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MiCOM P543, P544, P545,

P546

Technical Manual

Current Differential Protection Relays

Platform Hardware Version: K

Platform Software Version:

Publication Reference:

45 & 55 P54x/EN M/La4

P54x/EN M/La4 © 2011. ALSTOM, the ALSTOM logo and any alternative version thereof are trademarks and service marks of ALSTOM. The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies. The technical and other data contained in this document is provided for information only. Neither ALSTOM, its officers or employees accept responsibility for, or should be taken as making any representation or warranty (whether express or implied), as to the accuracy or completeness of such data or the achievement of any projected performance criteria where these are indicated. ALSTOM reserves the right to revise or change this data at any time without further notice.

GRID

MiCOM P543, P544, P545, P546 Technical Manual Current Differential Protection Relays Platform Hardware Version: K Platform

Application Notes

P54x/EN AP/La4

MiCOM P543, P544, P545 & P546

(AP) 6-83

  • 6. CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS

    • 6.1 Recommended CT classes (British and IEC) Class X current transformers with a knee point voltage greater or equal than that calculated can be used. Class 5P protection CTs can be used, noting that the knee point voltage equivalent these offer can be approximated from: Vk = (VA x ALF)/In + (RCT x ALF x In) Where:

VA =

Voltampere burden rating

ALF =

Accuracy limit factor

In = CT nominal secondary current

  • 6.2 Current differential requirements For accuracy, class X or class 5P current transformers (CTs) are strongly recommended. The knee point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below.

Vk

K. In (Rct + 2 RL)

Where:

Vk

=

Required IEC knee point voltage

K

=

Dimensioning factor

In

=

CT nominal secondary current

Rct

=

CT resistance

RL

=

One-way lead impedance from CT to relay

K is a constant depending on:

AP

If

=

Maximum value of through fault current for stability (multiple of In)

X/R

=

Primary system X/R ratio

K is determined as follows:

For relays set at Is1 = 20%, Is2 = 2 In, k1 = 30%, k2 = 150%:

K must be the highest of:

K

40 + (0.07 x (If x X/R))

Or

K

65

This is valid for (If x X/R) 1000 For higher (If x X/R) up to 1600:

K

=

107

For relays set at Is1 = 20%, Is2 = 2 In, k1 = 30%, k2 = 100%:

K must be the highest of:

K

40 + (0.35 x (If x X/R))

P54x/EN AP/La4

 

Application Notes

(AP) 6-84

MiCOM P543, P544, P545 & P546

 

Or

K

65

AP

This is valid for (If x X/R) 600 For higher (If x X/R) up to 1600:

K

=

256

  • 6.3 Zone 1 reach point accuracy (RPA) Vk

Where:

K RPA

x

IF Z1

x

(1+ X/R). (RCT + RL)

Vk

=

K RPA

=

IF Z1

=

X/R

=

RCT =

RL

=

Required CT knee point voltage (volts) Fixed dimensioning factor = always 0.6 Max. secondary phase fault current at Zone 1 reach point (A) Primary system reactance/resistance ratio CT secondary winding resistance () Single lead resistance from CT to relay ()

  • 6.4 Zone 1 close-up fault operation An additional calculation must be performed for all cables, and any lines where the source impedance ratio might be less than SIR = 2. Vk Kmax x IF max x (RCT + RL) Where: Kmax

=

Fixed dimensioning factor = always 1.4

IF max = Max. secondary phase fault current (A).

Then, the highest of the two calculated knee points must be used. Note that it is not necessary to repeat the calculation for earth faults, as the phase reach calculation (3) is the worst-case for CT dimensioning.

  • 6.5 Time delayed distance zones When a time delayed distance zone is being used, there is no need to calculate the required Vk separately. This is due to the employed time delay (usually more than 3 times the primary time constant for a fault at the remote bus of the protected feeder), which overrides the transient conditions. When it is insisted to do some calculations for the time delayed distance zone, then we should use the following equation Vk > If (RCT + RL) Where If is the current for a fault at the remote bus of the protected feeder (in other words, the through fault current for the current differential function)

  • 6.6 Determining Vk for an IEEE “C" class CT Where American/IEEE standards are used to specify CTs, the C class voltage rating can be checked to determine the equivalent Vk (knee point voltage according to IEC). The equivalence formula is: Vk = [(C rating in volts) x 1.05] + [100 x RCT]

Application Notes

P54x/EN AP/La4

MiCOM P543, P544, P545 & P546

(AP) 6-85

  • 6.7 Worked example for CT requirements The Power system and the line parameters (Line length: 100 km) as given in section 3.2 is used here to calculate CT requirements.

    • 6.7.1 Important notes to be considered Current differential – Both If and X/R are to be calculated for a through fault

Distance Zone1 reach point case – Both If and X/R are to be calculated for a fault at Zone1 reach point

For calculating the CT requirements, the bus bar short time symmetrical fault rating shall be considered as the bus fault level.

When there are only indicative X/Rs available, then the circuit breaker’s dc breaking capacity shall be used to arrive at the primary time constant (and hence the primary system X/R). The derivation shall be obtained from the circuit breaker manufacturer; practical primary time constants arrived in such a way vary between 50 ms (applicable for 66 kV and 132 kV breakers) and 120 ms (applicable for 220 kV and 400 kV breakers). 150 ms is a practical figure for generator circuit breakers.

  • 6.7.2 System data In the following example, the following calculations:

parameters have been considered for the CT

System voltage - 230 kV System frequency - 50 Hz System grounding - solid Single circuit operation between Green Valley and Blue River CT ratio - 1200/1

AP

Line length - 100 kms Line positive sequence impedance Z1 = 0.089 + j 0.476 ohm / km Bus fault level - 40 kA

Primary time constant

= 120 ms

  • 6.7.3 Calculation of Primary X/R Primary X/R till the Green Valley bus

= 2 * pi * f * primary time constant in s

Primary X/R till the bus

= 2 * pi * 50 * 0.12 = 37.7

  • 6.7.4 Calculation of Source Impedance Zs Source Impedance Zs

= 230 kV / (1.732 * 40 kA) = 3.32 ohms

Source angle

= tan-1 (X/R) = tan-1 (37.7) = 88.48 deg

Hence, Zs = 0.088 + j 3.317 ohms

P54x/EN AP/La4

Application Notes

(AP) 6-86

MiCOM P543, P544, P545 & P546

  • 6.7.5 Calculation of full line impedance (full 100 kms)

Z1

= 0.089 + j 0.476 ohm / km

ZL

= 8.9 + j 47.6 ohms

ZL

= 48.42 ohms with an angle 79.4 deg

  • 6.7.6 Calculation of total impedance till remote bus bar

AP

ZT = Zs + ZL

= 8.988 + j 50.917 ohms = 51.7 ohms with an angle of 80 deg

  • 6.7.7 Calculation of through fault X/R X/R thro

= 50.917 / 8.988 = 5.66

  • 6.7.8 Calculation of through fault If If thro

= 230kV / (1.732 * 51.7 ) = 2568.5 A primary = 2.14 A (secondary)

  • 6.7.9 Calculation of line impedance till Zone1 reach point (80kms) Zzone1

= 0.8 * ZL = 7.12 + j 38.08 ohms = 38.73 ohms with an angle of 79.4 deg

  • 6.7.10 Calculation of total impedance till Zone1 reach point ZTzone1

= Zs + Zzone1 = 7.208 + j 41.397 ohms = 42.019 ohms with an angle of 80 deg

  • 6.7.11 Calculation of X/R till Zone1 reach point X/R zone1

= 41.397 / 7.208 = 5.74

  • 6.7.12 Calculation of fault current till Zone1 reach point

If zone1

= 230 kV / (1.732 * 42.019) = 3160.34 A (primary) = 2.63 A (secondary)

Application Notes

P54x/EN AP/La4

MiCOM P543, P544, P545 & P546

(AP) 6-87

  • 6.7.13 CT Vk for Current differential protection

If thro * X/R thro

= 2.14 * 5.66 = 12.11

 

The appropriate equation for K and Vk to be is used from section 6.2

K

> 40 + (0.07 * 12.11) OR K

> 65

K

> 40.8 OR K

> 65

Hence K = 65

Vk

K. In (Rct + 2 RL)

Vk

>

65 (RCT + 2 RL)

  • 6.7.14 CT Vk for distance Zone1 reach point Vk Vk Vk

>

>

K RPA

x

IF z1

x

(1+ X/R). (RCT + RL)

-- From section 6.3

0.6 * 2.63 * (1+5.74) * (RCT+RL)

10.65 (RCT + RL)

  • 6.7.15 CT Vk for distance Zone1 close-up fault SIR = Zs / Zzone1 = 3.32 / 38.73 is less than 2; so we need to do this Vk calculation Close-up fault current = 40kA (primary) = 33.33 A (secondary)

AP

Vk

Kmax x IF max x (RCT + RL)

-- From section 6.4

Vk

>

1.4 * 33.33 * ( RCT + RL)

Vk

>

46.67 (RCT + RL)

  • 6.7.16 CT Vk for distance time delayed zones

Vk

>

If (RCT + RL)

-- From section 6.5

Vk

>

If thro * (RCT + RL)

Vk

>

2.14 (RCT + RL)

  • 6.7.17 Vk to be considered Using the above sections, the different Vk requirements are to be calculated for all the functions that will be enabled, or that will be brought into operation. Then the highest Vk shall be considered for the CT design.