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Welding

Welding is the most common way of permanently joining metal parts. In this process,
heat is applied to metal pieces, melting and fusing them to form a permanent bond.

Arc welding is the most common type of welding. Standard arc welding involves two
large metal alligator clips that are carrying a strong electrical current. One clip is
attached to any part of the workpiece being welded. The second clip is connected to a
thin welding rod. When the rod touches the workpiece, a powerful electrical circuit is
created. The massive heat created by the electrical current causes both the workpiece
and the steel core of the rod to melt together, cooling quickly to form a solid bond.
During welding, the flux that surrounds the rod's core vaporizes, forming an inert gas
that serves to protect the weld from atmospheric elements that might weaken it. Two
common advanced types of arc welding are Gas Tungsten Arc (TIG) and Gas Metal Arc
(MIG) welding. Instead of welding rods, these welding systems use a spool of
continuously fed wire, which allows the welder to weld longer stretches without stopping
to replace the rod. Instead of using gas flux surrounding the rod, TIG and MIG protect
the initial weld from the environment by blowing inert gas onto the weld.

Welding torch

A welding torch is used in an automatic welding system to direct the welding electrode into
the arc, to conduct welding power to the electrode, and to provide shielding of the arc area.
There are many types of welding torches, and the choice depends on the welding process,
the welding process variation, welding current, electrode size and shielding medium.
Welding torches can be categorized according to the way in which they are cooled. They may be
water-cooled with circulating cooling water or air-cooled with ambient air. A torch can be used
for a consumable electrode welding process such as gas metal arc or flux cored arc welding,
and shielding gas may or may not be employed.

A torch can be described according to whether it is a straight torch or has a bend in its barrel. A
torch with a bend is often used for robotic arc welding applications to provide access for the
weld.

The major function of the torch is to deliver the welding current to the electrode. For
concumable electrode process this means transferring the current to the electrode as the
electrode moves through the torch.
A second major task of the torch is to deliver the shielding gas, if one is used, to the arc
area. Gas metal arc welding uses a shielding gas that may be an active gas usually carbon
dioxide or a mixture of an inert gas, normally argon, with CO2 or oxygen.

The welding torch is mounted to the robot flange with a matching mounting arm. Preferably
an anti collision clutch is used to prevent damages on expensive weld equipment in case of
sticking electrode and crashes during installation and start-up.