches. Type II exits tom of the required opening and a usa-
must be floor-level exits unless located ble foot hold, extending out from the
over the wing, in which case they must fuselage, that is large enough to be ef-
not have a step-up inside the airplane fective without searching by sight or
of more than 10 inches nor a step-down feel.
outside the airplane of more than 17 (c) Over-sized exits. Openings larger
inches. than those specified in this section,
(3) Type III. This type is a rectangu- whether or not of rectangular shape,
lar opening of not less than 20 inches may be used if the specified rectangu-
wide by 36 inches high with corner lar opening can be inscribed within the
radii not greater than seven inches, opening and the base of the inscribed
and with a step-up inside the airplane rectangular opening meets the speci-
of not more than 20 inches. If the exit fied step-up and step-down heights.
is located over the wing, the step-down (d) Asymmetry. Exits of an exit pair
outside the airplane may not exceed 27 need not be diametrically opposite
inches. each other nor of the same size; how-
(4) Type IV. This type is a rectangu- ever, the number of passenger seats
lar opening of not less than 19 inches permitted under paragraph (g) of this
wide by 26 inches high, with corner section is based on the smaller of the
radii not greater than 6.3 inches, lo- two exits.
cated over the wing, with a step-up in- (e) Uniformity. Exits must be distrib-
side the airplane of not more than 29 uted as uniformly as practical, taking
inches and a step-down outside the air- into account passenger seat distribu-
plane of not more than 36 inches. tion.
(5) Ventral. This type is an exit from (f) Location. (1) Each required pas-
the passenger compartment through senger emergency exit must be acces-
the pressure shell and the bottom fuse- sible to the passengers and located
lage skin. The dimensions and physical where it will afford the most effective
configuration of this type of exit must means of passenger evacuation.
allow at least the same rate of egress (2) If only one floor-level exit per side
as a Type I exit with the airplane in is prescribed, and the airplane does not
the normal ground attitude, with land- have a tailcone or ventral emergency
ing gear extended. exit, the floor-level exits must be in
(6) Tailcone. This type is an aft exit the rearward part of the passenger
from the passenger compartment compartment unless another location
through the pressure shell and through affords a more effective means of pas-
an openable cone of the fuselage aft of senger evacuation.
the pressure shell. The means of open- (3) If more than one floor-level exit
ing the tailcone must be simple and ob- per side is prescribed, and the airplane
vious and must employ a single oper- does not have a combination cargo and
ation. passenger configuration, at least one
(7) Type A. This type is a floor-level floor-level exit must be located in each
exit with a rectangular opening of not side near each end of the cabin.
less than 42 inches wide by 72 inches (4) For an airplane that is required to
high, with corner radii not greater have more than one passenger emer-
than seven inches. gency exit for each side of the fuselage,
(8) Type B. This type is a floor-level no passenger emergency exit shall be
exit with a rectangular opening of not more than 60 feet from any adjacent
less than 32 inches wide by 72 inches passenger emergency exit on the same
high, with corner radii not greater side of the same deck of the fuselage,
than six inches. as measured parallel to the airplane’s
(9) Type C. This type is a floor-level longitudinal axis between the nearest
exit with a rectangular opening of not exit edges.
less than 30 inches wide by 48 inches (g) Type and number required. The
high, with corner radii not greater maximum number of passenger seats
than 10 inches. permitted depends on the type and

400
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.807

number of exits installed in each side at least the same rate of egress as a
of the fuselage. Except as further re- Type III exit with the airplane in the
stricted in paragraphs (g)(1) through most adverse exit opening condition
(g)(9) of this section, the maximum that would result from the collapse of
number of passenger seats permitted one or more legs of the landing gear, an
for each exit of a specific type installed increase in the passenger seating con-
in each side of the fuselage is as fol- figuration is permitted as follows:
lows: (i) For a ventral exit, 12 additional
Type A 110 passenger seats.
Type B 75 (ii) For a tailcone exit incorporating
Type C 55 a floor level opening of not less than 20
Type I 45 inches wide by 60 inches high, with cor-
Type II 40 ner radii not greater than seven inches,
Type III 35 in the pressure shell and incorporating
Type IV 9
an approved assist means in accordance
(1) For a passenger seating configura- with § 25.810(a), 25 additional passenger
tion of 1 to 9 seats, there must be at seats.
least one Type IV or larger overwing (iii) For a tailcone exit incorporating
exit in each side of the fuselage or, if an opening in the pressure shell which
overwing exits are not provided, at is at least equivalent to a Type III
least one exit in each side that meets emergency exit with respect to dimen-
the minimum dimensions of a Type III sions, step-up and step-down distance,
exit. and with the top of the opening not
(2) For a passenger seating configura- less than 56 inches from the passenger
tion of more than 9 seats, each exit compartment floor, 15 additional pas-
must be a Type III or larger exit. senger seats.
(3) For a passenger seating configura- (h) Excess exits. Each emergency exit
tion of 10 to 19 seats, there must be at in the passenger compartment in ex-
least one Type III or larger exit in each cess of the minimum number of re-
side of the fuselage. quired emergency exits must meet the
(4) For a passenger seating configura- applicable requirements of § 25.809
tion of 20 to 40 seats, there must be at through § 25.812, and must be readily
least two exits, one of which must be a accessible.
Type II or larger exit, in each side of (i) Ditching emergency exits for pas-
the fuselage. sengers. Whether or not ditching cer-
(5) For a passenger seating configura- tification is requested, ditching emer-
tion of 41 to 110 seats, there must be at gency exits must be provided in accord-
least two exits, one of which must be a ance with the following requirements,
Type I or larger exit, in each side of unless the emergency exits required by
the fuselage. paragraph (g) of this section already
(6) For a passenger seating configura- meet them:
tion of more than 110 seats, the emer- (1) For airplanes that have a pas-
gency exits in each side of the fuselage senger seating configuration of nine or
must include at least two Type I or fewer seats, excluding pilot seats, one
larger exits. exit above the waterline in each side of
(7) The combined maximum number the airplane, meeting at least the di-
of passenger seats permitted for all mensions of a Type IV exit.
Type III exits is 70, and the combined (2) For airplanes that have a pas-
maximum number of passenger seats senger seating configuration of 10 of
permitted for two Type III exits in more seats, excluding pilot seats, one
each side of the fuselage that are sepa- exit above the waterline in a side of the
rated by fewer than three passenger airplane, meeting at least the dimen-
seat rows is 65. sions of a Type III exit for each unit (or
(8) If a Type A, Type B, or Type C part of a unit) of 35 passenger seats,
exit is installed, there must be at least but no less than two such exits in the
two Type C or larger exits in each side passenger cabin, with one on each side
of the fuselage. of the airplane. The passenger seat/
(9) If a passenger ventral or tailcone exit ratio may be increased through
exit is installed and that exit provides the use of larger exits, or other means,

401
§ 25.809 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

provided it is shown that the evacu- tudes corresponding to collapse of one


ation capability during ditching has or more legs of the landing gear; and
been improved accordingly. (2) Within 10 seconds measured from
(3) If it is impractical to locate side the time when the opening means is ac-
exits above the waterline, the side tuated to the time when the exit is
exits must be replaced by an equal fully opened.
number of readily accessible overhead (c) The means of opening emergency
hatches of not less than the dimensions exits must be simple and obvious and
of a Type III exit, except that for air- may not require exceptional effort. In-
planes with a passenger configuration ternal exit-opening means involving se-
of 35 or fewer seats, excluding pilot quence operations (such as operation of
seats, the two required Type III side two handles or latches or the release of
exits need be replaced by only one safety catches) may be used for flight
overhead hatch. crew emergency exits if it can be rea-
(j) Flightcrew emergency exits. For air- sonably established that these means
planes in which the proximity of pas- are simple and obvious to crew-
senger emergency exits to the members trained in their use.
flightcrew area does not offer a conven- (d) If a single power-boost or single
ient and readily accessible means of power-operated system is the primary
evacuation of the flightcrew, and for system for operating more than one
all airplanes having a passenger seat- exit in an emergency, each exit must
ing capacity greater than 20, flightcrew be capable of meeting the requirements
exits shall be located in the flightcrew of paragraph (b) of this section in the
area. Such exits shall be of sufficient event of failure of the primary system.
size and so located as to permit rapid Manual operation of the exit (after
evacuation by the crew. One exit shall failure of the primary system) is ac-
ceptable.
be provided on each side of the air-
(e) Each emergency exit must be
plane; or, alternatively, a top hatch
shown by tests, or by a combination of
shall be provided. Each exit must en-
analysis and tests, to meet the require-
compass an unobstructed rectangular
ments of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this
opening of at least 19 by 20 inches un-
section.
less satisfactory exit utility can be
(f) There must be a means to lock
demonstrated by a typical crew-
each emergency exit and to safeguard
member.
against its opening in flight, either in-
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29781, July 20, 1990, as advertently by persons or as a result of
amended by Amdt. 25–88, 61 FR 57956, Nov. 8, mechanical failure. In addition, there
1996; 62 FR 1817, Jan. 13, 1997; Amdt. 25–94, 63 must be a means for direct visual in-
FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998; 63 FR 12862, Mar. 16, spection of the locking mechanism by
1998]
crewmembers to determine that each
§ 25.809 Emergency exit arrangement. emergency exit, for which the initial
opening movement is outward, is fully
(a) Each emergency exit, including a locked.
flight crew emergency exit, must be a (g) There must be provisions to mini-
movable door or hatch in the external mize the probability of jamming of the
walls of the fuselage, allowing unob- emergency exits resulting from fuse-
structed opening to the outside. lage deformation in a minor crash
(b) Each emergency exit must be landing.
openable from the inside and the out- (h) When required by the operating
side except that sliding window emer- rules for any large passenger-carrying
gency exits in the flight crew area need turbojet-powered airplane, each ven-
not be openable from the outside if tral exit and tailcone exit must be—
other approved exits are convenient (1) Designed and constructed so that
and readily accessible to the flight it cannot be opened during flight; and
crew area. Each emergency exit must (2) Marked with a placard readable
be capable of being opened, when there from a distance of 30 inches and in-
is no fuselage deformation— stalled at a conspicuous location near
(1) With the airplane in the normal the means of opening the exit, stating
ground attitude and in each of the atti- that the exit has been designed and

402
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.810

constructed so that it cannot be opened assistance of only one person, to re-


during flight. main usable after full deployment to
evacuate occupants safely to the
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13264, Sept. ground.
20, 1967; Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3970, Feb. 24, 1972; (v) For each system installation
Amdt. 25–34, 37 FR 25355, Nov. 30, 1972; Amdt. (mockup or airplane installed), five
25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 25–47, consecutive deployment and inflation
44 FR 61325, Oct. 25, 1979; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR tests must be conducted (per exit)
29782, July 20, 1990] without failure, and at least three tests
of each such five-test series must be
§ 25.810 Emergency egress assist conducted using a single representative
means and escape routes.
sample of the device. The sample de-
(a) Each non over-wing Type A, Type vices must be deployed and inflated by
B or Type C exit, and any other non the system’s primary means after
over-wing landplane emergency exit being subjected to the inertia forces
more than 6 feet from the ground with specified in § 25.561(b). If any part of the
the airplane on the ground and the system fails or does not function prop-
landing gear extended, must have an erly during the required tests, the
approved means to assist the occupants cause of the failure or malfunction
in descending to the ground. must be corrected by positive means
(1) The assisting means for each pas- and after that, the full series of five
senger emergency exit must be a self- consecutive deployment and inflation
supporting slide or equivalent; and, in tests must be conducted without fail-
the case of Type A or Type B exits, it ure.
must be capable of carrying simulta- (2) The assisting means for flightcrew
neously two parallel lines of evacuees. emergency exits may be a rope or any
In addition, the assisting means must other means demonstrated to be suit-
be designed to meet the following re- able for the purpose. If the assisting
quirements— means is a rope, or an approved device
(i) It must be automatically deployed equivalent to a rope, it must be—
and deployment must begin during the (i) Attached to the fuselage structure
interval between the time the exit at or above the top of the emergency
opening means is actuated from inside exit opening, or, for a device at a pi-
the airplane and the time the exit is lot’s emergency exit window, at an-
fully opened. However, each passenger other approved location if the stowed
emergency exit which is also a pas- device, or its attachment, would reduce
senger entrance door or a service door the pilot’s view in flight;
must be provided with means to pre- (ii) Able (with its attachment) to
vent deployment of the assisting means withstand a 400-pound static load.
when it is opened from either the in- (b) Assist means from the cabin to
side or the outside under non- the wing are required for each type A
emergency conditions for normal use. or Type B exit located above the wing
(ii) Except for assisting means in- and having a stepdown unless the exit
stalled at Type C exits, it must be without an assist-means can be shown
automatically erected within 6 seconds to have a rate of passenger egress at
after deployment is begun. Assisting least equal to that of the same type of
means installed at Type C exits must non over-wing exit. If an assist means
be automatically erected within 10 sec- is required, it must be automatically
onds from the time the opening means deployed and automatically erected
of the exit is actuated. concurrent with the opening of the
(iii) It must be of such length after exit. In the case of assist means in-
full deployment that the lower end is stalled at Type C exits, it must be self-
self-supporting on the ground and pro- supporting within 10 seconds from the
vides safe evacuation of occupants to time the opening means of the exits is
the ground after collapse of one or actuated. For all other exit types, it
more legs of the landing gear. must be self-supporting 6 seconds after
(iv) It must have the capability, in deployment is begun.
25-knot winds directed from the most (c) An escape route must be estab-
critical angle, to deploy and, with the lished from each overwing emergency

403
§ 25.811 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

exit, and (except for flap surfaces suit- onds after actuation of the erection
able as slides) covered with a slip re- system.
sistant surface. Except where a means [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29782, July 20, 1990, as
for channeling the flow of evacuees is amended by Amdt. 25–88, 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8,
provided— 1996; 62 FR 1817, Jan. 13, 1997]
(1) The escape route from each Type
A or Type B passenger emergency exit, § 25.811 Emergency exit marking.
or any common escape route from two (a) Each passenger emergency exit,
Type III passenger emergency exits, its means of access, and its means of
must be at least 42 inches wide; that opening must be conspicuously
from any other passenger emergency marked.
exit must be at least 24 inches wide; (b) The identity and location of each
and passenger emergency exit must be rec-
(2) The escape route surface must ognizable from a distance equal to the
have a reflectance of at least 80 per- width of the cabin.
cent, and must be defined by markings (c) Means must be provided to assist
with a surface-to-marking contrast the occupants in locating the exits in
ratio of at least 5:1. conditions of dense smoke.
(d) Means must be provided to assist (d) The location of each passenger
emergency exit must be indicated by a
evacuees to reach the ground for all
sign visible to occupants approaching
Type C exits located over the wing and,
along the main passenger aisle (or
if the place on the airplane structure
aisles). There must be—
at which the escape route required in
(1) A passenger emergency exit loca-
paragraph (c) of this section termi- tor sign above the aisle (or aisles) near
nates is more than 6 feet from the each passenger emergency exit, or at
ground with the airplane on the ground another overhead location if it is more
and the landing gear extended, for all practical because of low headroom, ex-
other exit types. cept that one sign may serve more
(1) If the escape route is over the than one exit if each exit can be seen
flap, the height of the terminal edge readily from the sign;
must be measured with the flap in the (2) A passenger emergency exit mark-
takeoff or landing position, whichever ing sign next to each passenger emer-
is higher from the ground. gency exit, except that one sign may
(2) The assisting means must be usa- serve two such exits if they both can be
ble and self-supporting with one or seen readily from the sign; and
more landing gear legs collapsed and (3) A sign on each bulkhead or divider
under a 25-knot wind directed from the that prevents fore and aft vision along
most critical angle. the passenger cabin to indicate emer-
(3) The assisting means provided for gency exits beyond and obscured by the
each escape route leading from a Type bulkhead or divider, except that if this
A or B emergency exit must be capable is not possible the sign may be placed
at another appropriate location.
of carrying simultaneously two par-
(e) The location of the operating han-
allel lines of evacuees; and, the assist-
dle and instructions for opening exits
ing means leading from any other exit
from the inside of the airplane must be
type must be capable of carrying as shown in the following manner:
many parallel lines of evacuees as (1) Each passenger emergency exit
there are required escape routes. must have, on or near the exit, a mark-
(4) The assisting means provided for ing that is readable from a distance of
each escape route leading from a Type 30 inches.
C exit must be automatically erected (2) Each Type A, Type B, Type C or
within 10 seconds from the time the Type I passenger emergency exit oper-
opening means of the exit is actuated, ating handle must—
and that provided for the escape route (i) Be self-illuminated with an initial
leading from any other exit type must brightness of at least 160 micro-
be automatically erected within 10 sec- lamberts; or

404
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.812

(ii) Be conspicuously located and well marking to that effect must be pro-
illuminated by the emergency lighting vided on the other side.
even in conditions of occupant crowd- (g) Each sign required by paragraph
ing at the exit. (d) of this section may use the word
(3) [Reserved] ‘‘exit’’ in its legend in place of the
(4) Each Type A, Type B, Type C, term ‘‘emergency exit’’.
Type I, or Type II passenger emergency [Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13264, Sept. 20, 1967, as
exit with a locking mechanism re- amended by Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3970, Feb. 24,
leased by rotary motion of the handle 1972; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; 43
must be marked— FR 52495, Nov. 13, 1978; Amdt. 25–79, 58 FR
(i) With a red arrow, with a shaft at 45229, Aug. 26, 1993; Amdt. 25–88, 61 FR 57958,
least three-fourths of an inch wide and Nov. 8, 1996]
a head twice the width of the shaft, ex-
tending along at least 70 degrees of arc § 25.812 Emergency lighting.
at a radius approximately equal to (a) An emergency lighting system,
three-fourths of the handle length. independent of the main lighting sys-
(ii) So that the centerline of the exit tem, must be installed. However, the
handle is within ±1 inch of the pro- sources of general cabin illumination
jected point of the arrow when the han- may be common to both the emergency
dle has reached full travel and has re- and the main lighting systems if the
leased the locking mechanism, and power supply to the emergency light-
(iii) With the word ‘‘open’’ in red let- ing system is independent of the power
ters 1 inch high, placed horizontally supply to the main lighting system.
near the head of the arrow. The emergency lighting system must
(f) Each emergency exit that is re- include:
quired to be openable from the outside, (1) Illuminated emergency exit mark-
and its means of opening, must be ing and locating signs, sources of gen-
marked on the outside of the airplane. eral cabin illumination, interior light-
In addition, the following apply: ing in emergency exit areas, and floor
(1) The outside marking for each pas- proximity escape path marking.
senger emergency exit in the side of (2) Exterior emergency lighting.
the fuselage must include a 2-inch col- (b) Emergency exit signs—
ored band outlining the exit. (1) For airplanes that have a pas-
(2) Each outside marking including senger seating configuration, excluding
the band, must have color contrast to pilot seats, of 10 seats or more must
be readily distinguishable from the sur- meet the following requirements:
rounding fuselage surface. The contrast (i) Each passenger emergency exit lo-
must be such that if the reflectance of cator sign required by § 25.811(d)(1) and
the darker color is 15 percent or less, each passenger emergency exit mark-
the reflectance of the lighter color ing sign required by § 25.811(d)(2) must
must be at least 45 percent. ‘‘Reflec- have red letters at least 11⁄2 inches high
tance’’ is the ratio of the luminous flux on an illuminated white background,
reflected by a body to the luminous and must have an area of at least 21
flux it receives. When the reflectance square inches excluding the letters.
of the darker color is greater than 15 The lighted background-to-letter con-
percent, at least a 30-percent difference trast must be at least 10 : 1. The letter
between its reflectance and the reflec- height to stroke-width ratio may not
tance of the lighter color must be pro- be more than 7 : 1 nor less than 6 : 1.
vided. These signs must be internally elec-
(3) In the case of exists other than trically illuminated with a background
those in the side of the fuselage, such brightness of at least 25 foot-lamberts
as ventral or tailcone exists, the exter- and a high-to-low background contrast
nal means of opening, including in- no greater than 3 : 1.
structions if applicable, must be con- (ii) Each passenger emergency exit
spicuously marked in red, or bright sign required by § 25.811(d)(3) must have
chrome yellow if the background color red letters at least 11⁄2 inches high on a
is such that red is inconspicuous. When white background having an area of at
the opening means is located on only least 21 square inches excluding the
one side of the fuselage, a conspicuous letters. These signs must be internally

405
§ 25.812 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

electrically illuminated or self-illumi- first exits or pair of exits forward and


nated by other than electrical means aft of the seat; and
and must have an initial brightness of (2) Readily identify each exit from
at least 400 microlamberts. The colors the emergency escape path by ref-
may be reversed in the case of a sign erence only to markings and visual fea-
that is self-illuminated by other than tures not more than 4 feet above the
electrical means. cabin floor.
(2) For airplanes that have a pas- (f) Except for subsystems provided in
senger seating configuration, excluding accordance with paragraph (h) of this
pilot seats, of nine seats or less, that section that serve no more than one as-
are required by § 25.811(d)(1), (2), and (3) sist means, are independent of the air-
must have red letters at least 1 inch plane’s main emergency lighting sys-
high on a white background at least 2 tem, and are automatically activated
inches high. These signs may be inter- when the assist means is erected, the
nally electrically illuminated, or self- emergency lighting system must be de-
illuminated by other than electrical signed as follows.
means, with an initial brightness of at (1) The lights must be operable
least 160 microlamberts. The colors manually from the flight crew station
may be reversed in the case of a sign and from a point in the passenger com-
that is self-illuminated by other than partment that is readily accessible to a
electrical means. normal flight attendant seat.
(c) General illumination in the pas- (2) There must be a flight crew warn-
senger cabin must be provided so that ing light which illuminates when power
when measured along the centerline of is on in the airplane and the emergency
main passenger aisle(s), and cross lighting control device is not armed.
aisle(s) between main aisles, at seat (3) The cockpit control device must
arm-rest height and at 40-inch inter- have an ‘‘on,’’ ‘‘off,’’ and ‘‘armed’’ posi-
vals, the average illumination is not tion so that when armed in the cockpit
less than 0.05 foot-candle and the illu- or turned on at either the cockpit or
mination at each 40-inch interval is not flight attendant station the lights will
less than 0.01 foot-candle. A main pas- either light or remain lighted upon
senger aisle(s) is considered to extend interruption (except an interruption
along the fuselage from the most for- caused by a transverse vertical separa-
ward passenger emergency exit or tion of the fuselage during crash land-
cabin occupant seat, whichever is far- ing) of the airplane’s normal electric
ther forward, to the most rearward pas- power. There must be a means to safe-
senger emergency exit or cabin occu- guard against inadvertent operation of
pant seat, whichever is farther aft. the control device from the ‘‘armed’’ or
(d) The floor of the passageway lead- ‘‘on’’ positions.
ing to each floor-level passenger emer- (g) Exterior emergency lighting must
gency exit, between the main aisles be provided as follows:
and the exit openings, must be pro- (1) At each overwing emergency exit
vided with illumination that is not less the illumination must be—
than 0.02 foot-candle measured along a (i) Not less than 0.03 foot-candle
line that is within 6 inches of and par- (measured normal to the direction of
allel to the floor and is centered on the the incident light) on a 2-square-foot
passenger evacuation path. area where an evacuee is likely to
(e) Floor proximity emergency es- make his first step outside the cabin;
cape path marking must provide emer- (ii) Not less than 0.05 foot-candle
gency evacuation guidance for pas- (measured normal to the direction of
sengers when all sources of illumina- incident light) along the 30 percent of
tion more than 4 feet above the cabin the slip-resistant portion of the escape
aisle floor are totally obscured. In the route required in § 25.810(c) that is far-
dark of the night, the floor proximity thest from the exit for the minimum
emergency escape path marking must required width of the escape route; and
enable each passenger to— (iii) Not less than 0.03 foot-candle on
(1) After leaving the passenger seat, the ground surface with the landing
visually identify the emergency escape gear extended (measured normal to the
path along the cabin aisle floor to the direction of the incident light) where

406
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.813

an evacuee using the established escape system: Provided, That, the charging
route would normally make first con- circuit is designed to preclude inad-
tact with the ground. vertent battery discharge into charg-
(2) At each non-overwing emergency ing circuit faults.
exit not required by § 25.809(f) to have (k) Components of the emergency
descent assist means the illumination lighting system, including batteries,
must be not less than 0.03 foot-candle wiring relays, lamps, and switches
(measured normal to the direction of must be capable of normal operation
the incident light) on the ground sur- after having been subjected to the iner-
face with the landing gear extended tia forces listed in § 25.561(b).
where an evacuee is likely to make his (l) The emergency lighting system
first contact with the ground outside must be designed so that after any sin-
the cabin. gle transverse vertical separation of
(h) The means required in § 25.809 the fuselage during crash landing—
(f)(1) and (h) to assist the occupants in (1) Not more than 25 percent of all
descending to the ground must be illu- electrically illuminated emergency
minated so that the erected assist lights required by this section are ren-
means is visible from the airplane. dered inoperative, in addition to the
(1) If the assist means is illuminated lights that are directly damaged by the
by exterior emergency lighting, it separation;
must provide illumination of not less (2) Each electrically illuminated exit
than 0.03 foot-candle (measured normal sign required under § 25.811(d)(2) re-
to the direction of the incident light) mains operative exclusive of those that
at the ground end of the erected assist are directly damaged by the separa-
means where an evacuee using the es- tion; and
tablished escape route would normally (3) At least one required exterior
make first contact with the ground, emergency light for each side of the
with the airplane in each of the atti- airplane remains operative exclusive of
tudes corresponding to the collapse of those that are directly damaged by the
one or more legs of the landing gear. separation.
(2) If the emergency lighting sub- [Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967, as
system illuminating the assist means amended by Amdt. 25–28, 36 FR 16899, Aug. 26,
serves no other assist means, is inde- 1971; Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3971, Feb. 24, 1972;
pendent of the airplane’s main emer- Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt.
gency lighting system, and is auto- 25–58, 49 FR 43186, Oct. 26, 1984; Amdt. 25–88,
matically activated when the assist 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8, 1996]
means is erected, the lighting provi-
sions— § 25.813 Emergency exit access.
(i) May not be adversely affected by Each required emergency exit must
stowage; and be accessible to the passengers and lo-
(ii) Must provide illumination of not cated where it will afford an effective
less than 0.03 foot-candle (measured means of evacuation. Emergency exit
normal to the direction of incident distribution must be as uniform as
light) at the ground and of the erected practical, taking passenger distribu-
assist means where an evacuee would tion into account; however, the size
normally make first contact with the and location of exits on both sides of
ground, with the airplane in each of the cabin need not be symmetrical. If
the attitudes corresponding to the col- only one floor level exit per side is pre-
lapse of one or more legs of the landing scribed, and the airplane does not have
gear. a tailcone or ventral emergency exit,
(i) The energy supply to each emer- the floor level exit must be in the rear-
gency lighting unit must provide the ward part of the passenger compart-
required level of illumination for at ment, unless another location affords a
least 10 minutes at the critical ambient more effective means of passenger
conditions after emergency landing. evacuation. Where more than one floor
(j) If storage batteries are used as the level exit per side is prescribed, at
energy supply for the emergency light- least one floor level exit per side must
ing system, they may be recharged be located near each end of the cabin,
from the airplane’s main electric power except that this provision does not

407
§ 25.813 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

apply to combination cargo/passenger Type III exit in an airplane that has a


configurations. In addition— passenger seating configuration of 60 or
(a) There must be a passageway lead- more—
ing from the nearest main aisle to each (i) Except as provided in paragraph
Type A, Type B, Type C, Type I, or (c)(1)(ii), the access must be provided
Type II emergency exit and between in- by an unobstructed passageway that is
dividual passenger areas. Each passage- at least 10 inches in width for interior
way leading to a Type A or Type B exit arrangements in which the adjacent
must be unobstructed and at least 36 seat rows on the exit side of the aisle
inches wide. Passageways between indi- contain no more than two seats, or 20
vidual passenger areas and those lead- inches in width for interior arrange-
ing to Type I, Type II, or Type C emer- ments in which those rows contain
gency exits must be unobstructed and three seats. The width of the passage-
at least 20 inches wide. Unless there way must be measured with adjacent
are two or more main aisles, each Type seats adjusted to their most adverse
A or B exit must be located so that position. The centerline of the required
there is passenger flow along the main passageway width must not be dis-
aisle to that exit from both the forward placed more than 5 inches horizontally
and aft directions. If two or more main from that of the exit.
aisles are provided, there must be un- (ii) In lieu of one 10- or 20-inch pas-
obstructed cross-aisles at least 20 sageway, there may be two passage-
inches wide between main aisles. There ways, between seat rows only, that
must be— must be at least 6 inches in width and
(1) A cross-aisle which leads directly lead to an unobstructed space adjacent
to each passageway between the near- to each exit. (Adjacent exits must not
est main aisle and a Type A or B exit; share a common passageway.) The
and width of the passageways must be
(2) A cross-aisle which leads to the measured with adjacent seats adjusted
immediate vicinity of each passageway to their most adverse position. The un-
between the nearest main aisle and a obstructed space adjacent to the exit
Type 1, Type II, or Type III exit; except must extend vertically from the floor
that when two Type III exits are lo- to the ceiling (or bottom of sidewall
cated within three passenger rows of stowage bins), inboard from the exit for
each other, a single cross-aisle may be a distance not less than the width of
used if it leads to the vicinity between the narrowest passenger seat installed
the passageways from the nearest main on the airplane, and from the forward
aisle to each exit. edge of the forward passageway to the
(b) Adequate space to allow crew- aft edge of the aft passageway. The exit
member(s) to assist in the evacuation opening must be totally within the fore
of passengers must be provided as fol- and aft bounds of the unobstructed
lows: space.
(1) The assist space must not reduce (2) In addition to the access—
the unobstructed width of the passage- (i) For airplanes that have a pas-
way below that required for the exit. senger seating configuration of 20 or
(2) For each Type A or Type B exit, more, the projected opening of the exit
assist space must be provided at each provided must not be obstructed and
side of the exit regardless of whether a there must be no interference in open-
means is required by § 25.810(a) to assist ing the exit by seats, berths, or other
passengers in descending to the ground protrusions (including any seatback in
from that exit. the most adverse position) for a dis-
(3) Assist space must be provided at tance from that exit not less than the
one side of any other type exit required width of the narrowest passenger seat
by § 25.810(a) to have a means to assist installed on the airplane.
passengers in descending to the ground (ii) For airplanes that have a pas-
from that exit. senger seating configuration of 19 or
(c) The following must be provided fewer, there may be minor obstructions
for each Type III or Type IV exit—(1) in this region, if there are compensat-
There must be access from the nearest ing factors to maintain the effective-
aisle to each exit. In addition, for each ness of the exit.

408
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.819

(3) For each Type III exit, regardless [Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967, as
of the passenger capacity of the air- amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20,
plane in which it is installed, there 1976]
must be placards that—
(i) Are readable by all persons seated § 25.817 Maximum number of seats
abreast.
adjacent to and facing a passageway to
the exit; On airplanes having only one pas-
(ii) Accurately state or illustrate the senger aisle, no more than three seats
proper method of opening the exit, in- abreast may be placed on each side of
cluding the use of handholds; and the aisle in any one row.
(iii) If the exit is a removable hatch,
state the weight of the hatch and indi- [Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. 20, 1967]
cate an appropriate location to place
§ 25.819 Lower deck service compart-
the hatch after removal. ments (including galleys).
(d) If it is necessary to pass through
a passageway between passenger com- For airplanes with a service compart-
partments to reach any required emer- ment located below the main deck,
gency exit from any seat in the pas- which may be occupied during taxi or
senger cabin, the passageway must be flight but not during takeoff or land-
unobstructed. However, curtains may ing, the following apply:
be used if they allow free entry (a) There must be at least two emer-
through the passageway. gency evacuation routes, one at each
(e) No door may be installed in any end of each lower deck service com-
partition between passenger compart- partment or two having sufficient sepa-
ments. ration within each compartment,
(f) If it is necessary to pass through a which could be used by each occupant
doorway separating the passenger of the lower deck service compartment
cabin from other areas to reach any re- to rapidly evacuate to the main deck
quired emergency exit from any pas- under normal and emergency lighting
senger seat, the door must have a conditions. The routes must provide for
means to latch it in open position. The the evacuation of incapacitated per-
latching means must be able to with- sons, with assistance. The use of the
stand the loads imposed upon it when evacuation routes may not be depend-
the door is subjected to the ultimate ent on any powered device. The routes
inertia forces, relative to the surround- must be designed to minimize the pos-
ing structure, listed in § 25.561(b). sibility of blockage which might result
[Amdt. 25–1, 30 FR 3204, Mar. 9, 1965, as from fire, mechanical or structural
amended by Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13265, Sept. failure, or persons standing on top of or
20, 1967; Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3971, Feb. 24, 1972; against the escape routes. In the event
Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt.
the airplane’s main power system or
25–72, 55 FR 29783, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25–76,
57 FR 19244, May 4, 1992; Amdt. 25–76, 57 FR compartment main lighting system
29120, June 30, 1992; Amdt. 25–88, 61 FR 57958, should fail, emergency illumination for
Nov. 8, 1996] each lower deck service compartment
must be automatically provided.
§ 25.815 Width of aisle. (b) There must be a means for two-
The passenger aisle width at any way voice communication between the
point between seats must equal or ex- flight deck and each lower deck service
ceed the values in the following table: compartment.
Minimum passenger
(c) There must be an aural emer-
aisle width (inches) gency alarm system, audible during
Passenger seating capacity Less than 25 in. and
normal and emergency conditions, to
25 in. from more from enable crewmembers on the flight deck
floor floor
and at each required floor level emer-
10 or less ....................................... 1 12 15 gency exit to alert occupants of each
11 through 19 ................................. 12 20 lower deck service compartment of an
20 or more ..................................... 15 20
emergency situation.
1 A narrower width not less than 9 inches may be approved
when substantiated by tests found necessary by the (d) There must be a means, readily
Administrator. detectable by occupants of each lower

409
§ 25.831 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

deck service compartment, that indi- pors. In meeting this requirement, the
cates when seat belts should be fas- following apply:
tened. (1) Carbon monoxide concentrations
(e) If a public address system is in- in excess of 1 part in 20,000 parts of air
stalled in the airplane, speakers must are considered hazardous. For test pur-
be provided in each lower deck service poses, any acceptable carbon monoxide
compartment. detection method may be used.
(f) For each occupant permitted in a (2) Carbon dioxide concentration dur-
lower deck service compartment, there ing flight must be shown not to exceed
must be a forward or aft facing seat 0.5 percent by volume (sea level equiva-
which meets the requirements of lent) in compartments normally occu-
§ 25.785(c) and must be able to with- pied by passengers or crewmembers.
stand maximum flight loads when oc- (c) There must be provisions made to
cupied. ensure that the conditions prescribed
(g) For each powered lift system in- in paragraph (b) of this section are met
stalled between a lower deck service after reasonably probable failures or
compartment and the main deck for malfunctioning of the ventilating,
the carriage of persons or equipment, heating, pressurization, or other sys-
or both, the system must meet the fol- tems and equipment.
lowing requirements: (d) If accumulation of hazardous
(1) Each lift control switch outside quantities of smoke in the cockpit area
the lift, except emergency stop but- is reasonably probable, smoke evacu-
tons, must be designed to prevent the ation must be readily accomplished,
activation of the life if the lift door, or starting with full pressurization and
the hatch required by paragraph (g)(3) without depressurizing beyond safe
of this section, or both are open. limits.
(2) An emergency stop button, that (e) Except as provided in paragraph
when activated will immediately stop (f) of this section, means must be pro-
the lift, must be installed within the vided to enable the occupants of the
lift and at each entrance to the lift. following compartments and areas to
(3) There must be a hatch capable of control the temperature and quantity
being used for evacuating persons from of ventilating air supplied to their
the lift that is openable from inside compartment or area independently of
and outside the lift without tools, with the temperature and quantity of air
the lift in any position. supplied to other compartments and
[Amdt. 25–53, 45 FR 41593, June 19, 1980; 45 FR areas:
43154, June 26, 1980] (1) The flight crew compartment.
(2) Crewmember compartments and
VENTILATION AND HEATING areas other than the flight crew com-
partment unless the crewmember com-
§ 25.831 Ventilation. partment or area is ventilated by air
(a) Under normal operating condi- interchange with other compartments
tions and in the event of any probable or areas under all operating conditions.
failure conditions of any system which (f) Means to enable the flight crew to
would adversely affect the ventilating control the temperature and quantity
air, the ventilation system must be de- of ventilating air supplied to the flight
signed to provide a sufficient amount crew compartment independently of
of uncontaminated air to enable the the temperature and quantity of ven-
crewmembers to perform their duties tilating air supplied to other compart-
without undue discomfort or fatigue ments are not required if all of the fol-
and to provide reasonable passenger lowing conditions are met:
comfort. For normal operating condi- (1) The total volume of the flight
tions, the ventilation system must be crew and passenger compartments is
designed to provide each occupant with 800 cubic feet or less.
an airflow containing at least 0.55 (2) The air inlets and passages for air
pounds of fresh air per minute. to flow between flight crew and pas-
(b) Crew and passenger compartment senger compartments are arranged to
air must be free from harmful or haz- provide compartment temperatures
ardous concentrations of gases or va- within 5 degrees F. of each other and

410
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.841

adequate ventilation to occupants in (g) The exposure time at any given


both compartments. temperature must not exceed the val-
(3) The temperature and ventilation ues shown in the following graph after
controls are accessible to the flight any improbable failure condition.
crew.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as (2) The airplane ventilation system,
amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, including any ozone control equipment,
1977; Amdt. 25–87, 61 FR 28695, June 5, 1996; will maintain cabin ozone concentra-
Amdt. 25–89, 61 FR 63956, Dec. 2, 1996]
tions at or below the limits prescribed
§ 25.832 Cabin ozone concentration. by paragraph (a) of this section.
(a) The airplane cabin ozone con- [Amdt. 25–50, 45 FR 3883, Jan. 1, 1980, as
centration during flight must be shown amended by Amdt. 25–56, 47 FR 58489, Dec. 30,
not to exceed— 1982; Amdt. 25–94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998]
(1) 0.25 parts per million by volume,
sea level equivalent, at any time above § 25.833 Combustion heating systems.
flight level 320; and Combustion heaters must be ap-
(2) 0.1 parts per million by volume, proved.
sea level equivalent, time-weighted av-
erage during any 3-hour interval above [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29783, July 20, 1990]
flight level 270.
PRESSURIZATION
(b) For the purpose of this section,
‘‘sea level equivalent’’ refers to condi- § 25.841 Pressurized cabins.
tions of 25° C and 760 millimeters of
mercury pressure. (a) Pressurized cabins and compart-
(c) Compliance with this section ments to be occupied must be equipped
must be shown by analysis or tests to provide a cabin pressure altitude of
based on airplane operational proce- not more than 8,000 feet at the maxi-
dures and performance limitations, mum operating altitude of the airplane
that demonstrate that either— under normal operating conditions.
(1) The airplane cannot be operated (1) If certification for operation
at an altitude which would result in above 25,000 feet is requested, the air-
cabin ozone concentrations exceeding plane must be designed so that occu-
the limits prescribed by paragraph (a) pants will not be exposed to cabin pres-
of this section; or sure altitudes in excess of 15,000 feet

411
§ 25.843 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

after any probable failure condition in addition to cabin altitude indicating


the pressurization system. means) meets the warning requirement
(2) The airplane must be designed so for cabin pressure altitude limits if it
that occupants will not be exposed to a warns the flight crew when the cabin
cabin pressure altitude that exceeds pressure altitude exceeds 10,000 feet.
the following after decompression from (7) A warning placard at the pilot or
any failure condition not shown to be flight engineer station if the structure
extremely improbable: is not designed for pressure differen-
(i) Twenty-five thousand (25,000) feet tials up to the maximum relief valve
for more than 2 minutes; or setting in combination with landing
(ii) Forty thousand (40,000) feet for loads.
any duration. (8) The pressure sensors necessary to
(3) Fuselage structure, engine and meet the requirements of paragraphs
system failures are to be considered in (b)(5) and (b)(6) of this section and
evaluating the cabin decompression. § 25.1447(c), must be located and the
(b) Pressurized cabins must have at
sensing system designed so that, in the
least the following valves, controls,
event of loss of cabin pressure in any
and indicators for controlling cabin
passenger or crew compartment (in-
pressure:
cluding upper and lower lobe galleys),
(1) Two pressure relief valves to auto-
the warning and automatic presen-
matically limit the positive pressure
differential to a predetermined value tation devices, required by those provi-
at the maximum rate of flow delivered sions, will be actuated without any
by the pressure source. The combined delay that would significantly increase
capacity of the relief valves must be the hazards resulting from decompres-
large enough so that the failure of any sion.
one valve would not cause an appre- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ciable rise in the pressure differential. amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55466, Dec. 20,
The pressure differential is positive 1976; Amdt. 25–87, 61 FR 28696, June 5, 1996]
when the internal pressure is greater
than the external. § 25.843 Tests for pressurized cabins.
(2) Two reverse pressure differential (a) Strength test. The complete pres-
relief valves (or their equivalents) to surized cabin, including doors, win-
automatically prevent a negative pres- dows, and valves, must be tested as a
sure differential that would damage pressure vessel for the pressure dif-
the structure. One valve is enough, ferential specified in § 25.365(d).
however, if it is of a design that rea-
(b) Functional tests. The following
sonably precludes its malfunctioning.
functional tests must be performed:
(3) A means by which the pressure
differential can be rapidly equalized. (1) Tests of the functioning and ca-
(4) An automatic or manual regulator pacity of the positive and negative
for controlling the intake or exhaust pressure differential valves, and of the
airflow, or both, for maintaining the emergency release valve, to stimulate
required internal pressures and airflow the effects of closed regulator valves.
rates. (2) Tests of the pressurization system
(5) Instruments at the pilot or flight to show proper functioning under each
engineer station to show the pressure possible condition of pressure, tem-
differential, the cabin pressure alti- perature, and moisture, up to the maxi-
tude, and the rate of change of the mum altitude for which certification is
cabin pressure altitude. requested.
(6) Warning indication at the pilot or (3) Flight tests, to show the perform-
flight engineer station to indicate ance of the pressure supply, pressure
when the safe or preset pressure dif- and flow regulators, indicators, and
ferential and cabin pressure altitude warning signals, in steady and stepped
limits are exceeded. Appropriate warn- climbs and descents at rates cor-
ing markings on the cabin pressure dif- responding to the maximum attainable
ferential indicator meet the warning within the operating limitations of the
requirement for pressure differential airplane, up to the maximum altitude
limits and an aural or visual signal (in for which certification is requested.

412
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.853

(4) Tests of each door and emergency quired by this section must be appro-
exit, to show that they operate prop- priate for the kinds of fires likely to
erly after being subjected to the flight occur where used.
tests prescribed in paragraph (b)(3) of (8) Each extinguisher intended for
this section. use in a personnel compartment must
be designed to minimize the hazard of
FIRE PROTECTION toxic gas concentration.
(b) Built-in fire extinguishers. If a
§ 25.851 Fire extinguishers. built-in fire extinguisher is provided—
(a) Hand fire extinguishers. (1) The fol- (1) Each built-in fire extinguishing
lowing minimum number of hand fire system must be installed so that—
extinguishers must be conveniently lo- (i) No extinguishing agent likely to
cated and evenly distributed in pas- enter personnel compartments will be
senger compartments: hazardous to the occupants; and
(ii) No discharge of the extinguisher
No. of extin- can cause structural damage.
Passenger capacity guishers
(2) The capacity of each required
7 through 30 ............................................ 1 built-in fire extinguishing system must
31 through 60 ............................................ 2
61 through 200 .......................................... 3
be adequate for any fire likely to occur
201 through 300 .......................................... 4 in the compartment where used, con-
301 through 400 .......................................... 5 sidering the volume of the compart-
401 through 500 .......................................... 6 ment and the ventilation rate.
501 through 600 .......................................... 7
601 through 700 .......................................... 8 [Amdt. 25–74, 56 FR 15456, Apr. 16, 1991]

(2) At least one hand fire extin- § 25.853 Compartment interiors.


guisher must be conveniently located For each compartment occupied by
in the pilot compartment. the crew or passengers, the following
(3) At least one readily accessible apply:
hand fire extinguisher must be avail- (a) Materials (including finishes or
able for use in each Class A or Class B decorative surfaces applied to the ma-
cargo or baggage compartment and in terials) must meet the applicable test
each Class E cargo or baggage compart- criteria prescribed in part I of appendix
ment that is accessible to crew- F of this part, or other approved equiv-
members in flight. alent methods, regardless of the pas-
(4) At least one hand fire extin- senger capacity of the airplane.
guisher must be located in, or readily (b) [Reserved]
accessible for use in, each galley lo- (c) In addition to meeting the re-
cated above or below the passenger quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
compartment. tion, seat cushions, except those on
(5) Each hand fire extinguisher must flight crewmember seats, must meet
be approved. the test requirements of part II of ap-
(6) At least one of the required fire pendix F of this part, or other equiva-
extinguishers located in the passenger lent methods, regardless of the pas-
compartment of an airplane with a pas- senger capacity of the airplane.
senger capacity of at least 31 and not (d) Except as provided in paragraph
more than 60, and at least two of the (e) of this section, the following inte-
fire extinguishers located in the pas- rior components of airplanes with pas-
senger compartment of an airplane senger capacities of 20 or more must
with a passenger capacity of 61 or more also meet the test requirements of
must contain Halon 1211 parts IV and V of appendix F of this
(bromochlorodifluoromethane CBrC1 part, or other approved equivalent
F2), or equivalent, as the extinguishing method, in addition to the flammabil-
agent. The type of extinguishing agent ity requirements prescribed in para-
used in any other extinguisher required graph (a) of this section:
by this section must be appropriate for (1) Interior ceiling and wall panels,
the kinds of fires likely to occur where other than lighting lenses and win-
used. dows;
(7) The quantity of extinguishing (2) Partitions, other than transparent
agent used in each extinguisher re- panels needed to enhance cabin safety;

413
§ 25.854 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(3) Galley structure, including ex- senger cabin that would be readily de-
posed surfaces of stowed carts and tected by a flight attendant; and
standard containers and the cavity (b) Each lavatory must be equipped
walls that are exposed when a full com- with a built-in fire extinguisher for
plement of such carts or containers is each disposal receptacle for towels,
not carried; and paper, or waste, located within the lav-
(4) Large cabinets and cabin stowage atory. The extinguisher must be de-
compartments, other than underseat signed to discharge automatically into
stowage compartments for stowing each disposal receptacle upon occur-
small items such as magazines and rence of a fire in that receptacle.
maps. [Amdt. 25–74, 56 FR 15456, Apr. 16, 1991]
(e) The interiors of compartments,
such as pilot compartments, galleys, § 25.855 Cargo or baggage compart-
lavatories, crew rest quarters, cabinets ments.
and stowage compartments, need not For each cargo and baggage compart-
meet the standards of paragraph (d) of
ment not occupied by crew or pas-
this section, provided the interiors of
sengers, the following apply:
such compartments are isolated from
(a) The compartment must meet one
the main passenger cabin by doors or
of the class requirements of § 25.857.
equivalent means that would normally
(b) Class B through Class E cargo or
be closed during an emergency landing
baggage compartments, as defined in
condition.
§ 25.857, must have a liner, and the liner
(f) Smoking is not to be allowed in
must be separate from (but may be at-
lavatories. If smoking is to be allowed
tached to) the airplane structure.
in any other compartment occupied by
(c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels
the crew or passengers, an adequate
of Class C compartments must meet
number of self-contained, removable
the test requirements of part III of ap-
ashtrays must be provided for all seat-
pendix F of this part or other approved
ed occupants.
(g) Regardless of whether smoking is equivalent methods.
(d) All other materials used in the
allowed in any other part of the air-
plane, lavatories must have self-con- construction of the cargo or baggage
tained, removable ashtrays located compartment must meet the applicable
conspicuously on or near the entry side test criteria prescribed in part I of ap-
of each lavatory door, except that one pendix F of this part or other approved
ashtray may serve more than one lava- equivalent methods.
tory door if the ashtray can be seen (e) No compartment may contain any
readily from the cabin side of each lav- controls, wiring, lines, equipment, or
atory served. accessories whose damage or failure
(h) Each receptacle used for the dis- would affect safe operation, unless
posal of flammable waste material those items are protected so that—
must be fully enclosed, constructed of (1) They cannot be damaged by the
at least fire resistant materials, and movement of cargo in the compart-
must contain fires likely to occur in it ment, and
under normal use. The capability of the (2) Their breakage or failure will not
receptacle to contain those fires under create a fire hazard.
(f) There must be means to prevent
all probable conditions of wear, mis-
cargo or baggage from interfering with
alignment, and ventilation expected in
the functioning of the fire protective
service must be demonstrated by test.
features of the compartment.
[Amdt. 25–83, 60 FR 6623, Feb. 2, 1995] (g) Sources of heat within the com-
partment must be shielded and insu-
§ 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. lated to prevent igniting the cargo or
For airplanes with a passenger capac- baggage.
ity of 20 or more: (h) Flight tests must be conducted to
(a) Each lavatory must be equipped show compliance with the provisions of
with a smoke detector system or equiv- § 25.857 concerning—
alent that provides a warning light in (1) Compartment accessibility,
the cockpit, or provides a warning (2) The entries of hazardous quan-
light or audible warning in the pas- tities of smoke or extinguishing agent

414
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.858

into compartments occupied by the (4) There are means to control ven-
crew or passengers, and tilation and drafts within the compart-
(3) The dissipation of the extinguish- ment so that the extinguishing agent
ing agent in Class C compartments. used can control any fire that may
(i) During the above tests, it must be start within the compartment.
shown that no inadvertent operation of (d) [Reserved]
smoke or fire detectors in any com- (e) Class E. A Class E cargo compart-
partment would occur as a result of ment is one on airplanes used only for
fire contained in any other compart- the carriage of cargo and in which—
ment, either during or after extin- (1) [Reserved]
guishment, unless the extinguishing (2) There is a separate approved
system floods each such compartment smoke or fire detector system to give
simultaneously. warning at the pilot or flight engineer
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990, as
station;
amended by Amdt. 25–93, 63 FR 8048, Feb. 17, (3) There are means to shut off the
1998] ventilating airflow to, or within, the
compartment, and the controls for
§ 25.857 Cargo compartment classifica- these means are accessible to the flight
tion. crew in the crew compartment;
(a) Class A; A Class A cargo or bag- (4) There are means to exclude haz-
gage compartment is one in which— ardous quantities of smoke, flames, or
(1) The presence of a fire would be noxious gases, from the flight crew
easily discovered by a crewmember compartment; and
while at his station; and (5) The required crew emergency
(2) Each part of the compartment is exits are accessible under any cargo
easily accessible in flight. loading condition.
(b) Class B. A Class B cargo or bag- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
gage compartment is one in which— amended by Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24,
(1) There is sufficient access in flight 1972; Amdt. 25–60, 51 FR 18243, May 16, 1986;
to enable a crewmember to effectively Amdt. 25–93, 63 FR 8048, Feb. 17, 1998]
reach any part of the compartment
with the contents of a hand fire extin- § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compart-
ment smoke or fire detection sys-
guisher; tems.
(2) When the access provisions are
being used, no hazardous quantity of If certification with cargo or baggage
smoke, flames, or extinguishing agent, compartment smoke or fire detection
will enter any compartment occupied provisions is requested, the following
by the crew or passengers; must be met for each cargo or baggage
(3) There is a separate approved compartment with those provisions:
smoke detector or fire detector system (a) The detection system must pro-
to give warning at the pilot or flight vide a visual indication to the flight
engineer station. crew within one minute after the start
(c) Class C. A Class C cargo or bag- of a fire.
gage compartment is one not meeting (b) The system must be capable of de-
the requirements for either a Class A tecting a fire at a temperature signifi-
or B compartment but in which— cantly below that at which the struc-
(1) There is a separate approved tural integrity of the airplane is sub-
smoke detector or fire detector system stantially decreased.
to give warning at the pilot or flight (c) There must be means to allow the
engineer station; crew to check in flight, the functioning
(2) There is an approved built-in fire of each fire detector circuit.
extinguishing or suppression system (d) The effectiveness of the detection
controllable from the cockpit. system must be shown for all approved
(3) There are means to exclude haz- operating configurations and condi-
ardous quantities of smoke, flames, or tions.
extinguishing agent, from any com- [Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980, as
partment occupied by the crew or pas- amended by Amdt. 25–93, 63 FR 8048, Feb. 17,
sengers; 1998]

415
§ 25.859 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.859 Combustion heater fire pro- (2) No combustion air duct may re-
tection. strict the prompt relief of any backfire
(a) Combustion heater fire zones. The that, if so restricted, could cause heat-
following combustion heater fire zones er failure.
must be protected from fire in accord- (d) Heater controls; general. Provision
ance with the applicable provisions of must be made to prevent the hazardous
§§ 25.1181 through 25.1191 and §§ 25.1195 accumulation of water or ice on or in
through 25.1203; any heater control component, control
system tubing, or safety control.
(1) The region surrounding the heat-
(e) Heater safety controls. For each
er, if this region contains any flam-
combustion heater there must be the
mable fluid system components (ex-
following safety control means:
cluding the heater fuel system), that
(1) Means independent of the compo-
could—
nents provided for the normal continu-
(i) Be damaged by heater malfunc-
ous control of air temperature, airflow,
tioning; or
and fuel flow must be provided, for
(ii) Allow flammable fluids or vapors each heater, to automatically shut off
to reach the heater in case of leakage. the ignition and fuel supply to that
(2) The region surrounding the heat- heater at a point remote from that
er, if the heater fuel system has fit- heater when any of the following oc-
tings that, if they leaked, would allow curs:
fuel or vapors to enter this region. (i) The heat exchanger temperature
(3) The part of the ventilating air exceeds safe limits.
passage that surrounds the combustion (ii) The ventilating air temperature
chamber. However, no fire extinguish- exceeds safe limits.
ment is required in cabin ventilating (iii) The combustion airflow becomes
air passages. inadequate for safe operation.
(b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ven- (iv) The ventilating airflow becomes
tilating air duct passing through any inadequate for safe operation.
fire zone must be fireproof. In addi- (2) The means of complying with
tion— paragraph (e)(1) of this section for any
(1) Unless isolation is provided by individual heater must—
fireproof valves or by equally effective (i) Be independent of components
means, the ventilating air duct down- serving any other heater whose heat
stream of each heater must be fireproof output is essential for safe operation;
for a distance great enough to ensure and
that any fire originating in the heater (ii) Keep the heater off until re-
can be contained in the duct; and started by the crew.
(2) Each part of any ventilating duct (3) There must be means to warn the
passing through any region having a crew when any heater whose heat out-
flammable fluid system must be con- put is essential for safe operation has
structed or isolated from that system been shut off by the automatic means
so that the malfunctioning of any com- prescribed in paragraph (e)(1) of this
ponent of that system cannot intro- section.
duce flammable fluids or vapors into (f) Air intakes. Each combustion and
the ventilating airstream. ventilating air intake must be located
(c) Combustion air ducts. Each com- so that no flammable fluids or vapors
bustion air duct must be fireproof for a can enter the heater system under any
distance great enough to prevent dam- operating condition—
age from backfiring or reverse flame (1) During normal operation; or
propagation. In addition— (2) As a result of the malfunctioning
(1) No combustion air duct may have of any other component.
a common opening with the ventilating (g) Heater exhaust. Heater exhaust
airstream unless flames from backfires systems must meet the provisions of
or reverse burning cannot enter the §§ 25.1121 and 25.1123. In addition, there
ventilating airstream under any oper- must be provisions in the design of the
ating condition, including reverse flow heater exhaust system to safely expel
or malfunctioning of the heater or its the products of combustion to prevent
associated components; and the occurrence of—

416
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.869

(1) Fuel leakage from the exhaust to (4) Means available for controlling or
surrounding compartments; extinguishing a fire, such as stopping
(2) Exhaust gas impingement on sur- flow of fluids, shutting down equip-
rounding equipment or structure; ment, fireproof containment, or use of
(3) Ignition of flammable fluids by extinguishing agents.
the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a com- (5) Ability of airplane components
partment containing flammable fluid that are critical to safety of flight to
lines; and withstand fire and heat.
(4) Restriction by the exhaust of the (c) If action by the flight crew is re-
prompt relief of backfires that, if so re- quired to prevent or counteract a fluid
stricted, could cause heater failure. fire (e.g., equipment shutdown or actu-
(h) Heater fuel systems. Each heater ation of a fire extinguisher) quick act-
fuel system must meet each power- ing means must be provided to alert
plant fuel system requirement affect- the crew.
ing safe heater operation. Each heater (d) Each area where flammable fluids
fuel system component within the ven- or vapors might escape by leakage of a
tilating airstream must be protected fluid system must be identified and de-
by shrouds so that no leakage from fined.
those components can enter the ven-
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970, as
tilating airstream. amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30,
(i) Drains. There must be means to 1978]
safely drain fuel that might accumu-
late within the combustion chamber or § 25.865 Fire protection of flight con-
the heat exchanger. In addition— trols, engine mounts, and other
(1) Each part of any drain that oper- flight structure.
ates at high temperatures must be pro- Essential flight controls, engine
tected in the same manner as heater mounts, and other flight structures lo-
exhausts; and cated in designated fire zones or in ad-
(2) Each drain must be protected jacent areas which would be subjected
from hazardous ice accumulation under to the effects of fire in the fire zone
any operating condition. must be constructed of fireproof mate-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24 1964, as
rial or shielded so that they are capa-
amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6912, May 5, ble of withstanding the effects of fire.
1967; Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970] [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970]
§ 25.863 Flammable fluid fire protec- § 25.867 Fire protection: other compo-
tion. nents.
(a) In each area where flammable (a) Surfaces to the rear of the na-
fluids or vapors might escape by leak- celles, within one nacelle diameter of
age of a fluid system, there must be the nacelle centerline, must be at least
means to minimize the probability of fire-resistant.
ignition of the fluids and vapors, and (b) Paragraph (a) of this section does
the resultant hazards if ignition does not apply to tail surfaces to the rear of
occur. the nacelles that could not be readily
(b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of affected by heat, flames, or sparks
this section must be shown by analysis coming from a designated fire zone or
or tests, and the following factors must engine compartment of any nacelle.
be considered:
(1) Possible sources and paths of fluid [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970]
leakage, and means of detecting leak-
age. § 25.869 Fire protection: systems.
(2) Flammability characteristics of (a) Electrical system components:
fluids, including effects of any combus- (1) Components of the electrical sys-
tible or absorbing materials. tem must meet the applicable fire and
(3) Possible ignition sources, includ- smoke protection requirements of
ing electrical faults, overheating of §§ 25.831(c) and 25.863.
equipment, and malfunctioning of pro- (2) Electrical cables, terminals, and
tective devices. equipment in designated fire zones,

417
§ 25.871 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

that are used during emergency proce- (b) No window may be near the pro-
dures, must be at least fire resistant. peller tips unless it can withstand the
(3) Main power cables (including gen- most severe ice impact likely to occur.
erator cables) in the fuselage must be
designed to allow a reasonable degree Subpart E—Powerplant
of deformation and stretching without
failure and must be— GENERAL
(i) Isolated from flammable fluid
lines; or § 25.901 Installation.
(ii) Shrouded by means of electrically (a) For the purpose of this part, the
insulated, flexible conduit, or equiva- airplane powerplant installation in-
lent, which is in addition to the normal cludes each component that—
cable insulation. (1) Is necessary for propulsion;
(4) Insulation on electrical wire and (2) Affects the control of the major
electrical cable installed in any area of propulsive units; or
the fuselage must be self-extinguishing (3) Affects the safety of the major
when tested in accordance with the ap- propulsive units between normal in-
plicable portions of part I, appendix F spections or overhauls.
of this part. (b) For each powerplant—
(b) Each vacuum air system line and (1) The installation must comply
fitting on the discharge side of the with—
pump that might contain flammable (i) The installation instructions pro-
vapors or fluids must meet the require- vided under § 33.5 of this chapter; and
ments of § 25.1183 if the line or fitting is (ii) The applicable provisions of this
in a designated fire zone. Other vacuum subpart;
air systems components in designated (2) The components of the installa-
fire zones must be at least fire resist- tion must be constructed, arranged,
ant. and installed so as to ensure their con-
(c) Oxygen equipment and lines tinued safe operation between normal
must— inspections or overhauls;
(1) Not be located in any designated (3) The installation must be acces-
fire zone, sible for necessary inspections and
(2) Be protected from heat that may maintenance; and
be generated in, or escape from, any (4) The major components of the in-
designated fire zone, and stallation must be electrically bonded
(3) Be installed so that escaping oxy- to the other parts of the airplane.
gen cannot cause ignition of grease, (c) For each powerplant and auxiliary
fluid, or vapor accumulations that are power unit installation, it must be es-
present in normal operation or as a re- tablished that no single failure or mal-
sult of failure or malfunction of any function or probable combination of
system. failures will jeopardize the safe oper-
ation of the airplane except that the
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990] failure of structural elements need not
be considered if the probability of such
MISCELLANEOUS
failure is extremely remote.
§ 25.871 Leveling means. (d) Each auxiliary power unit instal-
lation must meet the applicable provi-
There must be means for determining sions of this subpart.
when the airplane is in a level position
on the ground. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8,
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8, 1970] 1970; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15042, Mar. 17, 1977;
Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30, 1978]
§ 25.875 Reinforcement near propel-
lers. § 25.903 Engines.
(a) Each part of the airplane near the (a) Engine type certificate. (1) Each en-
propeller tips must be strong and stiff gine must have a type certificate and
enough to withstand the effects of the must meet the applicable requirements
induced vibration and of ice thrown of part 34 of this chapter.
from the propeller. (2) Each turbine engine must either—

418
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.905

(i) Comply with §§ 33.77 and 33.78 of that adversely affect turbine rotor
this chapter in effect on April 30, 1998 structural integrity will not be exceed-
or as subsequently amended; or ed in service.
(ii) Comply with § 33.77 of this chap- (e) Restart capability. (1) Means to re-
ter in effect on October 31, 1974, or as start any engine in flight must be pro-
subsequently amended prior to April vided.
30, 1998, and must have a foreign object (2) An altitude and airspeed envelope
ingestion service history that has not must be established for in-flight engine
resulted in any unsafe condition; or restarting, and each engine must have
(iii) Be shown to have a foreign ob- a restart capability within that enve-
ject ingestion service history in simi- lope.
lar installation locations which has not (3) For turbine engine powered air-
resulted in any unsafe condition. planes, if the minimum windmilling
NOTE: § 33.77 of this chapter in effect on Oc- speed of the engines, following the
tober 31, 1974, was published in 14 CFR parts inflight shutdown of all engines, is in-
1 to 59, Revised as of January 1, 1975. See 39 sufficient to provide the necessary
FR 35467, October 1, 1974. electrical power for engine ignition, a
(b) Engine isolation. The powerplants power source independent of the en-
must be arranged and isolated from gine-driven electrical power generating
each other to allow operation, in at system must be provided to permit in-
least one configuration, so that the flight engine ignition for restarting.
failure or malfunction of any engine, or (f) Auxiliary Power Unit. Each auxil-
of any system that can affect the en- iary power unit must be approved or
gine, will not— meet the requirements of the category
(1) Prevent the continued safe oper- for its intended use.
ation of the remaining engines; or [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(2) Require immediate action by any amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5676, Apr. 8,
crewmember for continued safe oper- 1970; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15042, Mar. 17, 1977;
ation. Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt.
(c) Control of engine rotation. There 25–72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990; Amdt. 25–73,
must be means for stopping the rota- 55 FR 32861, Aug. 10, 1990; Amdt. 25–94, 63 FR
8848, Feb. 23, 1998; Amdt. 25–95, 63 FR 14798,
tion of any engine individually in Mar. 26, 1998]
flight, except that, for turbine engine
installations, the means for stopping § 25.904 Automatic takeoff thrust con-
the rotation of any engine need be pro- trol system (ATTCS).
vided only where continued rotation Each applicant seeking approval for
could jeopardize the safety of the air- installation of an engine power control
plane. Each component of the stopping
system that automatically resets the
system on the engine side of the fire-
power or thrust on the operating en-
wall that might be exposed to fire must
gine(s) when any engine fails during
be at least fire-resistant. If hydraulic
the takeoff must comply with the re-
propeller feathering systems are used
quirements of appendix I of this part.
for this purpose, the feathering lines
must be at least fire resistant under [Amdt. 25–62, 52 FR 43156, Nov. 9, 1987]
the operating conditions that may be
expected to exist during feathering. § 25.905 Propellers.
(d) Turbine engine installations. For (a) Each propeller must have a type
turbine engine installations— certificate.
(1) Design precautions must be taken (b) Engine power and propeller shaft
to minimize the hazards to the airplane rotational speed may not exceed the
in the event of an engine rotor failure limits for which the propeller is certifi-
or of a fire originating within the en- cated.
gine which burns through the engine (c) Each component of the propeller
case. blade pitch control system must meet
(2) The powerplant systems associ- the requirements of § 35.42 of this chap-
ated with engine control devices, sys- ter.
tems, and instrumentation, must be de- (d) Design precautions must be taken
signed to give reasonable assurance to minimize the hazards to the airplane
that those engine operating limitations in the event a propeller blade fails or is

419
§ 25.907 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

released by a hub failure. The hazards (2) At least one-half inch longitudinal
which must be considered include dam- clearance between the propeller blades
age to structure and vital systems due or cuffs and stationary parts of the air-
to impact of a failed or released blade plane; and
and the unbalance created by such fail- (3) Positive clearance between other
ure or release. rotating parts of the propeller or spin-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ner and stationary parts of the air-
amended by Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. plane.
11, 1980; Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984; Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990] amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29784, July 20,
1990]
§ 25.907 Propeller vibration.
(a) The magnitude of the propeller § 25.929 Propeller deicing.
blade vibration stresses under any nor- (a) For airplanes intended for use
mal condition of operation must be de- where icing may be expected, there
termined by actual measurement or by must be a means to prevent or remove
comparison with similar installations hazardous ice accumulation on propel-
for which these measurements have lers or on accessories where ice accu-
been made. mulation would jeopardize engine per-
(b) The determined vibration stresses formance.
may not exceed values that have been (b) If combustible fluid is used for
shown to be safe for continuous oper- propeller deicing, §§ 25.1181 through
ation. 25.1185 and 25.1189 apply.
§ 25.925 Propeller clearance. § 25.933 Reversing systems.
Unless smaller clearances are sub- (a) For turbojet reversing systems—
stantiated, propeller clearances with (1) Each system intended for ground
the airplane at maximum weight, with operation only must be designed so
the most adverse center of gravity, and that during any reversal in flight the
with the propeller in the most adverse engine will produce no more than flight
pitch position, may not be less than idle thrust. In addition, it must be
the following: shown by analysis or test, or both,
(a) Ground clearance. There must be a that—
clearance of at least seven inches (for (i) Each operable reverser can be re-
each airplane with nose wheel landing stored to the forward thrust position;
gear) or nine inches (for each airplane and
with tail wheel landing gear) between (ii) The airplane is capable of contin-
each propeller and the ground with the ued safe flight and landing under any
landing gear statically deflected and in possible position of the thrust reverser.
the level takeoff, or taxiing attitude, (2) Each system intended for inflight
whichever is most critical. In addition, use must be designed so that no unsafe
there must be positive clearance be- condition will result during normal op-
tween the propeller and the ground eration of the system, or from any fail-
when in the level takeoff attitude with ure (or reasonably likely combination
the critical tire(s) completely deflated of failures) of the reversing system,
and the corresponding landing gear under any anticipated condition of op-
strut bottomed. eration of the airplane including
(b) Water clearance. There must be a ground operation. Failure of structural
clearance of at least 18 inches between elements need not be considered if the
each propeller and the water, unless probability of this kind of failure is ex-
compliance with § 25.239(a) can be tremely remote.
shown with a lesser clearance. (3) Each system must have means to
(c) Structural clearance. There must prevent the engine from producing
be— more than idle thrust when the revers-
(1) At least one inch radial clearance ing system malfunctions, except that it
between the blade tips and the airplane may produce any greater forward
structure, plus any additional radial thrust that is shown to allow direc-
clearance necessary to prevent harmful tional control to be maintained, with
vibration; aerodynamic means alone, under the

420
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.943

most critical reversing condition ex- operation within the range of operating
pected in operation. limitations of the airplane and of the
(b) For propeller reversing systems— engine.
(1) Each system intended for ground (b) [Reserved]
operation only must be designed so (c) The turbine engine air inlet sys-
that no single failure (or reasonably tem may not, as a result of air flow dis-
likely combination of failures) or mal- tortion during normal operation, cause
function of the system will result in vibration harmful to the engine.
unwanted reverse thrust under any ex-
pected operating condition. Failure of [Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6912, May 5, 1967, as
structural elements need not be consid- amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17,
ered if this kind of failure is extremely 1977]
remote.
(2) Compliance with this section may § 25.941 Inlet, engine, and exhaust
be shown by failure analysis or testing, compatibility.
or both, for propeller systems that For airplanes using variable inlet or
allow propeller blades to move from exhaust system geometry, or both—
the flight low-pitch position to a posi- (a) The system comprised of the
tion that is substantially less than inlet, engine (including thrust aug-
that at the normal flight low-pitch po- mentation systems, if incorporated),
sition. The analysis may include or be and exhaust must be shown to function
supported by the analysis made to properly under all operating conditions
show compliance with the require- for which approval is sought, including
ments of § 35.21 of this chapter for the all engine rotating speeds and power
propeller and associated installation settings, and engine inlet and exhaust
components.
configurations;
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29784, July 20, 1990] (b) The dynamic effects of the oper-
ation of these (including consideration
§ 25.934 Turbojet engine thrust re- of probable malfunctions) upon the aer-
verser system tests.
odynamic control of the airplane may
Thrust reversers installed on turbo- not result in any condition that would
jet engines must meet the require- require exceptional skill, alertness, or
ments of § 33.97 of this chapter. strength on the part of the pilot to
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8, 1970] avoid exceeding an operational or
structural limitation of the airplane;
§ 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting and
systems.
(c) In showing compliance with para-
Turbopropeller power airplane pro- graph (b) of this section, the pilot
peller-drag limiting systems must be strength required may not exceed the
designed so that no single failure or limits set forth in § 25.143(c), subject to
malfunction of any of the systems dur- the conditions set forth in paragraphs
ing normal or emergency operation re- (d) and (e) of § 25.143.
sults in propeller drag in excess of that
for which the airplane was designed [Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976]
under § 25.367. Failure of structural ele-
ments of the drag limiting systems § 25.943 Negative acceleration.
need not be considered if the prob- No hazardous malfunction of an en-
ability of this kind of failure is ex- gine, an auxiliary power unit approved
tremely remote. for use in flight, or any component or
system associated with the powerplant
§ 25.939 Turbine engine operating
characteristics. or auxiliary power unit may occur
when the airplane is operated at the
(a) Turbine engine operating charac- negative accelerations within the
teristics must be investigated in flight flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333.
to determine that no adverse charac- This must be shown for the greatest
teristics (such as stall, surge, or
duration expected for the acceleration.
flameout) are present, to a hazardous
degree, during normal and emergency [Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977]

421
§ 25.945 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation power unit functioning under each


system. likely operating condition, including
(a) General. Each fluid injection sys- any maneuver for which certification is
tem must provide a flow of fluid at the requested and during which the engine
rate and pressure established for proper or auxiliary power unit is permitted to
engine functioning under each intended be in operation.
operating condition. If the fluid can (b) Each fuel system must be ar-
freeze, fluid freezing may not damage ranged so that any air which is intro-
the airplane or adversely affect air- duced into the system will not result
plane performance. in—
(b) Fluid tanks. Each augmentation (1) Power interruption for more than
system fluid tank must meet the fol- 20 seconds for reciprocating engines; or
lowing requirements:
(2) Flameout for turbine engines.
(1) Each tank must be able to with-
stand without failure the vibration, in- (c) Each fuel system for a turbine en-
ertia, fluid, and structural loads that it gine must be capable of sustained oper-
may be subject to in operation. ation throughout its flow and pressure
(2) The tanks as mounted in the air- range with fuel initially saturated with
plane must be able to withstand with- water at 80° F and having 0.75cc of free
out failure or leakage an internal pres- water per gallon added and cooled to
sure 1.5 times the maximum operating the most critical condition for icing
pressure. likely to be encountered in operation.
(3) If a vent is provided, the venting (d) Each fuel system for a turbine en-
must be effective under all normal gine powered airplane must meet the
flight conditions. applicable fuel venting requirements of
(4) [Reserved] part 34 of this chapter.
(c) Augmentation system drains
must be designed and located in ac- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
cordance with § 25.1455 if— amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8,
(1) The augmentation system fluid is 1970; Amdt. 25–36, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, 1974;
Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt.
subject to freezing; and
25–73, 55 FR 32861, Aug. 10, 1990]
(2) The fluid may be drained in flight
or during ground operation. § 25.952 Fuel system analysis and test.
(d) The augmentation liquid tank ca-
pacity available for the use of each en- (a) Proper fuel system functioning
gine must be large enough to allow op- under all probable operating conditions
eration of the airplane under the ap- must be shown by analysis and those
proved procedures for the use of liquid- tests found necessary by the Adminis-
augmented power. The computation of trator. Tests, if required, must be made
liquid consumption must be based on using the airplane fuel system or a test
the maximum approved rate appro- article that reproduces the operating
priate for the desired engine output characteristics of the portion of the
and must include the effect of tempera- fuel system to be tested.
ture on engine performance as well as (b) The likely failure of any heat ex-
any other factors that might vary the changer using fuel as one of its fluids
amount of liquid required. may not result in a hazardous condi-
(e) This section does not apply to fuel tion.
injection systems.
[Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977]
[Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977, as
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20,
1990] § 25.953 Fuel system independence.
Each fuel system must meet the re-
FUEL SYSTEM quirements of § 25.903(b) by—
§ 25.951 General. (a) Allowing the supply of fuel to
each engine through a system inde-
(a) Each fuel system must be con-
pendent of each part of the system sup-
structed and arranged to ensure a flow
plying fuel to any other engine; or
of fuel at a rate and pressure estab-
lished for proper engine and auxiliary (b) Any other acceptable method.

422
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.961

§ 25.954 Fuel system lightning protec- fuel to that engine is depleted of usable
tion. fuel during normal operation, and any
The fuel system must be designed other tank, that normally supplies fuel
and arranged to prevent the ignition of to that engine alone, contains usable
fuel vapor within the system by— fuel.
(a) Direct lightning strikes to areas [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
having a high probability of stroke at- amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6912, May 5,
tachment; 1967]
(b) Swept lightning strokes to areas
§ 25.957 Flow between interconnected
where swept strokes are highly prob- tanks.
able; and
(c) Corona and streamering at fuel If fuel can be pumped from one tank
vent outlets. to another in flight, the fuel tank
vents and the fuel transfer system
[Amdt. 25–14, 32 FR 11629, Aug. 11, 1967] must be designed so that no structural
damage to the tanks can occur because
§ 25.955 Fuel flow. of overfilling.
(a) Each fuel system must provide at
least 100 percent of the fuel flow re- § 25.959 Unusable fuel supply.
quired under each intended operating The unusable fuel quantity for each
condition and maneuver. Compliance fuel tank and its fuel system compo-
must be shown as follows: nents must be established at not less
(1) Fuel must be delivered to each en- than the quantity at which the first
gine at a pressure within the limits evidence of engine malfunction occurs
specified in the engine type certificate. under the most adverse fuel feed condi-
(2) The quantity of fuel in the tank tion for all intended operations and
may not exceed the amount established flight maneuvers involving fuel feeding
as the unusable fuel supply for that from that tank. Fuel system compo-
tank under the requirements of § 25.959 nent failures need not be considered.
plus that necessary to show compliance [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8, 1970, as
with this section. amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17,
(3) Each main pump must be used 1977]
that is necessary for each operating
condition and attitude for which com- § 25.961 Fuel system hot weather oper-
pliance with this section is shown, and ation.
the appropriate emergency pump must (a) The fuel system must perform
be substituted for each main pump so satisfactorily in hot weather operation.
used. This must be shown by showing that
(4) If there is a fuel flowmeter, it the fuel system from the tank outlets
must be blocked and the fuel must flow to each engine is pressurized, under all
through the meter or its bypass. intended operations, so as to prevent
(b) If an engine can be supplied with vapor formation, or must be shown by
fuel from more than one tank, the fuel climbing from the altitude of the air-
system must— port elected by the applicant to the
(1) For each reciprocating engine, maximum altitude established as an
supply the full fuel pressure to that en- operating limitation under § 25.1527. If a
gine in not more than 20 seconds after climb test is elected, there may be no
switching to any other fuel tank con- evidence of vapor lock or other mal-
taining usable fuel when engine mal- functioning during the climb test con-
functioning becomes apparent due to ducted under the following conditions:
the depletion of the fuel supply in any (1) For reciprocating engine powered
tank from which the engine can be fed; airplanes, the engines must operate at
and maximum continuous power, except
(2) For each turbine engine, in addi- that takeoff power must be used for the
tion to having appropriate manual altitudes from 1,000 feet below the crit-
switching capability, be designed to ical altitude through the critical alti-
prevent interruption of fuel flow to tude. The time interval during which
that engine, without attention by the takeoff power is used may not be less
flight crew, when any tank supplying than the takeoff time limitation.

423
§ 25.963 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(2) For turbine engine powered air- (c) Integral fuel tanks must have fa-
planes, the engines must operate at cilities for interior inspection and re-
takeoff power for the time interval se- pair.
lected for showing the takeoff flight (d) Fuel tanks within the fuselage
path, and at maximum continuous contour must be able to resist rupture
power for the rest of the climb. and to retain fuel, under the inertia
(3) The weight of the airplane must forces prescribed for the emergency
be the weight with full fuel tanks, min- landing conditions in § 25.561. In addi-
imum crew, and the ballast necessary tion, these tanks must be in a pro-
to maintain the center of gravity with- tected position so that exposure of the
in allowable limits. tanks to scraping action with the
(4) The climb airspeed may not ex- ground is unlikely.
ceed— (e) Fuel tank access covers must
(i) For reciprocating engine powered comply with the following criteria in
airplanes, the maximum airspeed es- order to avoid loss of hazardous quan-
tablished for climbing from takeoff to tities of fuel:
the maximum operating altitude with (1) All covers located in an area
the airplane in the following configura- where experience or analysis indicates
tion: a strike is likely must be shown by
(A) Landing gear retracted. analysis or tests to minimize penetra-
(B) Wing flaps in the most favorable tion and deformation by tire frag-
position. ments, low energy engine debris, or
(C) Cowl flaps (or other means of con- other likely debris.
trolling the engine cooling supply) in (2) All covers must be fire resistant
the position that provides adequate as defined in part 1 of this chapter.
cooling in the hot-day condition. (f) For pressurized fuel tanks, a
(D) Engine operating within the max- means with fail-safe features must be
imum continuous power limitations. provided to prevent the buildup of an
(E) Maximum takeoff weight; and excessive pressure difference between
(ii) For turbine engine powered air- the inside and the outside of the tank.
planes, the maximum airspeed estab- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
lished for climbing from takeoff to the amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17,
maximum operating altitude. 1977; Amdt. 25–69, 54 FR 40354, Sept. 29, 1989]
(5) The fuel temperature must be at
least 110° F. § 25.965 Fuel tank tests.
(b) The test prescribed in paragraph (a) It must be shown by tests that the
(a) of this section may be performed in fuel tanks, as mounted in the airplane,
flight or on the ground under closely can withstand, without failure or leak-
simulated flight conditions. If a flight age, the more critical of the pressures
test is performed in weather cold resulting from the conditions specified
enough to interfere with the proper in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this sec-
conduct of the test, the fuel tank sur- tion. In addition, it must be shown by
faces, fuel lines, and other fuel system either analysis or tests, that tank sur-
parts subject to cold air must be insu- faces subjected to more critical pres-
lated to simulate, insofar as prac- sures resulting from the condition of
ticable, flight in hot weather. paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of this section,
[Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6912, May 5, 1967, as are able to withstand the following
amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, pressures:
1984] (1) An internal pressure of 3.5 psi.
(2) 125 percent of the maximum air
§ 25.963 Fuel tanks: general. pressure developed in the tank from
(a) Each fuel tank must be able to ram effect.
withstand, without failure, the vibra- (3) Fluid pressures developed during
tion, inertia, fluid, and structural loads maximum limit accelerations, and de-
that it may be subjected to in oper- flections, of the airplane with a full
ation. tank.
(b) Flexible fuel tank liners must be (4) Fluid pressures developed during
approved or must be shown to be suit- the most adverse combination of air-
able for the particular application. plane roll and fuel load.

424
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.969

(b) Each metallic tank with large un- specimen of the tank must be installed
supported or unstiffened flat surfaces, in a supporting structure simulating
whose failure or deformation could the installation in the airplane.
cause fuel leakage, must be able to (d) For pressurized fuel tanks, it
withstand the following test, or its must be shown by analysis or tests
equivalent, without leakage or exces- that the fuel tanks can withstand the
sive deformation of the tank walls: maximum pressure likely to occur on
(1) Each complete tank assembly and the ground or in flight.
its supports must be vibration tested
while mounted to simulate the actual [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
installation. amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5,
(2) Except as specified in paragraph 1967; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977]
(b)(4) of this section, the tank assembly
must be vibrated for 25 hours at an am- § 25.967 Fuel tank installations.
plitude of not less than 1⁄32 of an inch (a) Each fuel tank must be supported
(unless another amplitude is substan- so that tank loads (resulting from the
tiated) while 2⁄3 filled with water or weight of the fuel in the tanks) are not
other suitable test fluid. concentrated on unsupported tank sur-
(3) The test frequency of vibration faces. In addition—
must be as follows: (1) There must be pads, if necessary,
(i) If no frequency of vibration result- to prevent chafing between the tank
ing from any r.p.m. within the normal and its supports;
operating range of engine speeds is
(2) Padding must be nonabsorbent or
critical, the test frequency of vibration
treated to prevent the absorption of
must be 2,000 cycles per minute.
(ii) If only one frequency of vibration fluids;
resulting from any r.p.m. within the (3) If a flexible tank liner is used, it
normal operating range of engine must be supported so that it is not re-
speeds is critical, that frequency of vi- quired to withstand fluid loads; and
bration must be the test frequency. (4) Each interior surface of the tank
(iii) If more than one frequency of vi- compartment must be smooth and free
bration resulting from any r.p.m. with- of projections that could cause wear of
in the normal operating range of en- the liner unless—
gine speeds is critical, the most criti- (i) Provisions are made for protection
cal of these frequencies must be the of the liner at these points; or
test frequency. (ii) The construction of the liner
(4) Under paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) and itself provides that protection.
(iii) of this section, the time of test (b) Spaces adjacent to tank surfaces
must be adjusted to accomplish the must be ventilated to avoid fume accu-
same number of vibration cycles that mulation due to minor leakage. If the
would be accomplished in 25 hours at
tank is in a sealed compartment, ven-
the frequency specified in paragraph
tilation may be limited to drain holes
(b)(3)(i) of this section.
large enough to prevent excessive pres-
(5) During the test, the tank assem-
bly must be rocked at the rate of 16 to sure resulting from altitude changes.
20 complete cycles per minute, through (c) The location of each tank must
an angle of 15° on both sides of the hor- meet the requirements of § 25.1185(a).
izontal (30° total), about the most criti- (d) No engine nacelle skin imme-
cal axis, for 25 hours. If motion about diately behind a major air outlet from
more than one axis is likely to be criti- the engine compartment may act as
cal, the tank must be rocked about the wall of an integral tank.
each critical axis for 121⁄2 hours. (e) Each fuel tank must be isolated
(c) Except where satisfactory operat- from personnel compartments by a
ing experience with a similar tank in a fumeproof and fuelproof enclosure.
similar installation is shown, non-
metallic tanks must withstand the test § 25.969 Fuel tank expansion space.
specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this sec- Each fuel tank must have an expan-
tion, with fuel at a temperature of 110°
sion space of not less than 2 percent of
F. During this test, a representative

425
§ 25.971 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

the tank capacity. It must be impos- § 25.975 Fuel tank vents and carbu-
sible to fill the expansion space inad- retor vapor vents.
vertently with the airplane in the nor- (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank
mal ground attitude. For pressure fuel- must be vented from the top part of the
ing systems, compliance with this sec- expansion space so that venting is ef-
tion may be shown with the means pro- fective under any normal flight condi-
vided to comply with § 25.979(b). tion. In addition—
(1) Each vent must be arranged to
[Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967]
avoid stoppage by dirt or ice forma-
§ 25.971 Fuel tank sump. tion;
(2) The vent arrangement must pre-
(a) Each fuel tank must have a sump vent siphoning of fuel during normal
with an effective capacity, in the nor- operation;
mal ground attitude, of not less than (3) The venting capacity and vent
the greater of 0.10 percent of the tank pressure levels must maintain accept-
capacity or one-sixteenth of a gallon able differences of pressure between
unless operating limitations are estab- the interior and exterior of the tank,
lished to ensure that the accumulation during—
of water in service will not exceed the (i) Normal flight operation;
sump capacity. (ii) Maximum rate of ascent and de-
(b) Each fuel tank must allow drain- scent; and
age of any hazardous quantity of water (iii) Refueling and defueling (where
applicable);
from any part of the tank to its sump
(4) Airspaces of tanks with inter-
with the airplane in the ground atti-
connected outlets must be inter-
tude. connected;
(c) Each fuel tank sump must have (5) There may be no point in any vent
an accessible drain that— line where moisture can accumulate
(1) Allows complete drainage of the with the airplane in the ground atti-
sump on the ground; tude or the level flight attitude, unless
(2) Discharges clear of each part of drainage is provided; and
the airplane; and (6) No vent or drainage provision may
(3) Has manual or automatic means end at any point—
for positive locking in the closed posi- (i) Where the discharge of fuel from
tion. the vent outlet would constitute a fire
hazard; or
§ 25.973 Fuel tank filler connection. (ii) From which fumes could enter
personnel compartments.
Each fuel tank filler connection must (b) Carburetor vapor vents. Each car-
prevent the entrance of fuel into any buretor with vapor elimination connec-
part of the airplane other than the tions must have a vent line to lead va-
tank itself. In addition— pors back to one of the fuel tanks. In
(a) [Reserved] addition—
(b) Each recessed filler connection (1) Each vent system must have
that can retain any appreciable quan- means to avoid stoppage by ice; and
tity of fuel must have a drain that dis- (2) If there is more than one fuel
charges clear of each part of the air- tank, and it is necessary to use the
plane; tanks in a definite sequence, each
(c) Each filler cap must provide a vapor vent return line must lead back
fuel-tight seal; and to the fuel tank used for takeoff and
(d) Each fuel filling point, except landing.
pressure fueling connection points, § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet.
must have a provision for electrically
bonding the airplane to ground fueling (a) There must be a fuel strainer for
equipment. the fuel tank outlet or for the booster
pump. This strainer must—
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as (1) For reciprocating engine powered
amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch;
1977; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990] and

426
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.993

(2) For turbine engine powered air- tive) at the airplane fueling connec-
planes, prevent the passage of any ob- tion.
ject that could restrict fuel flow or
[Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967, as
damage any fuel system component. amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
(b) [Reserved] 1976; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
(c) The clear area of each fuel tank
outlet strainer must be at least five § 25.981 Fuel tank temperature.
times the area of the outlet line.
(a) The highest temperature allowing
(d) The diameter of each strainer
a safe margin below the lowest ex-
must be at least that of the fuel tank
pected auto ignition temperature of
outlet.
the fuel in the fuel tanks must be de-
(e) Each finger strainer must be ac-
termined.
cessible for inspection and cleaning.
(b) No temperature at any place in-
[Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967, as side any fuel tank where fuel ignition
amended by Amdt. 25–36, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, is possible may exceed the temperature
1974] determined under paragraph (a) of this
§ 25.979 Pressure fueling system. section. This must be shown under all
probable operating, failure, and mal-
For pressure fueling systems, the fol- function conditions of any component
lowing apply: whose operation, failure, or malfunc-
(a) Each pressure fueling system fuel tion could increase the temperature in-
manifold connection must have means side the tank.
to prevent the escape of hazardous
quantities of fuel from the system if [Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967]
the fuel entry valve fails.
(b) An automatic shutoff means must FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
be provided to prevent the quantity of § 25.991 Fuel pumps.
fuel in each tank from exceeding the
maximum quantity approved for that (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump re-
tank. This means must— quired for proper engine operation, or
(1) Allow checking for proper shutoff required to meet the fuel system re-
operation before each fueling of the quirements of this subpart (other than
tank; and those in paragraph (b) of this section,
(2) Provide indication at each fueling is a main pump. For each main pump,
station of failure of the shutoff means provision must be made to allow the
to stop the fuel flow at the maximum bypass of each positive displacement
quantity approved for that tank. fuel pump other than a fuel injection
(c) A means must be provided to pre- pump (a pump that supplies the proper
vent damage to the fuel system in the flow and pressure for fuel injection
event of failure of the automatic shut- when the injection is not accomplished
off means prescribed in paragraph (b) in a carburetor) approved as part of the
of this section. engine.
(d) The airplane pressure fueling sys- (b) Emergency pumps. There must be
tem (not including fuel tanks and fuel emergency pumps or another main
tank vents) must withstand an ulti- pump to feed each engine immediately
mate load that is 2.0 times the load after failure of any main pump (other
arising from the maximum pressures, than a fuel injection pump approved as
including surge, that is likely to occur part of the engine).
during fueling. The maximum surge
pressure must be established with any § 25.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
combination of tank valves being ei- (a) Each fuel line must be installed
ther intentionally or inadvertently and supported to prevent excessive vi-
closed. bration and to withstand loads due to
(e) The airplane defueling system fuel pressure and accelerated flight
(not including fuel tanks and fuel tank conditions.
vents) must withstand an ultimate (b) Each fuel line connected to com-
load that is 2.0 times the load arising ponents of the airplane between which
from the maximum permissible relative motion could exist must have
defueling pressure (positive or nega- provisions for flexibility.

427
§ 25.994 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(c) Each flexible connection in fuel (c) Be mounted so that its weight is
lines that may be under pressure and not supported by the connecting lines
subjected to axial loading must use or by the inlet or outlet connections of
flexible hose assemblies. the strainer or filter itself, unless ade-
(d) Flexible hose must be approved or quate strength margins under all load-
must be shown to be suitable for the ing conditions are provided in the lines
particular application. and connections; and
(e) No flexible hose that might be ad- (d) Have the capacity (with respect to
versely affected by exposure to high operating limitations established for
temperatures may be used where exces- the engine) to ensure that engine fuel
sive temperatures will exist during op- system functioning is not impaired,
eration or after engine shut-down. with the fuel contaminated to a degree
(f) Each fuel line within the fuselage (with respect to particle size and den-
must be designed and installed to allow sity) that is greater than that estab-
a reasonable degree of deformation and lished for the engine in Part 33 of this
stretching without leakage. chapter.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as [Amdt. No. 25–36, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, 1974, as
amended by Amdt. 25–15, 32 FR 13266, Sept. amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23,
20, 1967] 1984]

§ 25.994 Fuel system components. § 25.999 Fuel system drains.


Fuel system components in an engine (a) Drainage of the fuel system must
nacelle or in the fuselage must be pro- be accomplished by the use of fuel
tected from damage which could result strainer and fuel tank sump drains.
in spillage of enough fuel to constitute (b) Each drain required by paragraph
a fire hazard as a result of a wheels-up (a) of this section must—
landing on a paved runway. (1) Discharge clear of all parts of the
[Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984] airplane;
(2) Have manual or automatic means
§ 25.995 Fuel valves. for positive locking in the closed posi-
In addition to the requirements of tion; and
§ 25.1189 for shutoff means, each fuel (3) Have a drain valve—
valve must— (i) That is readily accessible and
(a) [Reserved] which can be easily opened and closed;
(b) Be supported so that no loads re- and
sulting from their operation or from (ii) That is either located or pro-
accelerated flight conditions are trans- tected to prevent fuel spillage in the
mitted to the lines attached to the event of a landing with landing gear re-
valve. tracted.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
1977] 1976]

§ 25.997 Fuel strainer or filter. § 25.1001 Fuel jettisoning system.


There must be a fuel strainer or filter (a) A fuel jettisoning system must be
between the fuel tank outlet and the installed on each airplane unless it is
inlet of either the fuel metering device shown that the airplane meets the
or an engine driven positive displace- climb requirements of §§ 25.119 and
ment pump, whichever is nearer the 25.121(d) at maximum takeoff weight,
fuel tank outlet. This fuel strainer or less the actual or computed weight of
filter must— fuel necessary for a 15-minute flight
(a) Be accessible for draining and comprised of a takeoff, go-around, and
cleaning and must incorporate a screen landing at the airport of departure
or element which is easily removable; with the airplane configuration, speed,
(b) Have a sediment trap and drain power, and thrust the same as that
except that it need not have a drain if used in meeting the applicable takeoff,
the strainer or filter is easily remov- approach, and landing climb perform-
able for drain purposes; ance requirements of this part.

428
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1011

(b) If a fuel jettisoning system is re- tisoning control, the system may be
quired it must be capable of jettisoning designed to jettison the remaining fuel
enough fuel within 15 minutes, starting by means of the auxiliary jettisoning
with the weight given in paragraph (a) control.
of this section, to enable the airplane (g) The fuel jettisoning valve must be
to meet the climb requirements of designed to allow flight personnel to
§§ 25.119 and 25.121(d), assuming that the close the valve during any part of the
fuel is jettisoned under the conditions, jettisoning operation.
except weight, found least favorable (h) Unless it is shown that using any
during the flight tests prescribed in means (including flaps, slots, and slats)
paragraph (c) of this section. for changing the airflow across or
(c) Fuel jettisoning must be dem- around the wings does not adversely af-
onstrated beginning at maximum take- fect fuel jettisoning, there must be a
off weight with flaps and landing gear placard, adjacent to the jettisoning
up and in— control, to warn flight crewmembers
(1) A power-off glide at 1.4 Vs1;
against jettisoning fuel while the
(2) A climb at the one-engine inoper-
means that change the airflow are
ative best rate-of-climb speed, with the
being used.
critical engine inoperative and the re-
maining engines at maximum continu- (i) The fuel jettisoning system must
ous power; and be designed so that any reasonably
(3) Level flight at 1.4 Vs1; if the re- probable single malfunction in the sys-
sults of the tests in the conditions tem will not result in a hazardous con-
specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of dition due to unsymmetrical jettison-
this section show that this condition ing of, or inability to jettison, fuel.
could be critical. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(d) During the flight tests prescribed amended by Amdt. 25–18, 33 FR 12226, Aug. 30,
in paragraph (c) of this section, it must 1968; Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984]
be shown that—
(1) The fuel jettisoning system and OIL SYSTEM
its operation are free from fire hazard;
(2) The fuel discharges clear of any § 25.1011 General.
part of the airplane; (a) Each engine must have an inde-
(3) Fuel or fumes do not enter any pendent oil system that can supply it
parts of the airplane; and with an appropriate quantity of oil at a
(4) The jettisoning operation does not temperature not above that safe for
adversely affect the controllability of continuous operation.
the airplane. (b) The usable oil capacity may not
(e) For reciprocating engine powered be less than the product of the endur-
airplanes, means must be provided to ance of the airplane under critical op-
prevent jettisoning the fuel in the
erating conditions and the approved
tanks used for takeoff and landing
maximum allowable oil consumption of
below the level allowing 45 minutes
the engine under the same conditions,
flight at 75 percent maximum continu-
plus a suitable margin to ensure sys-
ous power. However, if there is an aux-
tem circulation. Instead of a rational
iliary control independent of the main
jettisoning control, the system may be analysis of airplane range for the pur-
designed to jettison the remaining fuel pose of computing oil requirements for
by means of the auxiliary jettisoning reciprocating engine powered air-
control. planes, the following fuel/oil ratios
(f) For turbine engine powered air- may be used:
planes, means must be provided to pre- (1) For airplanes without a reserve
vent jettisoning the fuel in the tanks oil or oil transfer system, a fuel/oil
used for takeoff and landing below the ratio of 30:1 by volume.
level allowing climb from sea level to (2) For airplanes with either a re-
10,000 feet and thereafter allowing 45 serve oil or oil transfer system, a fuel/
minutes cruise at a speed for maximum oil ratio of 40:1 by volume.
range. However, if there is an auxiliary (c) Fuel/oil ratios higher than those
control independent of the main jet- prescribed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2)

429
§ 25.1013 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

of this section may be used if substan- must be shown to be suitable for the
tiated by data on actual engine oil con- particular application.
sumption. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, as amend-
ed by Amdt. 25–19, 33 FR 15410, Oct. 17, 1968;
§ 25.1013 Oil tanks. Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt.
(a) Installation. Each oil tank instal- 25–36, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, 1974; Amdt. 25–57, 49
lation must meet the requirements of FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR
29785, July 20, 1990]
§ 25.967.
(b) Expansion space. Oil tank expan- § 25.1015 Oil tank tests.
sion space must be provided as follows:
Each oil tank must be designed and
(1) Each oil tank used with a recip-
installed so that—
rocating engine must have an expan-
(a) It can withstand, without failure,
sion space of not less than the greater
each vibration, inertia, and fluid load
of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5
that it may be subjected to in oper-
gallon, and each oil tank used with a
ation; and
turbine engine must have an expansion
(b) It meets the provisions of § 25.965,
space of not less than 10 percent of the
except—
tank capacity.
(1) The test pressure—
(2) Each reserve oil tank not directly (i) For pressurized tanks used with a
connected to any engine may have an turbine engine, may not be less than 5
expansion space of not less than two p.s.i. plus the maximum operating
percent of the tank capacity. pressure of the tank instead of the
(3) It must be impossible to fill the pressure specified in § 25.965(a); and
expansion space inadvertently with the (ii) For all other tanks may not be
airplane in the normal ground attitude. less than 5 p.s.i. instead of the pressure
(c) Filler connection. Each recessed oil specified in § 25.965(a); and
tank filler connection that can retain (2) The test fluid must be oil at 250°
any appreciable quantity of oil must F. instead of the fluid specified in
have a drain that discharges clear of § 25.965(c).
each part of the airplane. In addition,
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
each oil tank filler cap must provide an
amended by Amdt. 25–36, 39 FR 35461, Oct. 1,
oil-tight seal. 1974]
(d) Vent. Oil tanks must be vented as
follows: § 25.1017 Oil lines and fittings.
(1) Each oil tank must be vented (a) Each oil line must meet the re-
from the top part of the expansion quirements of § 25.993 and each oil line
space so that venting is effective under and fitting in any designated fire zone
any normal flight condition. must meet the requirements of
(2) Oil tank vents must be arranged § 25.1183.
so that condensed water vapor that (b) Breather lines must be arranged
might freeze and obstruct the line can- so that—
not accumulate at any point. (1) Condensed water vapor that might
(e) Outlet. There must be means to freeze and obstruct the line cannot ac-
prevent entrance into the tank itself, cumulate at any point;
or into the tank outlet, of any object (2) The breather discharge does not
that might obstruct the flow of oil constitute a fire hazard if foaming oc-
through the system. No oil tank outlet curs or causes emitted oil to strike the
may be enclosed by any screen or guard pilot’s windshield; and
that would reduce the flow of oil below (3) The breather does not discharge
a safe value at any operating tempera- into the engine air induction system.
ture. There must be a shutoff valve at
the outlet of each oil tank used with a § 25.1019 Oil strainer or filter.
turbine engine, unless the external por- (a) Each turbine engine installation
tion of the oil system (including the oil must incorporate an oil strainer or fil-
tank supports) is fireproof. ter through which all of the engine oil
(f) Flexible oil tank liners. Each flexi- flows and which meets the following re-
ble oil tank liner must be approved or quirements:

430
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1041

(1) Each oil strainer or filter that has tion, inertia, and oil pressure load to
a bypass must be constructed and in- which it would be subjected in oper-
stalled so that oil will flow at the nor- ation.
mal rate through the rest of the sys- (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be
tem with the strainer or filter com- located so that, in case of fire, flames
pletely blocked. coming from normal openings of the
(2) The oil strainer or filter must engine nacelle cannot impinge directly
have the capacity (with respect to op- upon the radiator.
erating limitations established for the
engine) to ensure that engine oil sys- § 25.1025 Oil valves.
tem functioning is not impaired when (a) Each oil shutoff must meet the re-
the oil is contaminated to a degree quirements of § 25.1189.
(with respect to particle size and den- (b) The closing of oil shutoff means
sity) that is greater than that estab- may not prevent propeller feathering.
lished for the engine under Part 33 of (c) Each oil valve must have positive
this chapter. stops or suitable index provisions in
(3) The oil strainer or filter, unless it the ‘‘on’’ and ‘‘off’’ positions and must
is installed at an oil tank outlet, must be supported so that no loads resulting
incorporate an indicator that will indi- from its operation or from accelerated
cate contamination before it reaches flight conditions are transmitted to
the capacity established in accordance the lines attached to the valve.
with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(4) The bypass of a strainer or filter § 25.1027 Propeller feathering system.
must be constructed and installed so (a) If the propeller feathering system
that the release of collected contami- depends on engine oil, there must be
nants is minimized by appropriate lo- means to trap an amount of oil in the
cation of the bypass to ensure that col- tank if the supply becomes depleted
lected contaminants are not in the by- due to failure of any part of the lubri-
pass flow path. cating system other than the tank
(5) An oil strainer or filter that has itself.
no bypass, except one that is installed (b) The amount of trapped oil must
at an oil tank outlet, must have a be enough to accomplish the feathering
means to connect it to the warning operation and must be available only
system required in § 25.1305(c)(7). to the feathering pump.
(b) Each oil strainer or filter in a (c) The ability of the system to ac-
powerplant installation using recip- complish feathering with the trapped
rocating engines must be constructed oil must be shown. This may be done
and installed so that oil will flow at on the ground using an auxiliary
the normal rate through the rest of the source of oil for lubricating the engine
system with the strainer or filter ele- during operation.
ment completely blocked. (d) Provision must be made to pre-
vent sludge or other foreign matter
[Amdt. 25–36, 39 FR 35461, Oct. 1, 1974, as
amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23,
from affecting the safe operation of the
1984] propeller feathering system.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
§ 25.1021 Oil system drains. amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
A drain (or drains) must be provided 1976]
to allow safe drainage of the oil sys-
COOLING
tem. Each drain must—
(a) Be accessible; and § 25.1041 General.
(b) Have manual or automatic means
The powerplant and auxiliary power
for positive locking in the closed posi-
unit cooling provisions must be able to
tion.
maintain the temperatures of power-
[Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, 1984] plant components, engine fluids, and
auxiliary power unit components and
§ 25.1023 Oil radiators. fluids within the temperature limits
(a) Each oil radiator must be able to established for these components and
withstand, without failure, any vibra- fluids, under ground, water, and flight

431
§ 25.1043 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

operating conditions, and after normal correction applies, cylinder barrel tem-
engine or auxiliary power unit shut- peratures must be corrected by adding
down, or both. to them 0.7 times the difference be-
[Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976]
tween the maximum ambient atmos-
pheric temperature and the tempera-
§ 25.1043 Cooling tests. ture of the ambient air at the time of
the first occurrence of the maximum
(a) General. Compliance with § 25.1041
cylinder barrel temperature recorded
must be shown by tests, under critical
during the cooling test.
ground, water, and flight operating
conditions. For these tests, the follow- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ing apply: amended by Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16,
(1) If the tests are conducted under 1978]
conditions deviating from the maxi-
§ 25.1045 Cooling test procedures.
mum ambient atmospheric tempera-
ture, the recorded powerplant tempera- (a) Compliance with § 25.1041 must be
tures must be corrected under para- shown for the takeoff, climb, en route,
graphs (c) and (d) of this section. and landing stages of flight that cor-
(2) No corrected temperatures deter- respond to the applicable performance
mined under paragraph (a)(1) of this requirements. The cooling tests must
section may exceed established limits. be conducted with the airplane in the
(3) For reciprocating engines, the fuel configuration, and operating under the
used during the cooling tests must be conditions, that are critical relative to
the minimum grade approved for the cooling during each stage of flight. For
engines, and the mixture settings must the cooling tests, a temperature is
be those normally used in the flight ‘‘stabilized’’ when its rate of change is
stages for which the cooling tests are less than two degrees F. per minute.
conducted. The test procedures must be (b) Temperatures must be stabilized
as prescribed in § 25.1045. under the conditions from which entry
(b) Maximum ambient atmospheric tem- is made into each stage of flight being
perature. A maximum ambient atmos- investigated, unless the entry condi-
pheric temperature corresponding to tion normally is not one during which
sea level conditions of at least 100 de- component and the engine fluid tem-
grees F must be established. The as- peratures would stabilize (in which
sumed temperature lapse rate is 3.6 de- case, operation through the full entry
grees F per thousand feet of altitude condition must be conducted before
above sea level until a temperature of entry into the stage of flight being in-
¥69.7 degrees F is reached, above which vestigated in order to allow tempera-
altitude the temperature is considered tures to reach their natural levels at
constant at ¥69.7 degrees F. However, the time of entry). The takeoff cooling
for winterization installations, the ap- test must be preceded by a period dur-
plicant may select a maximum ambi- ing which the powerplant component
ent atmospheric temperature cor- and engine fluid temperatures are sta-
responding to sea level conditions of bilized with the engines at ground idle.
less than 100 degrees F. (c) Cooling tests for each stage of
(c) Correction factor (except cylinder flight must be continued until—
barrels). Unless a more rational correc- (1) The component and engine fluid
tion applies, temperatures of engine temperatures stabilize;
fluids and powerplant components (ex- (2) The stage of flight is completed;
cept cylinder barrels) for which tem- or
perature limits are established, must (3) An operating limitation is
be corrected by adding to them the dif- reached.
ference between the maximum ambient (d) For reciprocating engine powered
atmospheric temperature and the tem- airplanes, it may be assumed, for cool-
perature of the ambient air at the time ing test purposes, that the takeoff
of the first occurrence of the maximum stage of flight is complete when the
component or fluid temperature re- airplane reaches an altitude of 1,500
corded during the cooling test. feet above the takeoff surface or
(d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel reaches a point in the takeoff where
temperatures. Unless a more rational the transition from the takeoff to the

432
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1093

en route configuration is completed from entering the engine or auxiliary


and a speed is reached at which compli- power unit intake system; and
ance with § 25.121(c) is shown, which- (2) The airplane must be designed to
ever point is at a higher altitude. The prevent water or slush on the runway,
airplane must be in the following con- taxiway, or other airport operating
figuration: surfaces from being directed into the
(1) Landing gear retracted. engine or auxiliary power unit air inlet
(2) Wing flaps in the most favorable ducts in hazardous quantities, and the
position. air inlet ducts must be located or pro-
(3) Cowl flaps (or other means of con- tected so as to minimize the ingestion
trolling the engine cooling supply) in of foreign matter during takeoff, land-
the position that provides adequate ing, and taxiing.
cooling in the hot-day condition. (e) If the engine induction system
(4) Critical engine inoperative and its contains parts or components that
propeller stopped. could be damaged by foreign objects
(5) Remaining engines at the maxi- entering the air inlet, it must be shown
mum continuous power available for by tests or, if appropriate, by analysis
the altitude. that the induction system design can
(e) For hull seaplanes and amphib- withstand the foreign object ingestion
ians, cooling must be shown during test conditions of § 33.77 of this chapter
taxiing downwind for 10 minutes, at without failure of parts or components
five knots above step speed. that could create a hazard.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6848, Feb. 23, amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
1984] 1976; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977;
Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984]
INDUCTION SYSTEM
§ 25.1093 Induction system icing pro-
§ 25.1091 Air induction. tection.
(a) The air induction system for each (a) Reciprocating engines. Each recip-
engine and auxiliary power unit must rocating engine air induction system
supply— must have means to prevent and elimi-
(1) The air required by that engine nate icing. Unless this is done by other
and auxiliary power unit under each means, it must be shown that, in air
operating condition for which certifi- free of visible moisture at a tempera-
cation is requested; and ture of 30 F., each airplane with alti-
(2) The air for proper fuel metering tude engines using—
and mixture distribution with the in- (1) Conventional venturi carburetors
duction system valves in any position. have a preheater that can provide a
(b) Each reciprocating engine must heat rise of 120 F. with the engine at 60
have an alternate air source that pre- percent of maximum continuous power;
vents the entry of rain, ice, or any or
other foreign matter. (2) Carburetors tending to reduce the
(c) Air intakes may not open within probability of ice formation has a pre-
the cowling, unless— heater that can provide a heat rise of
(1) That part of the cowling is iso- 100° F. with the engine at 60 percent of
lated from the engine accessory section maximum continuous power.
by means of a fireproof diaphragm; or (b) Turbine engines. (1) Each turbine
(2) For reciprocating engines, there engine must operate throughout the
are means to prevent the emergence of flight power range of the engine (in-
backfire flames. cluding idling), without the accumula-
(d) For turbine engine powered air- tion of ice on the engine, inlet system
planes and airplanes incorporating aux- components, or airframe components
iliary power units— that would adversely affect engine op-
(1) There must be means to prevent eration or cause a serious loss of power
hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or or thrust—
overflow from drains, vents, or other (i) Under the icing conditions speci-
components of flammable fluid systems fied in appendix C, and

433
§ 25.1101 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(ii) In falling and blowing snow with- charge where it might cause a fire haz-
in the limitations established for the ard.
airplane for such operation. (b) Each induction system duct must
(2) Each turbine engine must idle for be—
30 minutes on the ground, with the air (1) Strong enough to prevent induc-
bleed available for engine icing protec- tion system failures resulting from
tion at its critical condition, without normal backfire conditions; and
adverse effect, in an atmosphere that is (2) Fire-resistant if it is in any fire
at a temperature between 15° and 30° F zone for which a fire-extinguishing sys-
(between ¥9° and ¥1° C) and has a liq- tem is required, except that ducts for
uid water content not less than 0.3 auxiliary power units must be fireproof
grams per cubic meter in the form of within the auxiliary power unit fire
drops having a mean effective diameter zone.
not less than 20 microns, followed by (c) Each duct connected to compo-
momentary operation at takeoff power nents between which relative motion
or thrust. During the 30 minutes of idle could exist must have means for flexi-
operation, the engine may be run up bility.
periodically to a moderate power or (d) For turbine engine and auxiliary
thrust setting in a manner acceptable power unit bleed air duct systems, no
to the Administrator. hazard may result if a duct failure oc-
curs at any point between the air duct
(c) Supercharged reciprocating engines.
source and the airplane unit served by
For each engine having a supercharger
the air.
to pressurize the air before it enters
(e) Each auxiliary power unit induc-
the carburetor, the heat rise in the air
tion system duct must be fireproof for
caused by that supercharging at any
a sufficient distance upstream of the
altitude may be utilized in determining
auxiliary power unit compartment to
compliance with paragraph (a) of this
prevent hot gas reverse flow from burn-
section if the heat rise utilized is that
ing through auxiliary power unit ducts
which will be available, automatically,
and entering any other compartment
for the applicable altitude and operat-
or area of the airplane in which a haz-
ing condition because of supercharging.
ard would be created resulting from the
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as entry of hot gases. The materials used
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, to form the remainder of the induction
1976; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17, 1977; system duct and plenum chamber of
Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. the auxiliary power unit must be capa-
25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
ble of resisting the maximum heat con-
ditions likely to occur.
§ 25.1101 Carburetor air preheater de-
sign. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induc-
tion system duct must be constructed
Each carburetor air preheater must of materials that will not absorb or
be designed and constructed to— trap hazardous quantities of flammable
(a) Ensure ventilation of the pre- fluids that could be ignited in the
heater when the engine is operated in event of a surge or reverse flow condi-
cold air; tion.
(b) Allow inspection of the exhaust
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
manifold parts that it surrounds; and amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50597, Oct. 30,
(c) Allow inspection of critical parts 1978]
of the preheater itself.
§ 25.1105 Induction system screens.
§ 25.1103 Induction system ducts and If induction system screens are
air duct systems.
used—
(a) Each induction system duct up- (a) Each screen must be upstream of
stream of the first stage of the engine the carburetor;
supercharger and of the auxiliary (b) No screen may be in any part of
power unit compressor must have a the induction system that is the only
drain to prevent the hazardous accu- passage through which air can reach
mulation of fuel and moisture in the the engine, unless it can be deiced by
ground attitude. No drain may dis- heated air;

434
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1125

(c) No screen may be deiced by alco- enough to ignite any flammable fluids
hol alone; and or vapors external to the shroud.
(d) It must be impossible for fuel to
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
strike any screen. amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15043, Mar. 17,
1977]
§ 25.1107 Inter-coolers and after-cool-
ers. § 25.1123 Exhaust piping.
Each inter-cooler and after-cooler For powerplant and auxiliary power
must be able to withstand any vibra- unit installations, the following apply:
tion, inertia, and air pressure load to (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and
which it would be subjected in oper- corrosion resistant, and must have pro-
ation.
visions to prevent failure due to expan-
EXHAUST SYSTEM sion by operating temperatures.
(b) Piping must be supported to with-
§ 25.1121 General. stand any vibration and inertia loads
to which it would be subjected in oper-
For powerplant and auxiliary power
ation; and
unit installations the following apply:
(c) Piping connected to components
(a) Each exhaust system must ensure
safe disposal of exhaust gases without between which relative motion could
fire hazard or carbon monoxide con- exist must have means for flexibility.
tamination in any personnel compart- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
ment. For test purposes, any accept- amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17,
able carbon monoxide detection meth- 1977]
od may be used to show the absence of
carbon monoxide. § 25.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers.
(b) Each exhaust system part with a For reciprocating engine powered
surface hot enough to ignite flammable airplanes, the following apply:
fluids or vapors must be located or (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger
shielded so that leakage from any sys- must be constructed and installed to
tem carrying flammable fluids or va- withstand each vibration, inertia, and
pors will not result in a fire caused by other load to which it would be sub-
impingement of the fluids or vapors on jected in operation. In addition—
any part of the exhaust system includ- (1) Each exchanger must be suitable
ing shields for the exhaust system. for continued operation at high tem-
(c) Each component that hot exhaust peratures and resistant to corrosion
gases could strike, or that could be from exhaust gases;
subjected to high temperatures from (2) There must be means for the in-
exhaust system parts, must be fire- spection of the critical parts of each
proof. All exhaust system components exchanger;
must be separated by fireproof shields
(3) Each exchanger must have cooling
from adjacent parts of the airplane
provisions wherever it is subject to
that are outside the engine and auxil-
contact with exhaust gases; and
iary power unit compartments.
(4) No exhaust heat exchanger or
(d) No exhaust gases may discharge
muff may have any stagnant areas or
so as to cause a fire hazard with re-
spect to any flammable fluid vent or liquid traps that would increase the
drain. probability of ignition of flammable
fluids or vapors that might be present
(e) No exhaust gases may discharge
where they will cause a glare seriously in case of the failure or malfunction of
affecting pilot vision at night. components carrying flammable fluids.
(f) Each exhaust system component (b) If an exhaust heat exchanger is
must be ventilated to prevent points of used for heating ventilating air—
excessively high temperature. (1) There must be a secondary heat
(g) Each exhaust shroud must be ven- exchanger between the primary ex-
tilated or insulated to avoid, during haust gas heat exchanger and the ven-
normal operation, a temperature high tilating air system; or

435
§ 25.1127 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(2) Other means must be used to pre- (e) The portion of each powerplant
clude the harmful contamination of the control located in a designated fire
ventilating air. zone that is required to be operated in
the event of fire must be at least fire
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
resistant.
1976] (f) Powerplant valve controls located
in the cockpit must have—
§ 25.1127 Exhaust driven turbo-super- (1) For manual valves, positive stops
chargers. or in the case of fuel valves suitable
(a) Each exhaust driven turbo-super- index provisions, in the open and closed
charger must be approved or shown to position; and
be suitable for the particular applica- (2) For power-assisted valves, a
tion. It must be installed and sup- means to indicate to the flight crew
ported to ensure safe operation be- when the valve—
tween normal inspections and over- (i) Is in the fully open or fully closed
hauls. In addition, there must be provi- position; or
sions for expansion and flexibility be- (ii) Is moving between the fully open
tween exhaust conduits and the tur- and fully closed position.
bine. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(b) There must be provisions for lu- amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17,
bricating the turbine and for cooling 1977; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
turbine parts where temperatures are
critical. § 25.1142 Auxiliary power unit con-
(c) If the normal turbo-supercharger trols.
control system malfunctions, the tur- Means must be provided on the flight
bine speed may not exceed its maxi- deck for starting, stopping, and emer-
mum allowable value. Except for the gency shutdown of each installed auxil-
waste gate operating components, the iary power unit.
components provided for meeting this
requirement must be independent of [Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978]
the normal turbo-supercharger con-
§ 25.1143 Engine controls.
trols.
(a) There must be a separate power or
POWERPLANT CONTROLS AND thrust control for each engine.
ACCESSORIES (b) Power and thrust controls must
be arranged to allow—
§ 25.1141 Powerplant controls: general. (1) Separate control of each engine;
Each powerplant control must be lo- and
cated, arranged, and designed under (2) Simultaneous control of all en-
§§ 25.777 through 25.781 and marked gines.
under § 25.1555. In addition, it must (c) Each power and thrust control
meet the following requirements: must provide a positive and imme-
(a) Each control must be located so diately responsive means of controlling
that it cannot be inadvertently oper- its engine.
ated by persons entering, leaving, or (d) For each fluid injection (other
moving normally in, the cockpit. than fuel) system and its controls not
(b) Each flexible control must be ap- provided and approved as part of the
proved or must be shown to be suitable engine, the applicant must show that
for the particular application. the flow of the injection fluid is ade-
(c) Each control must have sufficient quately controlled.
strength and rigidity to withstand op- (e) If a power or thrust control incor-
erating loads without failure and with- porates a fuel shutoff feature, the con-
out excessive deflection. trol must have a means to prevent the
(d) Each control must be able to inadvertent movement of the control
maintain any set position without con- into the shutoff position. The means
stant attention by flight crewmembers must—
and without creep due to control loads (1) Have a positive lock or stop at the
or vibration. idle position; and

436
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1161

(2) Require a separate and distinct (d) The propeller speed and pitch con-
operation to place the control in the trols must be to the right of, and at
shutoff position. least one inch below, the pilot’s throt-
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8, 1970, as tle controls.
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
1976; Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984] § 25.1153 Propeller feathering controls.
(a) There must be a separate propel-
§ 25.1145 Ignition switches. ler feathering control for each propel-
(a) Ignition switches must control ler. The control must have means to
each engine ignition circuit on each prevent its inadvertent operation.
engine. (b) If feathering is accomplished by
(b) There must be means to quickly movement of the propeller pitch or
shut off all ignition by the grouping of speed control lever, there must be
switches or by a master ignition con- means to prevent the inadvertent
trol. movement of this lever to the feather-
(c) Each group of ignition switches, ing position during normal operation.
except ignition switches for turbine en-
gines for which continuous ignition is [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
not required, and each master ignition amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5,
control must have a means to prevent 1967]
its inadvertent operation.
§ 25.1155 Reverse thrust and propeller
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as pitch settings below the flight re-
amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044 Mar. 17, gime.
1977]
Each control for reverse thrust and
§ 25.1147 Mixture controls. for propeller pitch settings below the
(a) If there are mixture controls, flight regime must have means to pre-
each engine must have a separate con- vent its inadvertent operation. The
trol. The controls must be grouped and means must have a positive lock or
arranged to allow— stop at the flight idle position and
(1) Separate control of each engine; must require a separate and distinct
and operation by the crew to displace the
(2) Simultaneous control of all en- control from the flight regime (forward
gines. thrust regime for turbojet powered air-
(b) Each intermediate position of the planes).
mixture controls that corresponds to a
[Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967]
normal operating setting must be iden-
tifiable by feel and sight. § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature
(c) The mixture controls must be ac- controls.
cessible to both pilots. However, if
there is a separate flight engineer sta- There must be a separate carburetor
tion with a control panel, the controls air temperature control for each en-
need be accessible only to the flight en- gine.
gineer.
§ 25.1159 Supercharger controls.
§ 25.1149 Propeller speed and pitch Each supercharger control must be
controls. accessible to the pilots or, if there is a
(a) There must be a separate propel- separate flight engineer station with a
ler speed and pitch control for each control panel, to the flight engineer.
propeller.
(b) The controls must be grouped and § 25.1161 Fuel jettisoning system con-
arranged to allow— trols.
(1) Separate control of each propel- Each fuel jettisoning system control
ler; and must have guards to prevent inadvert-
(2) Simultaneous control of all pro-
ent operation. No control may be near
pellers.
any fire extinguisher control or other
(c) The controls must allow synchro-
control used to combat fire.
nization of all propellers.

437
§ 25.1163 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

§ 25.1163 Powerplant accessories. (e) No ground wire for any engine


(a) Each engine mounted accessory may be routed through a fire zone of
must— another engine unless each part of that
(1) Be approved for mounting on the wire within that zone is fireproof.
engine involved; (f) Each ignition system must be
(2) Use the provisions on the engine independent of any electrical circuit,
for mounting; and not used for assisting, controlling, or
(3) Be sealed to prevent contamina- analyzing the operation of that system.
tion of the engine oil system and the (g) There must be means to warn ap-
accessory system. propriate flight crewmembers if the
(b) Electrical equipment subject to malfunctioning of any part of the elec-
arcing or sparking must be installed to trical system is causing the continuous
minimize the probability of contact discharge of any battery necessary for
with any flammable fluids or vapors engine ignition.
that might be present in a free state. (h) Each engine ignition system of a
(c) If continued rotation of an engine- turbine powered airplane must be con-
driven cabin supercharger or of any re- sidered an essential electrical load.
mote accessory driven by the engine is [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
hazardous if malfunctioning occurs, amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8,
there must be means to prevent rota- 1970; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
tion without interfering with the con-
tinued operation of the engine. § 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes.
For airplanes equipped with an acces-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, sory gearbox that is not certificated as
1984] part of an engine—
(a) The engine with gearbox and con-
§ 25.1165 Engine ignition systems. necting transmissions and shafts at-
(a) Each battery ignition system tached must be subjected to the tests
must be supplemented by a generator specified in § 33.49 or § 33.87 of this chap-
that is automatically available as an ter, as applicable;
alternate source of electrical energy to (b) The accessory gearbox must meet
allow continued engine operation if the requirements of §§ 33.25 and 33.53 or
any battery becomes depleted. 33.91 of this chapter, as applicable; and
(b) The capacity of batteries and gen- (c) Possible misalignments and tor-
erators must be large enough to meet sional loadings of the gearbox, trans-
the simultaneous demands of the en- mission, and shaft system, expected to
gine ignition system and the greatest result under normal operating condi-
demands of any electrical system com- tions must be evaluated.
ponents that draw electrical energy [Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976]
from the same source.
(c) The design of the engine ignition POWERPLANT FIRE PROTECTION
system must account for—
(1) The condition of an inoperative § 25.1181 Designated fire zones; re-
generator; gions included.
(2) The condition of a completely de- (a) Designated fire zones are—
pleted battery with the generator run- (1) The engine power section;
ning at its normal operating speed; and (2) The engine accessory section;
(3) The condition of a completely de- (3) Except for reciprocating engines,
pleted battery with the generator oper- any complete powerplant compartment
ating at idling speed, if there is only in which no isolation is provided be-
one battery. tween the engine power section and the
(d) Magneto ground wiring (for sepa- engine accessory section;
rate ignition circuits) that lies on the (4) Any auxiliary power unit com-
engine side of the fire wall, must be in- partment;
stalled, located, or protected, to mini- (5) Any fuel-burning heater and other
mize the probability of simultaneous combustion equipment installation de-
failure of two or more wires as a result scribed in § 25.859;
of mechanical damage, electrical (6) The compressor and accessory sec-
faults, or other cause. tions of turbine engines; and

438
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1187

(7) Combustor, turbine, and tailpipe (1) Lines, fittings, and components
sections of turbine engine installations which are already approved as part of a
that contain lines or components car- type certificated engine; and
rying flammable fluids or gases. (2) Vent and drain lines, and their fit-
(b) Each designated fire zone must tings, whose failure will not result in,
meet the requirements of §§ 25.867, and or add to, a fire hazard.
25.1185 through 25.1203.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5,
amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967; Amdt. 25–36, 39 FR 35461, Oct. 1, 1974;
1967; Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8, 1970; Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984]
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
§ 25.1185 Flammable fluids.
§ 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind fire-
walls, and engine pod attaching (a) Except for the integral oil sumps
structures containing flammable specified in § 25.1183(a), no tank or res-
fluid lines. ervoir that is a part of a system con-
(a) Each nacelle area immediately taining flammable fluids or gases may
behind the firewall, and each portion of be in a designated fire zone unless the
any engine pod attaching structure fluid contained, the design of the sys-
containing flammable fluid lines, must tem, the materials used in the tank,
meet each requirement of §§ 25.1103(b), the shut-off means, and all connec-
25.1165 (d) and (e), 25.1183, 25.1185(c), tions, lines, and control provide a de-
25.1187, 25.1189, and 25.1195 through gree of safety equal to that which
25.1203, including those concerning des- would exist if the tank or reservoir
ignated fire zones. However, engine pod were outside such a zone.
attaching structures need not contain (b) There must be at least one-half
fire detection or extinguishing means. inch of clear airspace between each
(b) For each area covered by para- tank or reservoir and each firewall or
graph (a) of this section that contains shroud isolating a designated fire zone.
a retractable landing gear, compliance (c) Absorbent materials close to
with that paragraph need only be flammable fluid system components
shown with the landing gear retracted. that might leak must be covered or
treated to prevent the absorption of
[Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, 1967]
hazardous quantities of fluids.
§ 25.1183 Flammable fluid-carrying [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964 as
components. amended by Amdt. 25–19, 33 FR 15410, Oct. 17,
(a) Except as provided in paragraph 1968; Amdt. 25–94, 63 FR 8848, Feb. 23, 1998]
(b) of this section, each line, fitting,
and other component carrying flam- § 25.1187 Drainage and ventilation of
fire zones.
mable fluid in any area subject to en-
gine fire conditions, and each compo- (a) There must be complete drainage
nent which conveys or contains flam- of each part of each designated fire
mable fluid in a designated fire zone zone to minimize the hazards resulting
must be fire resistant, except that from failure or malfunctioning of any
flammable fluid tanks and supports in component containing flammable
a designated fire zone must be fireproof fluids. The drainage means must be—
or be enclosed by a fireproof shield un- (1) Effective under conditions ex-
less damage by fire to any non-fire- pected to prevail when drainage is
proof part will not cause leakage or needed; and
spillage of flammable fluid. Compo- (2) Arranged so that no discharged
nents must be shielded or located to fluid will cause an additional fire haz-
safeguard against the ignition of leak- ard.
ing flammable fluid. An integral oil (b) Each designated fire zone must be
sump of less than 25-quart capacity on ventilated to prevent the accumulation
a reciprocating engine need not be fire- of flammable vapors.
proof nor be enclosed by a fireproof (c) No ventilation opening may be
shield. where it would allow the entry of flam-
(b) Paragraph (a) of this section does mable fluids, vapors, or flame from
not apply to— other zones.

439
§ 25.1189 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(d) Each ventilation means must be (h) Each shutoff valve must have a
arranged so that no discharged vapors means to relieve excessive pressure ac-
will cause an additional fire hazard. cumulation unless a means for pressure
(e) Unless the extinguishing agent ca- relief is otherwise provided in the sys-
pacity and rate of discharge are based tem.
on maximum air flow through a zone, [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
there must be means to allow the crew amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5677, Apr. 8,
to shut off sources of forced ventilation 1970; Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984]
to any fire zone except the engine
power section of the nacelle and the § 25.1191 Firewalls.
combustion heater ventilating air (a) Each engine, auxiliary power
ducts. unit, fuel-burning heater, other com-
bustion equipment intended for oper-
§ 25.1189 Shutoff means. ation in flight, and the combustion,
(a) Each engine installation and each turbine, and tailpipe sections of tur-
fire zone specified in § 25.1181(a)(4) and bine engines, must be isolated from the
(5) must have a means to shut off or rest of the airplane by firewalls,
otherwise prevent hazardous quantities shrouds, or equivalent means.
of fuel, oil, deicer, and other flammable (b) Each firewall and shroud must
fluids, from flowing into, within, or be—
through any designated fire zone, ex- (1) Fireproof;
cept that shutoff means are not re- (2) Constructed so that no hazardous
quired for— quantity of air, fluid, or flame can pass
(1) Lines, fittings, and components from the compartment to other parts
forming an integral part of an engine; of the airplane;
and (3) Constructed so that each opening
(2) Oil systems for turbine engine in- is sealed with close fitting fireproof
stallations in which all components of grommets, bushings, or firewall fit-
the system in a designated fire zone, tings; and
including oil tanks, are fireproof or lo- (4) Protected against corrosion.
cated in areas not subject to engine
fire conditions. § 25.1192 Engine accessory section dia-
phragm.
(b) The closing of any fuel shutoff
valve for any engine may not make For reciprocating engines, the engine
fuel unavailable to the remaining en- power section and all portions of the
gines. exhaust system must be isolated from
(c) Operation of any shutoff may not the engine accessory compartment by a
interfere with the later emergency op- diaphragm that complies with the fire-
eration of other equipment, such as the wall requirements of § 25.1191.
means for feathering the propeller. [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970]
(d) Each flammable fluid shutoff
means and control must be fireproof or § 25.1193 Cowling and nacelle skin.
must be located and protected so that (a) Each cowling must be constructed
any fire in a fire zone will not affect its and supported so that it can resist any
operation. vibration, inertia, and air load to
(e) No hazardous quantity of flam- which it may be subjected in operation.
mable fluid may drain into any des- (b) Cowling must meet the drainage
ignated fire zone after shutoff. and ventilation requirements of
(f) There must be means to guard § 25.1187.
against inadvertent operation of the (c) On airplanes with a diaphragm
shutoff means and to make it possible isolating the engine power section from
for the crew to reopen the shutoff the engine accessory section, each part
means in flight after it has been closed. of the accessory section cowling sub-
(g) Each tank-to-engine shutoff valve ject to flame in case of fire in the en-
must be located so that the operation gine power section of the powerplant
of the valve will not be affected by must—
powerplant or engine mount structural (1) Be fireproof; and
failure. (2) Meet the requirements of § 25.1191.

440
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1199

(d) Each part of the cowling subject § 25.1197 Fire extinguishing agents.
to high temperatures due to its near- (a) Fire extinguishing agents must—
ness to exhaust system parts or ex- (1) Be capable of extinguishing
haust gas impingement must be fire- flames emanating from any burning of
proof. fluids or other combustible materials
(e) Each airplane must— in the area protected by the fire extin-
(1) Be designed and constructed so guishing system; and
that no fire originating in any fire zone (2) Have thermal stability over the
can enter, either through openings or temperature range likely to be experi-
by burning through external skin, any enced in the compartment in which
other zone or region where it would they are stored.
create additional hazards; (b) If any toxic extinguishing agent is
(2) Meet paragraph (e)(1) of this sec- used, provisions must be made to pre-
tion with the landing gear retracted (if vent harmful concentrations of fluid or
applicable); and fluid vapors (from leakage during nor-
(3) Have fireproof skin in areas sub- mal operation of the airplane or as a
ject to flame if a fire starts in the en- result of discharging the fire extin-
gine power or accessory sections. guisher on the ground or in flight) from
entering any personnel compartment,
§ 25.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. even though a defect may exist in the
extinguishing system. This must be
(a) Except for combustor, turbine, shown by test except for built-in car-
and tail pipe sections of turbine engine bon dioxide fuselage compartment fire
installations that contain lines or com- extinguishing systems for which—
ponents carrying flammable fluids or (1) Five pounds or less of carbon diox-
gases for which it is shown that a fire ide will be discharged, under estab-
originating in these sections can be lished fire control procedures, into any
controlled, there must be a fire extin- fuselage compartment; or
guisher system serving each designated (2) There is protective breathing
fire zone. equipment for each flight crewmember
(b) The fire extinguishing system, the on flight deck duty.
quantity of the extinguishing agent, [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
the rate of discharge, and the discharge amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
distribution must be adequate to extin- 1976; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977]
guish fires. It must be shown by either
actual or simulated flights tests that § 25.1199 Extinguishing agent contain-
ers.
under critical airflow conditions in
flight the discharge of the extinguish- (a) Each extinguishing agent con-
ing agent in each designated fire zone tainer must have a pressure relief to
specified in paragraph (a) of this sec- prevent bursting of the container by
tion will provide an agent concentra- excessive internal pressures.
tion capable of extinguishing fires in (b) The discharge end of each dis-
that zone and of minimizing the prob- charge line from a pressure relief con-
ability of reignition. An individual nection must be located so that dis-
‘‘one-shot’’ system may be used for charge of the fire extinguishing agent
auxiliary power units, fuel burning would not damage the airplane. The
line must also be located or protected
heaters, and other combustion equip-
to prevent clogging caused by ice or
ment. For each other designated fire
other foreign matter.
zone, two discharges must be provided
(c) There must be a means for each
each of which produces adequate agent
fire extinguishing agent container to
concentration.
indicate that the container has dis-
(c) The fire extinguishing system for charged or that the charging pressure
a nacelle must be able to simulta- is below the established minimum nec-
neously protect each zone of the na- essary for proper functioning.
celle for which protection is provided. (d) The temperature of each con-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as tainer must be maintained, under in-
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, tended operating conditions, to prevent
1978] the pressure in the container from—

441
§ 25.1201 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(1) Falling below that necessary to (e) Wiring and other components of
provide an adequate rate of discharge; each fire or overheat detector system
or in a fire zone must be at least fire-re-
(2) Rising high enough to cause pre- sistant.
mature discharge. (f) No fire or overheat detector sys-
(e) If a pyrotechnic capsule is used to tem component for any fire zone may
discharge the extinguishing agent, pass through another fire zone, un-
each container must be installed so less—
that temperature conditions will not (1) It is protected against the possi-
cause hazardous deterioration of the bility of false warnings resulting from
pyrotechnic capsule. fires in zones through which it passes;
or
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(2) Each zone involved is simulta-
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8,
1970; Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977] neously protected by the same detector
and extinguishing system.
§ 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system (g) Each fire detector system must be
materials. constructed so that when it is in the
configuration for installation it will
(a) No material in any fire extin-
not exceed the alarm activation time
guishing system may react chemically
approved for the detectors using the re-
with any extinguishing agent so as to
sponse time criteria specified in the ap-
create a hazard.
propriate Technical Standard Order for
(b) Each system component in an en-
the detector.
gine compartment must be fireproof.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
§ 25.1203 Fire detector system. amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8,
1970; Amdt. 25–26, 36 FR 5493, Mar. 24, 1971]
(a) There must be approved, quick
acting fire or overheat detectors in § 25.1207 Compliance.
each designated fire zone, and in the
combustion, turbine, and tailpipe sec- Unless otherwise specified, compli-
tions of turbine engine installations, in ance with the requirements of §§ 25.1181
numbers and locations ensuring through 25.1203 must be shown by a full
prompt detection of fire in those zones. scale fire test or by one or more of the
(b) Each fire detector system must be following methods:
constructed and installed so that— (a) Tests of similar powerplant con-
(1) It will withstand the vibration, in- figurations;
ertia, and other loads to which it may (b) Tests of components;
be subjected in operation; (c) Service experience of aircraft
(2) There is a means to warn the crew with similar powerplant configura-
in the event that the sensor or associ- tions;
ated wiring within a designated fire (d) Analysis.
zone is severed at one point, unless the [Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978]
system continues to function as a sat-
isfactory detection system after the Subpart F—Equipment
severing; and
(3) There is a means to warn the crew GENERAL
in the event of a short circuit in the
sensor or associated wiring within a § 25.1301 Function and installation.
designated fire zone, unless the system Each item of installed equipment
continues to function as a satisfactory must—
detection system after the short cir- (a) Be of a kind and design appro-
cuit. priate to its intended function;
(c) No fire or overheat detector may (b) Be labeled as to its identification,
be affected by any oil, water, other function, or operating limitations, or
fluids or fumes that might be present. any applicable combination of these
(d) There must be means to allow the factors;
crew to check, in flight, the function- (c) Be installed according to limita-
ing of each fire or overheat detector tions specified for that equipment; and
electric circuit. (d) Function properly when installed.

442
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1305

§ 25.1303 Flight and navigation instru- indicated to the pilot by the airspeed
ments. indicating system required under para-
(a) The following flight and naviga- graph (b)(1) of this section.
tion instruments must be installed so [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as
that the instrument is visible from amended by Amdt. 25–24, 35 FR 7108, May 6,
each pilot station: 1970; Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976;
(1) A free air temperature indicator Amdt. 25–90, 62 FR 13253, Mar. 19, 1997]
or an air-temperature indicator which
provides indications that are convert- § 25.1305 Powerplant instruments.
ible to free-air temperature. The following are required power-
(2) A clock displaying hours, min- plant instruments:
utes, and seconds with a sweep-second (a) For all airplanes. (1) A fuel pres-
pointer or digital presentation. sure warning means for each engine, or
(3) A direction indicator (non- a master warning means for all engines
stabilized magnetic compass). with provision for isolating the individ-
(b) The following flight and naviga- ual warning means from the master
tion instruments must be installed at warning means.
each pilot station: (2) A fuel quantity indicator for each
(1) An airspeed indicator. If airspeed fuel tank.
limitations vary with altitude, the in- (3) An oil quantity indicator for each
dicator must have a maximum allow- oil tank.
able airspeed indicator showing the (4) An oil pressure indicator for each
variation of VMO with altitude. independent pressure oil system of
(2) An altimeter (sensitive). each engine.
(3) A rate-of-climb indicator (vertical
(5) An oil pressure warning means for
speed).
each engine, or a master warning
(4) A gyroscopic rate-of-turn indica-
means for all engines with provision
tor combined with an integral slip-skid
for isolating the individual warning
indicator (turn-and-bank indicator) ex-
means from the master warning means.
cept that only a slip-skid indicator is
(6) An oil temperature indicator for
required on large airplanes with a third
each engine.
attitude instrument system useable
through flight attitudes of 360° of pitch (7) Fire-warning indicators.
and roll and installed in accordance (8) An augmentation liquid quantity
with § 121.305(k) of this title. indicator (appropriate for the manner
(5) A bank and pitch indicator (gyro- in which the liquid is to be used in op-
scopically stabilized). eration) for each tank.
(6) A direction indicator (gyroscop- (b) For reciprocating engine-powered
ically stabilized, magnetic or non- airplanes. In addition to the powerplant
magnetic). instruments required by paragraph (a)
(c) The following flight and naviga- of this section, the following power-
tion instruments are required as pre- plant instruments are required:
scribed in this paragraph: (1) A carburetor air temperature indi-
(1) A speed warning device is required cator for each engine.
for turbine engine powered airplanes (2) A cylinder head temperature indi-
and for airplanes with VMO/MMO great- cator for each air-cooled engine.
er than 0.8 VDF/MDF or 0.8 V D/MD. The (3) A manifold pressure indicator for
speed warning device must give effec- each engine.
tive aural warning (differing distinc- (4) A fuel pressure indicator (to indi-
tively from aural warnings used for cate the pressure at which the fuel is
other purposes) to the pilots, whenever supplied) for each engine.
the speed exceeds VMO plus 6 knots or (5) A fuel flowmeter, or fuel mixture
MMO +0.01. The upper limit of the pro- indicator, for each engine without an
duction tolerance for the warning de- automatic altitude mixture control.
vice may not exceed the prescribed (6) A tachometer for each engine.
warning speed. (7) A device that indicates, to the
(2) A machmeter is required at each flight crew (during flight), any change
pilot station for airplanes with com- in the power output, for each engine
pressibility limitations not otherwise with—

443
§ 25.1307 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(i) An automatic propeller feathering resulting from any engine malfunction,


system, whose operation is initiated by damage, or deterioration.
a power output measuring system; or (2) A position indicating means to in-
(ii) A total engine piston displace- dicate to the flight crew when the
ment of 2,000 cubic inches or more. thrust reversing device is in the re-
(8) A means to indicate to the pilot verse thrust position, for each engine
when the propeller is in reverse pitch, using a thrust reversing device.
for each reversing propeller. (3) An indicator to indicate rotor sys-
(c) For turbine engine-powered air- tem unbalance.
planes. In addition to the powerplant (e) For turbopropeller-powered air-
instruments required by paragraph (a) planes. In addition to the powerplant
of this section, the following power- instruments required by paragraphs (a)
plant instruments are required: and (c) of this section, the following
(1) A gas temperature indicator for powerplant instruments are required:
each engine.
(1) A torque indicator for each en-
(2) A fuel flowmeter indicator for
gine.
each engine.
(2) Position indicating means to indi-
(3) A tachometer (to indicate the
cate to the flight crew when the propel-
speed of the rotors with established
limiting speeds) for each engine. ler blade angle is below the flight low
pitch position, for each propeller.
(4) A means to indicate, to the flight
crew, the operation of each engine (f) For airplanes equipped with fluid
starter that can be operated continu- systems (other than fuel) for thrust or
ously but that is neither designed for power augmentation, an approved
continuous operation nor designed to means must be provided to indicate the
prevent hazard if it failed. proper functioning of that system to
(5) An indicator to indicate the func- the flight crew.
tioning of the powerplant ice protec- [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as
tion system for each engine. amended by Amdt. 25–35, 39 FR 1831, Jan. 15,
(6) An indicator for the fuel strainer 1974; Amdt. 25–36, 39 FR 35461, Oct. 1, 1974;
or filter required by § 25.997 to indicate Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt.
the occurrence of contamination of the 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 25–72,
strainer or filter before it reaches the 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
capacity established in accordance
with § 25.997(d). § 25.1307 Miscellaneous equipment.
(7) A warning means for the oil The following is required miscellane-
strainer or filter required by § 25.1019, if ous equipment:
it has no bypass, to warn the pilot of (a) [Reserved]
the occurrence of contamination of the (b) Two or more independent sources
strainer or filter screen before it of electrical energy.
reaches the capacity established in ac- (c) Electrical protective devices, as
cordance with § 25.1019(a)(2).
prescribed in this part.
(8) An indicator to indicate the prop-
(d) Two systems for two-way radio
er functioning of any heater used to
communications, with controls for
prevent ice clogging of fuel system
components. each accessible from each pilot station,
designed and installed so that failure of
(d) For turbojet engine powered air-
planes. In addition to the powerplant one system will not preclude operation
instruments required by paragraphs (a) of the other system. The use of a com-
and (c) of this section, the following mon antenna system is acceptable if
powerplant instruments are required: adequate reliability is shown.
(1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or (e) Two systems for radio navigation,
a parameter that is directly related to with controls for each accessible from
thrust, to the pilot. The indication each pilot station, designed and in-
must be based on the direct measure- stalled so that failure of one system
ment of thrust or of parameters that will not preclude operation of the other
are directly related to thrust. The indi- system. The use of a common antenna
cator must indicate a change in thrust

444
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1316

system is acceptable if adequate reli- power sources and the system must be
ability is shown. able to supply the following power
loads in probable operating combina-
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, tions and for probable durations:
1978; Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980; (1) Loads connected to the system
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990] with the system functioning normally.
(2) Essential loads, after failure of
§ 25.1309 Equipment, systems, and in- any one prime mover, power converter,
stallations. or energy storage device.
(a) The equipment, systems, and in- (3) Essential loads after failure of—
stallations whose functioning is re- (i) Any one engine on two-engine air-
quired by this subchapter, must be de- planes; and
signed to ensure that they perform (ii) Any two engines on three-or-
their intended functions under any more-engine airplanes.
foreseeable operating condition. (4) Essential loads for which an alter-
(b) The airplane systems and associ- nate source of power is required by this
ated components, considered sepa- chapter, after any failure or malfunc-
rately and in relation to other systems, tion in any one power supply system,
must be designed so that— distribution system, or other utiliza-
(1) The occurrence of any failure con- tion system.
dition which would prevent the contin- (f) In determining compliance with
ued safe flight and landing of the air- paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section,
plane is extremely improbable, and the power loads may be assumed to be
(2) The occurrence of any other fail- reduced under a monitoring procedure
ure conditions which would reduce the consistent with safety in the kinds of
capability of the airplane or the ability operation authorized. Loads not re-
of the crew to cope with adverse oper- quired in controlled flight need not be
ating conditions is improbable. considered for the two-engine-inoper-
(c) Warning information must be pro- ative condition on airplanes with three
vided to alert the crew to unsafe sys- or more engines.
tem operating conditions, and to en- (g) In showing compliance with para-
able them to take appropriate correc- graphs (a) and (b) of this section with
tive action. Systems, controls, and as- regard to the electrical system and
sociated monitoring and warning equipment design and installation,
means must be designed to minimize critical environmental conditions must
crew errors which could create addi- be considered. For electrical genera-
tional hazards. tion, distribution, and utilization
(d) Compliance with the require- equipment required by or used in com-
ments of paragraph (b) of this section plying with this chapter, except equip-
must be shown by analysis, and where ment covered by Technical Standard
necessary, by appropriate ground, Orders containing environmental test
flight, or simulator tests. The analysis procedures, the ability to provide con-
must consider— tinuous, safe service under foreseeable
(1) Possible modes of failure, includ- environmental conditions may be
ing malfunctions and damage from ex- shown by environmental tests, design
ternal sources. analysis, or reference to previous com-
(2) The probability of multiple fail- parable service experience on other air-
ures and undetected failures. craft.
(3) The resulting effects on the air- [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970, as
plane and occupants, considering the amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20,
stage of flight and operating condi- 1976; Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]
tions, and
(4) The crew warning cues, corrective § 25.1316 System lightning protection.
action required, and the capability of (a) For functions whose failure would
detecting faults. contribute to or cause a condition that
(e) Each installation whose function- would prevent the continued safe flight
ing is required by this subchapter, and and landing of the airplane, each elec-
that requires a power supply, is an ‘‘es- trical and electronic system that per-
sential load’’ on the power supply. The forms these functions must be designed

445
§ 25.1321 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

and installed to ensure that the oper- (1) The instrument that most effec-
ation and operational capabilities of tively indicates attitude must be on
the systems to perform these functions the panel in the top center position;
are not adversely affected when the (2) The instrument that most effec-
airplane is exposed to lightning. tively indicates airspeed must be adja-
(b) For functions whose failure would cent to and directly to the left of the
contribute to or cause a condition that instrument in the top center position:
would reduce the capability of the air- (3) The instrument that most effec-
plane or the ability of the flightcrew to tively indicates altitude must be adja-
cope with adverse operating conditions, cent to and directly to the right of the
each electrical and electronic system instrument in the top center position;
that performs these functions must be and
designed and installed to ensure that (4) The instrument that most effec-
these functions can be recovered in a tively indicates direction of flight
timely manner after the airplane is ex- must be adjacent to and directly below
posed to lightning. the instrument in the top center posi-
(c) Compliance with the lightning tion.
protection criteria prescribed in para- (c) Required powerplant instruments
graphs (a) and (b) of this section must must be closely grouped on the instru-
be shown for exposure to a severe light- ment panel. In addition—
ning environment. The applicant must (1) The location of identical power-
design for and verify that aircraft elec- plant instruments for the engines must
trical/electronic systems are protected prevent confusion as to which engine
against the effects of lightning by: each instrument relates; and
(1) Determining the lightning strike (2) Powerplant instruments vital to
zones for the airplane; the safe operation of the airplane must
(2) Establishing the external light-
be plainly visible to the appropriate
ning environment for the zones;
crewmembers.
(3) Establishing the internal environ-
(d) Instrument panel vibration may
ment;
not damage or impair the accuracy of
(4) Identifying all the electrical and
any instrument.
electronic systems that are subject to
the requirements of this section, and (e) If a visual indicator is provided to
their locations on or within the air- indicate malfunction of an instrument,
plane; it must be effective under all probable
(5) Establishing the susceptibility of cockpit lighting conditions.
the systems to the internal and exter- [Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970, as
nal lightning environment; amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18,
(6) Designing protection; and 1977]
(7) Verifying that the protection is
adequate. § 25.1322 Warning, caution, and advi-
sory lights.
[Doc. No. 25912, 59 FR 22116, Apr. 28, 1994]
If warning, caution or advisory lights
INSTRUMENTS: INSTALLATION are installed in the cockpit, they must,
unless otherwise approved by the Ad-
§ 25.1321 Arrangement and visibility. ministrator, be—
(a) Each flight, navigation, and pow- (a) Red, for warning lights (lights in-
erplant instrument for use by any pilot dicating a hazard which may require
must be plainly visible to him from his immediate corrective action);
station with the minimum practicable (b) Amber, for caution lights (lights
deviation from his normal position and indicating the possible need for future
line of vision when he is looking for- corrective action);
ward along the flight path. (c) Green, for safe operation lights;
(b) The flight instruments required and
by § 25.1303 must be grouped on the in- (d) Any other color, including white,
strument panel and centered as nearly for lights not described in paragraphs
as practicable about the vertical plane (a) through (c) of this section, provided
of the pilot’s forward vision. In addi- the color differs sufficiently from the
tion— colors prescribed in paragraphs (a)

446
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1325

through (c) of this section to avoid pos- § 25.1325 Static pressure systems.
sible confusion. (a) Each instrument with static air
[Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976] case connections must be vented to the
outside atmosphere through an appro-
§ 25.1323 Airspeed indicating system. priate piping system.
(b) Each static port must be designed
For each airspeed indicating system,
and located in such manner that the
the following apply:
static pressure system performance is
(a) Each airspeed indicating instru- least affected by airflow variation, or
ment must be approved and must be by moisture or other foreign matter,
calibrated to indicate true airspeed (at and that the correlation between air
sea level with a standard atmosphere) pressure in the static pressure system
with a minimum practicable instru- and true ambient atmospheric static
ment calibration error when the cor- pressure is not changed when the air-
responding pitot and static pressures plane is exposed to the continuous and
are applied. intermittent maximum icing condi-
(b) Each system must be calibrated tions defined in appendix C of this part.
to determine the system error (that is, (c) The design and installation of the
the relation between IAS and CAS) in static pressure system must be such
flight and during the accelerated take- that—
off ground run. The ground run calibra- (1) Positive drainage of moisture is
tion must be determined— provided; chafing of the tubing and ex-
(1) From 0.8 of the minimum value of cessive distortion or restriction at
V1 to the maximum value of V2, consid- bends in the tubing is avoided; and the
ering the approved ranges of altitude materials used are durable, suitable for
and weight; and the purpose intended, and protected
against corrosion; and
(2) With the flaps and power settings
(2) It is airtight except for the port
corresponding to the values determined into the atmosphere. A proof test must
in the establishment of the takeoff be conducted to demonstrate the integ-
path under § 25.111 assuming that the rity of the static pressure system in
critical engine fails at the minimum the following manner:
value of V1. (i) Unpressurized airplanes. Evacuate
(c) The airspeed error of the installa- the static pressure system to a pres-
tion, excluding the airspeed indicator sure differential of approximately 1
instrument calibration error, may not inch of mercury or to a reading on the
exceed three percent or five knots, altimeter, 1,000 feet above the airplane
whichever is greater, throughout the elevation at the time of the test. With-
speed range, from— out additional pumping for a period of
(1) VMO to 1.3 VS1, with flaps re- 1 minute, the loss of indicated altitude
tracted; and must not exceed 100 feet on the altim-
(2) 1.3 VS0 to VFE with flaps in the eter.
landing position. (ii) Pressurized airplanes. Evacuate
(d) Each system must be arranged, so the static pressure system until a pres-
far as practicable, to prevent malfunc- sure differential equivalent to the max-
tion or serious error due to the entry of imum cabin pressure differential for
moisture, dirt, or other substances. which the airplane is type certificated
(e) Each system must have a heated is achieved. Without additional pump-
pitot tube or an equivalent means of ing for a period of 1 minute, the loss of
preventing malfunction due to icing. indicated altitude must not exceed 2
percent of the equivalent altitude of
(f) Where duplicate airspeed indica-
the maximum cabin differential pres-
tors are required, their respective pitot
sure or 100 feet, whichever is greater.
tubes must be far enough apart to (d) Each pressure altimeter must be
avoid damage to both tubes in a colli- approved and must be calibrated to in-
sion with a bird. dicate pressure altitude in a standard
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as atmosphere, with a minimum prac-
amended by Amdt. 25–57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, ticable calibration error when the cor-
1984] responding static pressures are applied.

447
§ 25.1326 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(e) Each system must be designed and (a) The indication provided must in-
installed so that the error in indicated corporate an amber light that is in
pressure altitude, at sea level, with a clear view of a flight crewmember.
standard atmosphere, excluding instru- (b) The indication provided must be
ment calibration error, does not result designed to alert the flight crew if ei-
in an error of more than ±30 feet per 100 ther of the following conditions exist:
knots speed for the appropriate con- (1) The pitot heating system is
figuration in the speed range between switched ‘‘off’’.
1.3 VS0 with flaps extended and 1.8 VS1 (2) The pitot heating system is
with flaps retracted. However, the switched ‘‘on’’ and any pitot tube heat-
error need not be less than ±30 feet. ing element is inoperative.
(f) If an altimeter system is fitted
[Amdt. 25–43, 43 FR 10339, Mar. 13, 1978]
with a device that provides corrections
to the altimeter indication, the device § 25.1327 Magnetic direction indicator.
must be designed and installed in such
manner that it can be bypassed when it (a) Each magnetic direction indicator
malfunctions, unless an alternate al- must be installed so that its accuracy
timeter system is provided. Each cor- is not excessively affected by the air-
rection device must be fitted with a plane’s vibration or magnetic fields.
means for indicating the occurrence of (b) The compensated installation
reasonably probable malfunctions, in- may not have a deviation, in level
cluding power failure, to the flight flight, greater than 10 degrees on any
crew. The indicating means must be ef- heading.
fective for any cockpit lighting condi-
§ 25.1329 Automatic pilot system.
tion likely to occur.
(g) Except as provided in paragraph (a) Each automatic pilot system
(h) of this section, if the static pressure must be approved and must be designed
system incorporates both a primary so that the automatic pilot can be
and an alternate static pressure source, quickly and positively disengaged by
the means for selecting one or the the pilots to prevent it from interfer-
other source must be designed so ing with their control of the airplane.
that— (b) Unless there is automatic syn-
(1) When either source is selected, the chronization, each system must have a
other is blocked off; and means to readily indicate to the pilot
(2) Both sources cannot be blocked the alignment of the actuating device
off simultaneously. in relation to the control system it op-
erates.
(h) For unpressurized airplanes, para-
graph (g)(1) of this section does not (c) Each manually operated control
for the system must be readily acces-
apply if it can be demonstrated that
sible to the pilots.
the static pressure system calibration,
when either static pressure source is (d) Quick release (emergency) con-
selected, is not changed by the other trols must be on both control wheels,
on the side of each wheel opposite the
static pressure source being open or
throttles.
blocked.
(e) Attitude controls must operate in
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as the plane and sense of motion specified
amended by Amdt. 25–5, 30 FR 8261, June 29, in §§ 25.777(b) and 25.779(a) for cockpit
1965; Amdt. 25–12, 32 FR 7587, May 24, 1967; controls. The direction of motion must
Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977] be plainly indicated on, or adjacent to,
each control.
§ 25.1326 Pitot heat indication systems.
(f) The system must be designed and
If a flight instrument pitot heating adjusted so that, within the range of
system is installed, an indication sys- adjustment available to the human
tem must be provided to indicate to pilot, it cannot produce hazardous
the flight crew when that pitot heating loads on the airplane, or create hazard-
system is not operating. The indication ous deviations in the flight path, under
system must comply with the following any condition of flight appropriate to
requirements: its use, either during normal operation

448
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1337

or in the event of a malfunction, as- mote indicating gyroscopic direction


suming that corrective action begins indicator that includes a magnetic
within a reasonable period of time. sensing element, a gyroscopic unit, an
(g) If the automatic pilot integrates amplifier and an indicator connected
signals from auxiliary controls or fur- together).
nishes signals for operation of other
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
equipment, there must be positive amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18,
interlocks and sequencing of engage- 1977]
ment to prevent improper operation.
Protection against adverse interaction § 25.1333 Instrument systems.
of integrated components, resulting For systems that operate the instru-
from a malfunction, is also required. ments required by § 25.1303(b) which are
(h) If the automatic pilot system can located at each pilot’s station—
be coupled to airborne navigation (a) Means must be provided to con-
equipment, means must be provided to nect the required instruments at the
indicate to the flight crew the current first pilot’s station to operating sys-
mode of operation. Selector switch po- tems which are independent of the op-
sition is not acceptable as a means of erating systems at other flight crew
indication. stations, or other equipment;
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as (b) The equipment, systems, and in-
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, stallations must be designed so that
1978] one display of the information essen-
tial to the safety of flight which is pro-
§ 25.1331 Instruments using a power vided by the instruments, including at-
supply.
titude, direction, airspeed, and altitude
(a) For each instrument required by will remain available to the pilots,
§ 25.1303(b) that uses a power supply, without additional crewmember ac-
the following apply: tion, after any single failure or com-
(1) Each instrument must have a vis- bination of failures that is not shown
ual means integral with, the instru- to be extremely improbable; and
ment, to indicate when power adequate (c) Additional instruments, systems,
to sustain proper instrument perform- or equipment may not be connected to
ance is not being supplied. The power the operating systems for the required
must be measured at or near the point instruments, unless provisions are
where it enters the instruments. For made to ensure the continued normal
electric instruments, the power is con- functioning of the required instru-
sidered to be adequate when the volt- ments in the event of any malfunction
age is within approved limits. of the additional instruments, systems,
(2) Each instrument must, in the or equipment which is not shown to be
event of the failure of one power extremely improbable.
source, be supplied by another power
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, 1970, as
source. This may be accomplished
amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18,
automatically or by manual means. 1977]
(3) If an instrument presenting navi-
gation data receives information from § 25.1335 Flight director systems.
sources external to that instrument
If a flight director system is in-
and loss of that information would
stalled, means must be provided to in-
render the presented data unreliable,
dicate to the flight crew its current
the instrument must incorporate a vis-
mode of operation. Selector switch po-
ual means to warn the crew, when such
sition is not acceptable as a means of
loss of information occurs, that the
indication.
presented data should not be relied
upon. [Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]
(b) As used in this section, ‘‘instru-
ment’’ includes devices that are phys- § 25.1337 Powerplant instruments.
ically contained in one unit, and de- (a) Instruments and instrument lines.
vices that are composed of two or more (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary
physically separate units or compo- power unit instrument line must meet
nents connected together (such as a re- the requirements of §§ 25.993 and 25.1183.

449
§ 25.1351 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(2) Each line carrying flammable (1) If necessary for the maintenance
fluids under pressure must— of proper fuel delivery pressure, there
(i) Have restricting orifices or other must be a connection to transmit the
safety devices at the source of pressure carburetor air intake static pressure to
to prevent the escape of excessive fluid the proper pump relief valve connec-
if the line fails; and tion; and
(ii) Be installed and located so that (2) If a connection is required under
the escape of fluids would not create a paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the
hazard. gauge balance lines must be independ-
(3) Each powerplant and auxiliary ently connected to the carburetor inlet
power unit instrument that utilizes pressure to avoid erroneous readings.
flammable fluids must be installed and [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
located so that the escape of fluid amended by Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17,
would not create a hazard. 1977]
(b) Fuel quantity indicator. There
must be means to indicate to the flight ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
crewmembers, the quantity, in gallons
or equivalent units, of usable fuel in § 25.1351 General.
each tank during flight. In addition— (a) Electrical system capacity. The re-
(1) Each fuel quantity indicator must quired generating capacity, and num-
be calibrated to read ‘‘zero’’ during ber and kinds of power sources must—
level flight when the quantity of fuel (1) Be determined by an electrical
remaining in the tank is equal to the load analysis; and
unusable fuel supply determined under (2) Meet the requirements of § 25.1309.
§ 25.959; (b) Generating system. The generating
(2) Tanks with interconnected outlets system includes electrical power
and airspaces may be treated as one sources, main power busses, trans-
tank and need not have separate indi- mission cables, and associated control,
cators; and regulation, and protective devices. It
(3) Each exposed sight gauge, used as must be designed so that—
a fuel quantity indicator, must be pro- (1) Power sources function properly
tected against damage. when independent and when connected
(c) Fuel flowmeter system. If a fuel in combination;
flowmeter system is installed, each (2) No failure or malfunction of any
metering component must have a power source can create a hazard or
means for bypassing the fuel supply if impair the ability of remaining sources
malfunction of that component se- to supply essential loads;
verely restricts fuel flow. (3) The system voltage and frequency
(d) Oil quantity indicator. There must (as applicable) at the terminals of all
be a stick gauge or equivalent means essential load equipment can be main-
to indicate the quantity of oil in each tained within the limits for which the
tank. If an oil transfer or reserve oil equipment is designed, during any
supply system is installed, there must probable operating condition; and
be a means to indicate to the flight (4) System transients due to switch-
crew, in flight, the quantity of oil in ing, fault clearing, or other causes do
each tank. not make essential loads inoperative,
(e) Turbopropeller blade position indi- and do not cause a smoke or fire haz-
cator. Required turbopropeller blade ard.
position indicators must begin indicat- (5) There are means accessible, in
ing before the blade moves more than flight, to appropriate crewmembers for
eight degrees below the flight low pitch the individual and collective dis-
stop. The source of indication must di- connection of the electrical power
rectly sense the blade position. sources from the system.
(f) Fuel pressure indicator. There must (6) There are means to indicate to ap-
be means to measure fuel pressure, in propriate crewmembers the generating
each system supplying reciprocating system quantities essential for the safe
engines, at a point downstream of any operation of the system, such as the
fuel pump except fuel injection pumps. voltage and current supplied by each
In addition— generator.

450
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1355

(c) External power. If provisions are (ii) During a flight of maximum dura-
made for connecting external power to tion; and
the airplane, and that external power (iii) Under the most adverse cooling
can be electrically connected to equip- condition likely to occur in service.
ment other than that used for engine (2) Compliance with paragraph (c)(1)
starting, means must be provided to of this section must be shown by test
ensure that no external power supply unless experience with similar bat-
having a reverse polarity, or a reverse teries and installations has shown that
phase sequence, can supply power to maintaining safe cell temperatures and
the airplane’s electrical system. pressures presents no problem.
(d) Operation without normal electrical (3) No explosive or toxic gases emit-
power. It must be shown by analysis, ted by any battery in normal oper-
tests, or both, that the airplane can be ation, or as the result of any probable
operated safely in VFR conditions, for malfunction in the charging system or
a period of not less than five minutes, battery installation, may accumulate
with the normal electrical power (elec- in hazardous quantities within the air-
trical power sources excluding the bat- plane.
tery) inoperative, with critical type (4) No corrosive fluids or gases that
fuel (from the standpoint of flameout may escape from the battery may dam-
and restart capability), and with the age surrounding airplane structures or
airplane initially at the maximum cer- adjacent essential equipment.
tificated altitude. Parts of the elec- (5) Each nickel cadmium battery in-
trical system may remain on if— stallation capable of being used to
(1) A single malfunction, including a start an engine or auxiliary power unit
wire bundle or junction box fire, can- must have provisions to prevent any
not result in loss of both the part hazardous effect on structure or essen-
turned off and the part turned on; and tial systems that may be caused by the
(2) The parts turned on are elec- maximum amount of heat the battery
trically and mechanically isolated can generate during a short circuit of
from the parts turned off. the battery or of its individual cells.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as (6) Nickel cadmium battery installa-
amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, tions capable of being used to start an
1977; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990] engine or auxiliary power unit must
have—
§ 25.1353 Electrical equipment and in-
stallations. (i) A system to control the charging
rate of the battery automatically so as
(a) Electrical equipment, controls, to prevent battery overheating;
and wiring must be installed so that (ii) A battery temperature sensing
operation of any one unit or system of and over-temperature warning system
units will not adversely affect the si- with a means for disconnecting the
multaneous operation of any other battery from its charging source in the
electrical unit or system essential to event of an over-temperature condi-
the safe operation. tion; or
(b) Cables must be grouped, routed, (iii) A battery failure sensing and
and spaced so that damage to essential warning system with a means for dis-
circuits will be minimized if there are connecting the battery from its charg-
faults in heavy current-carrying ca- ing source in the event of battery fail-
bles. ure.
(c) Storage batteries must be de-
signed and installed as follows: [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
(1) Safe cell temperatures and pres- amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18,
sures must be maintained during any 1977; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978]
probable charging or discharging con-
dition. No uncontrolled increase in cell § 25.1355 Distribution system.
temperature may result when the bat- (a) The distribution system includes
tery is recharged (after previous com- the distribution busses, their associ-
plete discharge)— ated feeders, and each control and pro-
(i) At maximum regulated voltage or tective device.
power; (b) [Reserved]

451
§ 25.1357 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(c) If two independent sources of elec- § 25.1363 Electrical system tests.


trical power for particular equipment (a) When laboratory tests of the elec-
or systems are required by this chap- trical system are conducted—
ter, in the event of the failure of one (1) The tests must be performed on a
power source for such equipment or mock-up using the same generating
system, another power source (includ- equipment used in the airplane;
ing its separate feeder) must be auto- (2) The equipment must simulate the
matically provided or be manually se- electrical characteristics of the dis-
lectable to maintain equipment or sys- tribution wiring and connected loads to
tem operation. the extent necessary for valid test re-
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
sults; and
amended by Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5679, Apr. 8, (3) Laboratory generator drives must
1970; Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976] simulate the actual prime movers on
the airplane with respect to their reac-
§ 25.1357 Circuit protective devices. tion to generator loading, including
loading due to faults.
(a) Automatic protective devices
(b) For each flight condition that
must be used to minimize distress to cannot be simulated adequately in the
the electrical system and hazard to the laboratory or by ground tests on the
airplane in the event of wiring faults or airplane, flight tests must be made.
serious malfunction of the system or
connected equipment. LIGHTS
(b) The protective and control de-
vices in the generating system must be § 25.1381 Instrument lights.
designed to de-energize and disconnect (a) The instrument lights must—
faulty power sources and power trans- (1) Provide sufficient illumination to
mission equipment from their associ- make each instrument, switch and
ated busses with sufficient rapidity to other device necessary for safe oper-
provide protection from hazardous ation easily readable unless sufficient
over-voltage and other malfunctioning. illumination is available from another
(c) Each resettable circuit protective source; and
device must be designed so that, when (2) Be installed so that—
an overload or circuit fault exists, it (i) Their direct rays are shielded from
will open the circuit irrespective of the the pilot’s eyes; and
position of the operating control. (ii) No objectionable reflections are
visible to the pilot.
(d) If the ability to reset a circuit
(b) Unless undimmed instrument
breaker or replace a fuse is essential to
lights are satisfactory under each ex-
safety in flight, that circuit breaker or pected flight condition, there must be a
fuse must be located and identified so means to control the intensity of illu-
that it can be readily reset or replaced mination.
in flight.
(e) Each circuit for essential loads [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20,
must have individual circuit protec- 1990]
tion. However, individual protection
for each circuit in an essential load § 25.1383 Landing lights.
system (such as each position light cir- (a) Each landing light must be ap-
cuit in a system) is not required. proved, and must be installed so that—
(f) If fuses are used, there must be (1) No objectionable glare is visible
spare fuses for use in flight equal to at to the pilot;
least 50 percent of the number of fuses (2) The pilot is not adversely affected
of each rating required for complete by halation; and
circuit protection. (3) It provides enough light for night
(g) Automatic reset circuit breakers landing.
may be used as integral protectors for (b) Except when one switch is used
electrical equipment (such as thermal for the lights of a multiple light instal-
cut-outs) if there is circuit protection lation at one location, there must be a
to protect the cable to the equipment. separate switch for each light.

452
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1389

(c) There must be a means to indicate making angles of 70 degrees to the


to the pilots when the landing lights right and to the left, respectively, to a
are extended. vertical plane passing through the lon-
gitudinal axis, as viewed when looking
§ 25.1385 Position light system installa- aft along the longitudinal axis.
tion. (e) If the rear position light, when
(a) General. Each part of each posi- mounted as far aft as practicable in ac-
tion light system must meet the appli- cordance with § 25.1385(c), cannot show
cable requirements of this section and unbroken light within dihedral angle A
each system as a whole must meet the (as defined in paragraph (d) of this sec-
requirements of §§ 25.1387 through tion), a solid angle or angles of ob-
25.1397. structed visibility totaling not more
(b) Forward position lights. Forward than 0.04 steradians is allowable within
position lights must consist of a red that dihedral angle, if such solid angle
and a green light spaced laterally as is within a cone whose apex is at the
far apart as practicable and installed rear position light and whose elements
forward on the airplane so that, with make an angle of 30° with a vertical
the airplane in the normal flying posi- line passing through the rear position
tion, the red light is on the left side light.
and the green light is on the right side. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
Each light must be approved. amended by Amdt. 25–30, 36 FR 21278, Nov. 5,
(c) Rear position light. The rear posi- 1971]
tion light must be a white light mount-
ed as far aft as practicable on the tail § 25.1389 Position light distribution
or on each wing tip, and must be ap- and intensities.
proved. (a) General. The intensities prescribed
(d) Light covers and color filters. Each in this section must be provided by new
light cover or color filter must be at equipment with light covers and color
least flame resistant and may not filters in place. Intensities must be de-
change color or shape or lose any ap- termined with the light source operat-
preciable light transmission during ing at a steady value equal to the aver-
normal use. age luminous output of the source at
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as the normal operating voltage of the
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, airplane. The light distribution and in-
1976] tensity of each position light must
meet the requirements of paragraph (b)
§ 25.1387 Position light system dihe- of this section.
dral angles. (b) Forward and rear position lights.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph The light distribution and intensities
(e) of this section, each forward and of forward and rear position lights
rear position light must, as installed, must be expressed in terms of mini-
show unbroken light within the dihe- mum intensities in the horizontal
dral angles described in this section. plane, minimum intensities in any ver-
(b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed tical plane, and maximum intensities
by two intersecting vertical planes, the in overlapping beams, within dihedral
first parallel to the longitudinal axis of angles L, R, and A, and must meet the
the airplane, and the other at 110 de- following requirements:
grees to the left of the first, as viewed (1) Intensities in the horizontal plane.
when looking forward along the longi- Each intensity in the horizontal plane
tudinal axis. (the plane containing the longitudinal
(c) Dihedral angle R (right) is formed axis of the airplane and perpendicular
by two intersecting vertical planes, the to the plane of symmetry of the air-
first parallel to the longitudinal axis of plane) must equal or exceed the values
the airplane, and the other at 110 de- in § 25.1391.
grees to the right of the first, as viewed (2) Intensities in any vertical plane.
when looking forward along the longi- Each intensity in any vertical plane
tudinal axis. (the plane perpendicular to the hori-
(d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed zontal plane) must equal or exceed the
by two intersecting vertical planes appropriate value in § 25.1393, where I is

453
§ 25.1391 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

the minimum intensity prescribed in § 25.1395 Maximum intensities in over-


§ 25.1391 for the corresponding angles in lapping beams of forward and rear
the horizontal plane. position lights.
(3) Intensities in overlaps between adja- No position light intensity may ex-
cent signals. No intensity in any over- ceed the applicable values in the fol-
lap between adjacent signals may ex- lowing table, except as provided in
ceed the values given in § 25.1395, except § 25.1389(b)(3).
that higher intensities in overlaps may
Maximum intensity
be used with main beam intensities
Overlaps
substantially greater than the minima Area A Area B
(candles) (candles)
specified in §§ 25.1391 and 25.1393 if the
overlap intensities in relation to the Green in dihedral angle L .............. 10 1
main beam intensities do not adversely Red in dihedral angle R ................. 10 1
affect signal clarity. When the peak in- Green in dihedral angle A .............. 5 1
Red in dihedral angle A ................. 5 1
tensity of the forward position lights is Rear white in dihedral angle L ....... 5 1
more than 100 candles, the maximum Rear white in dihedral angle R ...... 5 1
overlap intensities between them may
exceed the values given in § 25.1395 if Where—
the overlap intensity in Area A is not (a) Area A includes all directions in
more than 10 percent of peak position the adjacent dihedral angle that pass
light intensity and the overlap inten- through the light source and intersect
sity in Area B is not greater than 2.5 the common boundary plane at more
percent of peak position light inten- than 10 degrees but less than 20 de-
sity. grees; and
(b) Area B includes all directions in
§ 25.1391 Minimum intensities in the
the adjacent dihedral angle that pass
horizontal plane of forward and
rear position lights. through the light source and intersect
the common boundary plane at more
Each position light intensity must than 20 degrees.
equal or exceed the applicable values in
the following table: § 25.1397 Color specifications.
Angle from right Each position light color must have
Dihedral angle (light in- or left of longitu- Intensity the applicable International Commis-
dinal axis, meas-
cluded) ured from dead (candles) sion on Illumination chromaticity co-
ahead ordinates as follows:
L and R (forward red and 0° to 10° .............. 40
(a) Aviation red—
green). 10° to 20° ............ 30
‘‘y’’ is not greater than 0.335; and
20° to 110° .......... 5
A (rear white) ..................... 110° to 180° ........ 20 ‘‘z’’ is not greater than 0.002.
(b) Aviation green—
§ 25.1393 Minimum intensities in any ‘‘x’’ is not greater than 0.440–0.320 y ;
vertical plane of forward and rear ‘‘x’’ is not greater than y —0.170; and
position lights.
‘‘y’’ is not less than 0.390–0.170 x.
Each position light intensity must
equal or exceed the applicable values in (c) Aviation white—
the following table: ‘‘x’’ is not less than 0.300 and not greater
than 0.540;
Angle above or below the horizontal plane Intensity, l ‘‘y’’ is not less than ‘‘x —0.040’’ or ‘‘y0—
0.010’’, whichever is the smaller; and
0° .......................................................................... 1.00
0° to 5° ................................................................. 0.90 ‘‘y’’ is not greater than ‘‘x+0.020’’ nor
5° to 10° ............................................................... 0.80 ‘‘0.636–0.400 x’’;
10° to 15° ............................................................. 0.70 Where ‘‘y0’’ is the ‘‘y’’ coordinate of the
15° to 20° ............................................................. 0.50 Planckian radiator for the value of ‘‘x’’ con-
20° to 30° ............................................................. 0.30 sidered.
30° to 40° ............................................................. 0.10
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
40° to 90° ............................................................. 0.05
amended by Amdt. 25–27, 36 FR 12972, July 10,
1971]

454
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1403

§ 25.1399 Riding light. (e) Light intensity. The minimum


light intensities in all vertical planes,
(a) Each riding (anchor) light re-
quired for a seaplane or amphibian measured with the red filter (if used)
must be installed so that it can— and expressed in terms of ‘‘effective’’
(1) Show a white light for at least 2 intensities, must meet the require-
nautical miles at night under clear at- ments of paragraph (f) of this section.
mospheric conditions; and The following relation must be as-
(2) Show the maximum unbroken sumed:
light practicable when the airplane is t2
moored or drifting on the water.
∫t I(t)dt
(b) Externally hung lights may be
Ie = 1
used. 0.2 + (t 2 − t 1 )
§ 25.1401 Anticollision light system. where:
(a) General. The airplane must have Ie=effective intensity (candles).
an anticollision light system that— I(t)=instantaneous intensity as a function
of time.
(1) Consists of one or more approved
t2—t1=flash time interval (seconds).
anticollision lights located so that
their light will not impair the crew’s Normally, the maximum value of effec-
vision or detract from the conspicuity tive intensity is obtained when t2 and t1
of the position lights; and are chosen so that the effective inten-
(2) Meets the requirements of para- sity is equal to the instantaneous in-
graphs (b) through (f) of this section. tensity at t2 and t1.
(b) Field of coverage. The system must
(f) Minimum effective intensities for
consist of enough lights to illuminate
anticollision lights. Each anticollision
the vital areas around the airplane
light effective intensity must equal or
considering the physical configuration
and flight characteristics of the air- exceed the applicable values in the fol-
plane. The field of coverage must ex- lowing table.
tend in each direction within at least Effective
75 degrees above and 75 degrees below Angle above or below the horizontal plane intensity
(candles)
the horizontal plane of the airplane,
except that a solid angle or angles of 0° to 5° ................................................................. 400
obstructed visibility totaling not more 5° to 10° ............................................................... 240
than 0.03 steradians is allowable within 10° to 20° ............................................................. 80
a solid angle equal to 0.15 steradians 20° to 30° ............................................................. 40
30° to 75° ............................................................. 20
centered about the longitudinal axis in
the rearward direction.
(c) Flashing characteristics. The ar- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
rangement of the system, that is, the amended by Amdt. 25–27, 36 FR 12972, July 10,
number of light sources, beam width, 1971; Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977]
speed of rotation, and other character-
istics, must give an effective flash fre- § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights.
quency of not less than 40, nor more Unless operations at night in known
than 100 cycles per minute. The effec- or forecast icing conditions are prohib-
tive flash frequency is the frequency at ited by an operating limitation, a
which the airplane’s complete anti- means must be provided for illuminat-
collision light system is observed from ing or otherwise determining the for-
a distance, and applies to each sector mation of ice on the parts of the wings
of light including any overlaps that that are critical from the standpoint of
exist when the system consists of more ice accumulation. Any illumination
than one light source. In overlaps,
that is used must be of a type that will
flash frequencies may exceed 100, but
not cause glare or reflection that
not 180 cycles per minute.
would handicap crewmembers in the
(d) Color. Each anticollision light
must be either aviation red or aviation performance of their duties.
white and must meet the applicable re- [Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976]
quirements of § 25.1397.

455
§ 25.1411 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

SAFETY EQUIPMENT (2) Be arranged to allow the life lines


to be used to enable the occupants to
§ 25.1411 General. stay on the wing after ditching.
(a) Accessibility. Required safety [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
equipment to be used by the crew in an amended by Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24,
emergency must be readily accessible. 1972; Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978;
(b) Stowage provisions. Stowage provi- Amdt. 25–53, 45 FR 41593, June 19, 1980; Amdt.
25–70, 54 FR 43925, Oct. 27, 1989; Amdt. 25–79,
sions for required emergency equip- 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993]
ment must be furnished and must—
(1) Be arranged so that the equip- § 25.1415 Ditching equipment.
ment is directly accessible and its loca- (a) Ditching equipment used in air-
tion is obvious; and planes to be certificated for ditching
(2) Protect the safety equipment under § 25.801, and required by the oper-
from inadvertent damage. ating rules of this chapter, must meet
(c) Emergency exit descent device. The the requirements of this section.
stowage provisions for the emergency (b) Each liferaft and each life pre-
exit descent device required by server must be approved. In addition—
§ 25.809(f) must be at the exits for which (1) Unless excess rafts of enough ca-
they are intended. pacity are provided, the buoyancy and
(d) Liferafts. (1) The stowage provi- seating capacity beyond the rated ca-
sions for the liferafts described in pacity of the rafts must accommodate
§ 25.1415 must accommodate enough all occupants of the airplane in the
rafts for the maximum number of occu- event of a loss of one raft of the largest
pants for which certification for ditch- rated capacity; and
ing is requested. (2) Each raft must have a trailing
(2) Liferafts must be stowed near line, and must have a static line de-
exits through which the rafts can be signed to hold the raft near the air-
launched during an unplanned ditch- plane but to release it if the airplane
ing. becomes totally submerged.
(3) Rafts automatically or remotely (c) Approved survival equipment
released outside the airplane must be must be attached to each liferaft.
attached to the airplane by means of (d) There must be an approved sur-
the static line prescribed in § 25.1415. vival type emergency locator transmit-
ter for use in one life raft.
(4) The stowage provisions for each
(e) For airplanes not certificated for
portable liferaft must allow rapid de-
ditching under § 25.801 and not having
tachment and removal of the raft for approved life preservers, there must be
use at other than the intended exits. an approved flotation means for each
(e) Long-range signaling device. The occupant. This means must be within
stowage provisions for the long-range easy reach of each seated occupant and
signaling device required by § 25.1415 must be readily removable from the
must be near an exit available during airplane.
an unplanned ditching.
(f) Life preserver stowage provisions. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–29, 36 FR 18722, Sept.
The stowage provisions for life preserv- 21, 1971; Amdt 25–50, 45 FR 38348, June 9, 1980;
ers described in § 25.1415 must accom- Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990; Amdt.
modate one life preserver for each oc- 25–82, 59 FR 32057, June 21, 1994]
cupant for which certification for
ditching is requested. Each life pre- § 25.1419 Ice protection.
server must be within easy reach of If certification with ice protection
each seated occupant. provisions is desired, the airplane must
(g) Life line stowage provisions. If cer- be able to safely operate in the contin-
tification for ditching under § 25.801 is uous maximum and intermittent maxi-
requested, there must be provisions to mum icing conditions of appendix C. To
store life lines. These provisions establish that the airplane can operate
must— within the continuous maximum and
(1) Allow one life line to be attached intermittent maximum conditions of
to each side of the fuselage; and appendix C:

456
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1431

(a) An analysis must be performed to sources dependent on their continued


establish that the ice protection for operation, for—
the various components of the airplane (1) A time duration of at least 10 min-
is adequate, taking into account the utes, including an aggregate time dura-
various airplane operational configura- tion of at least 5 minutes of announce-
tions; and ments made by flight and cabin crew-
(b) To verify the ice protection anal- members, considering all other loads
ysis, to check for icing anomalies, and which may remain powered by the
to demonstrate that the ice protection same source when all other power
system and its components are effec- sources are inoperative; and
tive, the airplane or its components (2) An additional time duration in its
must be flight tested in the various standby state appropriate or required
operational configurations, in meas- for any other loads that are powered by
ured natural atmospheric icing condi- the same source and that are essential
tions and, as found necessary, by one to safety of flight or required during
or more of the following means: emergency conditions.
(1) Laboratory dry air or simulated (b) Be capable of operation within 10
icing tests, or a combination of both, of seconds by a flight attendant at those
the components or models of the com- stations in the passenger compartment
ponents. from which the system is accessible.
(2) Flight dry air tests of the ice pro- (c) Be intelligible at all passenger
tection system as a whole, or of its in- seats, lavatories, and flight attendant
dividual components. seats and work stations.
(3) Flight tests of the airplane or its (d) Be designed so that no unused,
components in measured simulated unstowed microphone will render the
icing conditions. system inoperative.
(c) Caution information, such as an (e) Be capable of functioning inde-
amber caution light or equivalent, pendently of any required crewmember
must be provided to alert the interphone system.
flightcrew when the anti-ice or de-ice (f) Be accessible for immediate use
system is not functioning normally. from each of two flight crewmember
(d) For turbine engine powered air- stations in the pilot compartment.
planes, the ice protection provisions of (g) For each required floor-level pas-
this section are considered to be appli- senger emergency exit which has an ad-
cable primarily to the airframe. For jacent flight attendant seat, have a
the powerplant installation, certain ad- microphone which is readily accessible
ditional provisions of subpart E of this to the seated flight attendant, except
part may be found applicable. that one microphone may serve more
than one exit, provided the proximity
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]
of the exits allows unassisted verbal
§ 25.1421 Megaphones. communication between seated flight
attendants.
If a megaphone is installed, a re-
straining means must be provided that [Doc. No. 26003, 58 FR 45229, Aug. 26, 1993]
is capable of restraining the mega-
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
phone when it is subjected to the ulti-
mate inertia forces specified in § 25.1431 Electronic equipment.
§ 25.561(b)(3).
(a) In showing compliance with
[Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977] § 25.1309 (a) and (b) with respect to
radio and electronic equipment and
§ 25.1423 Public address system. their installations, critical environ-
A public address system required by mental conditions must be considered.
this chapter must— (b) Radio and electronic equipment
(a) Be powerable when the aircraft is must be supplied with power under the
in flight or stopped on the ground, requirements of § 25.1355(c).
after the shutdown or failure of all en- (c) Radio and electronic equipment,
gines and auxiliary power units, or the controls, and wiring must be installed
disconnection or failure of all power so that operation of any one unit or

457
§ 25.1433 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

system of units will not adversely af- failure conditions. Endurance tests
fect the simultaneous operation of any must simulate the repeated complete
other radio or electronic unit, or sys- flights that could be expected to occur
tem of units, required by this chapter. in service. Elements which fail during
the tests must be modified in order to
§ 25.1433 Vacuum systems. have the design deficiency corrected
There must be means, in addition to and, where necessary, must be suffi-
the normal pressure relief, to auto- ciently retested. Simulation of operat-
matically relieve the pressure in the ing and environmental conditions must
discharge lines from the vacuum air be completed on elements and appro-
pump when the delivery temperature of priate portions of the hydraulic system
the air becomes unsafe. to the extent necessary to evaluate the
environmental effects. Compliance
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29785, July 20,
with § 25.1309 must take into account
1990] the following:
(i) Static and dynamic loads includ-
§ 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. ing flight, ground, pilot, hydrostatic,
(a) Design. (1) Each element of the inertial and thermally induced loads,
hydraulic system must be designed to and combinations thereof.
withstand, without deformation that (ii) Motion, vibration, pressure tran-
would prevent it from performing its sients, and fatigue.
intended function, the design operating (iii) Abrasion, corrosion, and erosion.
(iv) Fluid and material compatibil-
pressure loads in combination with
ity.
limit structural loads which may be
(v) Leakage and wear.
imposed.
(c) Fire protection. Each hydraulic
(2) Each element of the hydraulic
system using flammable hydraulic
system must be able to withstand,
fluid must meet the applicable require-
without rupture, the design operating
ments of §§ 25.863, 25.1183, 25.1185, and
pressure loads multiplied by a factor of
25.1189.
1.5 in combination with ultimate struc-
tural loads that can reasonably occur [Amdt. 25–13, 32 FR 9154, June 28, 1967, as
simultaneously. Design operating pres- amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18,
sure is maximum normal operating 1977; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]
pressure, excluding transient pressure.
§ 25.1438 Pressurization and pneu-
(b) Tests and analysis. (1) A complete matic systems.
hydraulic system must be static tested
to show that it can withstand 1.5 times (a) Pressurization system elements
the design operating pressure without must be burst pressure tested to 2.0
a deformation of any part of the sys- times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5
tem that would prevent it from per- times, the maximum normal operating
forming its intended function. Clear- pressure.
ance between structural members and (b) Pneumatic system elements must
hydraulic system elements must be be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times,
adequate and there must be no perma- and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times,
nent detrimental deformation. For the the maximum normal operating pres-
purpose of this test, the pressure relief sure.
valve may be made inoperable to per- (c) An analysis, or a combination of
mit application of the required pres- analysis and test, may be substituted
sure. for any test required by paragraph (a)
(2) Compliance with § 25.1309 for hy- or (b) of this section if the Adminis-
draulic systems must be shown by trator finds it equivalent to the re-
functional tests, endurance tests, and quired test.
analyses. The entire system, or appro- [Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977]
priate subsystems, must be tested in an
airplane or in a mock-up installation § 25.1439 Protective breathing equip-
to determine proper performance and ment.
proper relation to other aircraft sys- (a) If there is a class A, B, or E cargo
tems. The functional tests must in- compartment, protective breathing
clude simulation of hydraulic system equipment must be installed for the

458
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1443

use of appropriate crewmembers. In ad- (6) The equipment must meet the re-
dition, protective breathing equipment quirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of
must be installed in each isolated sepa- § 25.1441.
rate compartment in the airplane, in- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
cluding upper and lower lobe galleys, in amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20,
which crewmember occupancy is per- 1976]
mitted during flight for the maximum
number of crewmembers expected to be § 25.1441 Oxygen equipment and sup-
in the area during any operation. ply.
(b) For protective breathing equip- (a) If certification with supplemental
ment required by paragraph (a) of this oxygen equipment is requested, the
section or by any operating rule of this equipment must meet the requirements
chapter, the following apply: of this section and §§ 25.1443 through
(1) The equipment must be designed 25.1453.
to protect the flight crew from smoke, (b) The oxygen system must be free
from hazards in itself, in its method of
carbon dioxide, and other harmful
operation, and in its effect upon other
gases while on flight deck duty and
components.
while combating fires in cargo com- (c) There must be a means to allow
partments. the crew to readily determine, during
(2) The equipment must include— flight, the quantity of oxygen available
(i) Masks covering the eyes, nose, and in each source of supply.
mouth; or (d) The oxygen flow rate and the oxy-
(ii) Masks covering the nose and gen equipment for airplanes for which
mouth, plus accessory equipment to certification for operation above 40,000
cover the eyes. feet is requested must be approved.
(3) The equipment, while in use, must
allow the flight crew to use the radio § 25.1443 Minimum mass flow of sup-
plemental oxygen.
equipment and to communicate with
each other, while at their assigned (a) If continuous flow equipment is
duty stations. installed for use by flight crew-
(4) The part of the equipment pro- members, the minimum mass flow of
tecting the eyes may not cause any ap- supplemental oxygen required for each
preciable adverse effect on vision and crewmember may not be less than the
must allow corrective glasses to be flow required to maintain, during in-
worn. spiration, a mean tracheal oxygen par-
tial pressure of 149 mm. Hg. when
(5) The equipment must supply pro-
breathing 15 liters per minute, BTPS,
tective oxygen of 15 minutes duration
and with a maximum tidal volume of
per crewmember at a pressure altitude
700 cc. with a constant time interval
of 8,000 feet with a respiratory minute between respirations.
volume of 30 liters per minute BTPD. If (b) If demand equipment is installed
a demand oxygen system is used, a sup- for use by flight crewmembers, the
ply of 300 liters of free oxygen at 70° F. minimum mass flow of supplemental
and 760 mm. Hg. pressure is considered oxygen required for each crewmember
to be of 15-minute duration at the pre- may not be less than the flow required
scribed altitude and minute volume. If to maintain, during inspiration, a
a continuous flow protective breathing mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure
system is used (including a mask with of 122 mm. Hg., up to and including a
a standard rebreather bag) a flow rate cabin pressure altitude of 35,000 feet,
of 60 liters per minute at 8,000 feet (45 and 95 percent oxygen between cabin
liters per minute at sea level) and a pressure altitudes of 35,000 and 40,000
supply of 600 liters of free oxygen at 70° feet, when breathing 20 liters per
F. and 760 mm. Hg. pressure is consid- minute BTPS. In addition, there must
ered to be of 15–minute duration at the be means to allow the crew to use undi-
prescribed altitude and minute volume. luted oxygen at their discretion.
BTPD refers to body temperature con- (c) For passengers and cabin attend-
ditions (that is, 37° C., at ambient pres- ants, the minimum mass flow of sup-
sure, dry). plemental oxygen required for each

459
§ 25.1445 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

person at various cabin pressure alti- § 25.1447 Equipment standards for ox-
tudes may not be less than the flow re- ygen dispensing units.
quired to maintain, during inspiration If oxygen dispensing units are in-
and while using the oxygen equipment stalled, the following apply:
(including masks) provided, the follow- (a) There must be an individual dis-
ing mean tracheal oxygen partial pres- pensing unit for each occupant for
sures: whom supplemental oxygen is to be
(1) At cabin pressure altitudes above supplied. Units must be designed to
10,000 feet up to and including 18,500 cover the nose and mouth and must be
feet, a mean tracheal oxygen partial equipped with a suitable means to re-
pressure of 100 mm. Hg. when breathing tain the unit in position on the face.
15 liters per minute, BTPS, and with a Flight crew masks for supplemental
tidal volume of 700 cc. with a constant oxygen must have provisions for the
time interval between respirations. use of communication equipment.
(2) At cabin pressure altitudes above (b) If certification for operation up to
18,500 feet up to and including 40,000 and including 25,000 feet is requested,
feet, a mean tracheal oxygen partial an oxygen supply terminal and unit of
pressure of 83.8 mm. Hg. when breath- oxygen dispensing equipment for the
ing 30 liters per minute, BTPS, and immediate use of oxygen by each crew-
with a tidal volume of 1,100 cc. with a member must be within easy reach of
constant time interval between res- that crewmember. For any other occu-
pirations. pants, the supply terminals and dis-
(d) If first-aid oxygen equipment is pensing equipment must be located to
installed, the minimum mass flow of allow the use of oxygen as required by
oxygen to each user may not be less the operating rules in this chapter.
than four liters per minute, STPD. (c) If certification for operation
However, there may be a means to de- above 25,000 feet is requested, there
crease this flow to not less than two li- must be oxygen dispensing equipment
ters per minute, STPD, at any cabin al- meeting the following requirements:
titude. The quantity of oxygen re- (1) There must be an oxygen dispens-
quired is based upon an average flow ing unit connected to oxygen supply
rate of three liters per minute per per- terminals immediately available to
son for whom first-aid oxygen is re- each occupant, wherever seated, and at
quired. least two oxygen dispensing units con-
(e) If portable oxygen equipment is nected to oxygen terminals in each lav-
installed for use by crewmembers, the atory. The total number of dispensing
minimum mass flow of supplemental units and outlets in the cabin must ex-
oxygen is the same as specified in para- ceed the number of seats by at least 10
graph (a) or (b) of this section, which- percent. The extra units must be as
ever is applicable. uniformly distributed throughout the
cabin as practicable. If certification for
§ 25.1445 Equipment standards for the operation above 30,000 feet is requested,
oxygen distributing system. the dispensing units providing the re-
(a) When oxygen is supplied to both quired oxygen flow must be automati-
crew and passengers, the distribution cally presented to the occupants before
system must be designed for either— the cabin pressure altitude exceeds
(1) A source of supply for the flight 15,000 feet. The crew must be provided
crew on duty and a separate source for with a manual means of making the
the passengers and other crewmembers; dispensing units immediately available
or in the event of failure of the automatic
(2) A common source of supply with system.
means to separately reserve the mini- (2) Each flight crewmember on flight
mum supply required by the flight crew deck duty must be provided with a
on duty. quick-donning type oxygen dispensing
(b) Portable walk-around oxygen unit connected to an oxygen supply
units of the continuous flow, diluter- terminal. This dispensing unit must be
demand, and straight demand kinds immediately available to the flight
may be used to meet the crew or pas- crewmember when seated at his sta-
senger breathing requirements. tion, and installed so that it:

460
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1457

(i) Can be placed on the face from its (2) Means must be provided to relieve
ready position, properly secured, any internal pressure that may be haz-
sealed, and supplying oxygen upon de- ardous.
mand, with one hand, within five sec- (c) In addition to meeting the re-
onds and without disturbing eyeglasses quirements in paragraph (b) of this sec-
or causing delay in proceeding with tion, each portable chemical oxygen
emergency duties; and generator that is capable of sustained
(ii) Allows, while in place, the per- operation by successive replacement of
formance of normal communication a generator element must be placarded
functions. to show—
(3) The oxygen dispensing equipment (1) The rate of oxygen flow, in liters
for the flight crewmembers must be: per minute;
(2) The duration of oxygen flow, in
(i) The diluter demand or pressure de-
minutes, for the replaceable generator
mand (pressure demand mask with a
element; and
diluter demand pressure breathing reg-
(3) A warning that the replaceable
ulator) type, or other approved oxygen
generator element may be hot, unless
equipment shown to provide the same
the element construction is such that
degree of protection, for airplanes to be
the surface temperature cannot exceed
operated above 25,000 feet. 100 degrees F.
(ii) The pressure demand (pressure
demand mask with a diluter demand [Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977]
pressure breathing regulator) type with
§ 25.1453 Protection of oxygen equip-
mask-mounted regulator, or other ap- ment from rupture.
proved oxygen equipment shown to
provide the same degree of protection, Oxygen pressure tanks, and lines be-
for airplanes operated at altitudes tween tanks and the shutoff means,
where decompressions that are not ex- must be—
tremely improbable may expose the (a) Protected from unsafe tempera-
flightcrew to cabin pressure altitudes tures; and
in excess of 34,000 feet. (b) Located where the probability and
(4) Portable oxygen equipment must hazards of rupture in a crash landing
be immediately available for each are minimized.
cabin attendant. § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as freezing.
amended by Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, If fluids subject to freezing may be
1977; Amdt. 25–87, 61 FR 28696, June 5, 1996] drained overboard in flight or during
ground operation, the drains must be
§ 25.1449 Means for determining use of designed and located to prevent the
oxygen.
formation of hazardous quantities of
There must be a means to allow the ice on the airplane as a result of the
crew to determine whether oxygen is drainage.
being delivered to the dispensing equip-
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5680, Apr. 8, 1970]
ment.
§ 25.1457 Cockpit voice recorders.
§ 25.1450 Chemical oxygen generators.
(a) Each cockpit voice recorder re-
(a) For the purpose of this section, a quired by the operating rules of this
chemical oxygen generator is defined chapter must be approved and must be
as a device which produces oxygen by installed so that it will record the fol-
chemical reaction. lowing:
(b) Each chemical oxygen generator (1) Voice communications transmit-
must be designed and installed in ac- ted from or received in the airplane by
cordance with the following require- radio.
ments: (2) Voice communications of flight
(1) Surface temperature developed by crewmembers on the flight deck.
the generator during operation may (3) Voice communications of flight
not create a hazard to the airplane or crewmembers on the flight deck, using
to its occupants. the airplane’s interphone system.

461
§ 25.1457 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(4) Voice or audio signals identifying system, if its signals are not picked up
navigation or approach aids introduced by another channel.
into a headset or speaker. (5) As far as is practicable all sounds
(5) Voice communications of flight received by the microphone listed in
crewmembers using the passenger loud- paragraphs (c)(1), (2), and (4) of this
speaker system, if there is such a sys- section must be recorded without
tem and if the fourth channel is avail- interruption irrespective of the posi-
able in accordance with the require- tion of the interphone-transmitter key
ments of paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this sec- switch. The design shall ensure that
tion. sidetone for the flight crew is produced
(b) The recording requirements of only when the interphone, public ad-
paragraph (a)(2) of this section must be dress system, or radio transmitters are
met by installing a cockpit-mounted in use.
area microphone, located in the best (d) Each cockpit voice recorder must
position for recording voice commu- be installed so that—
nications originating at the first and (1) It receives its electric power from
second pilot stations and voice commu- the bus that provides the maximum re-
nications of other crewmembers on the liability for operation of the cockpit
flight deck when directed to those sta- voice recorder without jeopardizing
tions. The microphone must be so lo- service to essential or emergency
cated and, if necessary, the pre- loads;
amplifiers and filters of the recorder (2) There is an automatic means to
must be so adjusted or supplemented, simultaneously stop the recorder and
that the intelligibility of the recorded prevent each erasure feature from func-
communications is as high as prac- tioning, within 10 minutes after crash
ticable when recorded under flight
impact; and
cockpit noise conditions and played
(3) There is an aural or visual means
back. Repeated aural or visual play-
back of the record may be used in eval- for preflight checking of the recorder
uating intelligibility. for proper operation.
(c) Each cockpit voice recorder must (e) The record container must be lo-
be installed so that the part of the cated and mounted to minimize the
communication or audio signals speci- probability of rupture of the container
fied in paragraph (a) of this section ob- as a result of crash impact and con-
tained from each of the following sequent heat damage to the record
sources is recorded on a separate chan- from fire. In meeting this requirement,
nel: the record container must be as far aft
(1) For the first channel, from each as practicable, but may not be where
boom, mask, or hand-held microphone, aft mounted engines may crush the
headset, or speaker used at the first container during impact. However, it
pilot station. need not be outside of the pressurized
(2) For the second channel from each compartment.
boom, mask, or hand-held microphone, (f) If the cockpit voice recorder has a
headset, or speaker used at the second bulk erasure device, the installation
pilot station. must be designed to minimize the prob-
(3) For the third channel—from the ability of inadvertent operation and ac-
cockpit-mounted area microphone. tuation of the device during crash im-
(4) For the fourth channel, from— pact.
(i) Each boom, mask, or hand-held (g) Each recorder container must—
microphone, headset, or speaker used (1) Be either bright orange or bright
at the station for the third and fourth yellow;
crew members; or (2) Have reflective tape affixed to its
(ii) If the stations specified in para- external surface to facilitate its loca-
graph (c)(4)(i) of this section are not re- tion under water; and
quired or if the signal at such a station (3) Have an underwater locating de-
is picked up by another channel, each vice, when required by the operating
microphone on the flight deck that is rules of this chapter, on or adjacent to
used with the passenger loudspeaker the container which is secured in such

462
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1461

manner that they are not likely to be (c) A correlation must be established
separated during crash impact. between the flight recorder readings of
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
airspeed, altitude, and heading and the
amended by Amdt. 25–2, 30 FR 3932, Mar. 26, corresponding readings (taking into ac-
1965; Amdt. 25–16, 32 FR 13914, Oct. 6, 1967; count correction factors) of the first pi-
Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977; Amdt. lot’s instruments. The correlation
25–65, 53 FR 26143, July 11, 1988] must cover the airspeed range over
which the airplane is to be operated,
§ 25.1459 Flight recorders. the range of altitude to which the air-
(a) Each flight recorder required by plane is limited, and 360 degrees of
the operating rules of this chapter heading. Correlation may be estab-
must be installed so that— lished on the ground as appropriate.
(1) It is supplied with airspeed, alti- (d) Each recorder container must—
tude, and directional data obtained (1) Be either bright orange or bright
from sources that meet the accuracy yellow;
requirements of §§ 25.1323, 25.1325, and (2) Have reflective tape affixed to its
25.1327, as appropriate; external surface to facilitate its loca-
(2) The vertical acceleration sensor is tion under water; and
rigidly attached, and located longitu- (3) Have an underwater locating de-
dinally either within the approved cen- vice, when required by the operating
ter of gravity limits of the airplane, or rules of this chapter, on or adjacent to
at a distance forward or aft of these the container which is secured in such
limits that does not exceed 25 percent a manner that they are not likely to be
of the airplane’s mean aerodynamic separated during crash impact.
chord; (e) Any novel or unique design or
(3) It receives its electrical power operational characteristics of the air-
from the bus that provides the maxi- craft shall be evaluated to determine if
mum reliability for operation of the any dedicated parameters must be re-
flight recorder without jeopardizing corded on flight recorders in addition
service to essential or emergency to or in place of existing requirements.
loads; [Amdt. 25–8, 31 FR 127, Jan. 6, 1966, as amend-
(4) There is an aural or visual means ed by Amdt. 25–25, 35 FR 13192, Aug. 19, 1970;
for preflight checking of the recorder Amdt. 25–37, 40 FR 2577, Jan. 14, 1975; Amdt.
for proper recording of data in the stor- 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25–65,
age medium. 53 FR 26144, July 11, 1988]
(5) Except for recorders powered sole-
ly by the engine-driven electrical gen- § 25.1461 Equipment containing high
erator system, there is an automatic energy rotors.
means to simultaneously stop a re- (a) Equipment containing high en-
corder that has a data erasure feature ergy rotors must meet paragraph (b),
and prevent each erasure feature from (c), or (d) of this section.
functioning, within 10 minutes after (b) High energy rotors contained in
crash impact; and equipment must be able to withstand
(6) There is a means to record data damage caused by malfunctions, vibra-
from which the time of each radio tion, abnormal speeds, and abnormal
transmission either to or from ATC can temperatures. In addition—
be determined. (1) Auxiliary rotor cases must be able
(b) Each nonejectable record con- to contain damage caused by the fail-
tainer must be located and mounted so ure of high energy rotor blades; and
as to minimize the probability of con- (2) Equipment control devices, sys-
tainer rupture resulting from crash im- tems, and instrumentation must rea-
pact and subsequent damage to the sonably ensure that no operating limi-
record from fire. In meeting this re- tations affecting the integrity of high
quirement the record container must energy rotors will be exceeded in serv-
be located as far aft as practicable, but ice.
need not be aft of the pressurized com- (c) It must be shown by test that
partment, and may not be where aft- equipment containing high energy ro-
mounted engines may crush the con- tors can contain any failure of a high
tainer upon impact. energy rotor that occurs at the highest

463
§ 25.1501 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

speed obtainable with the normal speed § 25.1507 Maneuvering speed.


control devices inoperative.
(d) Equipment containing high en- The maneuvering speed must be es-
ergy rotors must be located where tablished so that it does not exceed the
rotor failure will neither endanger the design maneuvering speed VA deter-
occupants nor adversely affect contin- mined under § 25.335(c).
ued safe flight.
§ 25.1511 Flap extended speed.
[Amdt. 25–41, 42 FR 36971, July 18, 1977]
The established flap extended speed
VFE must be established so that it does
Subpart G—Operating Limitations not exceed the design flap speed VF
and Information chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for
§ 25.1501 General. the corresponding flap positions and
engine powers.
(a) Each operating limitation speci-
fied in §§ 25.1503 through 25.1533 and § 25.1513 Minimum control speed.
other limitations and information nec-
essary for safe operation must be es- The minimum control speed VMC de-
tablished. termined under § 25.149 must be estab-
(b) The operating limitations and lished as an operating limitation.
other information necessary for safe
operation must be made available to § 25.1515 Landing gear speeds.
the crewmembers as prescribed in (a) The established landing gear oper-
§§ 25.1541 through 25.1587. ating speed or speeds, VLO, may not ex-
[Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978] ceed the speed at which it is safe both
to extend and to retract the landing
OPERATING LIMITATIONS gear, as determined under § 25.729 or by
flight characteristics. If the extension
§ 25.1503 Airspeed limitations: general. speed is not the same as the retraction
When airspeed limitations are a func- speed, the two speeds must be des-
tion of weight, weight distribution, al- ignated as VLO(EXT) and VLO(RET), re-
titude, or Mach number, limitations spectively.
corresponding to each critical com- (b) The established landing gear ex-
bination of these factors must be estab- tended speed VLE may not exceed the
lished. speed at which it is safe to fly with the
landing gear secured in the fully ex-
§ 25.1505 Maximum operating limit tended position, and that determined
speed.
under § 25.729.
The maximum operating limit speed
(VMO/MMO airspeed or Mach Number, [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
whichever is critical at a particular al- amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20,
titude) is a speed that may not be de- 1976]
liberately exceeded in any regime of
§ 25.1517 Rough air speed, VRA.
flight (climb, cruise, or descent), unless
a higher speed is authorized for flight A rough air speed, VRA, for use as the
test or pilot training operations. VMO/ recommended turbulence penetration
MMO must be established so that it is airspeed in § 25.1585(a)(8), must be es-
not greater than the design cruising tablished, which—
speed VC and so that it is sufficiently (1) Is not greater than the design air-
below VD/MD or VDF/MDF, to make it speed for maximum gust intensity, se-
highly improbable that the latter lected for VB; and
speeds will be inadvertently exceeded (2) Is not less than the minimum
in operations. The speed margin be- value of VB specified in § 25.335(d); and
tween VMO/MMO and VD/MD or VDFM/DF (3) Is sufficiently less than VMO to en-
may not be less than that determined sure that likely speed variation during
under § 25.335(b) or found necessary dur- rough air encounters will not cause the
ing the flight tests conducted under overspeed warning to operate too fre-
§ 25.253. quently. In the absence of a rational
[Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5680, Apr. 8, 1970] investigation substantiating the use of

464
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1527

other values, VRA must be less than (2) Fuel designation or specification.
VMO—35 knots (TAS). (3) Any other parameter for which a
[Doc. No. 27902, 61 FR 5222, Feb. 9, 1996] limitation has been established as part
of the engine type certificate except
§ 25.1519 Weight, center of gravity, and that a limitation need not be estab-
weight distribution. lished for a parameter that cannot be
The airplane weight, center of grav- exceeded during normal operation due
ity, and weight distribution limita- to the design of the installation or to
tions determined under §§ 25.23 through another established limitation.
25.27 must be established as operating (d) Ambient temperature. An ambient
limitations. temperature limitation (including lim-
itations for winterization installations,
§ 25.1521 Powerplant limitations. if applicable) must be established as
(a) General. The powerplant limita- the maximum ambient atmospheric
tions prescribed in this section must be temperature established in accordance
established so that they do not exceed with § 25.1043(b).
the corresponding limits for which the [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]
engines or propellers are type certifi-
cated and do not exceed the values on § 25.1522 Auxiliary power unit limita-
which compliance with any other re- tions.
quirement of this part is based.
(b) Reciprocating engine installations. If an auxiliary power unit is installed
Operating limitations relating to the in the airplane, limitations established
following must be established for recip- for the auxiliary power unit, including
rocating engine installations: categories of operation, must be speci-
(1) Horsepower or torque, r.p.m., fied as operating limitations for the
manifold pressure, and time at critical airplane.
pressure altitude and sea level pressure [Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990]
altitude for—
(i) Maximum continuous power (re- § 25.1523 Minimum flight crew.
lating to unsupercharged operation or
The minimum flight crew must be es-
to operation in each supercharger mode
tablished so that it is sufficient for safe
as applicable); and
operation, considering—
(ii) Takeoff power (relating to unsu-
percharged operation or to operation in (a) The workload on individual crew-
each supercharger mode as applicable). members;
(2) Fuel grade or specification. (b) The accessibility and ease of oper-
(3) Cylinder head and oil tempera- ation of necessary controls by the ap-
tures. propriate crewmember; and
(4) Any other parameter for which a (c) The kind of operation authorized
limitation has been established as part under § 25.1525.
of the engine type certificate except The criteria used in making the deter-
that a limitation need not be estab- minations required by this section are
lished for a parameter that cannot be set forth in appendix D.
exceeded during normal operation due
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
to the design of the installation or to
amended by Amdt. 25–3, 30 FR 6067, Apr. 29,
another established limitation. 1965]
(c) Turbine engine installations. Oper-
ating limitations relating to the fol- § 25.1525 Kinds of operation.
lowing must be established for turbine
engine installations: The kinds of operation to which the
(1) Horsepower, torque or thrust, airplane is limited are established by
r.p.m., gas temperature, and time for— the category in which it is eligible for
(i) Maximum continuous power or certification and by the installed
thrust (relating to augmented or un- equipment.
augmented operation as applicable).
(ii) Takeoff power or thrust (relating § 25.1527 Maximum operating altitude.
to augmented or unaugmented oper- The maximum altitude up to which
ation as applicable). operation is allowed, as limited by

465
§ 25.1529 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

flight, structural, powerplant, func- have been designed constructed, and


tional, or equipment characteristics, maintained in a manner acceptable to
must be established. the Administrator.
(b) The extremes for variable factors
§ 25.1529 Instructions for Continued (such as altitude, temperature, wind,
Airworthiness. and runway gradients) are those at
The applicant must prepare Instruc- which compliance with the applicable
tions for Continued Airworthiness in provisions of this part is shown.
accordance with appendix H to this
part that are acceptable to the Admin- [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20,
istrator. The instructions may be in- 1976; Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990;
complete at type certification if a pro- Amdt. 25–92, 63 FR 8321, Feb. 18, 1998]
gram exists to ensure their completion
prior to delivery of the first airplane or MARKINGS AND PLACARDS
issuance of a standard certificate of
airworthiness, whichever occurs later. § 25.1541 General.
[Amdt. 25–54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980] (a) The airplane must contain—
(1) The specified markings and plac-
§ 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load fac- ards; and
tors. (2) Any additional information, in-
Load factor limitations, not exceed- strument markings, and placards re-
ing the positive limit load factors de- quired for the safe operation if there
termined from the maneuvering dia- are unusual design, operating, or han-
gram in § 25.333(b), must be established. dling characteristics.
(b) Each marking and placard pre-
§ 25.1533 Additional operating limita- scribed in paragraph (a) of this sec-
tions.
tion—
(a) Additional operating limitations (1) Must be displayed in a conspicu-
must be established as follows: ous place; and
(1) The maximum takeoff weights (2) May not be easily erased, dis-
must be established as the weights at figured, or obscured.
which compliance is shown with the
applicable provisions of this part (in- § 25.1543 Instrument markings: gen-
cluding the takeoff climb provisions of eral.
§ 25.121(a) through (c), for altitudes and For each instrument—
ambient temperatures). (a) When markings are on the cover
(2) The maximum landing weights
glass of the instrument, there must be
must be established as the weights at
means to maintain the correct align-
which compliance is shown with the
ment of the glass cover with the face of
applicable provisions of this part (in-
the dial; and
cluding the landing and approach climb
(b) Each instrument marking must
provisions of §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) for
be clearly visible to the appropriate
altitudes and ambient temperatures).
crewmember.
(3) The minimum takeoff distances
must be established as the distances at [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
which compliance is shown with the amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20,
applicable provisions of this part (in- 1990]
cluding the provisions of §§ 25.109 and
25.113, for weights, altitudes, tempera- § 25.1545 Airspeed limitation informa-
tion.
tures, wind components, runway sur-
face conditions (dry and wet), and run- The airspeed limitations required by
way gradients) for smooth, hard-sur- § 25.1583 (a) must be easily read and un-
faced runways. Additionally, at the op- derstood by the flight crew.
tion of the applicant, wet runway take-
off distances may be established for § 25.1547 Magnetic direction indicator.
runway surfaces that have been (a) A placard meeting the require-
grooved or treated with a porous fric- ments of this section must be installed
tion course, and may be approved for on, or near, the magnetic direction in-
use on runways where such surfaces dicator.

466
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1557

(b) The placard must show the cali- (1) Each fuel tank selector control
bration of the instrument in level must be marked to indicate the posi-
flight with the engines operating. tion corresponding to each tank and to
(c) The placard must state whether each existing cross feed position;
the calibration was made with radio re- (2) If safe operation requires the use
ceivers on or off. of any tanks in a specific sequence,
(d) Each calibration reading must be that sequence must be marked on, or
in terms of magnetic heading in not adjacent to, the selector for those
more than 45 degree increments. tanks; and
(3) Each valve control for each engine
§ 25.1549 Powerplant and auxiliary must be marked to indicate the posi-
power unit instruments. tion corresponding to each engine con-
For each required powerplant and trolled.
auxiliary power unit instrument, as ap- (d) For accessory, auxiliary, and
propriate to the type of instrument— emergency controls—
(a) Each maximum and, if applicable, (1) Each emergency control (includ-
minimum safe operating limit must be ing each fuel jettisoning and fluid shut-
marked with a red radial or a red line; off must be colored red; and
(b) Each normal operating range (2) Each visual indicator required by
must be marked with a green arc or § 25.729(e) must be marked so that the
green line, not extending beyond the pilot can determine at any time when
maximum and minimum safe limits; the wheels are locked in either extreme
(c) Each takeoff and precautionary position, if retractable landing gear is
range must be marked with a yellow used.
arc or a yellow line; and
(d) Each engine, auxiliary power § 25.1557 Miscellaneous markings and
unit, or propeller speed range that is placards.
restricted because of excessive vibra- (a) Baggage and cargo compartments
tion stresses must be marked with red and ballast location. Each baggage and
arcs or red lines. cargo compartment, and each ballast
[Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977] location must have a placard stating
any limitations on contents, including
§ 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. weight, that are necessary under the
loading requirements. However,
Each oil quantity indicating means underseat compartments designed for
must be marked to indicate the quan- the storage of carry-on articles weigh-
tity of oil readily and accurately. ing not more than 20 pounds need not
[Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990] have a loading limitation placard.
(b) Powerplant fluid filler openings.
§ 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. The following qpply:
If the unusable fuel supply for any (1) Fuel filler openings must be
tank exceeds one gallon, or five per- marked at or near the filler cover
cent of the tank capacity, whichever is with—
greater, a red arc must be marked on (i) The word ‘‘fuel’’;
its indicator extending from the cali- (ii) For reciprocating engine powered
brated zero reading to the lowest read- airplanes, the minimum fuel grade;
ing obtainable in level flight. (iii) For turbine engine powered air-
planes, the permissible fuel designa-
§ 25.1555 Control markings. tions; and
(a) Each cockpit control, other than (iv) For pressure fueling systems, the
primary flight controls and controls maximum permissible fueling supply
whose function is obvious, must be pressure and the maximum permissible
plainly marked as to its function and defueling pressure.
method of operation. (2) Oil filler openings must be
(b) Each aerodynamic control must marked at or near the filler cover with
be marked under the requirements of the word ‘‘oil’’.
§§ 25.677 and 25.699. (3) Augmentation fluid filler open-
(c) For powerplant fuel controls— ings must be marked at or near the

467
§ 25.1561 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

filler cover to identify the required sign, operating, or handling character-


fluid. istics.
(c) Emergency exit placards. Each (3) Any limitation, procedure, or
emergency exit placard must meet the other information established as a con-
requirements of § 25.811. dition of compliance with the applica-
(d) Doors. Each door that must be ble noise standards of part 36 of this
used in order to reach any required chapter.
emergency exit must have a suitable (b) Approved information. Each part of
placard stating that the door is to be the manual listed in §§ 25.1583 through
latched in the open position during 25.1587, that is appropriate to the air-
takeoff and landing. plane, must be furnished, verified, and
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as
approved, and must be segregated,
amended by Amdt. 25–32, 37 FR 3972, Feb. 24, identified, and clearly distinguished
1972; Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec. 20, 1976; from each unapproved part of that
Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20, 1990] manual.
(c) [Reserved]
§ 25.1561 Safety equipment. (d) Each Airplane Flight Manual
(a) Each safety equipment control to must include a table of contents if the
be operated by the crew in emergency, complexity of the manual indicates a
such as controls for automatic liferaft need for it.
releases, must be plainly marked as to [Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978, as
its method of operation. amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29786, July 20,
(b) Each location, such as a locker or 1990]
compartment, that carries any fire ex-
tinguishing, signaling, or other life § 25.1583 Operating limitations.
saving equipment must be marked ac- (a) Airspeed limitations. The following
cordingly. airspeed limitations and any other air-
(c) Stowage provisions for required speed limitations necessary for safe op-
emergency equipment must be con- eration must be furnished:
spicuously marked to identify the con- (1) The maximum operating limit
tents and facilitate the easy removal of speed VMO/MMO and a statement that
the equipment. this speed limit may not be delib-
(d) Each liferaft must have obviously erately exceeded in any regime of
marked operating instructions. flight (climb, cruise, or descent) unless
(e) Approved survival equipment a higher speed is authorized for flight
must be marked for identification and test or pilot training.
method of operation. (2) If an airspeed limitation is based
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as upon compressibility effects, a state-
amended by Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, ment to this effect and information as
1978] to any symptoms, the probable behav-
ior of the airplane, and the rec-
§ 25.1563 Airspeed placard. ommended recovery procedures.
A placard showing the maximum air- (3) The maneuvering speed VA and a
speeds for flap extension for the take- statement that full application of rud-
off, approach, and landing positions der and aileron controls, as well as ma-
must be installed in clear view of each neuvers that involve angles of attack
pilot. near the stall, should be confined to
speeds below this value.
AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL (4) The flap extended speed VFE and
the pertinent flap positions and engine
§ 25.1581 General. powers.
(a) Furnishing information. An Air- (5) The landing gear operating speed
plane Flight Manual must be furnished or speeds, and a statement explaining
with each airplane, and it must contain the speeds as defined in § 25.1515(a).
the following: (6) The landing gear extended speed
(1) Information required by §§ 25.1583 VLE, if greater than VLO, and a state-
through 25.1587. ment that this is the maximum speed
(2) Other information that is nec- at which the airplane can be safely
essary for safe operation because of de- flown with the landing gear extended.

468
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT § 25.1585

(b) Powerplant limitations. The follow- § 25.1585 Operating procedures.


ing information must be furnished: (a) Information and instructions re-
(1) Limitations required by § 25.1521 garding the peculiarities of normal op-
and § 25.1522. erations (including starting and warm-
(2) Explanation of the limitations, ing the engines, taxiing, operation of
when appropriate. wing flaps, landing gear, and the auto-
(3) Information necessary for mark- matic pilot) must be furnished, to-
ing the instruments required by gether with recommended procedures
§§ 25.1549 through 25.1553. for—
(c) Weight and loading distribution. (1) Engine failure (including mini-
The weight and center of gravity limits mum speeds, trim, operation of the re-
required by §§ 25.25 and 25.27 must be maining engines, and operation of
furnished in the Airplane Flight Man- flaps);
(2) Stopping the rotation of propel-
ual. All of the following information
lers in flight;
must be presented either in the Air- (3) Restarting turbine engines in
plane Flight Manual or in a separate flight (including the effects of alti-
weight and balance control and loading tude);
document which is incorporated by ref- (4) Fire, decompression, and similar
erence in the Airplane Flight Manual: emergencies;
(1) The condition of the airplane and (5) Ditching (including the proce-
the items included in the empty weight dures based on the requirements of
as defined in accordance with § 25.29. §§ 25.801, 25.807(d), 25.1411, and 25.1415 (a)
(2) Loading instructions necessary to through (e));
ensure loading of the airplane within (6) Use of ice protection equipment;
the weight and center of gravity limits, (7) Use of fuel jettisoning equipment,
and to maintain the loading within including any operating precautions
these limits in flight. relevant to the use of the system;
(3) If certification for more than one (8) Operation in turbulence for tur-
bine powered airplanes (including rec-
center of gravity range is requested,
ommended turbulence penetration air-
the appropriate limitations, with re-
speeds, flight peculiarities, and special
gard to weight and loading procedures,
control instructions);
for each separate center of gravity (9) Restoring a deployed thrust re-
range. verser intended for ground operation
(d) Flight crew. The number and func- only to the forward thrust position in
tions of the minimum flight crew de- fight or continuing fight and landing
termined under § 25.1523 must be fur- with the thrust reverser in any posi-
nished. tion except forward thrust; and
(e) Kinds of operation. The kinds of (10) Disconnecting the battery from
operation approved under § 25.1525 must its charging source, if compliance is
be furnished. shown with § 25.1353 (c)(6)(ii) or
(f) Altitudes. The altitude established (c)(6)(iii).
under § 25.1527. (b) Information identifying each op-
(g) [Reserved] erating condition in which the fuel sys-
(h) Additional operating limitations. tem independence prescribed in § 25.953
is necessary for safety must be fur-
The operating limitations established
nished, together with instructions for
under §25.1533 must be furnished.
placing the fuel system in a configura-
(i) Maneuvering flight load factors. The tion used to show compliance with that
positive maneuvering limit load fac- section.
tors for which the structure is proven, (c) The buffet onset envelopes deter-
described in terms of accelerations, mined under § 25.251 must be furnished.
must be furnished. The buffet onset envelopes presented
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 1891, Dec. 24, 1964, as may reflect the center of gravity at
amended by Amdt. 25–38, 41 FR 55468, Dec, 20, which the airplane is normally loaded
1976; Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan. 16, 1978; during cruise if corrections for the ef-
Amdt. 25–46, 43 FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. fect of different center of gravity loca-
25–72, 55 FR 29787, July 20, 1990] tions are furnished.

469
§ 25.1587 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

(d) Information must be furnished the airplane, and must contain the fol-
which indicates that when the fuel lowing:
quantity indicator reads ‘‘zero’’ in (1) The conditions under which the
level flight, any fuel remaining in the performance information was obtained,
fuel tank cannot be used safely in including the speeds associated with
flight. the performance information.
(e) Information on the total quantity (2) VS determined in accordance with
of usable fuel for each fuel tank must § 25.103.
be furnished. (3) The following performance infor-
mation (determined by extrapolation
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as and computed for the range of weights
amended by Amdt. 25–11, 32 FR 6913, May 5, between the maximum landing and
1967; Amdt. 25–23, 35 FR 5680, Apr. 8, 1970; maximum takeoff weights):
Amdt. 25–40, 42 FR 15044, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt. (i) Climb in the landing configura-
25–42, 43 FR 2323, Jan 16, 1978; Amdt. 25–46, 43
tion.
FR 50598, Oct. 30, 1978]
(ii) Climb in the approach configura-
§ 25.1587 Performance information. tion.
(iii) Landing distance.
(a) Each Airplane Flight Manual (4) Procedures established under
must contain information to permit § 25.101 (f), (g), and (h) that are related
conversion of the indicated tempera- to the limitations and information re-
ture to free air temperature if other quired by § 25.1533 and by this para-
than a free air temperature indicator is graph. These procedures must be in the
used to comply with the requirements form of guidance material, including
of § 25.1303(a)(1). any relevant limitations or informa-
(b) Each Airplane Flight Manual tion.
must contain the performance informa- (5) An explanation of significant or
tion computed under the applicable unusual flight or ground handling char-
provisions of this part for the weights, acteristics of the airplane.
altitudes, temperatures, wind compo- [Amdt. 25–42, 43 FR 2324, Jan. 16, 1978, as
nents, and runway gradients, as appli- amended by Amdt. 25–72, 55 FR 29787, July 20,
cable, within the operational limits of 1990]

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Pt. 25, App. C 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

APPENDIX C TO PART 25 (b) Intermittent maximum icing. The inter-


mittent maximum intensity of atmospheric
(a) Continuous maximum icing. The maxi- icing conditions (intermittent maximum
mum continuous intensity of atmospheric icing) is defined by the variables of the cloud
icing conditions (continuous maximum liquid water content, the mean effective di-
icing) is defined by the variables of the cloud
ameter of the cloud droplets, the ambient air
liquid water content, the mean effective di-
temperature, and the interrelationship of
ameter of the cloud droplets, the ambient air
temperature, and the interrelationship of these three variables as shown in figure 4 of
these three variables as shown in figure 1 of this appendix. The limiting icing envelope in
this appendix. The limiting icing envelope in terms of altitude and temperature is given in
terms of altitude and temperature is given in figure 5 of this appendix. The inter-relation-
figure 2 of this appendix. The inter-relation- ship of cloud liquid water content with drop
ship of cloud liquid water content with drop diameter and altitude is determined from
diameter and altitude is determined from figures 4 and 5. The cloud liquid water con-
figures 1 and 2. The cloud liquid water con- tent for intermittent maximum icing condi-
tent for continuous maximum icing condi- tions of a horizontal extent, other than 2.6
tions of a horizontal extent, other than 17.4 nautical miles, is determined by the value of
nautical miles, is determined by the value of cloud liquid water content of figure 4 multi-
liquid water content of figure 1, multiplied plied by the appropriate factor in figure 6 of
by the appropriate factor from figure 3 of this appendix.
this appendix.

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Pt. 25, App. D 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)

APPENDIX D TO PART 25 (a) Basic workload functions. The following


basic workload functions are considered:
Criteria for determining minimum flight crew. (1) Flight path control.
The following are considered by the Agency (2) Collision avoidance.
in determining the minimum flight crew (3) Navigation.
under § 25.1523: (4) Communications.

484
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 25, App. E
(5) Operation and monitoring of aircraft that each airplane certificated under this
engines and systems. Part will operate under IFR conditions.
(6) Command decisions. [Amdt. 25–3, 30 FR 6067, Apr. 29, 1965]
(b) Workload factors. The following work-
load factors are considered significant when APPENDIX E TO PART 25
analyzing and demonstrating workload for
minimum flight crew determination: I—Limited Weight Credit For Airplanes
(1) The accessibility, ease, and simplicity Equipped With Standby Power
of operation of all necessary flight, power, (a) Each applicant for an increase in the
and equipment controls, including emer- maximum certificated takeoff and landing
gency fuel shutoff valves, electrical controls, weights of an airplane equipped with a type-
electronic controls, pressurization system certificated standby power rocket engine
controls, and engine controls. may obtain an increase as specified in para-
(2) The accessibility and conspicuity of all graph (b) if—
necessary instruments and failure warning (1) The installation of the rocket engine
devices such as fire warning, electrical sys- has been approved and it has been estab-
tem malfunction, and other failure or cau- lished by flight test that the rocket engine
tion indicators. The extent to which such in- and its controls can be operated safely and
struments or devices direct the proper cor- reliably at the increase in maximum weight;
rective action is also considered. and
(3) The number, urgency, and complexity (2) The Airplane Flight Manual, or the
of operating procedures with particular con- placard, markings or manuals required in
sideration given to the specific fuel manage- place thereof, set forth in addition to any
ment schedule imposed by center of gravity, other operating limitations the Adminis-
structural or other considerations of an air- trator may require, the increased weight ap-
worthiness nature, and to the ability of each proved under this regulation and a prohibi-
engine to operate at all times from a single tion against the operation of the airplane at
tank or source which is automatically re- the approved increased weight when—
plenished if fuel is also stored in other tanks. (i) The installed standby power rocket en-
(4) The degree and duration of con- gines have been stored or installed in excess
centrated mental and physical effort in- of the time limit established by the manu-
volved in normal operation and in diagnosing facturer of the rocket engine (usually sten-
and coping with malfunctions and emer- ciled on the engine casing); or
gencies. (ii) The rocket engine fuel has been ex-
pended or discharged.
(5) The extent of required monitoring of
(b) The currently approved maximum
the fuel, hydraulic, pressurization, elec-
takeoff and landing weights at which an air-
trical, electronic, deicing, and other systems
plane is certificated without a standby power
while en route.
rocket engine installation may be increased
(6) The actions requiring a crewmember to by an amount that does not exceed any of
be unavailable at his assigned duty station, the following:
including: observation of systems, emer- (1) An amount equal in pounds to 0.014 IN,
gency operation of any control, and emer- where I is the maximum usable impulse in
gencies in any compartment. pounds-seconds available from each standby
(7) The degree of automation provided in power rocket engine and N is the number of
the aircraft systems to afford (after failures rocket engines installed.
or malfunctions) automatic crossover or iso- (2) An amount equal to 5 percent of the
lation of difficulties to minimize the need for maximum certificated weight approved in
flight crew action to guard against loss of accordance with the applicable airworthiness
hydraulic or electric power to flight controls regulations without standby power rocket
or to other essential systems. engines installed.
(8) The communications and navigation (3) An amount equal to the weight of the
workload. rocket engine installation.
(9) The possibility of increased workload (4) An amount that, together with the cur-
associated with any emergency that may rently approved maximum weight, would
lead to other emergencies. equal the maximum structural weight estab-
(10) Incapacitation of a flight crewmember lished for the airplane without standby rock-
whenever the applicable operating rule re- et engines installed.
quires a minimum flight crew of at least two
pilots. II—Performance Credit for Transport Category
Airplanes Equipped With Standby Power
(c) Kind of operation authorized. The deter-
mination of the kind of operation authorized The Administrator may grant performance
requires consideration of the operating rules credit for the use of standby power on trans-
under which the airplane will be operated. port category airplanes. However, the per-
Unless an applicant desires approval for a formance credit applies only to the maxi-
more limited kind of operation. It is assumed mum certificated takeoff and landing

485
Pt. 25, App. E 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)
weights, the takeoff distance, and the take- from the start of the takeoff to the point
off paths, and may not exceed that found by where the airplane attains a height of 50 feet
the Administrator to result in an overall above the takeoff surface for reciprocating-
level of safety in the takeoff, approach, and engine-powered airplanes and a height of 35
landing regimes of flight equivalent to that feet above the takeoff surface for turbine-
prescribed in the regulations under which powered airplanes.
the airplane was originally certificated with- (4) Maximum certificated takeoff weights. The
out standby power. For the purposes of this maximum certificated takeoff weights must
appendix, ‘‘standby power’’ is power or be determined at all altitudes, and at ambi-
thrust, or both, obtained from rocket en- ent temperatures, if applicable, at which per-
gines for a relatively short period and actu- formance credit is to be applied and may not
ated only in cases of emergency. The follow- exceed the weights established in compliance
ing provisions apply: with paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
(1) Takeoff; general. The takeoff data pre- (a) The conditions of paragraphs (2)(b)
scribed in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this ap- through (d) must be met at the maximum
pendix must be determined at all weights certificated takeoff weight.
and altitudes, and at ambient temperatures (b) Without the use of standby power, the
if applicable, at which performance credit is airplane must meet all of the en route re-
to be applied. quirements of the applicable airworthiness
(2) Takeoff path. regulations under which the airplane was
(a) The one-engine-inoperative takeoff originally certificated. In addition, turbine-
path with standby power in use must be de- powered airplanes without the use of standby
termined in accordance with the perform- power must meet the final takeoff climb re-
ance requirements of the applicable air- quirements prescribed in the applicable air-
worthiness regulations. worthiness regulations.
(b) The one-engine-inoperative takeoff (5) Maximum certificated landing weights.
path (excluding that part where the airplane (a) The maximum certificated landing
is on or just above the takeoff surface) deter- weights (one-engine-inoperative approach
mined in accordance with paragraph (a) of and all-engine-operating landing climb) must
this section must lie above the one-engine- be determined at all altitudes, and at ambi-
inoperative takeoff path without standby ent temperatures if applicable, at which per-
power at the maximum takeoff weight at formance credit is to be applied and must
which all of the applicable air-worthiness re- not exceed that established in compliance
quirements are met. For the purpose of this with paragraph (b) of this section.
comparison, the flight path is considered to (b) The flight path, with the engines oper-
extend to at least a height of 400 feet above ating at the power or thrust, or both, appro-
the takeoff surface. priate to the airplane configuration and with
(c) The takeoff path with all engines oper- standby power in use, must lie above the
ating, but without the use of standby power, flight path without standby power in use at
must reflect a conservatively greater overall the maximum weight at which all of the ap-
level of performance than the one-engine-in- plicable airworthiness requirements are met.
operative takeoff path established in accord- In addition, the flight paths must comply
ance with paragraph (a) of this section. The with subparagraphs (i) and (ii) of this para-
margin must be established by the Adminis- graph.
trator to insure safe day-to-day operations, (i) The flight paths must be established
but in no case may it be less than 15 percent. without changing the appropriate airplane
The all-engines-operating takeoff path must configuration.
be determined by a procedure consistent (ii) The flight paths must be carried out for
with that established in complying with a minimum height of 400 feet above the point
paragraph (a) of this section. where standby power is actuated.
(d) For reciprocating-engine-powered air- (6) Airplane configuration, speed, and power
planes, the takeoff path to be scheduled in and thrust; general. Any change in the air-
the Airplane Flight Manual must represent plane’s configuration, speed, and power or
the one-engine-operative takeoff path deter- thrust, or both, must be made in accordance
mined in accordance with paragraph (a) of with the procedures established by the appli-
this section and modified to reflect the pro- cant for the operation of the airplane in
cedure (see paragraph (6)) established by the service and must comply with paragraphs (a)
applicant for flap retraction and attainment through (c) of this section. In addition, pro-
of the en route speed. The scheduled takeoff cedures must be established for the execu-
path must have a positive slope at all points tion of balked landings and missed ap-
of the airborne portion and at no point must proaches.
it lie above the takeoff path specified in (a) The Administrator must find that the
paragraph (a) of this section. procedure can be consistently executed in
(3) Takeoff distance. The takeoff distance service by crews of average skill.
must be the horizontal distance along the (b) The procedure may not involve methods
one-engine-inoperative take off path deter- or the use of devices which have not been
mined in accordance with paragraph (2)(a) proven to be safe and reliable.

486
Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 25, App. F
(c) Allowances must be made for such time from the American National Standards Insti-
delays in the execution of the procedures as tute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018). If
may be reasonably expected to occur during the film travels through ducts, the ducts
service. must meet the requirements of subparagraph
(7) Installation and operation; standby power. (ii) of this paragraph.
The standby power unit and its installation (iv) Clear plastic windows and signs, parts
must comply with paragraphs (a) and (b) of constructed in whole or in part of elas-
this section. tomeric materials, edge lighted instrument
(a) The standby power unit and its instal- assemblies consisting of two or more instru-
lation must not adversely affect the safety of ments in a common housing, seat belts,
the airplane. shoulder harnesses, and cargo and baggage
(b) The operation of the standby power
tiedown equipment, including containers,
unit and its control must have proven to be
bins, pallets, etc., used in passenger or crew
safe and reliable.
compartments, may not have an average
[Amdt. 25–6, 30 FR 8468, July 2, 1965] burn rate greater than 2.5 inches per minute
when tested horizontally in accordance with
APPENDIX F TO PART 25 the applicable portions of this appendix.
(v) Except for small parts (such as knobs,
Part I—Test Criteria and Procedures for
handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets,
Showing Compliance with § 25.853, or § 25.855.
rub strips, pulleys, and small electrical
(a) Material test criteria—(1) Interior com- parts) that would not contribute signifi-
partments occupied by crew or passengers. (i) cantly to the propagation of a fire and for
Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, electrical wire and cable insulation, mate-
partitions, galley structure, large cabinet rials in items not specified in paragraphs
walls, structural flooring, and materials used (a)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of part I of this ap-
in the construction of stowage compart- pendix may not have a burn rate greater
ments (other than underseat stowage com- than 4.0 inches per minute when tested hori-
partments and compartments for stowing zontally in accordance with the applicable
small items such as magazines and maps) portions of this appendix.
must be self-extinguishing when tested verti- (2) Cargo and baggage compartments not oc-
cally in accordance with the applicable por- cupied by crew or passengers.
tions of part I of this appendix. The average (i) Thermal and acoustic insulation (in-
burn length may not exceed 6 inches and the cluding coverings) used in each cargo and
average flame time after removal of the baggage compartment must be constructed
flame source may not exceed 15 seconds. of materials that meet the requirements set
Drippings from the test specimen may not forth in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this
continue to flame for more than an average appendix.
of 3 seconds after falling.
(ii) A cargo or baggage compartment de-
(ii) Floor covering, textiles (including
fined in § 25.857 as Class B or E must have a
draperies and upholstery), seat cushions,
padding, decorative and nondecorative coat- liner constructed of materials that meet the
ed fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnish- requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of part I
ings, electrical conduit, thermal and acous- of this appendix and separated from the air-
tical insulation and insulation covering, air plane structure (except for attachments). In
ducting, joint and edge covering, liners of addition, such liners must be subjected to
Class B and E cargo or baggage compart- the 45 degree angle test. The flame may not
ments, floor panels of Class B, C, D, or E penetrate (pass through) the material during
cargo or baggage compartments, insulation application of the flame or subsequent to its
blankets, cargo covers and transparencies, removal. The average flame time after re-
molded and thermoformed parts, air ducting moval of the flame source may not exceed 15
joints, and trim strips (decorative and chaf- seconds, and the average glow time may not
ing), that are constructed of materials not exceed 10 seconds.
covered in subparagraph (iv) below, must be (iii) A cargo or baggage compartment de-
self-extinguishing when tested vertically in fined in § 25.857 as Class B, C, D, or E must
accordance with the applicable portions of have floor panels constructed of materials
part I of this appendix or other approved which meet the requirements of paragraph
equivalent means. The average burn length (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this appendix and which
may not exceed 8 inches, and the average are separated from the airplane structure
flame time after removal of the flame source (except for attachments). Such panels must
may not exceed 15 seconds. Drippings from be subjected to the 45 degree angle test. The
the test specimen may not continue to flame flame may not penetrate (pass through) the
for more than an average of 5 seconds after material during application of the flame or
falling. subsequent to its removal. The average
(iii) Motion picture film must be safety flame time after removal of the flame source
film meeting the Standard Specifications for may not exceed 15 seconds, and the average
Safety Photographic Film PHI.25 (available glow time may not exceed 10 seconds.

487
Pt. 25, App. F 14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–99 Edition)
(iv) Insulation blankets and covers used to stalled in the airplane. The specimen must
protect cargo must be constructed of mate- be mounted in a metal frame so that all four
rials that meet the requirements of para- edges are held securely and the exposed area
graph (a)(1)(ii) of part I of this appendix. Tie- of the specimen is at least 8 inches by 8
down equipment (including containers, bins, inches during the 45° test prescribed in sub-
and pallets) used in each cargo and baggage paragraph (6) of this paragraph.
compartment must be constructed of mate- (3) Apparatus. Except as provided in sub-
rials that meet the requirements of para- paragraph (7) of this paragraph, tests must
graph (a)(1)(v) of part I of this appendix. be conducted in a draft-free cabinet in ac-
(3) Electrical system components. Insulation cordance with Federal Test Method Standard
on electrical wire or cable installed in any
191 Model 5903 (revised Method 5902) for the
area of the fuselage must be self-extinguish-
vertical test, or Method 5906 for horizontal
ing when subjected to the 60 degree test spec-
test (available from the General Services Ad-
ified in part I of this appendix. The average
burn length may not exceed 3 inches, and the ministration, Business Service Center, Re-
average flame time after removal of the gion 3, Sev