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COMPRESSORS

Compressor
a machine used to increase the
pressure of a gas by decreasing its
volume.
Types of compressors

1. Reciprocating compressor
- that is built in sizes as large as 5000
to 10000 cfm piston displacement with
pressure range up to 1000 atm and vacua
to 0.50 in.Hg abs.
2. Rotary compressors w/o liquid seal
- that built in sizes as large as 50000
cfm and are suitable for moderate vacua
not less that 15 in.Hg abs and for
moderate pressures of 5 to 20 psi.
3. Rotary compressors w/ liquid seals
- that are built in sizes up to 5000 cfm
and are suitable for ratios of compression
reflected in vacuum pump service to 28
in.Hg and positive pressure service to 75
psig.
4. centrifugal compressors
- that are built in capacities of 500 to
100,000 cfm and deliver pressures as high
as 150 psi where 10 to 15 stages would be
required.
5. Axial flow compressors
are compressors which extended the
field of axial flow fans by the use of multi-
staging so that pressures of 75 psi can be
developed with a 10 or 25 stage unit.
Capacities range form 2000 to 100,000
cfm.
6. Hydraulic jet compressors
are primarily employed for vacuum
pump service requiring 1 to 4 in.Hg abs.
pressure and capacities of 1000 cfm at
suction conditions.
7. Vapor jet compressors
are used for both exhauster and blower
service with steam as the usual actuating
fluid.
Performance of Reciprocating Air
Compressor

Single stage
compressor

1. P, V and T
relations
An air compressor takes air at 90 kPa
and discharges to 700 kPa. If the volume
flow of discharge is 1.3 m3/s, compute the
capacity of the air compressor.
A. 5.63 m3/s C. 5.98 m3/s
B. 4.63 m3/s D. 4.98 m3/s
A single-stage acting air compressor,
running at 5 rev/s, has air intake of 22.8
liters at atmospheric pressure and 25oC. If
it compresses 5.7 liters in accordance with
the compression law PV1.2=C, calculate
the temperature of the air at the end of
compression.
A. 120 oC C. 115 oC
B. 110 oC D. 125 oC
2. Piston Displacement
- it is the volume
displaced by the
piston as it moves
from top dead center
to bottom dead
center.
- If given No. of cylinder and no. of piston
action:
The bore and stroke of an air
compressor are 276 mm and 164 mm
respectively. If the piston displacement is
0.039 m3/s, what is the operating speed of
the compressor?
A. 238.49 rpm C. 338.49 rpm
B. 261.54 rpm D. 361.54 rpm
3. Volumetric efficiency
- is the ratio of the
actual gas drawn-in at
intake condition to the
volume displacement.
The initial condition of air in an
compressor is 100 kPa and 25oC and
discharges air at 450 kPa. The bore and
stroke are 276 mm and 186 mm
respectively with 8% clearance running at
6rps. Find the volume of air at suction.
A. 203.29 m3/hr C. 261.25 m3/hr
B. 303.29 m3/hr D. 361.25 m3/hr
4. Capacity of
compressor
- is the actual
volume of gas
deliverd as measured
at intake pressure
and temperature.
5. Actual volumetric efficiency
- it is usually less than the clearance volumetric
efficiency because of the number of factors such as
pressure drop at the valves, heat transfer between
surrounding and device, and the presence of residual
gas in the cylinder at the end of the delivery stroke.
6. Compressor work
a. work for polytropic compression
A rotary compressor receives 8 m3/min
of a gas (R=0.410 kJ/kg-K, Cp=1.03 kJ/kg-
K) at 108 kPa, 27oC and delivers it at 650
kPa. Find the work if compression is
polytropic with PV1.3=C.
A. -32.02 kw C. 50.01 kw
B. 33.02 kw D. -50.01 kw
b. Work for isentropic compression
An ideal single stage air compressor
without clearance takes in air at 100 kPa
with a temperature of 16oC and delivered it
at 413 kPa after isentropic compression.
What is the discharge work done by the
compressor in kJ/kg?
A. -59.22 C. -72.5
B. -118.44 D. -145.0
c. Work for isothermal compression
7. Compressor
efficiency
- is the ratio of the
compressor power to
the brake power.
A 5 kw motor is used to drive an air
compressor. Determine the compressor
work if the compressor efficiency is 72%.
A. 3.6 kw C. 3.9 kw
B. 2.5 kw D. 4.3 kw
8. Piston speed
- is the total
distance a piston
travels in a given
time. It is dependent
on the length of
stroke and the
angular speed.
9. Ideal indicated power
- is the product of
the indicated mean
effective pressure and
displacement volume.
The mean indicated pressure of an air
compressor is 500 kPa. If the compressor
work is 150 kW, what is the volume
displacement in m3/min?
A. 18 C. 22
B. 20 D. 16
A single acting air compressor has a
volumetric efficiency of 87% operates at
500 rpm. It takes in air at 100 kPa and 30
oC and discharges it at 600 kPa. The air

handled is 6 m3/min measured at


discharge condition. If compression is
isentropic, find the mean effective
pressure in kPa.
A. 203.59 kPa C. 303.59 kPa
B. 253.64 kPa D. 353.64 kPa
10. Adiabatic
compressor efficiency
- is the ratio of the
isentropic work to the
actual fluid work.
piston displacement of a double acting, single
stage compressor:

a. if piston rods is neglected:


if piston rod is considered:
Two Stage
Compressor

1.Compressor work
2. Intercooler pressure
A two-stage air compressor has suction
pressure of 101.325 kPa and a discharge
pressure of 1,140 kPa. What is the
intercooler pressure in kPa?
A. 339.37 kPa C. 439.37 kPa
B. 341.26 kPa D. 441.26 kPa
An air compressor is to compress 8.5
m3/min from 98.56 kPa to 985.6 kPa.
Assuming ideal conditions, and with n = 1.3,
what will be the saving in work due to two
staging?
A. 4.6 kW C. 1.2 kW
B. 5.6 kW D. 3.5 kW
3. heat rejected in intercooler:
A two-stage compressor receives 0.35
kg/s of air at 100 kPa and 269 K and
delivers it at 5000 kPa. Find the heat
transferred in the intercooler.
A. 70.49 kW C. 90.49 kW
C. 80.49 kW D. 100.49 kW
A two-stage air compressor at 90 kPa
and 20oC discharges at 700 kPa. Find the
polytropic exponent n if the intercooler
intake temperature is 100oC.
A. 1.29 C. 1.4
B. 1.33 D. 1.25
4. heat absorbed by cooling tower
Three-Stage
Compressor

1. Compressor work
2. Intercooler pressure:

for ideal conditions:


3. heat rejected in intercoolers:
Multi-Stage
Compressor

1. Compressor work

for "s" no. of stages


2. Intercooler pressure