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Physics 3

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of motion that an object has.

LINEAR MOMENTUM

COURSE OUTLINE

A. Introduction

B. Kinematics

C. Dynamics

D. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

E. Energy

F. Linear Momentum

G. Fluid Mechanics

H. Thermodynamics

Outline

Linear Momentum

1. Linear Momentum

2. Momentum and Newton's Second Law

3. Impulse of a Force

4. Impulse Momentum Relations

5. Conservation of Momentum

Collisions

6. Overview ~ Collisions

7. Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

LINEAR MOMENTUM

p mv

Vector quantity, the direction of the momentum is the same

as the velocity’s

Inertia in motion

Applies to two-dimensional motion as well

p x m v x and p y m v y

depends upon velocity

LINEAR MOMENTUM

Physical Properties

Symbol: p

Type: Derived, Vector

Dimension: [M*L/T]

SI unit: kg m/s

p=mv

LINEAR MOMENTUM

Can be thought of as the effort you need to stop an

object from moving.

1. The object’s inertia (mass)

2. The object’s velocity

than a light car travelling at the same speed.

It takes a greater force to stop the truck in a given

time than it does to stop the car

MOMENTUM and NEWTON’S 2nd LAW OF

MOTION

Newton's Second Law can be written in terms of the

momentum of a particle.

Thus the net force acting on a particle equals the time rate

change of the particle's linear momentum

MOMENTUM and NEWTON’S 2nd LAW OF

MOTION

law!

force impressed

QUIZ

What is the momentum of a 2 kg object moving with a

velocity of 10.0 m/s to the right?

velocity of -10.0 m/s?

Impulse

In order to change the momentum of an object (say, golf ball),

a force must be applied

to the net force acting on it

p m (v f v i )

F net m a or : p F net t

t t

(F Δt) is defined as the impulse

Impulse is a vector quantity, the direction is the same as the direction

of the force

Impulse

For a specified object of mass m,

M

F

Change in Momentum

Means

CHANGE IN VELOCITY!

Impulse

Change in velocity

Means

Net Force acting on the object is NOT ZERO

Impulse is related

with a FORCE

causing the object to

CHANGE its MOMENTUM

Impulse

Physical Properties:

Symbol: I

Type: Derived, Vector Quantity

Formula:

I = F Δt = F (tf – ti)

Dimension [F*T]; SI Units: N*s (Newton*second)

1 N*s = 1 kg m/s2 *s= 1 kg m/s

J I p F net t

Impulse

Impulse then can be expressed as: I or J

I= = ΣF Δt

or simply

I = Ft = Δp

Ft = m(vf – vi)

Restating Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion

A non – zero net force applied on the object the changes

the object’s momentum.

acceleration

Question:

A.) Does a moving object have impulse?

B.) Does a moving object have momentum?

IMPULSE-MOMENTUM RELATIONS

I net = F Δt

I net = Δp = pf – pi

Fav = I / Δt

same impulse as the actual force in the time interval Δt.

by one of the objects during the collision.

Minimizing the force of impact

Impulse of a Force

interaction during collisions.

Example: Impulse Applied to Auto Collisions

time it takes the person to come to a rest

This will reduce the chance of dying in a car crash

Ways to increase the time

Seat belts

Air bags

absorbs some of the energy from the body

Impulse is change in momentum

possible, you not only apply the greatest force you can, you

also extend the time of application as much as possible.

Net force

time

Case 2: Decreasing momentum

You can change the momentum of an object in two ways

A.) Faster

B.) Slower

A.) Increasing the coOOOOOntact Time

Ouch!

Case 3: Increasing momentum in a very short time

Graphical Interpretation of Impulse

Usually force is not constant,

but time-dependent

ti

use the average force applied

The average force can be

thought of as the constant

force that would give the

If force is constant: impulse = F t

same impulse to the object in

the time interval as the actual

time-varying force gives in

the interval

Problem:

by the club with 500-g mass.

After the collision, golf

leaves with velocity of 50

m/s.

b) Assuming club in contact

with ball for 0.5 ms, find

average force acting on golf

ball

Problem:

Given:

impulse p mv f mvi

mass: m=50 g 0.050 kg 50 m s 0

= 0.050 kg

2.50 kg m s

velocity: v=50 m/s

2. Having found impulse, find the average

Find: force from the definition of impulse:

p 2.50 kg m s

impulse=? p F t , thus F

Faverage=? t 0.5 10 3 s

5.00 103 N

Conservation of Momentum

Note: according to Newton’s 3rd law, that is also a

reaction force to club hitting the ball:

F t F R t , or

mv f mv i M V f M V i , or

of club

mv f M V f m v i M V i CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Linear Momentum

the sum of the momenta of the individual

particles.

P = Σ mivi = Σ pi

Conservation of Momentum

Pinitial = Pfinal

More applicable than the law of conservation of mechanical energy.

particle in a system on another are often NOT

CONSERVATIVE. Internal forces can change the total

mechanical energy of the system but they DON'T affect

the total momentum.

Conservation of Momentum

forces acting on it

Momentum in an isolated system in which a

collision occurs is conserved (regardless of

the nature of the forces between the objects)

A collision may be the result of physical contact between two

objects

“Contact” may also arise from the electrostatic interactions of the

electrons in the surface atoms of the bodies

Conservation of Momentum

Mathematically:

m1 v 1 i m 2 v 2 i m1 v 1 f m 2 v 2 f

The system includes all the objects interacting with

each other

Assumes only internal forces are acting during the

collision

Can be generalized to any number of objects

In a collision, two objects approach and interact strongly for a very

short time.

During this brief time of collision,

F ext << F interaction between two objects

The only important force is the one between the objects colliding,

which are equal and opposite.

Types of Collisions

Momentum is conserved in any collision

what about kinetic energy?

Kinetic energy is not conserved

Some of the kinetic energy is converted into other types

of energy such as heat, sound, work to permanently

deform an object

Perfectly inelastic collisions occur when the objects stick

together

Not all of the KE is necessarily lost

You can use a golf club for all kinds of non-golfy purposes -- walking stick,

fishing rod, club, to name three. And now we can add to that list --

firestarter.

Over the weekend, a golfer's routine swing in the rough at the Shady Canyon

Golf Course in Irvine, Calif., struck a rock. Not so different from the way

you play, right? Only this time, the impact caused a spark, and the spark set

off a blaze that eventually covered 25 acres (101171.41056 Square Meters),

according to the Steven Buck, General Manager of Shady Canyon Golf

Course, and required the efforts of 150 Orange County firefighters, writes

the Associated Press.

Wow. And I felt bad the time I shanked a ball through the window of a house

too close to the fairway. That was nothing compared to this!

The golfer's name is being withheld, which is probably for the best, and no

charges are going to be filed. Fortunately, it all could have been much

worse. As it was, the blaze required both helicopters and on-the-ground

crews.

ELASTIC COLLISION and INELASTIC COLLISION

Elastic collision

total kinetic energy of the objects is the same after collision as

before the collision

Inelastic collision

total kinetic energy of the objects is not the same

after collision as before the collision

An extreme case is the perfectly inelastic collision, in which all of the kinetic energy

relative to the centre of mass is converted to thermal or internal energy of the system,

and the two objects STICK TOGETHER!!!

Most collisions fall between elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions

Perfectly Inelastic Collisions:

When two objects stick together

after the collision, they have

undergone a perfectly inelastic

collision

Suppose, for example, v2i=0.

Conservation of momentum

becomes

m 1 v1 i m 2 v 2 i ( m 1 m 2 ) v f

m 1 v1 i 0 ( m 1 m 2 ) v f

E.g., if m1 1000 kg, m2 1500 kg :

(1000 kg)(50 m s ) 0 ( 2500 kg)v f ,

5 10 4 kg m s

vf 20 m s.

2.5 10 kg

3

Perfectly Inelastic Collisions:

collision?

1 1

KEbefore m1v12i m2 v22i

2 2

1

(1000 kg)(50 m s ) 2 1.25 10 6 J

2

1

KEafter ( m1 m2 )v 2f

2

1

( 2500 kg)( 20 m s ) 2 0.50 10 6 J

2

K E lo st 0 . 75 10 6 J

lost in heat/”gluing”/sound/…

Elastic Collisions

Both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved

Typically have two unknowns

m1v1i m2 v2 i m1v1 f m2 v2 f

1 1 1 1

m1v1i m2 v2 i m1v1 f m2 v22 f

2 2 2

2 2 2 2

Solve the equations simultaneously

Example 1

A 3 kg rifle which is initially at rest contains a

bullet with a mass of 0.03 kg. The bullet is

fired from the rifle at a speed of 300 m/s to the

right. What is the recoil speed of the rifle?

Quiz:

1. A 2.0 N-force from a certain load stops a 2.0 kg-object

initially moving at 10.0 m/s.

b. What force was applied by the object on the load?

conserved even when mechanical energy is not.

3. (True or False) Kinetic energy is conserved in an elastic

collision

4. Consider two less-than-desirable options. In the first you

are driving 30 miles/hr and crash head-on into an identical

car also going 30 miles/hr. In the second option you are

driving 30 mph and crash head-on into a stationary brick

wall. In neither case does your car bounce off the thing it

hits, and the collision time is the same in both cases. Which

of these two situations would result in the greatest impact

force?

A. first

B. second

C. both

D. can not be determined

Example 2

High-speed stroboscopic photographs show that the head

of a golf club of mass 200 g is traveling at 55.0 m/s just

before it strikes a 46.0-g golf ball at rest on a tee. After the

collision, the club head travels (in the same direction) at

40.0 m/s. Find the speed of the golf ball just after impact.

Example 3

In a feat of public

marksmanship, Juzzel fires a

bullet into a hanging target. The

target, with bullet embedded,

swings upward.

Noting the height reached at the

top of the swing, he

immediately inform the crowd

of the bullet's speed. For

arbitrary masses: m1 (bullet),

m2 (hanging target), and h

(height, top of the swing), how

did he calculate the bullet's

speed? (See Figure above)

Problem solving:Two-Dimensional Collisions

For a general collision of two objects in three-

dimensional space, the conservation of momentum

principle

m1 v 1 i m 2 v 2 i m1 v 1 f m 2 v 2 f

each direction is conserved

m1v1ix m2 v2 ix m1v1 fx m2 v2 fx and

m1v1iy m2 v2 iy m1v1 fy m2 v2 fy

Use subscripts for identifying the object, initial and final,

and components

Example:

the collision?

Stationary

Example:

the collision?

Stationary

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