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Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences ___________________________ ISSN 2320 – 6535

Vol. 1(4), 18-19, May (2013) Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci.

Mini Review Paper


Global impact of Wildlife and Animal Trafficking with special reference to
Indian Perspective and International Regulatory Efforts: A Review
Ganguly Subha
AICRP on Post Harvest Technology (ICAR), Department of Fish Processing Technology, Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal University of
Animal and Fishery Sciences, 5, Budherhat Road, P.O. Panchasayar, Chakgaria, Kolkata 700 094, WB, INDIA
Available online at: www.isca.in
Received 16th February 2013, revised 10th April 2013, accepted 22nd May 2013
Abstract
Animal trafficking includes the unlawful poaching, smuggling, transportation and distribution of the animals and the
products and derivatives obtained from them for commercial purposes for human use. The whole market management of
trafficking is controlled and regulated both nationally and internationally. As per an estimate made by the Interpol, it has
been predicted that annually 10-20 billion US dollars is generated from such illegal activities.
Keywords: Animal trafficking; Human; Regulation.

Introduction drop in their population and reproductive status in their native


habitats. Even introduction of some foreign and predatory
The small scale hunters dwelling in or near the forest regions in species at some locations have proved to be detrimental for the
the under developed nations are actively involved in animal inhabitant and indigenous wildlife3.
poaching activities which provide them a constant source of
income. Moreover, the low risk of penalties and relaxation in Role of Controlling Agencies Worldwide
the prosecution also gives a boost to these illegal activities1.
South Asian Enforcement Network: The South Asian
Enforcement Network (SAWEN) was created with the help of
Effect on Economic Status CAWT and TRAFFIC. In 2008, South Asian environment
The valuable products from such exploited animals include ministers agreed to create SAWEN under the support of the
traditional medicine, clothing, exotic pet foods, jewellery South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme. The
prepared from animals' fins, skins, shells, horns, tusks and SAWEN countries include India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri
internal organs. According to an estimate, the countries like Lanka, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan.
China, US, and the European Union are the places where these
smuggled products have huge market demand. Coalition against Wildlife Trafficking: In 2005, the Coalition
Against Wildlife Trafficking (CAWT) was established by the
The market demand of the people is also influenced by the U.S. State Department as a voluntary coalition of governments
lifestyle, cultural heritage and regional preferences. Demand of and organizations. The main objective of the coalition is to
the exotic wildlife products is in constant rise in the South-East regulate and end the the illegal trade of wildlife and wildlife
Asian regions and North America. Also, in some parts of the products. CAWT currently includes six governments and
African continent, the ‘bushmeat‘ from primates are considered thirteen international NGOs. Their means of action include
a delicacy due to increased protein source. The meat is also strengthening international cross-border law enforcements to
exported to all over Africa, Europe and the US2,3. limit supply, raising public awareness to curb demand and
endeavoring to mobilize political support from upper echelons4.
Influence to Human Health Risks Association of Southeast Asian Nations Wild Enforcement
Network: The Freeland Foundation and TRAFFIC Southeast
The exports of smuggled wildlife products and derivatives have
Asia worked with the Thai government and the Association of
an alarming effect on the introduction of many transboundary
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), to establish the ASEAN
diseases, also affecting human beings and the entire ecosystem.
Wildlife Enforcement Network (ASEAN-WEN) in 2005.
Among these, the diseases of viral and prion origins like, SARS,
ASEAN-WEN oversees cross-border cooperation and aims to
Avian flu, monkeypox are prominent having tremendous
strengthen the collective law enforcement capacity of the ten
zoonotic potential. Wildlife trafficking has also jeopardized the
ASEAN member countries. It is the largest regional wildlife law
ecosystem and the faunal diversity. Certain species of animals in
enforcement collaboration in the world and receives support
higher demands are smuggled regularly leading to a constant
from the United States Agency for International Development4.

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Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences ________________________________________ ISSN 2320 – 6535
Vol. 1(4), 18-19, May (2013) Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci.

Efforts on conservation in India for the 1976, works closely with the National and the State
endangered Species Governments and various agencies to help study, monitor and
influence action to curb illegal wildlife trade and bring wildlife
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species trade within sustainable levels.
of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) directs its efforts at the supply
side of wildlife smuggling. It aims to restrict wildlife smuggling References
and trade in India by improvising various policies. India being a
member of the CITES since 1976, has a strong legal and policy 1. Lovgren, Stefan, Wildlife Smuggling Boom Plaguing L.A.,
framework to regulate and restrict wildlife trade. CITES is an Authorities Say, National Geographic, (2007)
effective agreement between governments internationally to 2. Christy Bryan, Wildlife Smuggling: Why Does Wildlife
protect the existence of wildlife species globally and to control Crime Reporting Suck?, Huffington Post., (2010)
their illegal trade. In India, due to lack of programme promotion
and awareness, these efforts have been very passive and not 3. Mastny, Lisa and French, Hillary, Crimes of (A) Global
implemented or enforced effectively. Nature, World Watch Magazine, 15, (5) (2002)
4. Poaching, American Security: Impacts of Illegal Wildlife
Conclusion Trade., U. S. Government Printing Office., 5 [Available
online] (2012)
Towards this TRAFFIC, the World Wildlife federation (WWF),
the global conservation organization and IUCN, the
International Union for Conservation of Nature, established in

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