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Typical

BEDROCK
IGNEOUS
Penetratio Basalt
n Limit for
Helical
Granite
Piles

METAMORPHIC
Quartzite

BEDROCK
Gneiss

Schist

SEDIMENTARY BEDROCK
Limestone

Sandstone

Siltstone

Shale

Claystone

SOIL
Coarse Grain

Fine Grain
tsf

MPa
1 0.1 101 100
10 1000 10000
1,000
100
Ultimate Bearing Pressure, qult
Index Soil Properties Index Rock Properties

Strain at Unconfined
SPT Blow Angle of Poisson 50% Peak SPT Blow Compressive Modulus of Elasticity1 Poisson
Count Unit Weight Friction Undrained Strength p-y Modulus Stress-Strain Modulus1 Ratio Strength Count Unit Weight Strength1 x103 Ratio
N55 g f su K Es n e50 N g qpeak Epeak n Reduction
(pcf) [g/cm3] (deg) (psf) [kPa] (pci) [kg/cm3] (ksi) [MPa] (pcf) [g/cm3] (ksI) [MPa] (ksi) [MPa] RQD Rock Factor2
Very Loose 1-4 70 [1.12] 25 - - 5 [0.1] 1 [9] - Shale 140 [2.24] 6 [41] 3 [20] 0.35 % Quality %

Sedementary
Coarse Grain

Loose 4-10 90 [1.44] 29 - - 25 [0.6] 2 [16] - Sandstone 145 [2.32] 20 [137] 6 [41] 0.32 0-25 very poor 0-7
Medium 10-30 110 [1.76] 33 - - 90 [2.4] 3 [23] 0.35 - Mudstone 169 [2.7] 5 [34] 25-50 poor 7-25
Dense 30-50 120 [1.92] 39 - - 225 [6.2] 7 [47] - Dolomite 160 [2.56] 23 [157] 9 [62] 50-75 fair 25-56
Very Dense >50 130 [2.08] 45 - - 500 [13.8] 20 [137] - Limestone 165 [2.64] 25 [172] 6 [41] 0.35 75-90 good 56-81
Very Soft 1-2 80 [1.28] - 200 [9] 30 [0.8] 1 [7] 0.5 0.06 Schist 165 [2.64] 15 [103] 12 [82] 0.2 90-100 excellent 81-100

50/BOUNCE
Metamorphic
Fine Grain

Soft 2-4 85 [1.36] - 400 [19] 100 [2.7] 2 [14] 0.4 0.02 Quartzite 166 [2.65] 43 [294]
Medium 4-8 90 [1.44] - 800 [38] 500 [13.8] 5 [31] 0.3 0.01 Gneiss 187 [2.99] 28 [196] Example:
Stiff 8-15 100 [1.6] - 1,500 [71] 1,000 [27.6] 7 [47] 0.2 0.005 Marble 169 [2.7] 36 [245] Granite, RQD = 50
Very Stiff >15 120 [1.92] - 3,000 [143] 2,000 [55.3] 10 [71] 0.1 0.004 Slate 169 [2.7] 28 [196] Reduction Factor = 0.5x0.5 = 0.25
Soft < 30 120 [1.92] - 4,000 [191] 2,000 [55.3] 70 [482] 0.004 Granite 166 [2.65] 40 [275] 12 [82] 0.28 qpeak = 40 ksi
Weathered
Bedrock

Medium 30-50 130 [2.08] - 10,000 [478] 3,000 [83] 280 [1931] 0.0035 Dolerite 190 [3.04] 50 [343] 16 [110] 0.25 qu = qpeak x 0.25 = 10 ksi

Igneous
0.25
Hard 50-100 135 [2.16] - 20,000 [957] 4,000 [110.7] 520 [3586] 0.003 Gabbro 195 [3.12] 43 [294] 16 [110] 0.25 Epeak = 12x103 ksi
Very Hard >100 140 [2.24] - 50,000 [2394] 5,000 [138.4] 700 [4828] 0.0025 Diorite 43 [294] 14 [96] 0.25 E = Epeak x 0.25 = 3x103 ksi
Basalt 178 [2.85] 60 [413] 15 [103] 0.3

Peak values given for specific rock types. Reduce for rock quality by multiplying values by Reduction Factor
1
Reduction factor = RQD2
2
Plasticity Index, PI (%)

Plasticity (Clays) or Compressibility (Silts)


LOW MEDIUM HIGH
50
"U" Line
"A" Line

40 CH

30

MH
20
CL

10
7 ML
CL-ML
4

0
10 20 30 40 Limit,50
Liquid LL (%) 60 70 80
Particle Diameter
Soil Classification
in [mm]

CLAY Less Than 0.00008 [Less Than 0.002]


FINE
GRAIN
SILT 0.00008 to 0.003 [0.002 to 0.07]

SAND 0.003 to 0.25 [0.07 to 4.8]

GRAVEL 0.25 to 3 [4.8 to 76]


COARSE
GRAIN
COBBLE 3 to 12 [76 to 300]

BOULDERS Greater Than 12 [Greater Than 300]


U.S. Standard
Sieve Sizes

Less Than #200

#200 to #4

Greater Than #4

Hand Measure
Shrinkage Limit Plastic Limit, PL Liquid Limit, LL

SOLID SEMISOLID PLASTIC LIQUID

Increasing Moisture Content

Plasticity Index, PI
Passing
Soil Classification Other Criteria
#200 Seive

GW Cu>4 and 1<Cc<3 3


<5%
GRAVEL

GP <50% not GW
Passing
GM #4 Seive1 below "A" Line4
COARSE GRAIN

12% - 50%
GC above "A" Line4

SW Cu>4 and 1<Cc<3 3


<5%
SP >50% not SW
SAND

Passing
SM #4 Seive1 below "A" Line4
12% - 50%
SC above "A" Line4

ML below "A" Line4


PLASTICITY
LOW

Liquid Limit
CL above "A" Line4
<50%
FINE GRAIN

OL LL ratio <75% 2
>50%
MH below "A" Line4
PLASTICITY
HIGH

Liquid Limit
CH above "A" Line4
>50%
OH LL ratio <75% 2

Note: Use dual symbols for all boderline soils (e.g. GP-GC, SP-SM, SC/CL, SM/ML, etc.)
1
Percent passing based on weigth of coarse fraction only
2
Ratio of Liquid Limit after oven drying to Liquid Limit of natural soil
3
Coefficient of Uniformity, Cu = D60/D10 and Coefficient of Curvature, Cc = D302 / D10xD60 where D10, D30, and D60 are percent passing #10, #30, a
4
Refers to where Atterburg Limits plot relative to "A" Line
5
American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO), United States Department of Aggriculture (USDA)
different criteria for classification. The classification given are examples of overlaps in these various systems and should not b
Similar Similar '68
Similar USDA
Description AASHTO NYCBC
Class5
Class5 Class5

Clean, well-graded gravel A-1 Stony Sand 6-65

Clean, poorly-graded gravel A-3 Stony Sand 6-65

Silty gravel A-2 Stony Sandy Loam 6-65

Clayey gravel A-2 Stony Sandy Clay 6-65

Clean, well-graded sand A-1 Sand 7-65

Clean, poorly-graded sand A-3 Sand 7-65

Silty sand A-2 Sandy Loam 8-65

Clayey sand A-2 Sandy Clay 9-65

Low Plasticity Silt A-4 Silt Loam 10-65

Low Plasticity Clay A-6 Clay, Clay Loam 9-65

Low Plasticity Organic Silt/Clay A-8 N/A 11-65

High Plasticity Silt A-5 Silt, Silt Loam 10-65

High Plasticity Clay A-7 Clay, Clay Loam 9-65

High Plasticity Organic Silt/Clay A-8 N/A 11-65

D30, and D60 are percent passing #10, #30, and #60 sieve, respectively

tes Department of Aggriculture (USDA), and 1968 New York City Building Code (NYCBC) use
hese various systems and should not be considered absolute.
Coarse Grain Soils Fine Grain Soils

Relative Field
Density N-Value Stiffness N-Value
Density Identification

N55 N55
WOR - WOR -
Fluid <10% Fluid non-traversable
WOH WOH
easily penetrated
Very Loose 1-4 10%-15% Very Soft 1-2
by fist
easily penetrated
Loose 4-10 15%-35% Soft 2-4
by thumb
moderate thumb
Medium 10-30 35%-65% Medium 4-8
penetration
difficult thumb
Dense 30-50 65%-85% Stiff 8-15
penetration
indented by
Very Dense >50 >85% Very Stiff >15
thumb nail

WOR = Weight of Rod; WOH = Weight of Hammer; BNC = Bounce; NIL = Negligib
e Grain Soils Bedrock

Unconfined
Moisture
Compressive Hardness N-Value
Content
Strength

(tsf) [KPa] N55


WOR -
NIL >>LL Fluid
WOH

<0.25 [<24] >LL Soft 1-30

0.25-0.5 [24-48] LL Medium 30-50

0.5-1.0 [48-96] PL-LL Hard 50-100

1.0-2.0 [96-192] PL Very Hard 100-BNC

>2.0 [>192] <PL Competent BNC

mmer; BNC = Bounce; NIL = Negligible


Typical Soil Avg Grain Size
Type
(in) [mm]

Clay 0.025 [0.001]

Silty Clay 0.127 [0.005]

Silt 0.25 [0.01]

Silty Sand 2.5 [0.1]

Sand 13 [0.5]
lCPT, Ratio N55/qc

(blow count/psi) [blow count/kPa]

0.069 [0.01]

0.046 [0.0066]

0.034 [0.005]

0.017 [0.0025]

0.011 [0.0016]
Representative values for angle of internal friction (Modified from Bowles) NEED SOME COMMON ROCK STRENGTHS

Soil f (deg) Notes:


Gravel (GW/GP) 1. Use larger values as density increases
Coarse 40-55 2. Use larger values for more angular particles
Sandy 35-50 3. Use larger values for well-graded materials
Sand (SW/SP)
Loose 28-34
Dense 43-50
Silt or Silty Sand (ML/SM)
Loose 27-30
Dense 30-35

Typical range of static stress-strain modulus, Es (Modified from Bowles)

Soil Es m
Clay (CL/CH) ksf [MPa] NC sensitive Clay
Very Soft 500-250 [2-15] 0.1-0.5 Es=200-500 su
Soft 100-500 [5-25] 0.1-0.5 NC insensitive Clay to light OC
Medium 300-1000 [15-50] 0.1-0.5 Es=750-1200 su
Hard 1000-2000 [50-100] 0.1-0.5 HOC Clay
Sandy 500-5000 [25-250] 0.2-0.3 Es=1500-2000 su
Glacial Till
Loose 200-3200 [10-150]
Dense 3000-1500 [150-720] Modified from Bowles
Very Dense 10000-300 [500-1440] su=0.13N
Loess 300-1200 [15-60] 0.1-0.3 0.13ksf-ft/blow
Sand
Silty 140-450 [5-20] f = 25 + 28 sqrt(N/po)
Loose 200-500 [10-25] Parry (1977)
Dense 1000-1700 [50-81] note po is kPa
Sand and Gravel
Loose 1000-3000 [50-150] 0.3-0.4 qu=30N
Dense 2000-4000 [100-200] 0.3-0.4 Parry 1977
Shale 3000-3000 [150-5000] 0.1-0.4 qu is in kPa
Silt 40-400 [5-20] 0.3-0.35
qu=9c
Ice 0.36
Concrete 0.15

UNIT CONVERSION
CLAY tons kips lbs
1 2 2,000

kip-ft lb-ft
6 6,000

tsf psf psi


0.25 500 3

in
1.5
ON ROCK STRENGTHS Bearing/Unconfined
Reduction Factor1,2
RQD Quality q'/q
0-25 very poor 0-7%
ngular particles 25-50 poor 7-25%
ded materials 50-75 fair 25-56%
75-90 good 56%-81%
90-100 excellent 81%-100%

1
qa'/qa = RQD2
2
Bowles (1988)

EXAMPLE (clay) Ratio qc/N70


N= 7 Clay 70 - 140
qc= 490 Silt 140 - 210
kPa Silty Sand 210 - 360
Sand 360 - 570

qc = CPT Point Resistance (kPa)

EXAMPLE (clay) Ratio N70/qc


N= 7 Clay 14.3 - 7.1
qc= 0.49 Silt 7.1 - 4.8
Mpa Silty Sand 4.8 - 2.8
Sand 2.8 - 1.8
qc = CPT Point Resistance (MPa)

EXAMPLE (clay) Ratio N70/qc


N= 7 Clay 98.4 - 49.2
qc= 0.071118 Silt 49.2 - 32.8
ksi Silty Sand 32.8 - 19.1
Sand 19.1 - 12.1
qc = CPT Point Resistance (ksi)

NYCBC
Allowable Bearing Capacity (tsf)
Sands= 0.10N <6tsf Course
<4tsf Fine
+increase 5% for every foot of burrial > 4'
not to exceed 200%
kg N kN
907 8,899 9

kg-ft N-ft N-m


2,722 26,698 8,138

kg/in2 N/in2 N/ft2


2 15 2224.869

ft m mm
0.125 0.038 38
kN/m2 MPa
23.948192 0.023948
95.792767
Modulus
Reduction2
E'/E
15%
20% Bearing Pressure
25% Igneous
30-70% RQD tsf Kpa
70-100% 0-25 10 958
25-50 30 2873
50-75 65 6224
75-100 120 11491

Unconfined Unconfined Ultimate Bearing


(tsf) (tsf) (tsf)
Soil Fine Grain 0.5
Coarse Grain 0.5
Sedementary Claystone 22.5
Shale 30.24 432 30
Siltstone blur 44.1 630 44
Sandstone 1440 38
Limestone 72 1800 72
Metamorphic Schist 75.6 1080 76
Gneiss blur 107.8 1540 108
Quartzite blur 121.1 1730 121
Igneous Granite 201.6 2880 202
Basalt 302.4 4320 302
Normal Wt Concrete 216
75

qa = (1-2.5)qu allowable bearing capacity for piles


phi = 45 most competent rock
Nq = 197.9949
Nc = 169.8528
Ng = 198.9949

9000

c = qu/2
qu'=qu(RQD)2 reduction for quality
Metamorphic Sedementary

0-50 10 958 10 958


50-100 40 3830 25 2394

Ultimate Bearing Unit Wt E Poisson


(pcf) (ksi) Ratio
13.5
60
112.5
432 100-140 500-3000 0.25-0.45
630
1440 145-150 500-6000 0.2-0.45
1800 165 500-15000 0.24-0.45
1080 165 1000-1200 0.18-0.22
1540
1730
2880 168 2000-1200 0.26-0.3
4320 178 2500-1500 0.27-0.32

Bowles
Bowles
Bowles
LL A-Line A2-Line U-Line H-Line
0 4
8 4
10 4 7
15.8 4 7 7.02
25.47945 4 7 15.73151
29.58904 7 7 19.43014
50 21.9 37.8 0
50 21.9 37.8 100
60 29.2 46.8
80 43.8 64.8
100 58.4 82.8

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